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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7574
Lucretius Carus, On The Nature Of Things, 5.20-5.21
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17 results
1. Aratus Solensis, Phaenomena, 11-13, 2, 10 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10. αὐτὸς γὰρ τά γε σήματʼ ἐν οὐρανῷ ἐστήριξεν
2. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 1.43, 2.62 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.43. With the errors of the poets may be classed the monstrous doctrines of the magi and the insane mythology of Egypt, and also the popular beliefs, which are a mere mass of inconsistencies sprung from ignorance. "Anyone pondering on the baseless and irrational character of these doctrines ought to regard Epicurus with reverence, and to rank him as one of the very gods about whom we are inquiring. For he alone perceived, first, that the gods exist, because nature herself has imprinted a conception of them on the minds of all mankind. For what nation or what tribe is there but possesses untaught some 'preconception' of the gods? Such notions Epicurus designates by the word prolepsis, that is, a sort of preconceived mental picture of a thing, without which nothing can be understood or investigated or discussed. The force and value of this argument we learn in that work of genius, Epicurus's Rule or Standard of Judgement. 2.62. Those gods therefore who were the authors of various benefits owned their deification to the value of the benefits which they bestowed, and indeed the names that I just now enumerated express the various powers of the gods that bear them. "Human experience moreover and general custom have made it a practice to confer the deification of renown and gratitude upon of distinguished benefactors. This is the origin of Hercules, of Castor and Pollux, of Aesculapius, and also of Liber (I mean Liber the son of Semele, not the Liber whom our ancestors solemnly and devoutly consecrated with Ceres and Libera, the import of which joint consecration may be gathered from the mysteries; but Liber and Libera were so named as Ceres' offspring, that being the meaning of our Latin word liberi — a use which has survived in the case of Libera but not of Liber) — and this is also the origin of Romulus, who is believed to be the same as Quirinus. And these benefactors were duly deemed divine, as being both supremely good and immortal, because their souls survived and enjoyed eternal life.
3. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 1.48 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.48. quae quidem quidem culidem R 1 cogitans soleo solo R 1 saepe mirari non nullorum insolentiam philosophorum, qui naturae cognitionem admirantur eiusque inventori et principi gratias exultantes insultantes K 1 agunt eumque venerantur ut deum; liberatos enim se per eum dicunt gravissimis dominis, terrore sempiterno et diurno ac nocturno anoct. ( pro ac noct.)R metu. quo terrore? quo metu? quae est anus tam delira quae timeat ista, quae vos videlicet, si physica phisica KR Enn. Andr. aechm. 107 non didicissetis, timeretis, Acherunsia acheru sia V templa alta Orci, pallida leti, nubila letio nubila GK 1 (b post o add. K c )R let o nubila V (leto n. B) tenebris loca ? non pudet philosophum in eo gloriari, quod haec non timeat et quod falsa esse cognoverit? e quo intellegi potest, quam acuti natura sint, quoniam haec sine doctrina credituri fuerunt.
4. Varro, On Agriculture, 1.18.7-1.18.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5. Augustus, Res Gestae Divi Augusti, 34.1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

6. Catullus, Poems, 66.63-66.64 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 1.24, 1.38-1.43, 1.62-1.79, 1.81-1.82, 1.102-1.135, 1.263-1.264, 1.332, 1.370-1.371, 1.659, 1.711, 1.926-1.950, 2.1-2.19, 2.45-2.46, 2.82, 2.229, 3.1-3.30, 3.105, 3.322, 3.830-3.1094, 4.1-4.5, 4.11-4.25, 4.580-4.594, 4.824, 5.1-5.19, 5.21-5.55, 5.102, 5.405-5.406, 5.917, 5.934, 5.939-5.942, 5.965, 5.1295, 5.1361-5.1378, 5.1416, 5.1452, 6.4-6.6, 6.27, 6.67, 6.92-6.95, 6.660, 6.1208-6.1212 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

8. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 5.308-5.309, 5.341-5.345 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.263-1.266, 4.144 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.263. had stored in jars, and prince-like sent away 1.264. with his Ioved guest;—this too Aeneas gave; 1.266. “Companions mine, we have not failed to feel 4.144. has our long war? Why not from this day forth
10. Vergil, Georgics, 1.1-1.42, 1.118-1.159, 3.1-3.48, 3.64-3.65, 3.152-3.153, 3.209-3.214, 3.471, 3.509-3.514, 3.549-3.550, 4.559-4.566 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.1. What makes the cornfield smile; beneath what star 1.2. Maecenas, it is meet to turn the sod 1.3. Or marry elm with vine; how tend the steer; 1.4. What pains for cattle-keeping, or what proof 1.5. of patient trial serves for thrifty bees;— 1.6. Such are my themes. O universal light 1.7. Most glorious! ye that lead the gliding year 1.8. Along the sky, Liber and Ceres mild 1.9. If by your bounty holpen earth once changed 1.10. Chaonian acorn for the plump wheat-ear 1.11. And mingled with the grape, your new-found gift 1.12. The draughts of Achelous; and ye Faun 1.13. To rustics ever kind, come foot it, Faun 1.14. And Dryad-maids together; your gifts I sing. 1.15. And thou, for whose delight the war-horse first 1.16. Sprang from earth's womb at thy great trident's stroke 1.17. Neptune; and haunter of the groves, for whom 1.18. Three hundred snow-white heifers browse the brakes 1.19. The fertile brakes of placeName key= 1.20. Thy native forest and Lycean lawns 1.21. Pan, shepherd-god, forsaking, as the love 1.22. of thine own Maenalus constrains thee, hear 1.23. And help, O lord of placeName key= 1.24. Minerva, from whose hand the olive sprung; 1.25. And boy-discoverer of the curved plough; 1.26. And, bearing a young cypress root-uptorn 1.27. Silvanus, and Gods all and Goddesses 1.28. Who make the fields your care, both ye who nurse 1.29. The tender unsown increase, and from heaven 1.30. Shed on man's sowing the riches of your rain: 1.31. And thou, even thou, of whom we know not yet 1.32. What mansion of the skies shall hold thee soon 1.33. Whether to watch o'er cities be thy will 1.34. Great Caesar, and to take the earth in charge 1.35. That so the mighty world may welcome thee 1.36. Lord of her increase, master of her times 1.37. Binding thy mother's myrtle round thy brow 1.38. Or as the boundless ocean's God thou come 1.39. Sole dread of seamen, till far placeName key= 1.40. Before thee, and Tethys win thee to her son 1.41. With all her waves for dower; or as a star 1.42. Lend thy fresh beams our lagging months to cheer 1.118. Hales o'er them; from the far Olympian height 1.119. Him golden Ceres not in vain regards; 1.120. And he, who having ploughed the fallow plain 1.121. And heaved its furrowy ridges, turns once more 1.122. Cross-wise his shattering share, with stroke on stroke 1.123. The earth assails, and makes the field his thrall. 1.124. Pray for wet summers and for winters fine 1.125. Ye husbandmen; in winter's dust the crop 1.126. Exceedingly rejoice, the field hath joy; 1.127. No tilth makes placeName key= 1.128. Nor Gargarus his own harvests so admire. 1.129. Why tell of him, who, having launched his seed 1.130. Sets on for close encounter, and rakes smooth 1.131. The dry dust hillocks, then on the tender corn 1.132. Lets in the flood, whose waters follow fain; 1.133. And when the parched field quivers, and all the blade 1.134. Are dying, from the brow of its hill-bed 1.135. See! see! he lures the runnel; down it falls 1.136. Waking hoarse murmurs o'er the polished stones 1.137. And with its bubblings slakes the thirsty fields? 1.138. Or why of him, who lest the heavy ear 1.139. O'erweigh the stalk, while yet in tender blade 1.140. Feeds down the crop's luxuriance, when its growth 1.141. First tops the furrows? Why of him who drain 1.142. The marsh-land's gathered ooze through soaking sand 1.143. Chiefly what time in treacherous moons a stream 1.144. Goes out in spate, and with its coat of slime 1.145. Holds all the country, whence the hollow dyke 1.146. Sweat steaming vapour? 1.147. But no whit the more 1.148. For all expedients tried and travail borne 1.149. By man and beast in turning oft the soil 1.150. Do greedy goose and Strymon-haunting crane 1.151. And succory's bitter fibres cease to harm 1.152. Or shade not injure. The great Sire himself 1.153. No easy road to husbandry assigned 1.154. And first was he by human skill to rouse 1.155. The slumbering glebe, whetting the minds of men 1.156. With care on care, nor suffering realm of hi 1.157. In drowsy sloth to stagnate. Before Jove 1.158. Fields knew no taming hand of husbandmen; 1.159. To mark the plain or mete with boundary-line— 3.1. Thee too, great Pales, will I hymn, and thee 3.2. Amphrysian shepherd, worthy to be sung 3.3. You, woods and waves Lycaean. All themes beside 3.4. Which else had charmed the vacant mind with song 3.5. Are now waxed common. of harsh Eurystheus who 3.6. The story knows not, or that praiseless king 3.7. Busiris, and his altars? or by whom 3.8. Hath not the tale been told of Hylas young 3.9. Latonian Delos and Hippodame 3.10. And Pelops for his ivory shoulder famed 3.11. Keen charioteer? Needs must a path be tried 3.12. By which I too may lift me from the dust 3.13. And float triumphant through the mouths of men. 3.14. Yea, I shall be the first, so life endure 3.15. To lead the Muses with me, as I pa 3.16. To mine own country from the Aonian height; 3.17. I, placeName key= 3.18. of Idumaea, and raise a marble shrine 3.19. On thy green plain fast by the water-side 3.20. Where Mincius winds more vast in lazy coils 3.21. And rims his margent with the tender reed. 3.22. Amid my shrine shall Caesar's godhead dwell. 3.23. To him will I, as victor, bravely dight 3.24. In Tyrian purple, drive along the bank 3.25. A hundred four-horse cars. All placeName key= 3.26. Leaving Alpheus and Molorchus' grove 3.27. On foot shall strive, or with the raw-hide glove; 3.28. Whilst I, my head with stripped green olive crowned 3.29. Will offer gifts. Even 'tis present joy 3.30. To lead the high processions to the fane 3.31. And view the victims felled; or how the scene 3.32. Sunders with shifted face, and placeName key= 3.33. Inwoven thereon with those proud curtains rise. 3.34. of gold and massive ivory on the door 3.35. I'll trace the battle of the Gangarides 3.36. And our Quirinus' conquering arms, and there 3.37. Surging with war, and hugely flowing, the placeName key= 3.38. And columns heaped on high with naval brass. 3.39. And placeName key= 3.40. And quelled Niphates, and the Parthian foe 3.41. Who trusts in flight and backward-volleying darts 3.42. And trophies torn with twice triumphant hand 3.43. From empires twain on ocean's either shore. 3.44. And breathing forms of Parian marble there 3.45. Shall stand, the offspring of Assaracus 3.46. And great names of the Jove-descended folk 3.47. And father Tros, and placeName key= 3.48. of Cynthus. And accursed Envy there 3.64. If eager for the prized Olympian palm 3.65. One breed the horse, or bullock strong to plough 3.152. To plump with solid fat the chosen chief 3.153. And designated husband of the herd: 3.209. Behind them, as to dint the surface-dust; 3.210. Then let the beechen axle strain and creak 3.211. 'Neath some stout burden, whilst a brazen pole 3.212. Drags on the wheels made fast thereto. Meanwhile 3.213. For their unbroken youth not grass alone 3.214. Nor meagre willow-leaves and marish-sedge 3.471. Snared and beguiled thee, placeName key= 3.509. His midmost coils and final sweep of tail 3.510. Relaxing, the last fold drags lingering spires. 3.511. Then that vile worm that in Calabrian glade 3.512. Uprears his breast, and wreathes a scaly back 3.513. His length of belly pied with mighty spots— 3.514. While from their founts gush any streams, while yet 3.549. Aye, and when inward to the bleater's bone 3.550. The pain hath sunk and rages, and their limb 4.559. With a great cry leapt on him, and ere he rose 4.560. Forestalled him with the fetters; he nathless 4.561. All unforgetful of his ancient craft 4.562. Transforms himself to every wondrous thing 4.563. Fire and a fearful beast, and flowing stream. 4.564. But when no trickery found a path for flight 4.565. Baffled at length, to his own shape returned 4.566. With human lips he spake, “Who bade thee, then
11. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 8.1.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8.1.6. But he introduced as food the nuts of trees, not those of all trees but only the acorns of the edible oak. Some people have followed this diet so closely since the time of Pelasgus that even the Pythian priestess, when she forbade the Lacedaemonians to touch the land of the Arcadians, uttered the following verses:— In Arcadia are many men who eat acorns, Who will prevent you; though I do not grudge it you. It is said that it was in the reign of Pelasgus that the land was called Pelasgia.
12. Tertullian, Apology, 2.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

13. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 1.16, 10.122-10.135 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.122. Let no one be slow to seek wisdom when he is young nor weary in the search thereof when he is grown old. For no age is too early or too late for the health of the soul. And to say that the season for studying philosophy has not yet come, or that it is past and gone, is like saying that the season for happiness is not yet or that it is now no more. Therefore, both old and young ought to seek wisdom, the former in order that, as age comes over him, he may be young in good things because of the grace of what has been, and the latter in order that, while he is young, he may at the same time be old, because he has no fear of the things which are to come. So we must exercise ourselves in the things which bring happiness, since, if that be present, we have everything, and, if that be absent, all our actions are directed toward attaining it. 10.123. Those things which without ceasing I have declared unto thee, those do, and exercise thyself therein, holding them to be the elements of right life. First believe that God is a living being immortal and blessed, according to the notion of a god indicated by the common sense of mankind; and so believing, thou shalt not affirm of him aught that is foreign to his immortality or that agrees not with blessedness, but shalt believe about him whatever may uphold both his blessedness and his immortality. For verily there are gods, and the knowledge of them is manifest; but they are not such as the multitude believe, seeing that men do not steadfastly maintain the notions they form respecting them. Not the man who denies the gods worshipped by the multitude, but he who affirms of the gods what the multitude believes about them is truly impious. 10.124. For the utterances of the multitude about the gods are not true preconceptions but false assumptions; hence it is that the greatest evils happen to the wicked and the greatest blessings happen to the good from the hand of the gods, seeing that they are always favourable to their own good qualities and take pleasure in men like unto themselves, but reject as alien whatever is not of their kind.Accustom thyself to believe that death is nothing to us, for good and evil imply sentience, and death is the privation of all sentience; therefore a right understanding that death is nothing to us makes the mortality of life enjoyable, not by adding to life an illimitable time, but by taking away the yearning after immortality. 10.125. For life has no terrors for him who has thoroughly apprehended that there are no terrors for him in ceasing to live. Foolish, therefore, is the man who says that he fears death, not because it will pain when it comes, but because it pains in the prospect. Whatsoever causes no annoyance when it is present, causes only a groundless pain in the expectation. Death, therefore, the most awful of evils, is nothing to us, seeing that, when we are, death is not come, and, when death is come, we are not. It is nothing, then, either to the living or to the dead, for with the living it is not and the dead exist no longer. But in the world, at one time men shun death as the greatest of all evils, and at another time choose it as a respite from the evils in life. 10.126. The wise man does not deprecate life nor does he fear the cessation of life. The thought of life is no offence to him, nor is the cessation of life regarded as an evil. And even as men choose of food not merely and simply the larger portion, but the more pleasant, so the wise seek to enjoy the time which is most pleasant and not merely that which is longest. And he who admonishes the young to live well and the old to make a good end speaks foolishly, not merely because of the desirableness of life, but because the same exercise at once teaches to live well and to die well. Much worse is he who says that it were good not to be born, but when once one is born to pass with all speed through the gates of Hades. 10.127. For if he truly believes this, why does he not depart from life? It were easy for him to do so, if once he were firmly convinced. If he speaks only in mockery, his words are foolishness, for those who hear believe him not.We must remember that the future is neither wholly ours nor wholly not ours, so that neither must we count upon it as quite certain to come nor despair of it as quite certain not to come.We must also reflect that of desires some are natural, others are groundless; and that of the natural some are necessary as well as natural, and some natural only. And of the necessary desires some are necessary if we are to be happy, some if the body is to be rid of uneasiness, some if we are even to live. 10.128. He who has a clear and certain understanding of these things will direct every preference and aversion toward securing health of body and tranquillity of mind, seeing that this is the sum and end of a blessed life. For the end of all our actions is to be free from pain and fear, and, when once we have attained all this, the tempest of the soul is laid; seeing that the living creature has no need to go in search of something that is lacking, nor to look for anything else by which the good of the soul and of the body will be fulfilled. When we are pained because of the absence of pleasure, then, and then only, do we feel the need of pleasure. Wherefore we call pleasure the alpha and omega of a blessed life. Pleasure is our first and kindred good. 10.129. It is the starting-point of every choice and of every aversion, and to it we come back, inasmuch as we make feeling the rule by which to judge of every good thing. And since pleasure is our first and native good, for that reason we do not choose every pleasure whatsoever, but ofttimes pass over many pleasures when a greater annoyance ensues from them. And ofttimes we consider pains superior to pleasures when submission to the pains for a long time brings us as a consequence a greater pleasure. While therefore all pleasure because it is naturally akin to us is good, not all pleasure is choiceworthy, just as all pain is an evil and yet not all pain is to be shunned. 10.130. It is, however, by measuring one against another, and by looking at the conveniences and inconveniences, that all these matters must be judged. Sometimes we treat the good as an evil, and the evil, on the contrary, as a good. Again, we regard independence of outward things as a great good, not so as in all cases to use little, but so as to be contented with little if we have not much, being honestly persuaded that they have the sweetest enjoyment of luxury who stand least in need of it, and that whatever is natural is easily procured and only the vain and worthless hard to win. Plain fare gives as much pleasure as a costly diet, when once the pain of want has been removed 10.131. while bread and water confer the highest possible pleasure when they are brought to hungry lips. To habituate one's self, therefore, to simple and inexpensive diet supplies all that is needful for health, and enables a man to meet the necessary requirements of life without shrinking, and it places us in a better condition when we approach at intervals a costly fare and renders us fearless of fortune.When we say, then, that pleasure is the end and aim, we do not mean the pleasures of the prodigal or the pleasures of sensuality, as we are understood to do by some through ignorance, prejudice, or wilful misrepresentation. By pleasure we mean the absence of pain in the body and of trouble in the soul. 10.132. It is not an unbroken succession of drinking-bouts and of revelry, not sexual love, not the enjoyment of the fish and other delicacies of a luxurious table, which produce a pleasant life; it is sober reasoning, searching out the grounds of every choice and avoidance, and banishing those beliefs through which the greatest tumults take possession of the soul. of all this the beginning and the greatest good is prudence. Wherefore prudence is a more precious thing even than philosophy; from it spring all the other virtues, for it teaches that we cannot lead a life of pleasure which is not also a life of prudence, honour, and justice; nor lead a life of prudence, honour, and justice, which is not also a life of pleasure. For the virtues have grown into one with a pleasant life, and a pleasant life is inseparable from them. 10.133. Who, then, is superior in thy judgement to such a man? He holds a holy belief concerning the gods, and is altogether free from the fear of death. He has diligently considered the end fixed by nature, and understands how easily the limit of good things can be reached and attained, and how either the duration or the intensity of evils is but slight. Destiny, which some introduce as sovereign over all things, he laughs to scorn, affirming rather that some things happen of necessity, others by chance, others through our own agency. For he sees that necessity destroys responsibility and that chance or fortune is inconstant; whereas our own actions are free, and it is to them that praise and blame naturally attach. 10.134. It were better, indeed, to accept the legends of the gods than to bow beneath that yoke of destiny which the natural philosophers have imposed. The one holds out some faint hope that we may escape if we honour the gods, while the necessity of the naturalists is deaf to all entreaties. Nor does he hold chance to be a god, as the world in general does, for in the acts of a god there is no disorder; nor to be a cause, though an uncertain one, for he believes that no good or evil is dispensed by chance to men so as to make life blessed, though it supplies the starting-point of great good and great evil. He believes that the misfortune of the wise is better than the prosperity of the fool. 10.135. It is better, in short, that what is well judged in action should not owe its successful issue to the aid of chance.Exercise thyself in these and kindred precepts day and night, both by thyself and with him who is like unto thee; then never, either in waking or in dream, wilt thou be disturbed, but wilt live as a god among men. For man loses all semblance of mortality by living in the midst of immortal blessings.Elsewhere he rejects the whole of divination, as in the short epitome, and says, No means of predicting the future really exists, and if it did, we must regard what happens according to it as nothing to us.Such are his views on life and conduct; and he has discoursed upon them at greater length elsewhere.
14. Porphyry, On Abstinence, 4.2 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

4.2. 2.But we shall begin from the abstinence of certain nations, in the narration of which, what is asserted of the Greeks will first claim our attention, as being the most allied to us, and the most appropriate of all the witnesses that can be adduced. Among those, therefore, that have concisely, and at the same time accurately collected an account of the affairs of the Greeks, is the Peripatetic Dicaearchus 1, who, in narrating the pristine life of the Greeks, says, the ancients, being generated with an alliance to the Gods, were naturally most excellent, and led the best life; so that, when compared to us of the present day, who consist of an adulterated and most vile matter, they were thought to be a golden race; and they slew no animal whatever. The truth of this, he also says, is testified by the poets, who denominate these ancients the golden race, and assert that every good was present with them. The fertile earth for them spontaneous bore of fruits a copious and unenvy'd store; In blissful quiet then, unknown to strife, The worthy with the worthy passed their life 2. |111 Which assertions, indeed Dicaearchus explaining, says, that a life of this kind was under Saturn; if it is proper to consider it as a thing that once existed, and that it is a life which has not been celebrated in vain, and if, laying aside what is extremely fabulous, we may refer it to a physical narration. All things, therefore, are very properly said to have been then spontaneously produced; for men did not procure any thing by labour, because they were unacquainted with the agricultural art, and, in short, had no knowledge of any other art. This very thing, likewise, was the cause of their leading a life of leisure, free from labours and care; and if it is proper to assent to the decision of the most skilful and elegant of physicians, it was also the cause of their being liberated from disease. For there is not any precept of physicians which more contributes to health, than that which exhorts us not to make an abundance of excrement, from which those pristine Greeks always preserved their bodies pure. For they neither assumed such food as was stronger than the nature of the body could bear, but such as could be vanquished by the corporeal nature, nor more than was moderate, on account of the facility of procuring it, but for the most part less than was sufficient, on account of its paucity. Moreover, there were neither any wars among them, nor seditions with each other. For no reward of contention worth mentioning was proposed as an incentive, for the sake of which some one might be induced to engage in such dissensions. So that the principal thing in that life was leisure and rest from necessary occupations, together with health, peace, and friendship. But to those in after times, who, through aspiring after things which greatly exceeded mediocrity, fell into many evils, this pristine life became, as it was reasonable to suppose it would, desirable. The slender and extemporaneous food, however, of these first men, is manifested by the saying which was afterwards proverbially used, enough of the oak; this adage being probably introduced by him who first changed the ancient mode of living. A pastoral life succeeded to this, in which men procured for themselves superfluous possessions, and meddled with animals. For, perceiving that some of them were innoxious, but others malefic and savage, they tamed the former, but attacked the latter. At the same time, together with this life, war was introduced. And these things, says Dicaearchus, are not asserted by us, but by those who have historically discussed a multitude of particulars. For, as possessions were now of such a magnitude as to merit attention, some ambitiously endeavoured to obtain them, by collecting them [for their own use], and calling on others to do the same, but others directed their attention to the preservation of them when collected. Time, therefore, thus gradually proceeding, and men always directing their attention to what |112 appeared to be useful, they at length became conversant with the third, and agricultural form of life. And this is what is said by Dicaearchus, in his narration of the manners of the ancient Greeks, and the blessed life which they then led, to which abstinence from animal food contributed, no less than other things. Hence, at that period there was no war, because injustice was exterminated. But afterwards, together with injustice towards animals, war was introduced among men, and the endeavour to surpass each other in amplitude of possessions. On which account also, the audacity of those is wonderful, who say that abstinence from animals is the mother of injustice, since both history and experience testify, that together with the slaughter of animals, war and injustice were introduced. SPAN
15. Servius, In Vergilii Georgicon Libros, 1.7 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

16. Epicurus, Letter To Menoeceus, 135

17. Manilius, Astronomica, 1.61



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aetiology Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 221
aetiology of labor Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 66
amor, in georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 221
animal sacrifice, epistemology Simmons, Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian (1995) 148
animal sacrifice, eschatology' Simmons, Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian (1995) 148
animals Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 221
arnobius, concept of salvation Simmons, Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian (1995) 148
ataraxia Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 244
beasley, megan Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 168
berenice Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 93
cattle Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 221
centaurs Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29
ceres Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 26, 29, 66; Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 93, 94
ceres in lucretius, vergil, and ovid Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 168
chimaera Gee, Aratus and the Astronomical Tradition (2013) 94
cicero, allusion by lucretius to Gee, Aratus and the Astronomical Tradition (2013) 90, 91, 92, 93, 94
cicero, de natura deorum Gee, Aratus and the Astronomical Tradition (2013) 93, 94
cicero, prognostica Gee, Aratus and the Astronomical Tradition (2013) 90, 91
cornelius gallus Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 168
crates, cynic Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 63
cynics Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 63
cyprian Simmons, Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian (1995) 148
deification, of epicurus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 26
deification, of octavian Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 26, 29
democritus Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 63
diogenes Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 63
empedocleo-lucretian background in metamorphoses Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 168
empedocles Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 168
epicurean proems in lucretius drn Gee, Aratus and the Astronomical Tradition (2013) 90, 91, 92, 93, 94
epicureanism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 244
epicureans, chance Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 63
epicureans, pleasure Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 63
epicureans Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 63
epicurus, authority in the de rerum natura Bryan, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 225; Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 225
epicurus/epicureanism Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 168
epicurus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 26, 29, 66, 244; Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 93, 94
eris Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 66
finales Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 244
gadfly Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 221
gigantomachy Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 168
gods, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 26
gods, in the georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 66
golden age Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 66
grafting Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29
hellenistic ruler cult Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 93
hercules Gee, Aratus and the Astronomical Tradition (2013) 93
hesiod Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 66
heuretai Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 66
horses Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 221
imagery, journey Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 26
imagery, military Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 26, 244
imagery, solar Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 26
imagery, storms Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 26
intertextuality Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 66
io Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 221
juno Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 221
jupiter Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 66
labor Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 66
lactantius Simmons, Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian (1995) 148
leander Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 221
liber Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 26, 29
lucretius, agriculture in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 66
lucretius, allusion to ciceros aratea throughout drn Gee, Aratus and the Astronomical Tradition (2013) 90, 91, 92, 93, 94
lucretius, culture-history in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 66
lucretius, devotion to epicurus Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 225
lucretius, gods in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 26
lucretius, natura in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 66
lucretius, politics in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 26
lucretius Simmons, Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian (1995) 148; Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 168
memmius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 26
metamorphoses, calliope Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 168
metamorphoses, pierides contest with muses Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 168
metamorphoses, typhoeus Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 168
metamorphosis Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 221
monsters Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 221
muses, naulochus, battle of Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 93
natura Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 66
neptune Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29
octavian Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 26, 29, 244
otium Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 244
ovid, and empedocles Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 168
ovid, remythologizing lucretius Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 168
pessimism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 244
phaethon Gee, Aratus and the Astronomical Tradition (2013) 93
philia Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 244
philosophy, graeco-roman Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 63
plague Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 221
poetry and poetics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 244
politics, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 26
primitivism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29
proems, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 26
providentialism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 66
remythologization Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 244
ross, d. o. Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 244
servius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29
sirius Gee, Aratus and the Astronomical Tradition (2013) 92, 93, 94
sphragis Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 244
stoicism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 66; Gee, Aratus and the Astronomical Tradition (2013) 93, 94
stoics Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 63
tartarus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 26
tertullian Simmons, Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian (1995) 148
thomas, r. f. Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 244
underworld Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 26
venus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 26
vestigia Gee, Aratus and the Astronomical Tradition (2013) 90
virgil, and hesiod Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 66
virgil, and octavian Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 26, 244
virgil, reception of lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 26
war, and poetry Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 244
war, civil war Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 244
war, in the georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 244
war, octavian as warrior Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 244
zeno Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 63
zoogony Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29