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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7995
Mishnah, Arakhin, 2.6


אֵין פּוֹחֲתִין מִשְּׁנֵים עָשָׂר לְוִיִּם עוֹמְדִים עַל הַדּוּכָן, וּמוֹסִיפִין עַד לְעוֹלָם. אֵין קָטָן נִכְנָס לָעֲזָרָה לַעֲבוֹדָה אֶלָּא בְשָׁעָה שֶׁהַלְוִיִּם עוֹמְדִים בַּשִּׁיר. וְלֹא הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים בְּנֵבֶל וְכִנּוֹר אֶלָּא בַפֶּה, כְּדֵי לִתֵּן תְּבַל בַּנְּעִימָה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב אוֹמֵר, אֵין עוֹלִין לַמִּנְיָן, וְאֵין עוֹמְדִים עַל הַדּוּכָן, אֶלָּא בָאָרֶץ הָיוּ עוֹמְדִין, וְרָאשֵׁיהֶן מִבֵּין רַגְלֵי הַלְוִיִּם, וְצוֹעֲרֵי הַלְוִיִּם הָיוּ נִקְרָאִין:There were never less than twelve levites standing on the platform and their number could be increased into infinity. No minor could enter the court of the sanctuary to take part in the service except when the Levites stood up to sing. Nor did they join in the singing with harp and lyre, but with the mouth alone, to add flavor to the music. Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob said: they did not count in the required number, nor did they stand on the platform. Rather they would stand on the ground, so that their heads were between the feet of the levites. And they were called the youth of the Levites.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

21 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 26.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

26.13. וְאָמַרְתָּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בִּעַרְתִּי הַקֹּדֶשׁ מִן־הַבַּיִת וְגַם נְתַתִּיו לַלֵּוִי וְלַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה כְּכָל־מִצְוָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתָנִי לֹא־עָבַרְתִּי מִמִּצְוֺתֶיךָ וְלֹא שָׁכָחְתִּי׃ 26.13. then thou shalt say before the LORD thy God: ‘I have put away the hallowed things out of my house, and also have given them unto the Levite, and unto the stranger, to the fatherless, and to the widow, according to all Thy commandment which Thou hast commanded me; I have not transgressed any of Thy commandments, neither have I forgotten them."
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 24.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.9. וְהָיְתָה לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו וַאֲכָלֻהוּ בְּמָקוֹם קָדֹשׁ כִּי קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים הוּא לוֹ מֵאִשֵּׁי יְהוָה חָק־עוֹלָם׃ 24.9. And it shall be for Aaron and his sons; and they shall eat it in a holy place; for it is most holy unto him of the offerings of the LORD made by fire, a perpetual due.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 18.28 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.28. כֵּן תָּרִימוּ גַם־אַתֶּם תְּרוּמַת יְהוָה מִכֹּל מַעְשְׂרֹתֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר תִּקְחוּ מֵאֵת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּנְתַתֶּם מִמֶּנּוּ אֶת־תְּרוּמַת יְהוָה לְאַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן׃ 18.28. Thus ye also shall set apart a gift unto the LORD of all your tithes, which ye receive of the children of Israel; and thereof ye shall give the gift which is set apart unto the LORD to Aaron the priest."
4. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 137 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 15.16, 15.24, 25.7 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.16. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִיד לְשָׂרֵי הַלְוִיִּם לְהַעֲמִיד אֶת־אֲחֵיהֶם הַמְשֹׁרְרִים בִּכְלֵי־שִׁיר נְבָלִים וְכִנֹּרוֹת וּמְצִלְתָּיִם מַשְׁמִיעִים לְהָרִים־בְּקוֹל לְשִׂמְחָה׃ 15.24. וּשְׁבַנְיָהוּ וְיוֹשָׁפָט וּנְתַנְאֵל וַעֲמָשַׂי וּזְכַרְיָהוּ וּבְנָיָהוּ וֶאֱלִיעֶזֶר הַכֹּהֲנִים מחצצרים [מַחְצְרִים] בַּחֲצֹצְרוֹת לִפְנֵי אֲרוֹן הָאֱלֹהִים וְעֹבֵד אֱדֹם וִיחִיָּה שֹׁעֲרִים לָאָרוֹן׃ 25.7. וַיְהִי מִסְפָּרָם עִם־אֲחֵיהֶם מְלֻמְּדֵי־שִׁיר לַיהוָה כָּל־הַמֵּבִין מָאתַיִם שְׁמוֹנִים וּשְׁמוֹנָה׃ 15.16. And David spoke to the chief of the Levites to appoint their brethren the singers, with instruments of music, psalteries and harps and cymbals, sounding aloud and lifting up the voice with joy." 15.24. And Shebaniah, and Joshaphat, and Nethanel, and Amasai, and Zechariah, and Benaiah, and Eliezer, the priests, did blow with the trumpets before the ark of God; and Obed-edom and Jehiah were doorkeepers for the ark." 25.7. And the number of them, with their brethren that were instructed in singing unto the LORD, even all that were skilful, was two hundred fourscore and eight."
6. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 5.12, 23.13 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.12. וְהַלְוִיִּם הַמְשֹׁרֲרִים לְכֻלָּם לְאָסָף לְהֵימָן לִידֻתוּן וְלִבְנֵיהֶם וְלַאֲחֵיהֶם מְלֻבָּשִׁים בּוּץ בִּמְצִלְתַּיִם וּבִנְבָלִים וְכִנֹּרוֹת עֹמְדִים מִזְרָח לַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְעִמָּהֶם כֹּהֲנִים לְמֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים מחצררים [מַחְצְרִים] בַּחֲצֹצְרוֹת׃ 23.13. וַתֵּרֶא וְהִנֵּה הַמֶּלֶךְ עוֹמֵד עַל־עַמּוּדוֹ בַּמָּבוֹא וְהַשָּׂרִים וְהַחֲצֹצְרוֹת עַל־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְכָל־עַם הָאָרֶץ שָׂמֵחַ וְתוֹקֵעַ בַּחֲצֹצְרוֹת וְהַמְשׁוֹרֲרִים בִּכְלֵי הַשִּׁיר וּמוֹדִיעִים לְהַלֵּל וַתִּקְרַע עֲתַלְיָהוּ אֶת־בְּגָדֶיהָ וַתֹּאמֶר קֶשֶׁר קָשֶׁר׃ 5.12. also the Levites who were the singers, all of them, even Asaph, Heman, Jeduthun, and their sons and their brethren, arrayed in fine linen, with cymbals and psalteries and harps, stood at the east end of the altar, and with them a hundred and twenty priests sounding with trumpets—" 23.13. and she looked, and, behold, the king stood on his platform at the entrance, and the captains and the trumpets by the king; and all the people of the land rejoiced, and blew with trumpets; the singers also [played] on instruments of music, and led the singing of praise. Then Athaliah rent her clothes, and said: ‘Treason, treason.’"
7. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 2.65, 7.24 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

2.65. מִלְּבַד עַבְדֵיהֶם וְאַמְהֹתֵיהֶם אֵלֶּה שִׁבְעַת אֲלָפִים שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת שְׁלֹשִׁים וְשִׁבְעָה וְלָהֶם מְשֹׁרְרִים וּמְשֹׁרְרוֹת מָאתָיִם׃ 7.24. וּלְכֹם מְהוֹדְעִין דִּי כָל־כָּהֲנַיָּא וְלֵוָיֵא זַמָּרַיָּא תָרָעַיָּא נְתִינַיָּא וּפָלְחֵי בֵּית אֱלָהָא דְנָה מִנְדָּה בְלוֹ וַהֲלָךְ לָא שַׁלִּיט לְמִרְמֵא עֲלֵיהֹם׃ 2.65. beside their men-servants and their maid-servants, of whom there were seven thousand three hundred thirty and seven; and they had two hundred singing men and singing women." 7.24. Also we announce to you, that touching any of the priests and Levites, the singers, porters, Nethinim, or servants of this house of God, it shall not be lawful to impose tribute, impost, or toll, upon them."
8. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 13.10-13.14 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

13.11. וָאָרִיבָה אֶת־הַסְּגָנִים וָאֹמְרָה מַדּוּעַ נֶעֱזַב בֵּית־הָאֱלֹהִים וָאֶקְבְּצֵם וָאַעֲמִדֵם עַל־עָמְדָם׃ 13.12. וְכָל־יְהוּדָה הֵבִיאוּ מַעְשַׂר הַדָּגָן וְהַתִּירוֹשׁ וְהַיִּצְהָר לָאוֹצָרוֹת׃ 13.13. וָאוֹצְרָה עַל־אוֹצָרוֹת שֶׁלֶמְיָה הַכֹּהֵן וְצָדוֹק הַסּוֹפֵר וּפְדָיָה מִן־הַלְוִיִּם וְעַל־יָדָם חָנָן בֶּן־זַכּוּר בֶּן־מַתַּנְיָה כִּי נֶאֱמָנִים נֶחְשָׁבוּ וַעֲלֵיהֶם לַחֲלֹק לַאֲחֵיהֶם׃ 13.14. זָכְרָה־לִּי אֱלֹהַי עַל־זֹאת וְאַל־תֶּמַח חֲסָדַי אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי בְּבֵית אֱלֹהַי וּבְמִשְׁמָרָיו׃ 13.10. And I perceived that the portions of the Levites had not been given them; so that the Levites and the singers, that did the work, were fled every one to his field." 13.11. Then contended I with the rulers, and said: ‘Why is the house of God forsaken?’ And I gathered them together, and set them in their place." 13.12. Then brought all Judah the tithe of the corn and the wine and the oil unto the treasuries." 13.13. And I made treasurers over the treasuries, Shelemiah the priest, and Zadok the scribe, and of the Levites, Pedaiah; and next to them was Ha the son of Zaccur, the son of Mattaniah; for they were counted faithful, and their office was to distribute unto their brethren." 13.14. Remember me, O my God, concerning this, and wipe not out my good deeds that I have done for the house of my God, and for the wards thereof."
9. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.30 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.30. Then the priests sang the hymns.
10. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.239 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.239. O! Master how can any one sing your praises adequately, with what mouth, with what tongue, with what organisation of voice? Can the stars become a chorus and pour forth any melody which shall be worthy of the subject? Even if the whole of the heaven were to be dissolved into voice, would it be able to recount even a portion of your virtues? "Very rightly," says God, "have the daughters of Shalpaath spoken.
11. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 7.305, 8.94, 12.138-12.144, 20.216-20.218 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.305. 3. And now David being freed from wars and dangers, and enjoying for the future a profound peace, composed songs and hymns to God of several sorts of metre; some of those which he made were trimeters, and some were pentameters. He also made instruments of music, and taught the Levites to sing hymns to God, both on that called the sabbath day, and on other festivals. 8.94. and two hundred thousand trumpets, according to the command of Moses; also two hundred thousand garments of fine linen for the singers, that were Levites. And he made musical instruments, and such as were invented for singing of hymns, called Nablee and Cindree, [psalteries and harps,] which were made of electrum, [the finest brass,] forty thousand. 12.138. “King Antiochus To Ptolemy, Sendeth Greeting. /p“Since the Jews, upon our first entrance on their country, demonstrated their friendship towards us, and when we came to their city [Jerusalem], received us in a splendid manner, and came to meet us with their senate, and gave abundance of provisions to our soldiers, and to the elephants, and joined with us in ejecting the garrison of the Egyptians that were in the citadel 12.139. we have thought fit to reward them, and to retrieve the condition of their city, which hath been greatly depopulated by such accidents as have befallen its inhabitants, and to bring those that have been scattered abroad back to the city. 12.141. And these payments I would have fully paid them, as I have sent orders to you. I would also have the work about the temple finished, and the cloisters, and if there be any thing else that ought to be rebuilt. And for the materials of wood, let it be brought them out of Judea itself and out of the other countries, and out of Libanus tax free; and the same I would have observed as to those other materials which will be necessary, in order to render the temple more glorious; 12.142. and let all of that nation live according to the laws of their own country; and let the senate, and the priests, and the scribes of the temple, and the sacred singers, be discharged from poll-money and the crown tax and other taxes also. 12.143. And that the city may the sooner recover its inhabitants, I grant a discharge from taxes for three years to its present inhabitants, and to such as shall come to it, until the month Hyperberetus. 12.144. We also discharge them for the future from a third part of their taxes, that the losses they have sustained may be repaired. And all those citizens that have been carried away, and are become slaves, we grant them and their children their freedom, and give order that their substance be restored to them.” 20.216. 6. Now as many of the Levites, which is a tribe of ours, as were singers of hymns, persuaded the king to assemble a sanhedrim, and to give them leave to wear linen garments, as well as the priests for they said that this would be a work worthy the times of his government, that he might have a memorial of such a novelty, as being his doing. 20.217. Nor did they fail of obtaining their desire; for the king, with the suffrages of those that came into the sanhedrim, granted the singers of hymns this privilege, that they might lay aside their former garments, and wear such a linen one as they desired; 20.218. and as a part of this tribe ministered in the temple, he also permitted them to learn those hymns as they had besought him for. Now all this was contrary to the laws of our country, which, whenever they have been transgressed, we have never been able to avoid the punishment of such transgressions.
12. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.31, 5.229 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.31. And he added, that it was the foresight his father had of that his barbarity, which made him never give him any hopes of the kingdom, but when his mind was more infirm than his body, and he was not able to reason soundly, and did not well know what was the character of that son, whom in his second testament he made his successor; and this was done by him at a time when he had no complaints to make of him whom he had named before, when he was sound in body, and when his mind was free from all passion. 2.31. but as his sister Bernice was come to Jerusalem, and saw the wicked practices of the soldiers, she was sorely affected at it, and frequently sent the masters of her horse and her guards to Florus, and begged of him to leave off these slaughters; 5.229. but then those priests that were without any blemish upon them went up to the altar clothed in fine linen. They abstained chiefly from wine, out of this fear, lest otherwise they should transgress some rules of their ministration.
13. Mishnah, Arakhin, 2.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.3. There are never less than twenty-one blasts in the Temple and never more than forty-eight. There are never less than two harps, nor more than six. There are never less than two flutes, nor more than twelve. On twelve days in the year the flute was played before the altar: At the slaughtering of the first pesah, At the killing of the second pesah, On the first festival day of Pesah, On the festival day of Atzeret (Shavuot), And on the eight days of Sukkot. And they did not play on a pipe [abuv] of bronze but on a pipe of reed, because its tune is sweeter. Nor was anything but a single pipe used for closing a tune, because it makes a pleasant finale.
14. Mishnah, Berachot, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.5. One who is praying and makes a mistake, it is a bad sign for him. And if he is the messenger of the congregation (the prayer leader) it is a bad sign for those who have sent him, because one’s messenger is equivalent to one’s self. They said about Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa that he used to pray for the sick and say, “This one will die, this one will live.” They said to him: “How do you know?” He replied: “If my prayer comes out fluently, I know that he is accepted, but if not, then I know that he is rejected.”"
15. Mishnah, Maaser Sheni, 5.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.15. Yoha the high priest stopped [the recitation] of the confession of the tithes. He also abolished the “wakers” and the “strikers.” Until his days the hammer used to beat in Jerusalem. And in his days one did not have to ask about demai."
16. Mishnah, Middot, 2.5-2.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.5. The courtyard of the women was a hundred and thirty-five cubits long by a hundred and thirty-five wide. It had four chambers in its four corners, each of which was forty cubits. They were not roofed, and so they will be in the time to come, as it says, “Then he brought me forth into the outer court, and caused me to pass by the four corners of the court, and behold in every corner of the court there was a court. In the four corners of the court there were keturot courts” (Ezekiel 46:21-22) and keturot means that they were not roofed. For what were they used? The southeastern one was the chamber of the Nazirites where the Nazirites used to boil their shelamim and shave their hair and throw it under the pot. The northeastern one was the wood chamber where priests with physical defects used to pick out the wood which had worms, every piece with a worm in it being unfit for use on the altar. The northwestern one was the chamber of those with skin disease. The southwestern one: Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob said: I forget what it was used for. Abba Shaul says: they used to store there wine and oil, and it was called the chamber of oil. It [the courtyard of the women] had originally been smooth [without protrusions in the walls] but subsequently they surrounded it with a balcony so that the women could look on from above while the men were below, and they should not mix together. Fifteen steps led up from it to the courtyard of Israel, corresponding to the fifteen [songs of] ascents mentioned in the Book of Psalms, and upon which the Levites used to sing. They were not rectangular but circular like the half of a threshing floor." 2.6. There were chambers underneath the Court of Israel which opened into the Court of Women, where the Levites used to keep lyres and lutes and cymbals and all kinds of musical instruments. The Court of Israel was a hundred and thirty-five cubits in length by eleven in breadth. Similarly the Court of the Priests was a hundred and thirty-five cubits in length by eleven in breadth. And a row of mosaic stones separated the Court of Israel from the Court of the Priests. Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob says: there was a step a cubit high on which a platform was placed, and it had three steps each of half a cubit in height. In this way the Court of the Priests was made two and a half cubits higher than that of Israel. The whole of the Court was a hundred and eighty-seven cubits in length by a hundred and thirty-five in breadth. And thirteen prostrations were made there. Abba Yose ben Ha says: they were made facing the thirteen gates. On the south beginning from the west there were the upper gate, the gate of burning, the gate of the firstborn, and the water gate. And why was it called the water gate? Because they brought in through it the pitcher of water for libation on the festival. Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob says: in it the water welled up, and in the time to come from there it will come out from under the threshold of the Temple. Corresponding to them in the north beginning in the west were the gate of Yehoniah, the gate of the offering, the women's gate, the gate of song. Why was it called the gate of Yehoniah? Because Yehoniah went forth into captivity through it. On the east was the gate of Nicanor; it had two doors, one on its right and one on its left (10 +. There were further two gates in the west which had no special name (12 +."
17. Mishnah, Sotah, 9.10, 9.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.10. Yoha the high priest brought to an end the confession made at the presentation of the tithe. He also discontinued the wakers and the knockers Up to his days the hammer used to strike in Jerusalem, And in his days there was no need to inquire about doubtfully tithed produce." 9.15. When Rabbi Meir died, the composers of fables ceased. When Ben Azzai died, the diligent students [of Torah] ceased. When Ben Zoma died, the expounders ceased. When Rabbi Joshua died, goodness ceased from the world. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel died, locusts come and troubles multiplied. When Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah died, the sages ceased to be wealthy. When Rabbi Akiba died, the glory of the Torah ceased. When Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa died, men of wondrous deeds ceased. When Rabbi Yose Katnuta died, the pious men (hasidim) ceased and why was his name called Katnuta? Because he was the youngest of the pious men. When Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai died, the splendor of wisdom ceased. When Rabban Gamaliel the elder died, the glory of the torah ceased, and purity and separateness perished. When Rabbi Ishmael ben Fabi died, the splendor of the priesthood ceased. When Rabbi died, humility and fear of sin ceased. Rabbi Phineas ben Yair says: when Temple was destroyed, scholars and freemen were ashamed and covered their head, men of wondrous deeds were disregarded, and violent men and big talkers grew powerful. And nobody expounds, nobody seeks, and nobody asks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: from the day the Temple was destroyed, the sages began to be like scribes, scribes like synagogue-attendants, synagogue-attendants like common people, and the common people became more and more debased. And nobody seeks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. In the footsteps of the messiah insolence (hutzpah) will increase and the cost of living will go up greatly; the vine will yield its fruit, but wine will be expensive; the government will turn to heresy, and there will be no one to rebuke; the meeting-place [of scholars] will be used for licentiousness; the Galilee will be destroyed, the Gablan will be desolated, and the dwellers on the frontier will go about [begging] from place to place without anyone to take pity on them; the wisdom of the learned will rot, fearers of sin will be despised, and the truth will be lacking; youths will put old men to shame, the old will stand up in the presence of the young, “For son spurns father, daughter rises up against mother, daughter-in-law against mother-in-law a man’s own household are his enemies” (Micah 7:6). The face of the generation will be like the face of a dog, a son will not feel ashamed before his father. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Pinchas ben Yair says, “Heedfulness leads to cleanliness, cleanliness leads to purity, purity leads to separation, separation leads to holiness, holiness leads to modesty, modesty leads to fear of sin, fear of sin leads to piety, piety leads to the Holy Spirit, The Holy Spirit leads to the resurrection of the dead, and the resurrection of the dead comes from Elijah, blessed be his memory, Amen.”"
18. Mishnah, Sukkah, 5.1-5.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. The flute was for five or six days. This refers to the flute at the Bet Hashoevah [the place of the water-drawing] which does not override Shabbat or the festival day. They said: he who has not seen the Simchat Bet Hashoevah has never seen rejoicing in his life." 5.2. At the conclusion of the first festival day of Sukkot they descended to the Women’s Court (Ezrat Nashim) and they would make there a great enactment. And golden candlesticks were there, and four golden bowls on the top of each of them and four ladders to each, and four youths drawn from the young priests, and in their hands there were jars of oil containing one hundred and twenty logs which they poured into the bowls." 5.3. From the worn-out pants and belts of the priests they made wicks and with them they kindled the lamps. And there was not a courtyard in Jerusalem that was not illuminated by the light of the Bet Hashoevah." 5.4. Men of piety and good deeds used to dance before them with lighted torches in their hands, and they would sing songs and praises. And Levites with innumerable harps, lyres, cymbals and trumpets and other musical instruments stood upon the fifteen steps leading down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, corresponding to the fifteen songs of ascents in the Psalms, and it was on these [steps] that the Levites stood with their musical instruments and sang their songs. Two priests stood by the upper gate which leads down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, with two trumpets in their hands. When the cock crowed they sounded a teki'ah [drawn-out blast], a teru'ah [staccato note] and again a teki'ah. When they reached the tenth step they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. When they reached the Court [of the Women] they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. They would sound their trumpets and proceed until they reached the gate which leads out to the east. When they reached the gate which leads out to the east, they turned their faces from east to west and said, “Our fathers who were in this place ‘their backs were toward the Temple of the Lord, and their faces toward the east, and they worshipped the sun toward the east’, but as for us, our eyes are turned to the Lord.” Rabbi Judah said: they used to repeat [the last words] and say “We are the Lord’s and our eyes are turned to the Lord.”"
19. Mishnah, Tamid, 5.3, 7.3-7.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.3. He then handed them over to the attendants, who stripped them of their garments, and they would leave on them only the pants. There were windows there on which was inscribed the name of the garment to which each was assigned." 7.3. If the high priest wished to burn the offerings [himself], he would go up the ascent with the deputy high priest at his right. When he reached the middle of the ascent the deputy took hold of his right hand and helped him up. The first [of the other priests] then handed to him the head and the foot and he laid his hands on them and threw them [onto the altar]. The second then handed to the first the two fore legs. And he handed them to the high priest who laid his hands on them and threw them [onto the altar]. The second then went away. In the same way all the other limbs were handed to him and he laid his hands on them and threw them [on to the altar fire]. If he wanted, he could lay his hands and let others throw [them] on the fire. He then went around the altar. From where did he begin? From the southeastern corner; from there he went to the northeastern, then to the northwestern and then to the southwestern. They there handed him the wine for libation. The deputy high priest stood on the corner/horn of the altar with the flags in his hand, and two priests on the table of the fats with two trumpets in their hands. They blew a teki’ah, a teru’ah and a teki’ah. They then went and stood by Ben Arza, one on his right hand and one on his left. When he bent down to make the libation the deputy high priest waved the flags and Ben Arza struck the cymbals and the Levites sang the psalm. When they came to a pause they blew a teki’ah, and the public bowed down. At every pause there was a teki’ah and at every teki’ah a bowing down. This was the order of the regular daily sacrifice for the service of our Lord. May it be His will that it be rebuilt speedily in our days, Amen." 7.4. The following are the psalms that were chanted in the Temple.On the first day they used to say, “The earth is the Lord's and the fullness thereof, the world and they that dwell therein” (Psalms. On the second day they used to say: “Great is the Lord and highly to be praised, in the city of our God. His holy mountain” (Psalms. On the third day they used to say: “God stands in the congregation of God, in the midst of the judges he judges” (Psalms. On the fourth day they used to say: “O Lord, God to whom vengeance belongs. God to whom vengeance belongs, shine forth” (Psalms. On the fifth day they used to say: “Sing aloud unto God our strength, shout unto the God of Jacob” (Psalms. On the sixth day they used to say: “The lord reigns, he is clothed in majesty, the Lord is clothed, He has girded himself with strength” (Psalms. On Shabbat they used to say: “A psalm, a song for the Sabbath day” (Psalms. A psalm, a song for the time to come, for the day that will be all Shabbat and rest for everlasting life. Congratulations! We have finished Tractate Tamid! It is a tradition at this point to thank God for helping us finish learning the tractate and to commit ourselves to going back and relearning it, so that we may not forget it and so that its lessons will stay with us for all of our lives. Tamid may have been one of the more unusual tractates that we have ever learned. Instead of disputes between sages, heaps of logic and laws, we get an intricate description of the Temple service. Indeed, although the language is clearly rabbinic Hebrew, its descriptive style is more characteristic of the Bible than of rabbinic literature. It is likely that these descriptions, or at least parts thereof, come from Temple times. They were preserved because the rabbis fervently hoped that the Temple would be rebuilt during their own lifetimes. While we may or may not share in this wish, I think we can all appreciate the respect in which they held this ceremony. Despite the fact that it was performed each and every day, twice every day, they don’t seem to have lost their sense of wonder at the intimate connection that they received with God through the sacrificial process. I hope you have enjoyed Tamid. Tomorrow we begin Tractate Middot (the last tractate in Seder Kodashim!)."
20. Mishnah, Shekalim, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. These were the officers in the Temple:Yoha the son of Pinchas was over the seals. Ahiyah over the libations. Mattityah the son of Shmuel over the lots. Petahiah over the bird-offering. (Petahiah was Mordecai. Why was his name called Petahiah? Because he ‘opened’ matters and expounded them, and he understood the seventy tongues). The son of Ahijah over the sickness of the bowels. Nehuniah, the digger of ditches. Gevini, the crier. The son of Gever over the locking of the gates. The son of Bevai over the strips [for lighting the menorah]. The son of Arza over the cymbal. Hugras the son of Levi over the song. The house of Garmu over the making of the showbread. The house of Avtinas over the preparing of the frankincense. Elazar over the curtains. And Pinchas over the priestly vestments."
21. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

51a. כתנאי (דתניא) עבדי כהנים היו דברי ר' מאיר רבי יוסי אומר משפחת בית הפגרים ומשפחת בית ציפריא ומאמאום היו שהיו משיאין לכהונה,ר' חנינא בן אנטיגנוס אומר לוים היו מאי לאו בהא קא מיפלגי דמאן דאמר עבדים היו קסבר עיקר שירה בפה ומאן דאמר לוים היו קסבר עיקר שירה בכלי,ותסברא רבי יוסי מאי קסבר אי קסבר עיקר שירה בפה אפילו עבדים נמי אי קסבר עיקר שירה בכלי לוים אין ישראלים לא,אלא דכולי עלמא עיקר שירה בפה ובהא קא מיפלגי דמר סבר הכי הוה מעשה ומר סבר הכי הוה מעשה,למאי נפקא מינה למעלין מדוכן ליוחסין ולמעשר קא מיפלגי,מאן דאמר עבדים היו קסבר אין מעלין מדוכן ליוחסין ולא למעשר ומאן דאמר ישראל היו קסבר מעלין מדוכן ליוחסין אבל לא למעשר ומאן דאמר לוים היו קסבר מעלין מדוכן בין ליוחסין בין למעשר,ורבי ירמיה בר אבא אמר מחלוקת בשיר של שואבה דרבי יוסי בר יהודה סבר שמחה יתירה נמי דוחה את השבת ורבנן סברי שמחה יתירה אינה דוחה את השבת אבל בשיר של קרבן דברי הכל עבודה היא ודוחה את השבת,מיתיבי שיר של שואבה דוחה את השבת דברי רבי יוסי בר יהודה וחכמים אומרים אף יום טוב אינו דוחה תיובתא דרב יוסף תיובתא,לימא בשיר של שואבה הוא דפליגי אבל בשיר של קרבן דברי הכל דוחה את השבת לימא תיהוי תיובתא דרב יוסף בתרתי,אמר לך רב יוסף פליגי בשיר של שואבה והוא הדין לקרבן והאי דקמיפלגי בשיר של שואבה להודיעך כחו דרבי יוסי בר יהודה דאפילו דשואבה נמי דחי,והא קתני זהו חליל של בית השואבה שאינו דוחה לא את השבת ולא את יום טוב זהו דאינו דוחה אבל דקרבן דוחה מני אי נימא רבי יוסי בר יהודה האמר שיר של שואבה נמי דוחה אלא לאו רבנן ותיובתא דרב יוסף בתרתי תיובתא,מאי טעמא דמאן דאמר עיקר שירה בכלי דכתיב (דברי הימים ב כט, כז) ויאמר חזקיהו להעלות העולה להמזבח ובעת החל העולה החל שיר ה' והחצוצרות ועל ידי כלי דויד מלך ישראל,מ"ט דמאן דאמר עיקר שירה בפה דכתיב (דברי הימים ב ה, יג) ויהי כאחד למחצצרים ולמשוררים להשמיע קול אחד,ואידך נמי הא כתיב ויאמר חזקיהו הכי קאמר החל שיר ה' בפה על ידי כלי דויד מלך ישראל לבסומי קלא,ואידך נמי הא כתיב ויהי כאחד למחצצרים ולמשוררים הכי קאמר משוררים דומיא דמחצצרים מה מחצצרים בכלי אף משוררים בכלי:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מי שלא ראה שמחת בית השואבה לא ראה שמחה מימיו במוצאי יום טוב הראשון של חג ירדו לעזרת נשים ומתקנין שם תיקון גדול מנורות של זהב היו שם וארבעה ספלים של זהב בראשיהם וארבעה סולמות לכל אחד ואחד וארבעה ילדים מפירחי כהונה ובידיהם כדים של מאה ועשרים לוג שהן מטילין לכל ספל וספל מבלאי מכנסי כהנים ומהמייניהן מהן היו מפקיעין ובהן היו מדליקין ולא היה חצר בירושלים שאינה מאירה מאור בית השואבה,חסידים ואנשי מעשה היו מרקדין בפניהם 51a. This dispute is bparallelto another dispute between itanna’im /i, as it is taughtin a mishna in tractate iArakhin /i: The Temple musicians bwere slaves of priests;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yosei says:The musicians were not slaves; they were Israelites from bthe family of the House of Happegarim and the family of the House of Tzipperaya. And they were fromthe city of bEmma’um,and their lineage was sufficiently distinguished bthat they would marrytheir daughters btomembers of bthe priesthood. /b, bRabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus says: They were Levites. What, is it not that they disagree with regard to this; that the one who saidthat the musicians bwere slaves holdsthat the bprimaryessence of bsongis singing bwith the mouth.Since the instrumental music is mere accompaniment, it could be performed by slaves. bAnd the one who said thatthe musicians bwere Levites holdsthat the bprimaryessence of bsongis accompaniment bbymusical binstruments.Therefore, the musicians were Levites, who were tasked with the song that was part of the Temple service.,The Gemara asks: bAndhow can byou understandthe mishna that way? According to that explanation, bwhat does Rabbi Yosei hold? If he holdsthat the bprimaryessence of bsongis singing bwith the mouth,then beven slavescan balsoplay the instruments. Why then does he require that the musicians be from Israelite families of distinguished lineage? bIf he holdsthat the bprimaryessence of bsongis accompaniment bbymusical binstruments,he should have said: bLevites, yes,they may play the instruments, but bIsraelites, no,they may not., bRather,the explanation of the dispute is bthat everyone agreesthat the bprimaryessence of bsongis singing bwith the mouthand the musical instruments are merely for accompaniment. bAndit is bwith regard to this that they disagree:It is bthatone bSage holdsthat the beventtook place in bthismanner, i.e., slaves played the instruments, bandone bSage holdsthat the beventtook place in bthismanner, i.e., Israelite families of distinguished lineage played the instruments.,The Gemara asks: bWhatpractical halakhic bdifference is therewhether one group or another played the instruments? The Gemara answers: It is with regard btowhether bone elevatesa Levite bfrom the platform tothe presumptive status of distinguished blineage andeligibility btoreceive btithes that they disagree.Is it possible to draw the conclusion that a family is of distinguished lineage or eligible to receive tithes based on the fact that a member or ancestor of that family played a musical instrument on the Temple platform?, bThe one who said thatthe musicians bwere slaves holdsthat bone does not elevate from the platform tothe presumptive status of distinguished blineage andeligibility btoreceive btithes. And the one who said thatthe musicians bwere Israelites holdsthat bone elevatesa Levite bfrom the platformto the presumptive status of distinguished blineage but noteligibility btoreceive btithes. And the one who said thatthe musicians bwere Levites holdsthat bone elevatesa Levite bfrom the platform tothe presumptive status of distinguished blineageand eligibility btoreceive btithes. /b,§ The Gemara cites an opinion that disagrees with that of Rav Yosef. bAnd Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba said: The disputebetween Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda and the Rabbis bis with regard to the song ofthe bDrawingof the Water. bRabbi Yosei bar Yehuda holdsthat bextra rejoicing also overrides Shabbat, and the Rabbis holdthat bextra rejoicing does not override Shabbat. However, with regard tothe bsong thatthe Levites sang accompanying ban offering, everyone agreesthat it is part of the Temple bservice, and overrides Shabbat. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionto the opinion of Rav Yosef that the dispute is with regard to the song that the Levites sang accompanying the daily offering: bThe song ofthe bDrawingof the Water boverrides Shabbat;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda. And the Rabbis say: It does not override even the Festival.Apparently, their dispute is with regard to the song of the Drawing of the Water. Say that this is ba conclusive refutationof the opinion bof Rav Yosef.The Gemara concludes: Indeed, it is ba conclusive refutation. /b,The Gemara suggests: bLet us say,based on this ibaraita /i, that bit is with regard to the song ofthe bDrawingof the Water alone bthat they disagree; however, with regard to the song thatthe Levites sang accompanying bthedaily boffering, everyone saysthat bit overrides Shabbat.If so, blet us saythat bthis will be a conclusive refutation ofthe opinion bof Rav Yosef on twocounts. According to Rav Yosef, the dispute is with regard to the song of the Drawing of the Water, and not with regard to the song the Levites sang accompanying the daily offering. The above suggestion refutes both aspects of his opinion., bRav Yosefcould have bsaid to you: They disagree with regard to the song ofthe bDrawingof the Water band the same is true forthe song that the Levites sang accompanying ban offering. Andthe fact bthat they disagreespecifically bwith regard to the song ofthe bDrawingof the Water and do not specifically mention the song that the Levites sang accompanying the daily offering bis to convey to you the far-reachingnature of the opinion bof Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda, that even thesong bofthe bDrawingof the Water balso overridesShabbat.,The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it taughtin the mishna: bThis isthe bflute of the Place of the Drawingof the Water, bwhich overrides neither Shabbat northe bFestival.By inference, bthis isthe flute bthat does not overrideShabbat; bhowever,the flute that accompanies bthedaily boffering overridesShabbat. The Gemara asks: bWho isthe itannaof the mishna? bIf we sayit is bRabbi Yosei bar Yehuda, didn’t he say that the song ofthe bDrawingof the Water balso overridesShabbat? bRather, is it not the Rabbis, andsay that this is ba conclusive refutationof bRav Yosef on twocounts. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, it is ba conclusive refutation. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the rationalefor the opinion bof the one who said:The bprimaryessence of bsongis singing accompanied bbymusical binstruments?The Gemara answers: It is bas it is written: “And Hezekiah commanded to sacrifice the burnt-offering upon the altar. And when the burnt-offering began, the song of the Lord began also, and the trumpets, together with the instruments of David, king of Israel”(II Chronicles 29:27), indicating that the song of God that accompanies the offering is played by trumpets and other instruments.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the rationalefor the opinion bof the one who said:The bprimaryessence of bsongis singing bwith the mouth?The Gemara answers: It is bas it is written: “And it came to pass, when the trumpeters and the singers were as one to make one sound”(II Chronicles 5:13). Since the verse does not mention any musical instrument played with the singing other than the trumpets, and the trumpets were not sounded as accompaniment for the singers, apparently the primary essence of song is singing with the mouth. The trumpets were sounded in order to accompany the sacrifice of the daily and additional offerings with the requisite sounds of itekiaand iterua /i.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bthe other itanna btoo,who holds that the primary essence of song is singing with the mouth, bisn’t it written: “And Hezekiah commanded /b…the song of the Lord began also, and the trumpets, together with the instruments,” indicating that the instruments are the primary essence? The Gemara answers: bThis is whatthe verse bis saying: “The song of the Lord began,”indicates that the primary essence is bwith the mouth; “with the instruments of David, King of Israel,”is bto sweeten the sound,as the instruments are merely to accompany and enhance the singing.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bthe other itanna btoo,who holds that the primary essence of song is singing accompanied by musical instruments, bisn’t it written: “And it came to pass, when the trumpeters and the singers were as one,”indicating that the primary essence is with the mouth? The Gemara answers: bThis is whatthe verse bis saying:Through their juxtaposition, one derives that the bsingersare bsimilar to the trumpeters; just as trumpetersproduce their sound bwith an instrument, so toothe bsingersproduce their song bwith an instrument. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bOne who did not see the Celebration of the Place of the Drawingof the Water bnever saw celebration in his days.This was the sequence of events: bAt the conclusion of the first Festivalday the priests and the Levites bdescendedfrom the Israelites’ courtyard bto the Women’s Courtyard, where they would introduce a significant repair,as the Gemara will explain. bThere were golden candelabraatop poles btherein the courtyard. bAndthere were bfour basinsmade bof gold at the topof each candelabrum. bAndthere were bfour ladders for each and everypole bandthere were bfour children from the priesthood trainees, and in their handswere bpitcherswith a capacity bof 120 ilog /iof oil bthat they would pour into each and every basin. From the worn trousers of the priests and their belts they would loosenand tear strips to use as wicks, band with them they would lightthe candelabra. bAndthe light from the candelabra was so bright that bthere was not a courtyard in Jerusalem that was not illuminated from the light of the Place of the Drawingof the Water.,The bpious andthe bmen of action would dance beforethe people who attended the celebration


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
agrippa ii Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 333
albeck, h. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 132
antiochus, iii Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 333, 334
artaxerxes i Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 333
chronicles, books of Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 159
dance Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 132
flute Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 132
fox, h. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 132
joy, rejoicing Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 132
maimonides Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 333
psalms, book of Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 159
psalms, musical directions Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 159
psalms, the psalm titles Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 159
psalms Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 132
ptolemy, seleucid governor Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 333, 334
sabbath Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 132
safrai, s. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 132
seleucid monarchy Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 333, 334
seleucids, privileges granted jews Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 333, 334
seleucids, tax exemptions Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 333, 334
simhat beit hashoeva Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 132
sirach Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 334
temple, personnel Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 333, 334
temple, singers' Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 333
temple, singers Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 334
temple Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 132