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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7574
Lucretius Carus, On The Nature Of Things, 5.772-5.1457
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At varios linguae sonitus natura subegitBut nature 'twas Urged men to utter various sounds of tongue And need and use did mould the names of things, About in same wise as the lack-speech years Compel young children unto gesturings, Making them point with finger here and there At what's before them. For each creature feels By instinct to what use to put his powers. Ere yet the bull-calf's scarce begotten horns Project above his brows, with them he 'gins Enraged to butt and savagely to thrust. But whelps of panthers and the lion's cubs With claws and paws and bites are at the fray Already, when their teeth and claws be scarce As yet engendered. So again, we see All breeds of winged creatures trust to wings And from their fledgling pinions seek to get A fluttering assistance. Thus, to think That in those days some man apportioned round To things their names, and that from him men learned Their first nomenclature, is foolery. For why could he mark everything by words And utter the various sounds of tongue, what time The rest may be supposed powerless To do the same? And, if the rest had not Already one with other used words, Whence was implanted in the teacher, then, Fore-knowledge of their use, and whence was given To him alone primordial faculty To know and see in mind what 'twas he willed? Besides, one only man could scarce subdue An overmastered multitude to choose To get by heart his names of things. A task Not easy 'tis in any wise to teach And to persuade the deaf concerning what 'Tis needful for to do. For ne'er would they Allow, nor ne'er in anywise endure Perpetual vain dingdong in their ears Of spoken sounds unheard before. And what, At last, in this affair so wondrous is, That human race (in whom a voice and tongue Were now in vigour) should by divers words Denote its objects, as each divers sense Might prompt?- since even the speechless herds, aye, since The very generations of wild beasts Are wont dissimilar and divers sounds To rouse from in them, when there's fear or pain, And when they burst with joys. And this, forsooth, 'Tis thine to know from plainest facts: when first Huge flabby jowls of mad Molossian hounds, Baring their hard white teeth, begin to snarl, They threaten, with infuriate lips peeled back, In sounds far other than with which they bark And fill with voices all the regions round. And when with fondling tongue they start to lick Their puppies, or do toss them round with paws, Feigning with gentle bites to gape and snap, They fawn with yelps of voice far other then Than when, alone within the house, they bay, Or whimpering slink with cringing sides from blows. Again the neighing of the horse, is that Not seen to differ likewise, when the stud In buoyant flower of his young years raves, Goaded by winged Love, amongst the mares, And when with widening nostrils out he snorts The call to battle, and when haply he Whinnies at times with terror-quaking limbs? Lastly, the flying race, the dappled birds, Hawks, ospreys, sea-gulls, searching food and life Amid the ocean billows in the brine, Utter at other times far other cries Than when they fight for food, or with their prey Struggle and strain. And birds there are which change With changing weather their own raucous songs- As long-lived generations of the crowsOr flocks of rooks, when they be said to cry For rain and water and to call at times For winds and gales. Ergo, if divers moods Compel the brutes, though speechless evermore, To send forth divers sounds, O truly then How much more likely 'twere that mortal men In those days could with many a different sound Denote each separate thing.
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Illud in his rebus tacitus ne forte requirasLest, perchance, Concerning these affairs thou ponderest In silent meditation, let me say 'Twas lightning brought primevally to earth The fire for mortals, and from thence hath spread O'er all the lands the flames of heat. For thus Even now we see so many objects, touched By the celestial flames, to flash aglow, When thunderbolt has dowered them with heat. Yet also when a many-branched tree, Beaten by winds, writhes swaying to and fro, Pressing 'gainst branches of a neighbour tree, There by the power of mighty rub and rub Is fire engendered; and at times out-flares The scorching heat of flame, when boughs do chafe Against the trunks. And of these causes, either May well have given to mortal men the fire. Next, food to cook and soften in the flame The sun instructed, since so oft they saw How objects mellowed, when subdued by warmth And by the raining blows of fiery beams, Through all the fields.
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Inque dies magis hi victum vitamque prioremAnd more and more each day Would men more strong in sense, more wise in heart, Teach them to change their earlier mode and life By fire and new devices. Kings began Cities to found and citadels to set, As strongholds and asylums for themselves, And flocks and fields to portion for each man After the beauty, strength, and sense of each- For beauty then imported much, and strength Had its own rights supreme. Thereafter, wealth Discovered was, and gold was brought to light, Which soon of honour stripped both strong and fair; For men, however beautiful in form Or valorous, will follow in the main The rich man's party. Yet were man to steer His life by sounder reasoning, he'd own Abounding riches, if with mind content He lived by thrift; for never, as I guess, Is there a lack of little in the world. But men wished glory for themselves and power Even that their fortunes on foundations firm Might rest forever, and that they themselves, The opulent, might pass a quiet life- In vain, in vain; since, in the strife to climb On to the heights of honour, men do make Their pathway terrible; and even when once They reach them, envy like the thunderbolt At times will smite, O hurling headlong down To murkiest Tartarus, in scorn; for, lo, All summits, all regions loftier than the rest, Smoke, blasted as by envy's thunderbolts; So better far in quiet to obey, Than to desire chief mastery of affairs And ownership of empires. Be it so; And let the weary sweat their life-blood out All to no end, battling in hate along The narrow path of man's ambition; Since all their wisdom is from others' lips, And all they seek is known from what they've heard And less from what they've thought. Nor is this folly Greater to-day, nor greater soon to be, Than' twas of old.
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Ergo regibus occisis subversa iacebatAnd therefore kings were slain, And pristine majesty of golden thrones And haughty sceptres lay o'erturned in dust; And crowns, so splendid on the sovereign heads, Soon bloody under the proletarian feet, Groaned for their glories gone- for erst o'er-much Dreaded, thereafter with more greedy zest Trampled beneath the rabble heel. Thus things Down to the vilest lees of brawling mobs Succumbed, whilst each man sought unto himself Dominion and supremacy. So next Some wiser heads instructed men to found The magisterial office, and did frame Codes that they might consent to follow laws. For humankind, o'er wearied with a life Fostered by force, was ailing from its feuds; And so the sooner of its own free will Yielded to laws and strictest codes. For since Each hand made ready in its wrath to take A vengeance fiercer than by man's fair laws Is now conceded, men on this account Loathed the old life fostered by force. 'Tis thence That fear of punishments defiles each prize Of wicked days; for force and fraud ensnare Each man around, and in the main recoil On him from whence they sprung. Not easy 'tis For one who violates by ugly deeds The bonds of common peace to pass a life Composed and tranquil. For albeit he 'scape The race of gods and men, he yet must dread 'Twill not be hid forever- since, indeed, So many, oft babbling on amid their dreams Or raving in sickness, have betrayed themselves (As stories tell) and published at last Old secrets and the sins.
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Nunc quae causa deum per magnas numina gentisAnd now what cause Hath spread divinities of gods abroad Through mighty nations, and filled the cities full Of the high altars, and led to practices Of solemn rites in season- rites which still Flourish in midst of great affairs of state And midst great centres of man's civic life, The rites whence still a poor mortality Is grafted that quaking awe which rears aloft Still the new temples of gods from land to land And drives mankind to visit them in throngs On holy days- 'tis not so hard to give Reason thereof in speech. Because, in sooth, Even in those days would the race of man Be seeing excelling visages of gods With mind awake; and in his sleeps, yet more- Bodies of wondrous growth. And, thus, to these Would men attribute sense, because they seemed To move their limbs and speak pronouncements high, Befitting glorious visage and vast powers. And men would give them an eternal life, Because their visages forevermore Were there before them, and their shapes remained, And chiefly, however, because men would not think Beings augmented with such mighty powers Could well by any force o'ermastered be. And men would think them in their happiness Excelling far, because the fear of death Vexed no one of them at all, and since At same time in men's sleeps men saw them do So many wonders, and yet feel therefrom Themselves no weariness. Besides, men marked How in a fixed order rolled around The systems of the sky, and changed times Of annual seasons, nor were able then To know thereof the causes. Therefore 'twas Men would take refuge in consigning all Unto divinities, and in feigning all Was guided by their nod. And in the sky They set the seats and vaults of gods, because Across the sky night and the moon are seen To roll along- moon, day, and night, and night's Old awesome constellations evermore, And the night-wandering fireballs of the sky, And flying flames, clouds, and the sun, the rains, Snow and the winds, the lightnings, and the hail, And the swift rumblings, and the hollow roar Of mighty menacings forevermore.
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O genus infelix humanum, talia divisO humankind unhappy!- when it ascribed Unto divinities such awesome deeds, And coupled thereto rigours of fierce wrath! What groans did men on that sad day beget Even for themselves, and O what wounds for us, What tears for our children's children! Nor, O man, Is thy true piety in this: with head Under the veil, still to be seen to turn Fronting a stone, and ever to approach Unto all altars; nor so prone on earth Forward to fall, to spread upturned palms Before the shrines of gods, nor yet to dew Altars with profuse blood of four-foot beasts, Nor vows with vows to link. But rather this: To look on all things with a master eye And mind at peace. For when we gaze aloft Upon the skiey vaults of yon great world And ether, fixed high o'er twinkling stars, And into our thought there come the journeyings Of sun and moon, O then into our breasts, O'erburdened already with their other ills, Begins forthwith to rear its sudden head One more misgiving: lest o'er us, percase, It be the gods' immeasurable power That rolls, with varied motion, round and round The far white constellations. For the lack Of aught of reasons tries the puzzled mind: Whether was ever a birth-time of the world, And whether, likewise, any end shall be How far the ramparts of the world can still Outstand this strain of ever-roused motion, Or whether, divinely with eternal weal Endowed, they can through endless tracts of age Glide on, defying the o'er-mighty powers Of the immeasurable ages. Lo, What man is there whose mind with dread of gods Cringes not close, whose limbs with terror-spell Crouch not together, when the parched earth Quakes with the horrible thunderbolt amain, And across the mighty sky the rumblings run? Do not the peoples and the nations shake, And haughty kings do they not hug their limbs, Strook through with fear of the divinities, Lest for aught foully done or madly said The heavy time be now at hand to pay? When, too, fierce force of fury-winds at sea Sweepeth a navy's admiral down the main With his stout legions and his elephants, Doth he not seek the peace of gods with vows, And beg in prayer, a-tremble, lulled winds And friendly gales?- in vain, since, often up-caught In fury-cyclones, is he borne along, For all his mouthings, to the shoals of doom. Ah, so irrevocably some hidden power Betramples forevermore affairs of men, And visibly grindeth with its heel in mire The lictors' glorious rods and axes dire, Having them in derision! Again, when earth From end to end is rocking under foot, And shaken cities ruin down, or threaten Upon the verge, what wonder is it then That mortal generations abase themselves, And unto gods in all affairs of earth Assign as last resort almighty powers And wondrous energies to govern all?
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Quod super est, ae s at que aurum ferrumque repertumstNow for the rest: copper and gold and iron Discovered were, and with them silver's weight And power of lead, when with prodigious heat The conflagrations burned the forest trees Among the mighty mountains, by a bolt Of lightning from the sky, or else because Men, warring in the woodlands, on their foes Had hurled fire to frighten and dismay, Or yet because, by goodness of the soil Invited, men desired to clear rich fields And turn the countryside to pasture-lands, Or slay the wild and thrive upon the spoils. (For hunting by pit-fall and by fire arose Before the art of hedging the covert round With net or stirring it with dogs of chase.) Howso the fact, and from what cause soever The flamy heat with awful crack and roar Had there devoured to their deepest roots The forest trees and baked the earth with fire, Then from the boiling veins began to ooze O rivulets of silver and of gold, Of lead and copper too, collecting soon Into the hollow places of the ground. And when men saw the cooled lumps anon To shine with splendour-sheen upon the ground, Much taken with that lustrous smooth delight, They 'gan to pry them out, and saw how each Had got a shape like to its earthy mould. Then would it enter their heads how these same lumps, If melted by heat, could into any form Or figure of things be run, and how, again, If hammered out, they could be nicely drawn To sharpest points or finest edge, and thus Yield to the forgers tools and give them power To chop the forest down, to hew the logs, To shave the beams and planks, besides to bore And punch and drill. And men began such work At first as much with tools of silver and gold As with the impetuous strength of the stout copper; But vainly- since their over-mastered power Would soon give way, unable to endure, Like copper, such hard labour. In those days Copper it was that was the thing of price; And gold lay useless, blunted with dull edge. Now lies the copper low, and gold hath come Unto the loftiest honours. Thus it is That rolling ages change the times of things: What erst was of a price, becomes at last A discard of no honour; whilst another Succeeds to glory, issuing from contempt, And day by day is sought for more and more, And, when 'tis found, doth flower in men's praise, Objects of wondrous honour.
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Nunc tibi quo pacto ferri natura repertaNow, Memmius, How nature of iron discovered was, thou mayst Of thine own self divine. Man's ancient arms Were hands, and nails and teeth, stones too and boughs- Breakage of forest trees- and flame and fire, As soon as known. Thereafter force of iron And copper discovered was; and copper's use Was known ere iron's, since more tractable Its nature is and its abundance more. With copper men to work the soil began, With copper to rouse the hurly waves of war, To straw the monstrous wounds, and seize away Another's flocks and fields. For unto them, Thus armed, all things naked of defence Readily yielded. Then by slow degrees The sword of iron succeeded, and the shape Of brazen sickle into scorn was turned: With iron to cleave the soil of earth they 'gan, And the contentions of uncertain war Were rendered equal. And, lo, man was wont Armed to mount upon the ribs of horseAnd guide him with the rein, and play about With right hand free, oft times before he tried Perils of war in yoked chariot; And yoked pairs abreast came earlier Than yokes of four, or scythed chariots Whereinto clomb the men-at-arms. And next The Punic folk did train the elephants- Those curst Lucanian oxen, hideous, The serpent-handed, with turrets on their bulks- To dure the wounds of war and panic-strike The mighty troops of Mars. Thus Discord sad Begat the one Thing after other, to be The terror of the nations under arms, And day by day to horrors of old war She added an increase.
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Temptarunt etiam tauros in moenere belliBulls, too, they tried In war's grim business; and essayed to send Outrageous boars against the foes. And some Sent on before their ranks puissant lionsWith armed trainers and with masters fierce To guide and hold in chains- and yet in vain, Since fleshed with pell-mell slaughter, fierce they flew, And blindly through the squadrons havoc wrought, Shaking the frightful crests upon their heads, Now here, now there. Nor could the horsemen calm Their horses, panic-breasted at the roar, And rein them round to front the foe. With spring The infuriate she-lions would up-leap Now here, now there; and whoso came apace Against them, these they'd rend across the face; And others unwitting from behind they'd tear Down from their mounts, and twining round them, bring Tumbling to earth, o'ermastered by the wound, And with those powerful fangs and hooked claws Fasten upon them. Bulls would toss their friends, And trample under foot, and from beneath Rip flanks and bellies of horses with their horns, And with a threat'ning forehead jam the sod; And boars would gore with stout tusks their allies, Splashing in fury their own blood on spears Splintered in their own bodies, and would fell In rout and ruin infantry and horse. For there the beasts-of-saddle tried to scape The savage thrusts of tusk by shying off, Or rearing up with hoofs a-paw in air. In vain- since there thou mightest see them sink, Their sinews severed, and with heavy fall Bestrew the ground. And such of these as men Supposed well-trained long ago at home, Were in the thick of action seen to foam In fury, from the wounds, the shrieks, the flight, The panic, and the tumult; nor could men Aught of their numbers rally. For each breed And various of the wild beasts fled apart Hither or thither, as often in wars to-day Flee those Lucanian oxen, by the steel Grievously mangled, after they have wrought Upon their friends so many a dreadful doom. (If 'twas, indeed, that thus they did at all: But scarcely I'll believe that men could not With mind foreknow and see, as sure to come, Such foul and general disaster.- This We, then, may hold as true in the great All, In divers worlds on divers plan create,- Somewhere afar more likely than upon One certain earth.) But men chose this to do Less in the hope of conquering than to give Their enemies a goodly cause of woe, Even though thereby they perished themselves, Since weak in numbers and since wanting arms.
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Nexilis ante fuit vestis quam textile tegmen.Now, clothes of roughly inter-plaited strands Were earlier than loom-wove coverings; The loom-wove later than man's iron is, Since iron is needful in the weaving art, Nor by no other means can there be wrought Such polished tools- the treadles, spindles, shuttles, And sounding yarn-beams. And nature forced the men, Before the woman kind, to work the wool: For all the male kind far excels in skill, And cleverer is by much- until at last The rugged farmer folk jeered at such tasks, And so were eager soon to give them o'er To women's hands, and in more hardy toil To harden arms and hands.
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At specimen sationis et insitionis origoBut nature herself, Mother of things, was the first seed-sower And primal grafter; since the berries and acorns, Dropping from off the trees, would there beneath Put forth in season swarms of little shoots; Hence too men's fondness for ingrafting slips Upon the boughs and setting out in holes The young shrubs o'er the fields. Then would they try Ever new modes of tilling their loved crofts, And mark they would how earth improved the taste Of the wild fruits by fond and fostering care. And day by day they'd force the woods to move Still higher up the mountain, and to yield The place below for tilth, that there they might, On plains and uplands, have their meadow-plats, Cisterns and runnels, crops of standing grain, And happy vineyards, and that all along O'er hillocks, intervales, and plains might run The silvery-green belt of olive-trees, Marking the plotted landscape; even as now Thou seest so marked with varied loveliness All the terrain which men adorn and plant With rows of goodly fruit-trees and hedge round With thriving shrubberies sown.
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At liquidas avium voces imitarier oreBut by the mouth To imitate the liquid notes of birds Was earlier far 'mongst men than power to make, By measured song, melodious verse and give Delight to ears. And whistlings of the wind Through the hollows of the reeds first taught The peasantry to blow into the stalks Of hollow hemlock-herb. Then bit by bit They learned sweet plainings, such as pipe out-pours, Beaten by finger-tips of singing men, When heard through unpathed groves and forest deeps And woodsy meadows, through the untrod haunts Of shepherd folk and spots divinely still. Thus time draws forward each and everything Little by little unto the midst of men, And reason uplifts it to the shores of light. These tunes would soothe and glad the minds of mortals When sated with food,- for songs are welcome then. And often, lounging with friends in the soft grass Beside a river of water, underneath A big tree's branches, merrily they'd refresh Their frames, with no vast outlay- most of all If the weather were smiling and the times of the year Were painting the green of the grass around with flowers. Then jokes, then talk, then peals of jollity Would circle round; for then the rustic muse Was in her glory; then would antic Mirth Prompt them to garland head and shoulders about With chaplets of intertwined flowers and leaves, And to dance onward, out of tune, with limbs Clownishly swaying, and with clownish foot To beat our mother earth- from whence arose Laughter and peals of jollity, for, lo, Such frolic acts were in their glory then, Being more new and strange. And wakeful men Found solaces for their unsleeping hours In drawing forth variety of notes, In modulating melodies, in running With puckered lips along the tuned reeds, Whence, even in our day do the watchmen guard These old traditions, and have learned well To keep true measure. And yet they no whit Do get a larger fruit of gladsomeness Than got the woodland aborigines In olden times. For what we have at hand- If theretofore naught sweeter we have known- That chiefly pleases and seems best of all; But then some later, likely better, find Destroys its worth and changes our desires Regarding good of yesterday.
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sic odium coepit glandis, sic illa relictaAnd thus Began the loathing of the acorn; thus Abandoned were those beds with grasses strewn And with the leaves beladen. Thus, again, Fell into new contempt the pelts of beasts- Erstwhile a robe of honour, which, I guess, Aroused in those days envy so malign That the first wearer went to woeful death By ambuscades,- and yet that hairy prize, Rent into rags by greedy foemen there And splashed by blood, was ruined utterly Beyond all use or vantage. Thus of old 'Twas pelts, and of to-day 'tis purple and gold That cark men's lives with cares and weary with war. Wherefore, methinks, resides the greater blame With us vain men to-day: for cold would rack, Without their pelts, the naked sons of earth; But us it nothing hurts to do without The purple vestment, broidered with gold And with imposing figures, if we still Make shift with some mean garment of the Plebs. So man in vain futilities toils on Forever and wastes in idle cares his years- Because, of very truth, he hath not learnt What the true end of getting is, nor yet At all how far true pleasure may increase. And 'tis desire for better and for more Hath carried by degrees mortality Out onward to the deep, and roused up From the far bottom mighty waves of war.
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at vigiles mundi magnum versatile templumBut sun and moon, those watchmen of the world, With their own lanterns traversing around The mighty, the revolving vault, have taught Unto mankind that seasons of the years Return again, and that the Thing takes place After a fixed plan and order fixed. Already would they pass their life, hedged round By the strong towers; and cultivate an earth All portioned out and boundaried; already Would the sea flower and sail-winged ships; Already men had, under treaty pacts, Confederates and allies, when poets began To hand heroic actions down in verse; Nor long ere this had letters been devised- Hence is our age unable to look back On what has gone before, except where reason Shows us a footprint. Sailings on the seas, Tillings of fields, walls, laws, and arms, and roads, Dress and the like, all prizes, all delights Of finer life, poems, pictures, chiselled shapes Of polished sculptures- all these arts were learned By practice and the mind's experience, As men walked forward step by eager step. Thus time draws forward each and everything Little by little into the midst of men, And reason uplifts it to the shores of light. For one thing after other did men see Grow clear by intellect, till with their arts They've now achieved the supreme pinnacle.
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Quare etiam atque etiam maternum nomen adeptaWherefore, again, again, how merited Is that adopted name of Earth- The Mother!- Since she herself begat the human race, And at one well-nigh fixed time brought forth Each breast that ranges raving round about Upon the mighty mountains and all birds Aerial with many a varied shape. But, lo, because her bearing years must end, She ceased, like to a woman worn by eld. For lapsing aeons change the nature of The whole wide world, and all things needs must take One status after other, nor aught persists Forever like itself. All things depart; Nature she changeth all, compelleth all To transformation. Lo, this moulders down, A-slack with weary eld, and that, again, Prospers in glory, issuing from contempt. In suchwise, then, the lapsing aeons change The nature of the whole wide world, and earth Taketh one status after other. And what She bore of old, she now can bear no longer, And what she never bore, she can to-day. In those days also the telluric world Strove to beget the monsters that upsprung With their astounding visages and limbs- The Man-woman- a thing betwixt the twain, Yet neither, and from either sex remote- Some gruesome Boggles orphaned of the feet, Some widowed of the hands, dumb Horrors too Without a mouth, or blind Ones of no eye, Or Bulks all shackled by their legs and arms Cleaving unto the body fore and aft, Thuswise, that never could they do or go, Nor shun disaster, nor take the good they would. And other prodigies and monsters earth Was then begetting of this sort- in vain, Since Nature banned with horror their increase, And powerless were they to reach unto The coveted flower of fair maturity, Or to find aliment, or to intertwine In works of Venus. For we see there must Concur in life conditions manifold, If life is ever by begetting life To forge the generations one by one: First, foods must be; and, next, a path whereby The seeds of impregnation in the frame May ooze, released from the members all; Last, the possession of those instruments Whereby the male with female can unite, The one with other in mutual ravishments.
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nec manet ulla sui similis res: omnia migrantORIGINS AND SAVAGE PERIOD OF MANKIND But mortal man Was then far hardier in the old champaign, As well he should be, since a hardier earth Had him begotten; builded too was he Of bigger and more solid bones within, And knit with stalwart sinews through the flesh, Nor easily seized by either heat or cold, Or alien food or any ail or irk. And whilst so many lustrums of the sun Rolled on across the sky, men led a life After the roving habit of wild beasts. Not then were sturdy guiders of curved ploughs, And none knew then to work the fields with iron, Or plant young shoots in holes of delved loam, Or lop with hooked knives from off high trees The boughs of yester-year. What sun and rains To them had given, what earth of own accord Created then, was boon enough to glad Their simple hearts. Mid acorn-laden oaks Would they refresh their bodies for the nonce; And the wild berries of the arbute-tree, Which now thou seest to ripen purple-red In winter time, the old telluric soil Would bear then more abundant and more big. And many coarse foods, too, in long ago The blooming freshness of the rank young world Produced, enough for those poor wretches there. And rivers and springs would summon them of old To slake the thirst, as now from the great hills The water's down-rush calls aloud and far The thirsty generations of the wild. So, too, they sought the grottos of the Nymphs- The woodland haunts discovered as they ranged- From forth of which they knew that gliding rills With gush and splash abounding laved the rocks, The dripping rocks, and trickled from above Over the verdant moss; and here and there Welled up and burst across the open flats. As yet they knew not to enkindle fire Against the cold, nor hairy pelts to use And clothe their bodies with the spoils of beasts; But huddled in groves, and mountain-caves, and woods, And 'mongst the thickets hid their squalid backs, When driven to flee the lashings of the winds And the big rains. Nor could they then regard The general good, nor did they know to use In common any customs, any laws: Whatever of booty fortune unto each Had proffered, each alone would bear away, By instinct trained for self to thrive and live. And Venus in the forests then would link The lovers' bodies; for the woman yielded Either from mutual flame, or from the man's Impetuous fury and insatiate lust, Or from a bribe- as acorn-nuts, choice pears, Or the wild berries of the arbute-tree. And trusting wondrous strength of hands and legs, They'd chase the forest-wanderers, the beasts; And many they'd conquer, but some few they fled, A-skulk into their hiding-places... . . . . . . With the flung stones and with the ponderous heft Of gnarled branch. And by the time of night O'ertaken, they would throw, like bristly boars, Their wildman's limbs naked upon the earth, Rolling themselves in leaves and fronded boughs. Nor would they call with lamentations loud Around the fields for daylight and the sun, Quaking and wand'ring in shadows of the night; But, silent and buried in a sleep, they'd wait Until the sun with rosy flambeau brought The glory to the sky. From childhood wont Ever to see the dark and day begot In times alternate, never might they be Wildered by wild misgiving, lest a night Eternal should possess the lands, with light Of sun withdrawn forever. But their care Was rather that the clans of savage beasts Would often make their sleep-time horrible For those poor wretches; and, from home y-driven, They'd flee their rocky shelters at approach Of boar, the spumy-lipped, or lion strong, And in the midnight yield with terror up To those fierce guests their beds of out-spread leaves.
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Multaque tum interiisse animantum saecla necessestAnd in the ages after monsters died, Perforce there perished many a stock, unable By propagation to forge a progeny. For whatsoever creatures thou beholdest Breathing the breath of life, the same have been Even from their earliest age preserved alive By cunning, or by valour, or at least By speed of foot or wing. And many a stock Remaineth yet, because of use to man, And so committed to man's guardianship. Valour hath saved alive fierce lion-breeds And many another terrorizing race, Cunning the foxes, flight the antlered stags. Light-sleeping dogs with faithful heart in breast, However, and every kind begot from seed Of beasts of draft, as, too, the woolly flocks And horned cattle, all, my Memmius, Have been committed to guardianship of men. For anxiously they fled the savage beasts, And peace they sought and their abundant foods, Obtained with never labours of their own, Which we secure to them as fit rewards For their good service. But those beasts to whom Nature has granted naught of these same things- Beasts quite unfit by own free will to thrive And vain for any service unto us In thanks for which we should permit their kind To feed and be in our protection safe- Those, of a truth, were wont to be exposed, Enshackled in the gruesome bonds of doom, As prey and booty for the rest, until Nature reduced that stock to utter death.
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Sed neque Centauri fuerunt nec tempore in ulloBut Centaurs ne'er have been, nor can there be Creatures of twofold stock and double frame, Compact of members alien in kind, Yet formed with equal function, equal force In every bodily part- a fact thou mayst, However dull thy wits, well learn from this: The horse, when his three years have rolled away, Flowers in his prime of vigour; but the boy Not so, for oft even then he gropes in sleep After the milky nipples of the breasts, An infant still. And later, when at last The lusty powers of horses and stout limbs, Now weak through lapsing life, do fail with age, Lo, only then doth youth with flowering years Begin for boys, and clothe their ruddy cheeks With the soft down. So never deem, percase, That from a man and from the seed of horse, The beast of draft, can Centaurs be composed Or e'er exist alive, nor Scyllas be- The half-fish bodies girdled with mad dogs- Nor others of this sort, in whom we mark Members discordant each with each; for ne'er At one same time they reach their flower of age Or gain and lose full vigour of their frame, And never burn with one same lust of love, And never in their habits they agree, Nor find the same foods equally delightsome- Sooth, as one oft may see the bearded goatsBatten upon the hemlock which to man Is violent poison. Once again, since flame Is wont to scorch and burn the tawny bulks Of the great lions as much as other kinds Of flesh and blood existing in the lands, How could it be that she, Chimaera lone, With triple body - fore, a lion she; And aft, a dragon; and betwixt, a goat- Might at the mouth from out the body belch Infuriate flame? Wherefore, the man who feigns Such beings could have been engendered When earth was new and the young sky was fresh (Basing his empty argument on new) May babble with like reason many whims Into our ears: he'll say, perhaps, that then Rivers of gold through every landscape flowed, That trees were wont with precious stones to flower, Or that in those far aeons man was born With such gigantic length and lift of limbs As to be able, based upon his feet, Deep oceans to bestride or with his hands To whirl the firmament around his head. For though in earth were many seeds of things In the old time when this telluric world First poured the breeds of animals abroad, Still that is nothing of a sign that then Such hybrid creatures could have been begot And limbs of all beasts heterogeneous Have been together knit; because, indeed, The divers kinds of grasses and the grains And the delightsome trees- which even now Spring up abounding from within the earth- Can still ne'er be begotten with their stems Begrafted into one; but each sole thing Proceeds according to its proper wont And all conserve their own distinctions based In nature's fixed decree.
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Nec nimio tum plus quam nunc mortalia saeclaAnd yet in those days not much more than now Would generations of mortality Leave the sweet light of fading life behind. Indeed, in those days here and there a man, More oftener snatched upon, and gulped by fangs, Afforded the beasts a food that roared alive, Echoing through groves and hills and forest-trees, Even as he viewed his living flesh entombed Within a living grave; whilst those whom flight Had saved, with bone and body bitten, shrieked, Pressing their quivering palms to loathsome sores, With horrible voices for eternal death- Until, forlorn of help, and witless what Might medicine their wounds, the writhing pangs Took them from life. But not in those far times Would one lone day give over unto doom A soldiery in thousands marching on Beneath the battle-banners, nor would then The ramping breakers of the main seas dash Whole argosies and crews upon the rocks. But ocean uprisen would often rave in vain, Without all end or outcome, and give up Its empty menacings as lightly too; Nor soft seductions of a serene sea Could lure by laughing billows any man Out to disaster: for the science bold Of ship-sailing lay dark in those far times. Again, 'twas then that lack of food gave o'er Men's fainting limbs to dissolution: now 'Tis plenty overwhelms. Unwary, they Oft for themselves themselves would then outpour The poison; now, with nicer art, themselves They give the drafts to others. BEGINNINGS OF CIVILIZATION Afterwards, When huts they had procured and pelts and fire, And when the woman, joined unto the man, Withdrew with him into one dwelling place, . . . . . . Were known; and when they saw an offspring born From out themselves, then first the human race Began to soften. For 'twas now that fire Rendered their shivering frames less staunch to bear, Under the canopy of the sky, the cold; And Love reduced their shaggy hardiness; And children, with the prattle and the kiss, Soon broke the parents' haughty temper down. Then, too, did neighbours 'gin to league as friends, Eager to wrong no more or suffer wrong, And urged for children and the womankind Mercy, of fathers, whilst with cries and gestures They stammered hints how meet it was that all Should have compassion on the weak. And still, Though concord not in every wise could then Begotten be, a good, a goodly part Kept faith inviolate- or else mankind Long since had been unutterably cut off, And propagation never could have brought The species down the ages.
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

7 results
1. Hesiod, Works And Days, 151, 639-640, 150 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

150. They liked fell warfare and audacity;
2. Catullus, Poems, 51 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 1.8, 1.62-1.79, 1.100, 1.102-1.135, 1.161-1.179, 1.192-1.195, 1.208-1.214, 1.227-1.231, 1.250-1.634, 1.926-1.950, 1.988-1.1082, 1.1102-1.1112, 2.1-2.19, 2.33, 2.40-2.54, 2.67-2.79, 2.81, 2.95, 2.168, 2.172, 2.184-2.307, 2.312-2.313, 2.317-2.380, 2.398-2.580, 2.1030-2.1039, 2.1041-2.1057, 2.1059-2.1062, 2.1081-2.1083, 2.1090-2.1117, 2.1122-2.1145, 2.1150-2.1174, 3.11, 3.18, 3.59-3.78, 3.211, 3.417, 3.445-3.458, 3.654-3.656, 3.670-3.783, 3.910, 3.938-3.943, 3.970-3.971, 3.1038, 3.1057-3.1067, 4.3, 4.22, 4.35-4.41, 4.43, 4.454, 4.733-4.734, 4.760-4.761, 4.967-4.968, 4.991, 4.1013-4.1015, 4.1133-4.1134, 5.43-5.51, 5.82, 5.165-5.173, 5.195-5.508, 5.772-5.999, 5.1001-5.1457, 6.1-6.7, 6.26-6.27, 6.33-6.34, 6.36-6.38, 6.42-6.422, 6.933, 6.1138-6.1286 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4. Vergil, Georgics, 1.176-1.186, 1.191, 1.197-1.203, 1.233-1.249, 1.257, 1.353, 2.136-2.176, 2.207-2.208, 2.217-2.225, 2.239, 2.420, 2.438-2.439, 2.455, 2.458-2.474, 2.491-2.492, 2.495-2.540, 4.8-4.50, 4.125-4.146, 4.205, 4.210-4.214, 4.228-4.280 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.176. And hem with hounds the mighty forest-glades. 1.177. Soon one with hand-net scourges the broad stream 1.178. Probing its depths, one drags his dripping toil 1.179. Along the main; then iron's unbending might 1.180. And shrieking saw-blade,—for the men of old 1.181. With wedges wont to cleave the splintering log;— 1.182. Then divers arts arose; toil conquered all 1.183. Remorseless toil, and poverty's shrewd push 1.184. In times of hardship. Ceres was the first 1.185. Set mortals on with tools to turn the sod 1.186. When now the awful groves 'gan fail to bear 1.191. An idler in the fields; the crops die down; 1.197. Prune with thy hook the dark field's matted shade 1.198. Pray down the showers, all vainly thou shalt eye 1.199. Alack! thy neighbour's heaped-up harvest-mow 1.200. And in the greenwood from a shaken oak 1.201. Seek solace for thine hunger. 1.202. Now to tell 1.203. The sturdy rustics' weapons, what they are 1.233. Or burrow for their bed the purblind moles 1.234. Or toad is found in hollows, and all the swarm 1.235. of earth's unsightly creatures; or a huge 1.236. Corn-heap the weevil plunders, and the ant 1.237. Fearful of coming age and penury. 1.238. Mark too, what time the walnut in the wood 1.239. With ample bloom shall clothe her, and bow down 1.240. Her odorous branches, if the fruit prevail 1.241. Like store of grain will follow, and there shall come 1.242. A mighty winnowing-time with mighty heat; 1.243. But if the shade with wealth of leaves abound 1.244. Vainly your threshing-floor will bruise the stalk 1.245. Rich but in chaff. Many myself have seen 1.246. Steep, as they sow, their pulse-seeds, drenching them 1.247. With nitre and black oil-lees, that the fruit 1.248. Might swell within the treacherous pods, and they 1.249. Make speed to boil at howso small a fire. 1.257. His arms to slacken, lo! with headlong force 1.353. The gates of heaven; thrice, sooth to say, they strove 2.136. But lo! how many kinds, and what their names 2.137. There is no telling, nor doth it boot to tell; 2.138. Who lists to know it, he too would list to learn 2.139. How many sand-grains are by Zephyr tossed 2.140. On placeName key= 2.141. With fury on the ships, how many wave 2.142. Come rolling shoreward from the Ionian sea. 2.143. Not that all soils can all things bear alike. 2.144. Willows by water-courses have their birth 2.145. Alders in miry fens; on rocky height 2.146. The barren mountain-ashes; on the shore 2.147. Myrtles throng gayest; Bacchus, lastly, love 2.148. The bare hillside, and yews the north wind's chill. 2.149. Mark too the earth by outland tillers tamed 2.150. And Eastern homes of Arabs, and tattooed 2.151. Geloni; to all trees their native land 2.152. Allotted are; no clime but placeName key= 2.153. Black ebony; the branch of frankincense 2.154. Is placeName key= 2.155. of balsams oozing from the perfumed wood 2.156. Or berries of acanthus ever green? 2.157. of Aethiop forests hoar with downy wool 2.158. Or how the Seres comb from off the leave 2.159. Their silky fleece? of groves which placeName key= 2.160. Ocean's near neighbour, earth's remotest nook 2.161. Where not an arrow-shot can cleave the air 2.162. Above their tree-tops? yet no laggards they 2.163. When girded with the quiver! Media yield 2.164. The bitter juices and slow-lingering taste 2.165. of the blest citron-fruit, than which no aid 2.166. Comes timelier, when fierce step-dames drug the cup 2.167. With simples mixed and spells of baneful power 2.168. To drive the deadly poison from the limbs. 2.169. Large the tree's self in semblance like a bay 2.170. And, showered it not a different scent abroad 2.171. A bay it had been; for no wind of heaven 2.172. Its foliage falls; the flower, none faster, clings; 2.173. With it the Medes for sweetness lave the lips 2.174. And ease the panting breathlessness of age. 2.175. But no, not Mede-land with its wealth of woods 2.176. Nor Ganges fair, and Hermus thick with gold 2.207. Or sing her harbours, and the barrier cast 2.208. Athwart the Lucrine, and how ocean chafe 2.217. To hardship, the Ligurian, and with these 2.218. The Volscian javelin-armed, the Decii too 2.219. The Marii and Camilli, names of might 2.220. The Scipios, stubborn warriors, ay, and thee 2.221. Great Caesar, who in placeName key= 2.222. With conquering arm e'en now art fending far 2.223. The unwarlike Indian from the heights of placeName key= 2.224. Hail! land of Saturn, mighty mother thou 2.225. of fruits and heroes; 'tis for thee I dare 2.239. That teems with grasses on its fruitful breast 2.420. Face the new suns, and safely trust them now; 2.438. Take heed to hide them, and dig in withal 2.439. Rough shells or porous stone, for therebetween 2.455. From story up to story. 2.458. Forbear their frailty, and while yet the bough 2.459. Shoots joyfully toward heaven, with loosened rein 2.460. Launched on the void, assail it not as yet 2.461. With keen-edged sickle, but let the leaves alone 2.462. Be culled with clip of fingers here and there. 2.463. But when they clasp the elms with sturdy trunk 2.464. Erect, then strip the leaves off, prune the boughs; 2.465. Sooner they shrink from steel, but then put forth 2.466. The arm of power, and stem the branchy tide. 2.467. Hedges too must be woven and all beast 2.468. Barred entrance, chiefly while the leaf is young 2.469. And witless of disaster; for therewith 2.470. Beside harsh winters and o'erpowering sun 2.471. Wild buffaloes and pestering goats for ay 2.472. Besport them, sheep and heifers glut their greed. 2.473. Nor cold by hoar-frost curdled, nor the prone 2.474. Dead weight of summer upon the parched crags 2.491. Where'er the god hath turned his comely head. 2.492. Therefore to Bacchus duly will we sing 2.495. Led by the horn shall at the altar stand 2.496. Whose entrails rich on hazel-spits we'll roast. 2.497. This further task again, to dress the vine 2.498. Hath needs beyond exhausting; the whole soil 2.499. Thrice, four times, yearly must be cleft, the sod 2.500. With hoes reversed be crushed continually 2.501. The whole plantation lightened of its leaves. 2.502. Round on the labourer spins the wheel of toil 2.503. As on its own track rolls the circling year. 2.504. Soon as the vine her lingering leaves hath shed 2.505. And the chill north wind from the forests shook 2.506. Their coronal, even then the careful swain 2.507. Looks keenly forward to the coming year 2.508. With Saturn's curved fang pursues and prune 2.509. The vine forlorn, and lops it into shape. 2.510. Be first to dig the ground up, first to clear 2.511. And burn the refuse-branches, first to house 2.512. Again your vine-poles, last to gather fruit. 2.513. Twice doth the thickening shade beset the vine 2.514. Twice weeds with stifling briers o'ergrow the crop; 2.515. And each a toilsome labour. Do thou praise 2.516. Broad acres, farm but few. Rough twigs beside 2.517. of butcher's broom among the woods are cut 2.518. And reeds upon the river-banks, and still 2.519. The undressed willow claims thy fostering care. 2.520. So now the vines are fettered, now the tree 2.521. Let go the sickle, and the last dresser now 2.522. Sings of his finished rows; but still the ground 2.523. Must vexed be, the dust be stirred, and heaven 2.524. Still set thee trembling for the ripened grapes. 2.525. Not so with olives; small husbandry need they 2.526. Nor look for sickle bowed or biting rake 2.527. When once they have gripped the soil, and borne the breeze. 2.528. Earth of herself, with hooked fang laid bare 2.529. Yields moisture for the plants, and heavy fruit 2.530. The ploughshare aiding; therewithal thou'lt rear 2.531. The olive's fatness well-beloved of Peace. 2.532. Apples, moreover, soon as first they feel 2.533. Their stems wax lusty, and have found their strength 2.534. To heaven climb swiftly, self-impelled, nor crave 2.535. Our succour. All the grove meanwhile no le 2.536. With fruit is swelling, and the wild haunts of bird 2.537. Blush with their blood-red berries. Cytisu 2.538. Is good to browse on, the tall forest yield 2.539. Pine-torches, and the nightly fires are fed 2.540. And shoot forth radiance. And shall men be loath 4.8. Slight though the poet's theme, not slight the praise 4.9. So frown not heaven, and Phoebus hear his call. 4.10. First find your bees a settled sure abode 4.11. Where neither winds can enter (winds blow back 4.12. The foragers with food returning home) 4.13. Nor sheep and butting kids tread down the flowers 4.14. Nor heifer wandering wide upon the plain 4.15. Dash off the dew, and bruise the springing blades. 4.16. Let the gay lizard too keep far aloof 4.17. His scale-clad body from their honied stalls 4.18. And the bee-eater, and what birds beside 4.19. And Procne smirched with blood upon the breast 4.20. From her own murderous hands. For these roam wide 4.21. Wasting all substance, or the bees themselve 4.22. Strike flying, and in their beaks bear home, to glut 4.23. Those savage nestlings with the dainty prey. 4.24. But let clear springs and moss-green pools be near 4.25. And through the grass a streamlet hurrying run 4.26. Some palm-tree o'er the porch extend its shade 4.27. Or huge-grown oleaster, that in Spring 4.28. Their own sweet Spring-tide, when the new-made chief 4.29. Lead forth the young swarms, and, escaped their comb 4.30. The colony comes forth to sport and play 4.31. The neighbouring bank may lure them from the heat 4.32. Or bough befriend with hospitable shade. 4.33. O'er the mid-waters, whether swift or still 4.34. Cast willow-branches and big stones enow 4.35. Bridge after bridge, where they may footing find 4.36. And spread their wide wings to the summer sun 4.37. If haply Eurus, swooping as they pause 4.38. Have dashed with spray or plunged them in the deep. 4.39. And let green cassias and far-scented thymes 4.40. And savory with its heavy-laden breath 4.41. Bloom round about, and violet-beds hard by 4.42. Sip sweetness from the fertilizing springs. 4.43. For the hive's self, or stitched of hollow bark 4.44. Or from tough osier woven, let the door 4.45. Be strait of entrance; for stiff winter's cold 4.46. Congeals the honey, and heat resolves and thaws 4.47. To bees alike disastrous; not for naught 4.48. So haste they to cement the tiny pore 4.49. That pierce their walls, and fill the crevice 4.50. With pollen from the flowers, and glean and keep 4.125. Symmetric: this the likelier breed; from these 4.126. When heaven brings round the season, thou shalt strain 4.127. Sweet honey, nor yet so sweet as passing clear 4.128. And mellowing on the tongue the wine-god's fire. 4.129. But when the swarms fly aimlessly abroad 4.130. Disport themselves in heaven and spurn their cells 4.131. Leaving the hive unwarmed, from such vain play 4.132. Must you refrain their volatile desires 4.133. Nor hard the task: tear off the monarchs' wings; 4.134. While these prove loiterers, none beside will dare 4.135. Mount heaven, or pluck the standards from the camp. 4.136. Let gardens with the breath of saffron flower 4.137. Allure them, and the lord of placeName key= 4.138. Priapus, wielder of the willow-scythe 4.139. Safe in his keeping hold from birds and thieves. 4.140. And let the man to whom such cares are dear 4.141. Himself bring thyme and pine-trees from the heights 4.142. And strew them in broad belts about their home; 4.143. No hand but his the blistering task should ply 4.144. Plant the young slips, or shed the genial showers. 4.145. And I myself, were I not even now 4.146. Furling my sails, and, nigh the journey's end 4.205. By settled order ply their tasks afield; 4.210. Others the while lead forth the full-grown young 4.211. Their country's hope, and others press and pack 4.212. The thrice repured honey, and stretch their cell 4.213. To bursting with the clear-strained nectar sweet. 4.214. Some, too, the wardship of the gates befalls 4.228. Not otherwise, to measure small with great 4.229. The love of getting planted in their breast 4.230. Goads on the bees, that haunt old Cecrops' heights 4.231. Each in his sphere to labour. The old have charge 4.232. To keep the town, and build the walled combs 4.233. And mould the cunning chambers; but the youth 4.234. Their tired legs packed with thyme, come labouring home 4.235. Belated, for afar they range to feed 4.236. On arbutes and the grey-green willow-leaves 4.237. And cassia and the crocus blushing red 4.238. Glue-yielding limes, and hyacinths dusky-eyed. 4.239. One hour for rest have all, and one for toil: 4.240. With dawn they hurry from the gates—no room 4.241. For loiterers there: and once again, when even 4.242. Now bids them quit their pasturing on the plain 4.243. Then homeward make they, then refresh their strength: 4.244. A hum arises: hark! they buzz and buzz 4.245. About the doors and threshold; till at length 4.246. Safe laid to rest they hush them for the night 4.247. And welcome slumber laps their weary limbs. 4.248. But from the homestead not too far they fare 4.249. When showers hang like to fall, nor, east winds nigh 4.250. Confide in heaven, but 'neath the city wall 4.251. Safe-circling fetch them water, or essay 4.252. Brief out-goings, and oft weigh-up tiny stones 4.253. As light craft ballast in the tossing tide 4.254. Wherewith they poise them through the cloudy vast. 4.255. This law of life, too, by the bees obeyed 4.256. Will move thy wonder, that nor sex with sex 4.257. Yoke they in marriage, nor yield their limbs to love 4.258. Nor know the pangs of labour, but alone 4.259. From leaves and honied herbs, the mothers, each 4.260. Gather their offspring in their mouths, alone 4.261. Supply new kings and pigmy commonwealth 4.262. And their old court and waxen realm repair. 4.263. oft, too, while wandering, against jagged stone 4.264. Their wings they fray, and 'neath the burden yield 4.265. Their liberal lives: so deep their love of flowers 4.266. So glorious deem they honey's proud acquist. 4.267. Therefore, though each a life of narrow span 4.268. Ne'er stretched to summers more than seven, befalls 4.269. Yet deathless doth the race endure, and still 4.270. Perennial stands the fortune of their line 4.271. From grandsire unto grandsire backward told. 4.272. Moreover, not placeName key= 4.273. of boundless placeName key= 4.274. Nor Median Hydaspes, to their king 4.275. Do such obeisance: lives the king unscathed 4.276. One will inspires the million: is he dead 4.277. Snapt is the bond of fealty; they themselve 4.278. Ravage their toil-wrought honey, and rend amain 4.279. Their own comb's waxen trellis. He is the lord 4.280. of all their labour; him with awful eye
5. Vitruvius Pollio, On Architecture, 1.1.3, 1.1.8, 2.1.5 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6. Seneca The Younger, Letters, a b c d\n0 "90.44" "90.44" "90 44" (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Epicurus, Letter To Herodotus, 75



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aeetes Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 249
aetiology of labor Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 81
ambition Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 42
analogy Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 88
animals, danger of Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 168
animals, domesticated Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 164
animals Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 88
ataraxia Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 172
athens Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 22, 182
atoms Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 155
auctoritas Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 103
bees Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 182
body, metaphor for speech and text, greek Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 103
body, metaphor for speech and text Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 103
body Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 103
cattle Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 249
causation Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 155
centaurs Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 88, 171
clash of atoms Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 155
clay, j. s. Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 171
corpus architecturae Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 103
corycian gardener Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 182
creation Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 164; Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 155
creation narratives, in senecas works Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 131
culture history Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 42
cycle of growth and decay, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 22
de architectura, and greek knowledge Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 103
de architectura, universalizing Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 103
death, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 22, 172
definition Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 103
demonic possession Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 155
design/purpose Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 88
diatribe Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 115
diodorus siculus Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 103
dreams Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 22
earth Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 168
ennius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 249
epicureanism, epicureans Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 155
epicureanism, in senecas works Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 131
epicureanism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 182
epicurus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 239; Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 131
evolution Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 155
fate Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 176
finales, book 1 Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 249
finales, book 2 Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 171, 172
finales, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 22, 172
fire Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 168
gardens Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 182
gods, divine control (lack of) Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 88
gods, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 172
gods, in the georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 81
gods, providence Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 88
golden age Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 81, 171, 172, 182
gravitation Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 155
hermarchus Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 164
herodotus Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 103
hesiod, allusions to Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 249
horses Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 249
hyperbole Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 88
imagery, agricultural Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 249
infancy/children Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 164, 168
intelligent design Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 155
intertextuality Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 81, 249; Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 42
kronos Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 131
labor, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 172
labor, in the georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 171, 172, 182
lapiths Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 88
laudes italiae Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 249
livy Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 103
lucretius, agriculture in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 81, 172
lucretius, culture-history in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 239, 249
lucretius, cycle of growth and decay in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 22
lucretius, death in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 22, 172
lucretius, gods in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 172
lucretius, labor in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 172
lucretius, politics in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 171, 172, 239
lucretius, religion in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 239
lucretius, war in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 182, 239, 249
madness, insanity, mental disorder Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 155
maiestas Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 103
mechanical movements Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 155
meteorology, thunder Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 88
meteorology Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 88
metus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 171, 239
myth of ages/golden age Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 42
natura Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 88; Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 131
natural phenomena Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 155
oikonomia Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 103
olives Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 88
otium Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 171
ovid, metamorphoses Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 131
philosophers Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 155
plague Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 22; Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 155
poetry and poetics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 249
polemics Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 155
politics, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 171, 172, 239
politics Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 42
proems, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 22, 171, 182, 239
progress (manilius concept of) Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 176
providentialism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 81
religio Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 155
religion, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 239
religion, in the georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 171
saturn Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 81, 171
science Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 155
seneca, medea Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 131
seneca, moral epistles Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 131
seneca Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 131
servius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 182
similes Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 81
size Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 103
society Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 168
spontaneity Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 42
strabo Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 103
stranger from elea Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 131
tarentum Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 182
time' Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 164
time Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 155
trees Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 88
universe Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 155
utilitasutility Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 103
vacuum, void Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 155
venus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 22
vines Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 88, 171
virgil, and ennius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 249
virgil, and hesiod Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 249
virgil, reception of lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 81, 172
vitruvius, and history Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 103
vitruvius, auctoritas Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 103
vitruvius, doubts about reliability Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 103
volumina Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 103
war, and agriculture Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 249
war, and roman ideology Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 239
war, civil war Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 249
war, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 182, 239, 249
war, in the georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 171, 249
war, punic wars Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 239
war, trojan war Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 239
wine Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 88
zeus, in senecas works Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 131