Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7574
Lucretius Carus, On The Nature Of Things, 4.1099
NaN


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

22 results
1. Plato, Gorgias, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

471a. Pol. Then this Archelaus, on your statement, is wretched? Soc. Yes, my friend, supposing he is unjust. Pol. Well, but how can he be other than unjust? He had no claim to the throne which he now occupies, being the son of a woman who was a slave of Perdiccas’ brother Alcetas, and in mere justice he was Alcetas’ slave; and if he wished to do what is just, he would be serving Alcetas and would be happy, by your account; but, as it is, he has become a prodigy of wretchedness
2. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

441a. three existing kinds that composed its structure, the moneymakers, the helpers, the counsellors, so also in the soul there exists a third kind, this principle of high spirit, which is the helper of reason by nature unless it is corrupted by evil nurture? We have to assume it as a third, he said. Yes, said I, provided it shall have been shown to be something different from the rational, as it has been shown to be other than the appetitive. That is not hard to be shown, he said; for that much one can see in children, that they are from their very birth chock-full of rage and high spirit, but as for reason
3. Xenophon, Memoirs, 1.4.11-1.4.14 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.4.11. I assure you, that if I believed that the gods pay any heed to man, I would not neglect them. Then do you think them unheeding? In the first place, man is the only living creature that they have caused to stand upright; and the upright position gives him a wider range of vision in front and a better view of things above, and exposes him less to injury. Secondly, to grovelling creatures they have given feet that afford only the power of moving, whereas they have endowed man with hands, which are the instruments to which we chiefly owe our greater happiness. 1.4.12. Again, though all creatures have a tongue, the tongue of man alone has been formed by them to be capable of contact with different parts of the mouth, so as to enable us to articulate the voice and express all our wants to one another. Once more, for all other creatures they have prescribed a fixed season of sexual indulgence; in our case the only time limit they have set is old age. 1.4.13. Nor was the deity content to care for man’s body. What is of yet higher moment, he has implanted in him the noblest type of soul. For in the first place what other creature’s soul has apprehended the existence of gods who set in order the universe, greatest and fairest of things? And what race of living things other than man worships gods? And what soul is more apt than man’s to make provision against hunger and thirst, cold and heat, to relieve sickness and promote health, to acquire knowledge by toil, and to remember accurately all that is heard, seen, or learned? 1.4.14. For is it not obvious to you that, in comparison with the other animals, men live like gods, by nature peerless both in body and in soul? For with a man’s reason and the body of an ox we could not carry out our wishes, and the possession of hands without reason is of little worth. Do you, then, having received the two most precious gifts, yet think that the gods take no care of you? What are they to do, to make you believe that they are heedful of you?
4. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

5. Aristotle, Politics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

6. Aristotle, Rhetoric, 3.10.6 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

7. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 1.30, 1.66-1.71 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.30. omne animal, simul atque natum sit, voluptatem appetere eaque gaudere ut summo bono, dolorem aspernari ut summum malum et, quantum possit, a se repellere, idque facere nondum depravatum ipsa natura incorrupte atque integre iudicante. itaque negat opus esse ratione neque disputatione, quam ob rem voluptas expetenda, fugiendus dolor sit. sentiri haec haec ħ BE hoc NV putat, ut calere ignem, nivem esse albam, dulce mel. dulce esse mel R mel dulce A quorum nihil oportere oportere V oporteret exquisitis rationibus confirmare, tantum tantum om. BE satis esse esse satis A admonere. interesse enim inter inter om. BE argumentum argumentumque BE argumentatum R augmentatum A conclusionemque rationis et inter mediocrem animadversionem atque admonitionem. altera occulta quaedam et quasi involuta aperiri, altera prompta promta AR et aperta iudicari. indicari NV etenim quoniam detractis de homine sensibus reliqui nihil est, necesse est quid aut ad naturam aut ad naturam AR ad naturam ( om. aut) BE aut naturam ( om. ad) N 1 aut secundum naturam N 2 aut verum (compend scr) V aut contra sit a natura ipsa iudicari. post iudicari add. in V voluptatem etiam per se expetendam esse et dolorem ipsum per se esse fugiendum; idem in N ab alt. m. in marg. adscr. posito post iudicari signo eo- demque in marg. ea quid percipit aut quid iudicat, quo aut petat aut fugiat aliquid, praeter voluptatem et et aut NV dolorem? 1.66. Tribus igitur igitur ergo BE modis video esse a nostris a nostris esse BE de amicitia disputatum. alii cum eas voluptates, quae ad amicos pertinerent, negarent esse per se ipsas tam expetendas, quam nostras expeteremus, quo loco videtur quibusdam stabilitas amicitiae vacillare, tuentur tamen eum locum seque facile, ut mihi videtur, expediunt. ut enim virtutes, de quibus ante dictum est, sic amicitiam negant posse a voluptate discedere. nam cum solitudo et vita sine amicis insidiarum et metus plena sit, ratio ipsa monet amicitias comparare, quibus partis confirmatur confirmetur ABE animus et a spe et a spe ad spem et ABE pariendarum voluptatum seiungi non potest. 1.67. atque ut odia, odiā BE invidiae, invidiae A 2 invidie (e ab alt. m. in ras. scr. ) N invidiā B invidia A 1 EV, R ( sequente una litt. erasa, quae vi-detur fuisse e) despicationes adversantur voluptatibus, sic amicitiae non modo fautrices fidelissimae, sed etiam effectrices sunt voluptatum tam amicis quam sibi, quibus non solum praesentibus fruuntur, sed etiam spe eriguntur consequentis ac posteri temporis. quod quia nullo modo sine amicitia firmam et perpetuam iucunditatem vitae tenere possumus possumus etiam B neque vero ipsam amicitiam tueri, nisi nisi ipsi ARV aeque amicos et nosmet ipsos diligamus, idcirco et hoc ipsum efficitur in amicitia, et amicitia et amicitia om. R, A 1 (ab alt. m. in mg. exteriore sinistro ita add. amicitia, ut a ligatore et desectum esse possit) cōnect. BE cum voluptate conectitur. nam et laetamur amicorum laetitia aeque atque ut RNV atque nostra et pariter dolemus angoribus. 1.68. quocirca eodem modo sapiens erit affectus erga amicum, quo in se ipsum, quosque labores propter suam voluptatem susciperet, susciperet susceperit R (suam susceperit voluptatem), NV eosdem suscipiet suscipiet susciperet BE propter amici voluptatem. quaeque de virtutibus dicta sunt, quem ad modum eae eae A hc B hec E hee RV ea N semper voluptatibus inhaererent, eadem de amicitia dicenda sunt. praeclare enim Epicurus his paene verbis: 'Eadem', his paene verbis eadem eadem hys pene verbis BE hiis pene eadem verbis V inquit, scientia scientia sententia BE confirmavit animum, ne quod aut sempiternum aut diuturnum timeret malum, quae perspexit in hoc ipso vitae spatio amicitiae praesidium esse firmissimum. 1.69. Sunt autem quidam Epicurei timidiores paulo contra vestra convicia, nostra convitia V convicia nostra BE sed tamen satis acuti, qui verentur ne, si amicitiam propter nostram voluptatem expetendam putemus, tota amicitia quasi claudicare videatur. itaque primos congressus copulationesque et consuetudinum instituendarum voluntates fieri propter voluptatem; voluntates A voluptates R voluptatum NV om. BE voluptatem voluptates R cum autem usus progrediens familiaritatem effecerit, tum amorem efflorescere tantum, ut, etiamsi nulla sit utilitas ex amicitia, tamen ipsi amici propter se ipsos amentur. etenim si loca, si fana, si urbes, si gymnasia, si campum, si canes, si equos, si ludicra si ludicras A 2 si ludicrica R exercendi aut vedi consuetudine consuetudines A consuetudinēs R adamare solemus, quanto id in hominum consuetudine facilius fieri poterit poterit edd. potuerit et iustius? 1.70. Sunt autem, qui dicant foedus esse quoddam sapientium, sapientum V sap ia (= sapientia, pro sap iu = sapientiū) R ut ne minus amicos quam minus amicos quam P. Man. minus quidem amicos quam ARNV minus quam amicos BE se ipsos diligant. quod et posse fieri fieri posse BE intellegimus et saepe etiam etiam Dav. enim videmus, et perspicuum est nihil ad iucunde vivendum reperiri posse, quod coniunctione tali sit aptius. Quibus ex omnibus iudicari potest non modo non impediri rationem amicitiae, si summum bonum in voluptate ponatur, sed sine hoc institutionem omnino amicitiae non posse reperiri. et 26 repp. A 1.71. Quapropter si ea, quae dixi, sole ipso illustriora et clariora sunt, si omnia dixi hausta omnia dixi hausta = nihil dixi nisi quod haustum esset e fonte naturae, si tota oratio nostra omnem sibi fidem sensibus confirmat, id est incorruptis atque integris testibus, si infantes pueri, mutae etiam bestiae paene loquuntur magistra ac duce natura nihil esse prosperum nisi voluptatem, nihil asperum nisi dolorem, de quibus neque depravate iudicant neque corrupte, depravatae ... corruptae A nonne ei maximam gratiam habere debemus, qui hac exaudita quasi voce naturae sic eam firme graviterque comprehenderit, ut omnes bene sanos in viam placatae, tranquillae, quietae, beatae vitae deduceret? Qui quod tibi parum videtur eruditus, ea causa est, quod nullam eruditionem esse duxit, nisi quae beatae vitae disciplinam iuvaret.
8. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 2.130-2.153 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.130. Moreover the skill and industry of man also contribute to the preservation and security of certain animals and plants. For there are many species of both which could not survive without man's care. "Also a plentiful variety of conveniences is found in different regions for the productive cultivation of the soil by man. Egypt is watered by the Nile, which corps the land completely flooded all the summer and afterwards retires leaving the soil soft and covered with mud, in readiness for sowing. Mesopotamia is fertilized by the Euphrates, which as it were imports into it new fields every year. The Indus, the largest river in the world, not only manures and softens the soil but actually sows it with seed, for it is said to bring down with it a great quantity of seeds resembling corn. 2.131. And I could produce a number of other remarkable examples in a variety of places, and instance a variety of lands each prolific in a different kind of produce. But how great is the benevolence of nature, in giving birth to such an abundance and variety of delicious articles of food, and that not at one season only of the year, so that we have continually the delights of both novelty and plenty! How seasonable moreover and how some not for the human race alone but also for the animal and the various vegetable species is her gift of the Etesian winds! their breath moderates the excessive heat of summer, entirely also guide our ships across the sea upon a swift and steady course. Many instances must be passed over [and yet many are given]. 2.132. For it is impossible to recount the conveniences afforded by rivers, the ebb and flow . . . of the tides of the sea, the mountains clothed with forests, the salt-beds lying far inland from the sea‑coast, the copious stores of health-giving medicines that the earth contains, and all the countless arts necessary for livelihood and for life. Again the alternation of day and night contributes to the preservation of living creatures by affording one time for activity and another for repose. Thus every line of reasoning goes to prove that all things in this world of ours are marvellously governed by divine intelligence and wisdom for the safety and preservation of all. 2.133. Here somebody will ask, for whose sake was all this vast system contrived? For the sake of the trees and plants, for these, though without sensation, have their sustece from nature? But this at any rate is absurd. Then for the sake of the animals? It is no more likely that the gods took all this trouble for the sake of dumb, irrational creatures/ For whose sake then shall one pronounce the world to have been created? Doubtless for the sake of those living beings which have the use of reason; these are the gods and mankind, who assuredly surpass all other things in excellence, since the most excellent of all things is reason. Thus we are led to believe that the world and all the things that it contains were made for the sake of gods and men. "And that man has been cared for by divine providence will be more readily understood if we survey the whole structure of man and all the conformation and perfection of human nature. 2.134. There are three things requisite for the maintece of animal life, food, drink and breath; and for the reception of all of these the mouth is most consummately adapted, receiving as it does an abundant supply of breath through the nostrils which communicate with it. The structure of the teeth within the mouth serves to chew the food, and it is divided up and softened by them. The front teeth are sharp, and bite our viands into pieces; the back teeth, called molars, masticate them, the process of mastication apparently being assisted also by the tongue. 2.135. Next to the tongue comes the gullet, which is attached to its roots, and into which in the first place pass that substances that have been received in the mouth. The gullet is adjacent to the tonsils on either side of it, and reaches as far as the back or innermost part of the palate. The action and movements of the tongue drive and thrust the food down into the gullet, which receives it and drives it further down, the parts of the gullet below the food that is being swallowed dilating and the parts above it contracting. 2.136. The windpipe, or trachea as it is termed by physicians, has an orifice attached to the roots of the tongue a little above the point where the tongue is joined to the gullet; it reaches to the lungs, and receives the air inhaled by breathing, and also exhales it and passes it out from the lungs; it is covered by a sort of lid, provided for the purpose of preventing a morsel of food from accidentally falling into it and impeding the breath. Below the gullet lies the stomach, which is constructed as the receptacle of food and drink, whereas breath is inhaled by the lungs and heart. The stomach performs a number of remarkable operations; its structure consists principally of muscular fibres, and it is manifold and twisted; it compresses and contains the dry or moist nutriment that it receives, enabling it to be assimilated and digested; at one moment is astricted and at another relaxed, thus pressing and mixing together all that is passed into it, so that by means of the abundant heat which it possesses, and by its crushing the food, and also by the op of the breath, everything is digested and worked up so as to be easily distributed throughout the rest of the body. The lungs on the contrary are soft and of a loose and spongy consistency, well adapted to absorb the breath; which they inhale and exhale by alternately contracting and expanding, to provide frequent draughts of that aerial nutriment which is the chief support of animal life. 2.137. The alimentary juice secreted from the rest of the food by the stomach flows from the bowels to the liver through certain ducts or channels reaching to the liver, to which they are attached, and connecting up what are called the doorways of the liver with the middle intestine. From the liver different channels pass in different directions, and through these falls the food passed down from the liver. From this food is secreted bile, and the liquids excreted by the kidneys; the residue turns into blood be flows to the aforesaid doorways of the liver, to which all its channels lead. Flowing through these doorways the food at this very point pours into the so‑called vena cava or hollow vein, and through this, being now completely worked up and digested, flows to the heart, and from the heart is distributed all over the body through a rather large number of veins that reach to every part of the frame. 2.138. It would not be difficult to indicate the way in which the residue of the food is excreted by the alternate astriction and relaxation of the bowels; however this topic must be passed over lest my discourse should be somewhat offensive. Rather let me unfold the following instance of the incredible skilfulness of nature's handiwork. The air drawn into the lungs by breathing is warmed in the first instance by the breath itself and then by contact with the lungs; part of it is returned by the act of respiration, and part is received by a certain part of the heart called the cardiac ventricle, adjacent to which is a second similar vessel into which the blood flows from the liver three the vena cava mentioned above; and in this manner from these organs both the blood is diffused through the veins and the breath through the arteries all over the body. Both of these sets of vessels are very numerous and are closely interwoven with the tissues of the entire body; they testify to an extraordinary degree of skilful and divine craftsmanship. 2.139. Why need I speak about the bones, which are the framework of the body? their marvellous cartilages are nicely adapted to secure stability, and fitted to end off the joints and to allow of movement and bodily activity of every sort. Add thereto the nerves or sinews which hold the joints together and whose ramifications pervade the entire body; like the veins and arteries these lead from the heart as their starting-point and pass to all parts of the body. 2.140. Many further illustrations could be given of this wise and careful providence of nature, to illustrate the lavishness and splendour of the gifts bestowed by the gods on men. First, she has raised them from the ground to stand tall and upright, so that they might be able to behold the sky and so gain a knowledge of the gods. For men are sprung from the earth not as its inhabitants and denizens, but to be as it were the spectators of things supernal and heavenly, in the contemplation whereof no other species of animal participates. Next, the senses, posted in the citadel of the head as the reporters and messengers of the outer world, both in structure and position are marvellously adapted to their necessary services. The eyes as the watchmen have the highest station, to give them the widest outlook for the performance of their function. 2.141. The ears also, having the duty of perceiving sound, the nature of which is to rise, are rightly placed in the upper part of the body. The nostrils likewise are rightly placed high inasmuch as all smells travel upwards, but also, because they have much to do with discriminating food and drink, they have with good reason been brought into the neighbourhood of the mouth. Taste, which has the function of distinguishing the flavors of our various viands, is situated in that part of the face where nature has made an aperture for the passage of food and drink. The sense of touch is evenly diffused over all the body, to enable us to perceive all sorts of contacts and even the minutest impacts of both cold and heat. And just as architects relegate the drains of houses to the rear, away from the eyes and nose of the masters, since otherwise they would inevitably be somewhat offensive, so nature has banished the corresponding organs of the body far away from the neighbourhood of the senses. 2.142. Again what artificer but nature, who is unsurpassed in her cunning, could have attained such skilfulness in the construction of the senses? First, she has clothed and walled the eyes with membranes of the finest texture, which she has made on the one hand transparent so that we may be able to see through them, and on the other hand firm of substance, to serve as the outer cover of the eye. The eyes she has made mobile and smoothly turning, so as both to avoid any threatened injury and to direct their gaze easily in any direction they desire. The actually organ of vision, called the pupil or 'little doll,' is so small as easily to avoid objects that might injure it; and the lids, which are the covers of the eyes, are very soft to the touch so as not to hurt the pupil, and very neatly constructed as to be able both to shut the eyes in order that nothing may impinge upon them and to open them; and nature has provided that this process can be repeated again and again with extreme rapidity. 2.143. The eyelids are furnished with a palisade of hairs, whereby to ward off any impinging object while the eyes are open, and so that while they are closed in sleep, when we do not need the eyes for seeing, they may be as it were tucked up for repose. Moreover the eyes are in advantageously retired position, and shielded on all sides by surrounding prominences; for first the parts above them are covered by the eyebrows which prevent sweat from flowing down from the scalp and forehead; then the cheeks, which are placed beneath them and which slightly project, protect them from below; and the hose is so placed as to seem to be a wall separating the eyes from one another. 2.144. The organ of hearing on the other hand is always open, since we require this sense even when asleep, and when it receives a sound, we are aroused even from sleep. The auditory passage is winding, to prevent anything from being able to enter, as it might if the passage were clear and straight; it has further been provided that even the tiniest insect that may attempt to intrude may be caught in the sticky wax of the ears. On the outside project the organs which we call ears, which are constructed both to cover and protect the sense-organ and to prevent the sounds that reach them from sliding past and being lost before they strike the sense. The apertures of the ears are hard and gristly, and much convoluted, because things with these qualities reflect and amplify sound; this is why tortoise-shell or horn gives resoce to a lyre, and always why winding passages and enclosures have an echo which is louder than the original sound. 2.145. Similarly the nostrils, which to serve the purposes required of them have to be always open, have narrower apertures, to prevent the entrance of anything that may harm them; and they are always moist, which is useful to guard them against dust and many other things. The sense of taste is admirably shielded, being enclosed in the mouth in a manner well suited for the performance of its function and for its protection against harm. "And all the senses of man far excel those of the lower animals. In the first place our eyes have a finer perception of many things in the arts which appeal to the sense of sight, painting, modelling and sculpture, and also in bodily movements and gestures; since the eyes judge beauty and arrangement and so to speak propriety of colour and shape; and also other more important matters, for they also recognize virtues and vices, the angry and the friendly, the joyful and the sad, the brave man and the coward, the bold and the craven. 2.146. The ears are likewise marvellously skilful organs of discrimination; they judge differences of tone, of pitch and of key in the music of the voice and of wind and stringed instruments, and many different qualities of voice, sonorous and dull, smooth and rough, bass and treble, flexible and hard, distinctions discriminated by the human ear alone. Likewise the nostrils, the taste and in some measure the touch have highly sensitive faculties of discrimination. And the arts invented to appeal to and indulge these senses are even more numerous than I could wish. The developments of perfumery and of the meretricious adornment of the person are obvious examples. 2.147. Coming now to the actual mind and intellect of man, his reason, wisdom and foresight, one who cannot see that these owe their perfection to divine providence must in my view himself be devoid of these very faculties. While discussing this topic I could wish, Cotta, that I had the gift of your eloquence. How could not you describe first our powers of understanding, and then our faculty of conjoining premisses and consequences in a single act of apprehension, the faculty I mean that enables us to judge what conclusion follows from any given propositions and to put the inference in syllogistic form, and also to delimit particular terms in a succinct definition; whence we arrive at an understanding of the potency and the nature of knowledge, which is the most excellent part even of the divine nature. Again, how remarkable are the faculties which you Academics invalidate and abolish, our sensory and intellectual perception and comprehension of external objects; 2.148. it is by collating and comparing our precepts that we also create the arts that serve either practical necessities or the purpose of amusement. Then take the gift of speech, the queen of arts as you are fond of calling it — what a glorious, what a divine faculty it is! In the first place it enables us both to learn things we do not know and to teach things we do know to others; secondly it is our instrument for exhortation and persuasion, for consoling the afflicted and assuaging the fears of the terrified, for curbing passion and quenching appetite and anger; it is this that has united us in the bonds of justice, law and civil order, this that has sped us from savagery and barbarism. 2.149. Now careful consideration will show that the mechanism of speech displays a skill on nature's part that surpasses belief. In the first place there is an artery passing from the lugns to the back of the mouth, which is the channel by which the voice, originating from the mind, is caught and uttered. Next, the tongue is placed in the mouth and confined by the teeth; it modulates and defines the inarticulate flow of the voice and renders its sounds district and clear by striking the teeth and other parts of the mouth. Accordingly my school is fond of comparing the tongue to the quill of a lyre, the teeth to the strings, and the nostrils to the horns which echo the notes of the strings when the instrument is played. 2.150. Then what clever servants for a great variety of arts are the hands which nature has bestowed on man! The flexibility of the joints enables the fingers to close and open with equal ease, and to perform every motion without difficulty. Thus by the manipulation of the fingers the hand is enabled to paint, to model, to carve, and to draw forth the notes of the lyre and of the flute. And beside these arts of recreation there are those of utility, I mean agriculture and building, the weaving and stitching of garments, and the various modes of working bronze and iron; hence we realize that it was by applying the hand of the artificer to the discoveries of thought and observations of the senses that all our conveniences were attained, and we were enabled to have shelter, clothing and protection, and possessed cities, fortifications, houses and temples. 2.151. Moreover men's industry, that is to say the work of their hands, porticus us also our food in variety and abundance. It is the hand that gathers the divers products of the fields, whether to be consumed immediately or to be stored in repositories for the days to come; and our diet also includes flesh, fish and fowl, obtained partly by the chase and partly by breeding. We also tame the four-footed animals to carry us on their backs, their swiftness and strength bestowing strength and swiftness upon ourselves. We cause certain beasts to bear our burdens or to carry a yoke, we divert to our service the marvellously acute senses of elephants and the keen scent of hounds; we collect from the caves of the earth the iron which we need for tilling the land, we discover the deeply hidden veins of copper, silver and gold which serve us both for use and for adornment; we cut up a multitude of trees both wild and cultivated for timber which we employ partly by setting fire to it to warm our busy and cook our food, partly for building so as to shelter ourselves with houses and banish heat and cold. 2.152. Timber moreover is of great value for constructing ships, whose voyages supply an abundance of sustece of all sorts from all parts of the earth; and we alone have the power of controlling the most violent of nature's offspring, the sea and the winds, thanks to the science of navigation, and we use and enjoy many products of the sea. Likewise the entire command of the commodities produced on land is vested in mankind. We enjoy the fruits of the plains and of the mountains, the rivers and the lakes are ours, we sow corn, we plant trees, we fertilize the soil by irrigation, we confine the rivers and straighten or divert their courses. In fine, by means of our hands we essay to create as it were a second world within the world of nature. 2.153. Then moreover hasn't man's reason penetrated even to the sky? We alone of living creatures know the risings and settings and the courses of the stars, the human race has set limits to the day, the month and the year, and has learnt the eclipses of the sun and moon and foretold for all future time their occurrence, their extent and their dates. And contemplating the heavenly bodies the mind arrives at a knowledge of the gods, from which arises piety, with its comrades justice and the rest of the virtues, the sources of a life of happiness that vies with and resembles the divine existence and leaves us inferior to the celestial beings in nothing else save immortality, which is immaterial for happiness. I think that my exposition of these matters has been sufficient to prove how widely man's nature surpasses all other living creatures; and this should make it clear that neither such a conformation and arrangement of the members nor such power of mind and intellect can possibly have been created by chance.
9. Philodemus of Gadara, De Ira \ , 7.16-7.24 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

10. Horace, Sermones, 1.4.31-1.4.32, 1.4.110 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

11. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 1.1-1.49, 1.136-1.145, 1.486, 1.593, 1.780, 1.856, 1.922-1.934, 1.1042-1.1048, 2.2, 2.12, 2.205, 2.263-2.265, 2.317-2.332, 2.409, 2.447-2.448, 2.569-2.580, 2.1142-2.1145, 2.1165, 3.28-3.29, 3.62, 3.116, 3.296-3.307, 3.419, 3.580-3.581, 3.660-3.663, 3.670-3.678, 3.687, 3.731-3.732, 3.741-3.753, 3.760-3.770, 3.828-3.1094, 4.337-4.352, 4.547-4.548, 4.638-4.641, 4.678-4.683, 4.714-4.721, 4.962-4.1098, 4.1100-4.1287, 5.206-5.217, 5.380-5.395, 5.436-5.442, 5.1076, 5.1151, 5.1272, 5.1359, 5.1430, 6.97-6.98, 6.100, 6.116-6.117, 6.191-6.193, 6.255, 6.278, 6.306-6.308, 6.329, 6.357-6.378, 6.396, 6.571, 6.777-6.778, 6.786-6.787, 6.821-6.823, 6.1117-6.1120, 6.1168, 6.1176-6.1177, 6.1264-6.1266 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

12. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 1.76-1.86, 8.824 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.546-1.549, 4.538-4.539, 4.548-4.549, 4.560-4.583, 4.590-4.629 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.546. I bring thee tidings that thy comrades all 1.547. are safe at land; and all thy ships, conveyed 1.548. by favoring breezes, safe at anchor lie; 1.549. or else in vain my parents gave me skill 4.538. death on the mid-sea rocks, and often call 4.539. with dying gasps on Dido's name—while I 4.548. irresolute with horror, while his soul 4.549. framed many a vain reply. Her swooning shape 4.560. ply well their task and push into the sea 4.561. the lofty ships. Now floats the shining keel 4.562. and oars they bring all leafy from the grove 4.563. with oak half-hewn, so hurried was the flight. 4.564. Behold them how they haste—from every gate 4.565. forth-streaming!—just as when a heap of corn 4.566. is thronged with ants, who, knowing winter nigh 4.567. refill their granaries; the long black line 4.568. runs o'er the levels, and conveys the spoil 4.569. in narrow pathway through the grass; a part 4.570. with straining and assiduous shoulder push 4.571. the kernels huge; a part array the file 4.572. and whip the laggards on; their busy track 4.573. warms quick and eager with unceasing toil. 4.574. O Dido, how thy suffering heart was wrung 4.575. that spectacle to see! What sore lament 4.576. was thine, when from the towering citadel 4.577. the whole shore seemed alive, the sea itself 4.578. in turmoil with loud cries! Relentless Love 4.579. to what mad courses may not mortal hearts 4.580. by thee be driven? Again her sorrow flies 4.581. to doleful plaint and supplication vain; 4.582. again her pride to tyrant Love bows down 4.583. lest, though resolved to die, she fail to prove 4.590. my sorrow asks thee, Anna! Since of thee 4.591. thee only, did that traitor make a friend 4.592. and trusted thee with what he hid so deep — 4.593. the feelings of his heart; since thou alone 4.594. hast known what way, what hour the man would yield 4.595. to soft persuasion—therefore, sister, haste 4.596. and humbly thus implore our haughty foe: 4.597. ‘I was not with the Greeks what time they swore 4.598. at Aulis to cut off the seed of Troy ; 4.599. I sent no ships to Ilium . Pray, have I 4.600. profaned Anchises' tomb, or vexed his shade?’ 4.601. Why should his ear be deaf and obdurate 4.602. to all I say? What haste? May he not make 4.603. one last poor offering to her whose love 4.604. is only pain? O, bid him but delay 4.605. till flight be easy and the winds blow fair. 4.606. I plead no more that bygone marriage-vow 4.607. by him forsworn, nor ask that he should lose 4.608. his beauteous Latium and his realm to be. 4.609. Nothing but time I crave! to give repose 4.610. and more room to this fever, till my fate 4.611. teach a crushed heart to sorrow. I implore 4.612. this last grace. (To thy sister's grief be kind!) 4.614. Such plaints, such prayers, again and yet again 4.615. betwixt the twain the sorrowing sister bore. 4.616. But no words move, no lamentations bring 4.617. persuasion to his soul; decrees of Fate 4.618. oppose, and some wise god obstructs the way 4.619. that finds the hero's ear. oft-times around 4.620. the aged strength of some stupendous oak 4.621. the rival blasts of wintry Alpine winds 4.622. mite with alternate wrath: Ioud is the roar 4.623. and from its rocking top the broken boughs 4.624. are strewn along the ground; but to the crag 4.625. teadfast it ever clings; far as toward heaven 4.626. its giant crest uprears, so deep below 4.627. its roots reach down to Tartarus:—not less 4.628. the hero by unceasing wail and cry 4.629. is smitten sore, and in his mighty heart
14. Vergil, Eclogues, 2.4, 2.67, 10.75-10.76 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.4. the thick-leaved shadowy-soaring beech-tree grove 2.67. you are a boor, nor heeds a whit your gift 10.75. Cydonian arrows from a Parthian bow.— 10.76. as if my madness could find healing thus
15. Vergil, Georgics, 1.74, 1.84-1.93, 1.100, 1.106, 1.118-1.146, 1.158, 2.53-2.56, 3.66-3.68, 3.95-3.100, 3.229, 3.242-3.285, 3.289, 3.291-3.292, 3.520-3.524 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.74. Iron from the naked Chalybs, castor rank 1.84. By the ripe suns of summer; but if the earth 1.85. Less fruitful just ere Arcturus rise 1.86. With shallower trench uptilt it—'twill suffice; 1.87. There, lest weeds choke the crop's luxuriance, here 1.88. Lest the scant moisture fail the barren sand. 1.89. Then thou shalt suffer in alternate year 1.90. The new-reaped fields to rest, and on the plain 1.91. A crust of sloth to harden; or, when star 1.92. Are changed in heaven, there sow the golden grain 1.93. Where erst, luxuriant with its quivering pod 1.100. With refuse rich to soak the thirsty soil 1.106. Whether that earth therefrom some hidden strength 1.118. Hales o'er them; from the far Olympian height 1.119. Him golden Ceres not in vain regards; 1.120. And he, who having ploughed the fallow plain 1.121. And heaved its furrowy ridges, turns once more 1.122. Cross-wise his shattering share, with stroke on stroke 1.123. The earth assails, and makes the field his thrall. 1.124. Pray for wet summers and for winters fine 1.125. Ye husbandmen; in winter's dust the crop 1.126. Exceedingly rejoice, the field hath joy; 1.127. No tilth makes placeName key= 1.128. Nor Gargarus his own harvests so admire. 1.129. Why tell of him, who, having launched his seed 1.130. Sets on for close encounter, and rakes smooth 1.131. The dry dust hillocks, then on the tender corn 1.132. Lets in the flood, whose waters follow fain; 1.133. And when the parched field quivers, and all the blade 1.134. Are dying, from the brow of its hill-bed 1.135. See! see! he lures the runnel; down it falls 1.136. Waking hoarse murmurs o'er the polished stones 1.137. And with its bubblings slakes the thirsty fields? 1.138. Or why of him, who lest the heavy ear 1.139. O'erweigh the stalk, while yet in tender blade 1.140. Feeds down the crop's luxuriance, when its growth 1.141. First tops the furrows? Why of him who drain 1.142. The marsh-land's gathered ooze through soaking sand 1.143. Chiefly what time in treacherous moons a stream 1.144. Goes out in spate, and with its coat of slime 1.145. Holds all the country, whence the hollow dyke 1.146. Sweat steaming vapour? 1.158. Fields knew no taming hand of husbandmen; 2.53. At hand, and with me ply the voyage of toil 2.54. I am bound on, O my glory, O thou that art 2.55. Justly the chiefest portion of my fame 2.56. Maecenas, and on this wide ocean launched 3.66. Be his prime care a shapely dam to choose. 3.67. of kine grim-faced is goodliest, with coarse head 3.68. And burly neck, whose hanging dewlaps reach 3.95. His lofty step, his limbs' elastic tread: 3.96. Dauntless he leads the herd, still first to try 3.97. The threatening flood, or brave the unknown bridge 3.98. By no vain noise affrighted; lofty-necked 3.99. With clean-cut head, short belly, and stout back; 3.100. His sprightly breast exuberant with brawn. 3.229. Ay, thus far let him learn to dare, when first 3.242. The north wind stoops, and scatters from his path 3.243. Dry clouds and storms of placeName key= 3.244. And rippling plains 'gin shiver with light gusts; 3.245. A sound is heard among the forest-tops; 3.246. Long waves come racing shoreward: fast he flies 3.247. With instant pinion sweeping earth and main. 3.248. A steed like this or on the mighty course 3.249. of placeName key= 3.250. Red foam-flakes from his mouth, or, kindlier task 3.251. With patient neck support the Belgian car. 3.252. Then, broken at last, let swell their burly frame 3.253. With fattening corn-mash, for, unbroke, they will 3.254. With pride wax wanton, and, when caught, refuse 3.255. Tough lash to brook or jagged curb obey. 3.256. But no device so fortifies their power 3.257. As love's blind stings of passion to forefend 3.258. Whether on steed or steer thy choice be set. 3.259. Ay, therefore 'tis they banish bulls afar 3.260. To solitary pastures, or behind 3.261. Some mountain-barrier, or broad streams beyond 3.262. Or else in plenteous stalls pen fast at home. 3.263. For, even through sight of her, the female waste 3.264. His strength with smouldering fire, till he forget 3.265. Both grass and woodland. She indeed full oft 3.266. With her sweet charms can lovers proud compel 3.267. To battle for the conquest horn to horn. 3.268. In Sila's forest feeds the heifer fair 3.269. While each on each the furious rivals run; 3.270. Wound follows wound; the black blood laves their limbs; 3.271. Horns push and strive against opposing horns 3.272. With mighty groaning; all the forest-side 3.273. And far placeName key= 3.274. Nor wont the champions in one stall to couch; 3.275. But he that's worsted hies him to strange clime 3.276. Far off, an exile, moaning much the shame 3.277. The blows of that proud conqueror, then love's lo 3.278. Avenged not; with one glance toward the byre 3.279. His ancient royalties behind him lie. 3.280. So with all heed his strength he practiseth 3.281. And nightlong makes the hard bare stones his bed 3.282. And feeds on prickly leaf and pointed rush 3.283. And proves himself, and butting at a tree 3.284. Learns to fling wrath into his horns, with blow 3.285. Provokes the air, and scattering clouds of sand 3.289. As in mid ocean when a wave far of 3.291. Its rounded breast, and, onward rolled to land 3.292. Falls with prodigious roar among the rocks 3.520. Is gaping, forth he darts into the dry 3.521. Rolls eyes of fire and rages through the fields 3.522. Furious from thirst and by the drought dismayed. 3.523. Me list not then beneath the open heaven 3.524. To snatch soft slumber, nor on forest-ridge
16. Juvenal, Satires, 15.131-15.174 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17. Plutarch, It Is Impossible To Live Pleasantly In The Manner of Epicurus, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. Tertullian, On The Apparel of Women, 2.1-2.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

19. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 6.22, 10.7, 10.118-10.119 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.22. Through watching a mouse running about, says Theophrastus in the Megarian dialogue, not looking for a place to lie down in, not afraid of the dark, not seeking any of the things which are considered to be dainties, he discovered the means of adapting himself to circumstances. He was the first, say some, to fold his cloak because he was obliged to sleep in it as well, and he carried a wallet to hold his victuals, and he used any place for any purpose, for breakfasting, sleeping, or conversing. And then he would say, pointing to the Stoa of Zeus and the Pompeion, that the Athenians had provided him with places to live in. 10.7. further, that Epicurus's acquaintance with philosophy was small and his acquaintance with life even smaller; that his bodily health was pitiful, so much so that for many years he was unable to rise from his chair; and that he spent a whole mina daily on his table, as he himself says in his letter to Leontion and in that to the philosophers at Mitylene. Also that among other courtesans who consorted with him and Metrodorus were Mammarion and Hedia and Erotion and Nikidion. He alleges too that in his thirty-seven books On Nature Epicurus uses much repetition and writes largely in sheer opposition to others, especially to Nausiphanes, and here are his own words: Nay, let them go hang: for, when labouring with an idea, he too had the sophist's off-hand boastfulness like many another servile soul; 10.118. When on the rack, however, he will give vent to cries and groans. As regards women he will submit to the restrictions imposed by the law, as Diogenes says in his epitome of Epicurus' ethical doctrines. Nor will he punish his servants; rather he will pity them and make allowance on occasion for those who are of good character. The Epicureans do not suffer the wise man to fall in love; nor will he trouble himself about funeral rites; according to them love does not come by divine inspiration: so Diogenes in his twelfth book. The wise man will not make fine speeches. No one was ever the better for sexual indulgence, and it is well if he be not the worse. 10.119. Nor, again, will the wise man marry and rear a family: so Epicurus says in the Problems and in the De Natura. Occasionally he may marry owing to special circumstances in his life. Some too will turn aside from their purpose. Nor will he drivel, when drunken: so Epicurus says in the Symposium. Nor will he take part in politics, as is stated in the first book On Life; nor will he make himself a tyrant; nor will he turn Cynic (so the second book On Life tells us); nor will he be a mendicant. But even when he has lost his sight, he will not withdraw himself from life: this is stated in the same book. The wise man will also feel grief, according to Diogenes in the fifth book of his Epilecta.
20. Epicurus, Letter To Menoeceus, 131

21. Epicurus, Letters, 398

22. Epicurus, Letters, 398



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aeneas Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
aetiology of labor Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 161
alcibiades Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 74
alcinous Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 43
amor, as destructive force Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 97
amor, in georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 174
amor, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90, 91, 149, 174
anger Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
anger / irascibility, empty Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 74
animals, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90, 91
animals Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90, 91, 97, 174
apatheia, freedom from, eradication of, emotion (; some emotions for stoics compatible with apatheia, esp. eupatheiai and the right kind of homosexual love Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 283
aristotle Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 266; Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90
author function, implied author Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 136
avernus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 91
behaviour Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
body parts, bones Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 62
booth, wayne Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 136
bren, tad Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 283
callimachus Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 145
catharsis, iamblichus, alternative to aversion therapy Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 283
cereal crops Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 161
cicero, marcus tullius Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 266
cicero Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90
closure Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 62
cura Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 149, 161
cycle of growth and decay, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 234
cynicism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90
cynics/cynicism, condemned/satirized by greek writers Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 74
cynics/cynicism, diatribes by Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 74
death Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 266
design, of the poem Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 62
desire, natural and/or necessary desires Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 283
diatribe Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 108
dido, as lover Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 54
disease, as a closural device Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 62
dreams Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 91; Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 62, 145
eclogues, and theme of desire Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 213
elegy Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 54
emotion Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
empedocles Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 234
epicureanism, lucretian imagery Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 213
epicureanism, on erotic desire Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 213
epicureanism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90
epicureans, and food Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 43
epicureans, language of Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 43
epicureans, marriage only in special circumstances Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 283
epicureans Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
epicurus, natural and/or necessary desires Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 283
epicurus, sex natural but necessary and tends to harm Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 283
epicurus, wise will marry only in special circumstances Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 283
epicurus Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
epikouros (epicurus) Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 266
epilogismos Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
eras, elegiac Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 213
eras, epicureanism on Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 213
eros Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 266
eros (sexual desire), and epicureanism Hubbard, A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities (2014) 424
erotic desire Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 74
erysichthon Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 145
false beliefs Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 74
finales, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 97
fire imagery Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 62
frankness, contrasted with harsh criticism Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 74
friends/friendship Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 74
friendship, three levels of Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 74
friendship Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 266
genre, elegy Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 213
gigante, marcello Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 74
gowers, emily Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 74
hardie, philip Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 145
heraclitus (author of homeric problems) Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 43
herodotus Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
hesiod, allusions to Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 161
homer Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 161; Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 43
horses Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 97, 174
hunger Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 145
hymns, callimachean Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 145
imagery, military Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 161, 234
implied author Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 136
intertextuality Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 161; Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 43
irascibility Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 74
jebb, richard Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 136
jerome Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 136
jupiter Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 161
labor, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 149, 161
labor, in the georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 161, 174
leander Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 97
love, against erotic love, antisthenes, democritus, epicurus, lucretius, aristippus, cynics, epictetus Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 283
love, love, sex, marriage, and procreation, independent of each other Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 283
love, the right kind of homosexual love is not an emotion (pathos) in stoics Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 283
love, will the wise man fall in love? Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 283
love Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 54; Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 283
love affair, of aeneas and dido Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 54
lucretius, agriculture in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 161
lucretius, animals in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90, 91
lucretius, cycle of growth and decay in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 234
lucretius, epicurean, erotic love discouraged Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 283
lucretius, epicurean, marriage is only for procreation Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 283
lucretius, implied author in Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 136
lucretius, labor in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 149, 161
lucretius, politics in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 149
lucretius, read as document of the authors mind Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 136
lucretius, victorian biofictional readings of Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 136
lucretius, war in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 234
lucretius Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 266; Cain, Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God (2023) 58; Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199; Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 74
lust Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 283
marriage, epicurean' Hubbard, A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities (2014) 424
mars Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 234
memmius Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
metriopatheia, moderate, moderation of, emotion; natural and/or necessary desires Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 283
metus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 149
musonius some level of equality required, epicureans, wise man will marry only in special circumstances Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 283
musonius some level of equality required, marriage only for procreation, antisthenes, lucretius Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 283
natural, necessary, desire Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 283
neikos Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 234
nussbaum, martha Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 283
odysseus Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 43
optimism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 161
ovid Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90; Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 145
particles, tertullian Cain, Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God (2023) 58
pastoral, design, Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 213
pastoral, epicurean ethos of Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 213
pastoral, ideal vision of Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 213
pastoral, song as pharmahon Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 213
pastoral Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 161
paul of tarsus Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 266
perkell, christine Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 213
persona Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 136
phaeacians Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 43
phaedrus Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 54
philodemus Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
philodemus of gadara, condemnation of cynicism Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 74
philodemus of gadara, cynic influences on Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 74
philodemus of gadara, depictions of anger Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 74
philosophy Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
plague, and closure Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 62
plague Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 174
plato, lust as necessary Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 283
plato Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 266; Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90
pleasure Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 74
plutarch Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 43; Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
politics, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 149
politicus, symposium Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 54
procreation, relation to marriage, sole purpose, required, not required Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 283
procreation Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 283
progress Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
prokopton Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
schroeder, f. m. Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 74
seelenheilung Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 74
sellar, w. y. Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 136
sex, random sex advocated Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 283
sex, sex debunked Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 283
simulacra Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 145
sisyphus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 149
sleep Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 145
socrates Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 74
stoic philosophy Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 54
stoicism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90
stoics, see under individual stoics, esp. chrysippus, whose views came to be seen already in antiquity as stoic orthodoxy, so that, conversely, views seen as orthodox tended to be ascribed to him, better kind not an emotion, but educative epibolē Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 283
stoics Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
storms Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 234
students Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 74
tantalus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 149
tartarus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 149
teachers/teaching Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 74
telos Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 43
tertullian of carthage, and women Cain, Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God (2023) 58
tertullian of carthage, cosmology Cain, Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God (2023) 58
tertullian of carthage, gladiator games Cain, Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God (2023) 58
tertullian of carthage, men Cain, Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God (2023) 58
tertullian of carthage, particles Cain, Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God (2023) 58
tertullian of carthage, passivity Cain, Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God (2023) 58
tertullian of carthage, sexual arousal, male Cain, Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God (2023) 58
theophrastus Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 266
thucydides Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 62
tityos Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 149
tradition Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
truth Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 74
underworld Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 149
venus, and sexual desire / intercourse Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 145
venus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90, 91, 234
vergil Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
vice Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 74
virgil, and hesiod Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 161
virgil, reception of lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 97
war, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 234
war, in presocratic philosophy Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 234
water Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 266
water imagery Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 62, 145
women Cain, Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God (2023) 58; Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 74
xenophon Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90
zeno of citium, stoic, hence different conception of freedom from emotion(apatheia) Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 283
zeno of sidon Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 74
zeus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 161