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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7574
Lucretius Carus, On The Nature Of Things, 4.1069-4.1073
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Nec Veneris fructu caret is qui vitat amoremNor doth that man who keeps away from love Yet lack the fruits of Venus; rather takes Those pleasures which are free of penalties. For the delights of Venus, verily, Are more unmixed for mortals sane-of-soul Than for those sick-at-heart with love-pining. Yea, in the very moment of possessing, Surges the heat of lovers to and fro, Restive, uncertain; and they cannot fix On what to first enjoy with eyes and hands. The parts they sought for, those they squeeze so tight, And pain the creature's body, close their teeth Often against her lips, and smite with kiss Mouth into mouth,- because this same delight Is not unmixed; and underneath are stings Which goad a man to hurt the very thing, Whate'er it be, from whence arise for him Those germs of madness. But with gentle touch Venus subdues the pangs in midst of love, And the admixture of a fondling joy Doth curb the bites of passion. For they hope That by the very body whence they caught The heats of love their flames can be put out. But nature protests 'tis all quite otherwise; For this same love it is the one sole thing Of which, the more we have, the fiercer burns The breast with fell desire. For food and drink Are taken within our members; and, since they Can stop up certain parts, thus, easily Desire of water is glutted and of bread. But, lo, from human face and lovely bloom Naught penetrates our frame to be enjoyed Save flimsy idol-images and vain- A sorry hope which oft the winds disperse. As when the thirsty man in slumber seeks To drink, and water ne'er is granted him Wherewith to quench the heat within his members, But after idols of the liquids strives And toils in vain, and thirsts even whilst he gulps In middle of the torrent, thus in love Venus deludes with idol-images The lovers. Nor they cannot sate their lust By merely gazing on the bodies, nor They cannot with their palms and fingers rub Aught from each tender limb, the while they stray Uncertain over all the body. Then, At last, with members intertwined, when they Enjoy the flower of their age, when now Their bodies have sweet presage of keen joys, And Venus is about to sow the fields Of woman, greedily their frames they lock, And mingle the slaver of their mouths, and breathe Into each other, pressing teeth on mouths- Yet to no purpose, since they're powerless To rub off aught, or penetrate and pass With body entire into body- for oft They seem to strive and struggle thus to do; So eagerly they cling in Venus' bonds, Whilst melt away their members, overcome By violence of delight. But when at last Lust, gathered in the thews, hath spent itself, There come a brief pause in the raging heat- But then a madness just the same returns And that old fury visits them again, When once again they seek and crave to reach They know not what, all powerless to find The artifice to subjugate the bane. In such uncertain state they waste away With unseen wound.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

35 results
1. Plato, Gorgias, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

471a. Pol. Then this Archelaus, on your statement, is wretched? Soc. Yes, my friend, supposing he is unjust. Pol. Well, but how can he be other than unjust? He had no claim to the throne which he now occupies, being the son of a woman who was a slave of Perdiccas’ brother Alcetas, and in mere justice he was Alcetas’ slave; and if he wished to do what is just, he would be serving Alcetas and would be happy, by your account; but, as it is, he has become a prodigy of wretchedness
2. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

441a. three existing kinds that composed its structure, the moneymakers, the helpers, the counsellors, so also in the soul there exists a third kind, this principle of high spirit, which is the helper of reason by nature unless it is corrupted by evil nurture? We have to assume it as a third, he said. Yes, said I, provided it shall have been shown to be something different from the rational, as it has been shown to be other than the appetitive. That is not hard to be shown, he said; for that much one can see in children, that they are from their very birth chock-full of rage and high spirit, but as for reason
3. Sophocles, Women of Trachis, 1052-1054, 1051 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1051. as this thing which the daughter of Oeneus, fair and false, has fastened upon my back, this woven net of the Erinyes in which I perish! Plastered to my sides, it has eaten away my inmost flesh and sucks the channels of my lungs
4. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 2.49.1, 2.49.6 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

2.49.1. That year then is admitted to have been otherwise unprecedentedly free from sickness; and such few cases as occurred, all determined in this. 2.49.6. Besides this, the miserable feeling of not being able to rest or sleep never ceased to torment them. The body meanwhile did not waste away so long as the distemper was at its height, but held out to a marvel against its ravages; so that when they succumbed, as in most cases, on the seventh or eighth day to the internal inflammation, they had still some strength in them. But if they passed this stage, and the disease descended further into the bowels, inducing a violent ulceration there accompanied by severe diarrhea, this brought on a weakness which was generally fatal.
5. Xenophon, Memoirs, 1.4.11-1.4.14 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.4.11. I assure you, that if I believed that the gods pay any heed to man, I would not neglect them. Then do you think them unheeding? In the first place, man is the only living creature that they have caused to stand upright; and the upright position gives him a wider range of vision in front and a better view of things above, and exposes him less to injury. Secondly, to grovelling creatures they have given feet that afford only the power of moving, whereas they have endowed man with hands, which are the instruments to which we chiefly owe our greater happiness. 1.4.12. Again, though all creatures have a tongue, the tongue of man alone has been formed by them to be capable of contact with different parts of the mouth, so as to enable us to articulate the voice and express all our wants to one another. Once more, for all other creatures they have prescribed a fixed season of sexual indulgence; in our case the only time limit they have set is old age. 1.4.13. Nor was the deity content to care for man’s body. What is of yet higher moment, he has implanted in him the noblest type of soul. For in the first place what other creature’s soul has apprehended the existence of gods who set in order the universe, greatest and fairest of things? And what race of living things other than man worships gods? And what soul is more apt than man’s to make provision against hunger and thirst, cold and heat, to relieve sickness and promote health, to acquire knowledge by toil, and to remember accurately all that is heard, seen, or learned? 1.4.14. For is it not obvious to you that, in comparison with the other animals, men live like gods, by nature peerless both in body and in soul? For with a man’s reason and the body of an ox we could not carry out our wishes, and the possession of hands without reason is of little worth. Do you, then, having received the two most precious gifts, yet think that the gods take no care of you? What are they to do, to make you believe that they are heedful of you?
6. Aristotle, Politics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

7. Aristotle, Rhetoric, 3.10.6 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8. Callimachus, Epigrams, 28 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9. Callimachus, Epigrams, 28 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 1.30, 1.66-1.71 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.30. omne animal, simul atque natum sit, voluptatem appetere eaque gaudere ut summo bono, dolorem aspernari ut summum malum et, quantum possit, a se repellere, idque facere nondum depravatum ipsa natura incorrupte atque integre iudicante. itaque negat opus esse ratione neque disputatione, quam ob rem voluptas expetenda, fugiendus dolor sit. sentiri haec haec ħ BE hoc NV putat, ut calere ignem, nivem esse albam, dulce mel. dulce esse mel R mel dulce A quorum nihil oportere oportere V oporteret exquisitis rationibus confirmare, tantum tantum om. BE satis esse esse satis A admonere. interesse enim inter inter om. BE argumentum argumentumque BE argumentatum R augmentatum A conclusionemque rationis et inter mediocrem animadversionem atque admonitionem. altera occulta quaedam et quasi involuta aperiri, altera prompta promta AR et aperta iudicari. indicari NV etenim quoniam detractis de homine sensibus reliqui nihil est, necesse est quid aut ad naturam aut ad naturam AR ad naturam ( om. aut) BE aut naturam ( om. ad) N 1 aut secundum naturam N 2 aut verum (compend scr) V aut contra sit a natura ipsa iudicari. post iudicari add. in V voluptatem etiam per se expetendam esse et dolorem ipsum per se esse fugiendum; idem in N ab alt. m. in marg. adscr. posito post iudicari signo eo- demque in marg. ea quid percipit aut quid iudicat, quo aut petat aut fugiat aliquid, praeter voluptatem et et aut NV dolorem? 1.66. Tribus igitur igitur ergo BE modis video esse a nostris a nostris esse BE de amicitia disputatum. alii cum eas voluptates, quae ad amicos pertinerent, negarent esse per se ipsas tam expetendas, quam nostras expeteremus, quo loco videtur quibusdam stabilitas amicitiae vacillare, tuentur tamen eum locum seque facile, ut mihi videtur, expediunt. ut enim virtutes, de quibus ante dictum est, sic amicitiam negant posse a voluptate discedere. nam cum solitudo et vita sine amicis insidiarum et metus plena sit, ratio ipsa monet amicitias comparare, quibus partis confirmatur confirmetur ABE animus et a spe et a spe ad spem et ABE pariendarum voluptatum seiungi non potest. 1.67. atque ut odia, odiā BE invidiae, invidiae A 2 invidie (e ab alt. m. in ras. scr. ) N invidiā B invidia A 1 EV, R ( sequente una litt. erasa, quae vi-detur fuisse e) despicationes adversantur voluptatibus, sic amicitiae non modo fautrices fidelissimae, sed etiam effectrices sunt voluptatum tam amicis quam sibi, quibus non solum praesentibus fruuntur, sed etiam spe eriguntur consequentis ac posteri temporis. quod quia nullo modo sine amicitia firmam et perpetuam iucunditatem vitae tenere possumus possumus etiam B neque vero ipsam amicitiam tueri, nisi nisi ipsi ARV aeque amicos et nosmet ipsos diligamus, idcirco et hoc ipsum efficitur in amicitia, et amicitia et amicitia om. R, A 1 (ab alt. m. in mg. exteriore sinistro ita add. amicitia, ut a ligatore et desectum esse possit) cōnect. BE cum voluptate conectitur. nam et laetamur amicorum laetitia aeque atque ut RNV atque nostra et pariter dolemus angoribus. 1.68. quocirca eodem modo sapiens erit affectus erga amicum, quo in se ipsum, quosque labores propter suam voluptatem susciperet, susciperet susceperit R (suam susceperit voluptatem), NV eosdem suscipiet suscipiet susciperet BE propter amici voluptatem. quaeque de virtutibus dicta sunt, quem ad modum eae eae A hc B hec E hee RV ea N semper voluptatibus inhaererent, eadem de amicitia dicenda sunt. praeclare enim Epicurus his paene verbis: 'Eadem', his paene verbis eadem eadem hys pene verbis BE hiis pene eadem verbis V inquit, scientia scientia sententia BE confirmavit animum, ne quod aut sempiternum aut diuturnum timeret malum, quae perspexit in hoc ipso vitae spatio amicitiae praesidium esse firmissimum. 1.69. Sunt autem quidam Epicurei timidiores paulo contra vestra convicia, nostra convitia V convicia nostra BE sed tamen satis acuti, qui verentur ne, si amicitiam propter nostram voluptatem expetendam putemus, tota amicitia quasi claudicare videatur. itaque primos congressus copulationesque et consuetudinum instituendarum voluntates fieri propter voluptatem; voluntates A voluptates R voluptatum NV om. BE voluptatem voluptates R cum autem usus progrediens familiaritatem effecerit, tum amorem efflorescere tantum, ut, etiamsi nulla sit utilitas ex amicitia, tamen ipsi amici propter se ipsos amentur. etenim si loca, si fana, si urbes, si gymnasia, si campum, si canes, si equos, si ludicra si ludicras A 2 si ludicrica R exercendi aut vedi consuetudine consuetudines A consuetudinēs R adamare solemus, quanto id in hominum consuetudine facilius fieri poterit poterit edd. potuerit et iustius? 1.70. Sunt autem, qui dicant foedus esse quoddam sapientium, sapientum V sap ia (= sapientia, pro sap iu = sapientiū) R ut ne minus amicos quam minus amicos quam P. Man. minus quidem amicos quam ARNV minus quam amicos BE se ipsos diligant. quod et posse fieri fieri posse BE intellegimus et saepe etiam etiam Dav. enim videmus, et perspicuum est nihil ad iucunde vivendum reperiri posse, quod coniunctione tali sit aptius. Quibus ex omnibus iudicari potest non modo non impediri rationem amicitiae, si summum bonum in voluptate ponatur, sed sine hoc institutionem omnino amicitiae non posse reperiri. et 26 repp. A 1.71. Quapropter si ea, quae dixi, sole ipso illustriora et clariora sunt, si omnia dixi hausta omnia dixi hausta = nihil dixi nisi quod haustum esset e fonte naturae, si tota oratio nostra omnem sibi fidem sensibus confirmat, id est incorruptis atque integris testibus, si infantes pueri, mutae etiam bestiae paene loquuntur magistra ac duce natura nihil esse prosperum nisi voluptatem, nihil asperum nisi dolorem, de quibus neque depravate iudicant neque corrupte, depravatae ... corruptae A nonne ei maximam gratiam habere debemus, qui hac exaudita quasi voce naturae sic eam firme graviterque comprehenderit, ut omnes bene sanos in viam placatae, tranquillae, quietae, beatae vitae deduceret? Qui quod tibi parum videtur eruditus, ea causa est, quod nullam eruditionem esse duxit, nisi quae beatae vitae disciplinam iuvaret.
11. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 2.130-2.153 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.130. Moreover the skill and industry of man also contribute to the preservation and security of certain animals and plants. For there are many species of both which could not survive without man's care. "Also a plentiful variety of conveniences is found in different regions for the productive cultivation of the soil by man. Egypt is watered by the Nile, which corps the land completely flooded all the summer and afterwards retires leaving the soil soft and covered with mud, in readiness for sowing. Mesopotamia is fertilized by the Euphrates, which as it were imports into it new fields every year. The Indus, the largest river in the world, not only manures and softens the soil but actually sows it with seed, for it is said to bring down with it a great quantity of seeds resembling corn. 2.131. And I could produce a number of other remarkable examples in a variety of places, and instance a variety of lands each prolific in a different kind of produce. But how great is the benevolence of nature, in giving birth to such an abundance and variety of delicious articles of food, and that not at one season only of the year, so that we have continually the delights of both novelty and plenty! How seasonable moreover and how some not for the human race alone but also for the animal and the various vegetable species is her gift of the Etesian winds! their breath moderates the excessive heat of summer, entirely also guide our ships across the sea upon a swift and steady course. Many instances must be passed over [and yet many are given]. 2.132. For it is impossible to recount the conveniences afforded by rivers, the ebb and flow . . . of the tides of the sea, the mountains clothed with forests, the salt-beds lying far inland from the sea‑coast, the copious stores of health-giving medicines that the earth contains, and all the countless arts necessary for livelihood and for life. Again the alternation of day and night contributes to the preservation of living creatures by affording one time for activity and another for repose. Thus every line of reasoning goes to prove that all things in this world of ours are marvellously governed by divine intelligence and wisdom for the safety and preservation of all. 2.133. Here somebody will ask, for whose sake was all this vast system contrived? For the sake of the trees and plants, for these, though without sensation, have their sustece from nature? But this at any rate is absurd. Then for the sake of the animals? It is no more likely that the gods took all this trouble for the sake of dumb, irrational creatures/ For whose sake then shall one pronounce the world to have been created? Doubtless for the sake of those living beings which have the use of reason; these are the gods and mankind, who assuredly surpass all other things in excellence, since the most excellent of all things is reason. Thus we are led to believe that the world and all the things that it contains were made for the sake of gods and men. "And that man has been cared for by divine providence will be more readily understood if we survey the whole structure of man and all the conformation and perfection of human nature. 2.134. There are three things requisite for the maintece of animal life, food, drink and breath; and for the reception of all of these the mouth is most consummately adapted, receiving as it does an abundant supply of breath through the nostrils which communicate with it. The structure of the teeth within the mouth serves to chew the food, and it is divided up and softened by them. The front teeth are sharp, and bite our viands into pieces; the back teeth, called molars, masticate them, the process of mastication apparently being assisted also by the tongue. 2.135. Next to the tongue comes the gullet, which is attached to its roots, and into which in the first place pass that substances that have been received in the mouth. The gullet is adjacent to the tonsils on either side of it, and reaches as far as the back or innermost part of the palate. The action and movements of the tongue drive and thrust the food down into the gullet, which receives it and drives it further down, the parts of the gullet below the food that is being swallowed dilating and the parts above it contracting. 2.136. The windpipe, or trachea as it is termed by physicians, has an orifice attached to the roots of the tongue a little above the point where the tongue is joined to the gullet; it reaches to the lungs, and receives the air inhaled by breathing, and also exhales it and passes it out from the lungs; it is covered by a sort of lid, provided for the purpose of preventing a morsel of food from accidentally falling into it and impeding the breath. Below the gullet lies the stomach, which is constructed as the receptacle of food and drink, whereas breath is inhaled by the lungs and heart. The stomach performs a number of remarkable operations; its structure consists principally of muscular fibres, and it is manifold and twisted; it compresses and contains the dry or moist nutriment that it receives, enabling it to be assimilated and digested; at one moment is astricted and at another relaxed, thus pressing and mixing together all that is passed into it, so that by means of the abundant heat which it possesses, and by its crushing the food, and also by the op of the breath, everything is digested and worked up so as to be easily distributed throughout the rest of the body. The lungs on the contrary are soft and of a loose and spongy consistency, well adapted to absorb the breath; which they inhale and exhale by alternately contracting and expanding, to provide frequent draughts of that aerial nutriment which is the chief support of animal life. 2.137. The alimentary juice secreted from the rest of the food by the stomach flows from the bowels to the liver through certain ducts or channels reaching to the liver, to which they are attached, and connecting up what are called the doorways of the liver with the middle intestine. From the liver different channels pass in different directions, and through these falls the food passed down from the liver. From this food is secreted bile, and the liquids excreted by the kidneys; the residue turns into blood be flows to the aforesaid doorways of the liver, to which all its channels lead. Flowing through these doorways the food at this very point pours into the so‑called vena cava or hollow vein, and through this, being now completely worked up and digested, flows to the heart, and from the heart is distributed all over the body through a rather large number of veins that reach to every part of the frame. 2.138. It would not be difficult to indicate the way in which the residue of the food is excreted by the alternate astriction and relaxation of the bowels; however this topic must be passed over lest my discourse should be somewhat offensive. Rather let me unfold the following instance of the incredible skilfulness of nature's handiwork. The air drawn into the lungs by breathing is warmed in the first instance by the breath itself and then by contact with the lungs; part of it is returned by the act of respiration, and part is received by a certain part of the heart called the cardiac ventricle, adjacent to which is a second similar vessel into which the blood flows from the liver three the vena cava mentioned above; and in this manner from these organs both the blood is diffused through the veins and the breath through the arteries all over the body. Both of these sets of vessels are very numerous and are closely interwoven with the tissues of the entire body; they testify to an extraordinary degree of skilful and divine craftsmanship. 2.139. Why need I speak about the bones, which are the framework of the body? their marvellous cartilages are nicely adapted to secure stability, and fitted to end off the joints and to allow of movement and bodily activity of every sort. Add thereto the nerves or sinews which hold the joints together and whose ramifications pervade the entire body; like the veins and arteries these lead from the heart as their starting-point and pass to all parts of the body. 2.140. Many further illustrations could be given of this wise and careful providence of nature, to illustrate the lavishness and splendour of the gifts bestowed by the gods on men. First, she has raised them from the ground to stand tall and upright, so that they might be able to behold the sky and so gain a knowledge of the gods. For men are sprung from the earth not as its inhabitants and denizens, but to be as it were the spectators of things supernal and heavenly, in the contemplation whereof no other species of animal participates. Next, the senses, posted in the citadel of the head as the reporters and messengers of the outer world, both in structure and position are marvellously adapted to their necessary services. The eyes as the watchmen have the highest station, to give them the widest outlook for the performance of their function. 2.141. The ears also, having the duty of perceiving sound, the nature of which is to rise, are rightly placed in the upper part of the body. The nostrils likewise are rightly placed high inasmuch as all smells travel upwards, but also, because they have much to do with discriminating food and drink, they have with good reason been brought into the neighbourhood of the mouth. Taste, which has the function of distinguishing the flavors of our various viands, is situated in that part of the face where nature has made an aperture for the passage of food and drink. The sense of touch is evenly diffused over all the body, to enable us to perceive all sorts of contacts and even the minutest impacts of both cold and heat. And just as architects relegate the drains of houses to the rear, away from the eyes and nose of the masters, since otherwise they would inevitably be somewhat offensive, so nature has banished the corresponding organs of the body far away from the neighbourhood of the senses. 2.142. Again what artificer but nature, who is unsurpassed in her cunning, could have attained such skilfulness in the construction of the senses? First, she has clothed and walled the eyes with membranes of the finest texture, which she has made on the one hand transparent so that we may be able to see through them, and on the other hand firm of substance, to serve as the outer cover of the eye. The eyes she has made mobile and smoothly turning, so as both to avoid any threatened injury and to direct their gaze easily in any direction they desire. The actually organ of vision, called the pupil or 'little doll,' is so small as easily to avoid objects that might injure it; and the lids, which are the covers of the eyes, are very soft to the touch so as not to hurt the pupil, and very neatly constructed as to be able both to shut the eyes in order that nothing may impinge upon them and to open them; and nature has provided that this process can be repeated again and again with extreme rapidity. 2.143. The eyelids are furnished with a palisade of hairs, whereby to ward off any impinging object while the eyes are open, and so that while they are closed in sleep, when we do not need the eyes for seeing, they may be as it were tucked up for repose. Moreover the eyes are in advantageously retired position, and shielded on all sides by surrounding prominences; for first the parts above them are covered by the eyebrows which prevent sweat from flowing down from the scalp and forehead; then the cheeks, which are placed beneath them and which slightly project, protect them from below; and the hose is so placed as to seem to be a wall separating the eyes from one another. 2.144. The organ of hearing on the other hand is always open, since we require this sense even when asleep, and when it receives a sound, we are aroused even from sleep. The auditory passage is winding, to prevent anything from being able to enter, as it might if the passage were clear and straight; it has further been provided that even the tiniest insect that may attempt to intrude may be caught in the sticky wax of the ears. On the outside project the organs which we call ears, which are constructed both to cover and protect the sense-organ and to prevent the sounds that reach them from sliding past and being lost before they strike the sense. The apertures of the ears are hard and gristly, and much convoluted, because things with these qualities reflect and amplify sound; this is why tortoise-shell or horn gives resoce to a lyre, and always why winding passages and enclosures have an echo which is louder than the original sound. 2.145. Similarly the nostrils, which to serve the purposes required of them have to be always open, have narrower apertures, to prevent the entrance of anything that may harm them; and they are always moist, which is useful to guard them against dust and many other things. The sense of taste is admirably shielded, being enclosed in the mouth in a manner well suited for the performance of its function and for its protection against harm. "And all the senses of man far excel those of the lower animals. In the first place our eyes have a finer perception of many things in the arts which appeal to the sense of sight, painting, modelling and sculpture, and also in bodily movements and gestures; since the eyes judge beauty and arrangement and so to speak propriety of colour and shape; and also other more important matters, for they also recognize virtues and vices, the angry and the friendly, the joyful and the sad, the brave man and the coward, the bold and the craven. 2.146. The ears are likewise marvellously skilful organs of discrimination; they judge differences of tone, of pitch and of key in the music of the voice and of wind and stringed instruments, and many different qualities of voice, sonorous and dull, smooth and rough, bass and treble, flexible and hard, distinctions discriminated by the human ear alone. Likewise the nostrils, the taste and in some measure the touch have highly sensitive faculties of discrimination. And the arts invented to appeal to and indulge these senses are even more numerous than I could wish. The developments of perfumery and of the meretricious adornment of the person are obvious examples. 2.147. Coming now to the actual mind and intellect of man, his reason, wisdom and foresight, one who cannot see that these owe their perfection to divine providence must in my view himself be devoid of these very faculties. While discussing this topic I could wish, Cotta, that I had the gift of your eloquence. How could not you describe first our powers of understanding, and then our faculty of conjoining premisses and consequences in a single act of apprehension, the faculty I mean that enables us to judge what conclusion follows from any given propositions and to put the inference in syllogistic form, and also to delimit particular terms in a succinct definition; whence we arrive at an understanding of the potency and the nature of knowledge, which is the most excellent part even of the divine nature. Again, how remarkable are the faculties which you Academics invalidate and abolish, our sensory and intellectual perception and comprehension of external objects; 2.148. it is by collating and comparing our precepts that we also create the arts that serve either practical necessities or the purpose of amusement. Then take the gift of speech, the queen of arts as you are fond of calling it — what a glorious, what a divine faculty it is! In the first place it enables us both to learn things we do not know and to teach things we do know to others; secondly it is our instrument for exhortation and persuasion, for consoling the afflicted and assuaging the fears of the terrified, for curbing passion and quenching appetite and anger; it is this that has united us in the bonds of justice, law and civil order, this that has sped us from savagery and barbarism. 2.149. Now careful consideration will show that the mechanism of speech displays a skill on nature's part that surpasses belief. In the first place there is an artery passing from the lugns to the back of the mouth, which is the channel by which the voice, originating from the mind, is caught and uttered. Next, the tongue is placed in the mouth and confined by the teeth; it modulates and defines the inarticulate flow of the voice and renders its sounds district and clear by striking the teeth and other parts of the mouth. Accordingly my school is fond of comparing the tongue to the quill of a lyre, the teeth to the strings, and the nostrils to the horns which echo the notes of the strings when the instrument is played. 2.150. Then what clever servants for a great variety of arts are the hands which nature has bestowed on man! The flexibility of the joints enables the fingers to close and open with equal ease, and to perform every motion without difficulty. Thus by the manipulation of the fingers the hand is enabled to paint, to model, to carve, and to draw forth the notes of the lyre and of the flute. And beside these arts of recreation there are those of utility, I mean agriculture and building, the weaving and stitching of garments, and the various modes of working bronze and iron; hence we realize that it was by applying the hand of the artificer to the discoveries of thought and observations of the senses that all our conveniences were attained, and we were enabled to have shelter, clothing and protection, and possessed cities, fortifications, houses and temples. 2.151. Moreover men's industry, that is to say the work of their hands, porticus us also our food in variety and abundance. It is the hand that gathers the divers products of the fields, whether to be consumed immediately or to be stored in repositories for the days to come; and our diet also includes flesh, fish and fowl, obtained partly by the chase and partly by breeding. We also tame the four-footed animals to carry us on their backs, their swiftness and strength bestowing strength and swiftness upon ourselves. We cause certain beasts to bear our burdens or to carry a yoke, we divert to our service the marvellously acute senses of elephants and the keen scent of hounds; we collect from the caves of the earth the iron which we need for tilling the land, we discover the deeply hidden veins of copper, silver and gold which serve us both for use and for adornment; we cut up a multitude of trees both wild and cultivated for timber which we employ partly by setting fire to it to warm our busy and cook our food, partly for building so as to shelter ourselves with houses and banish heat and cold. 2.152. Timber moreover is of great value for constructing ships, whose voyages supply an abundance of sustece of all sorts from all parts of the earth; and we alone have the power of controlling the most violent of nature's offspring, the sea and the winds, thanks to the science of navigation, and we use and enjoy many products of the sea. Likewise the entire command of the commodities produced on land is vested in mankind. We enjoy the fruits of the plains and of the mountains, the rivers and the lakes are ours, we sow corn, we plant trees, we fertilize the soil by irrigation, we confine the rivers and straighten or divert their courses. In fine, by means of our hands we essay to create as it were a second world within the world of nature. 2.153. Then moreover hasn't man's reason penetrated even to the sky? We alone of living creatures know the risings and settings and the courses of the stars, the human race has set limits to the day, the month and the year, and has learnt the eclipses of the sun and moon and foretold for all future time their occurrence, their extent and their dates. And contemplating the heavenly bodies the mind arrives at a knowledge of the gods, from which arises piety, with its comrades justice and the rest of the virtues, the sources of a life of happiness that vies with and resembles the divine existence and leaves us inferior to the celestial beings in nothing else save immortality, which is immaterial for happiness. I think that my exposition of these matters has been sufficient to prove how widely man's nature surpasses all other living creatures; and this should make it clear that neither such a conformation and arrangement of the members nor such power of mind and intellect can possibly have been created by chance.
12. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 3.11, 4.24, 4.68-4.76 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.11. quod aliis quoque multis locis reperietur; reperitur G 1 sed id alias, nunc, quod instat. totum igitur id alt. id om. H s quod quaerimus quid et quale sit, sit fit V verbi vis ipsa declarat. eos enim sanos quoniam intellegi necesse est, quorum mens motu quasi morbo perturbata nullo nulla X corr. V 1? sit, qui quia K 1 contra adfecti affecti GR 2 insani G 1 sint, hos insanos appellari necesse est. itaque nihil melius, quam quod est in consuetudine sermonis Latini, cum exisse ex potestate dicimus eos, qui ecfrenati hecfrenati G (h del. 2 ) hęc fr. V effr. R rec V rec feruntur aut libidine aut iracundia— quamquam ipsa iracundia libidinis est pars; sic enim definitur: iracundia ulciscendi libido ulciscendi libido cf. Aug. civ. 14,15 quis V 1 —; qui igitur exisse ex potestate dicimus ... 20 ex potestate om. H dicuntur, idcirco dicuntur, quia non sint in potestate mentis, cui regnum totius animi a natura tributum est. Graeci autem mani/an manian X (man in r. V 1 ) appellant X unde appellent, non facile dixerim; eam tamen ipsam ipsa KGH (ipsāR, sed vix m. 1 ) distinguimus nos melius quam illi. hanc enim insaniam, quae iuncta stultitiae stultitiae K 2 V c BGr.(?) stultitia X patet latius, nos post latius add. V c a furore disiungimus. distinguimus R Graeci volunt illi quidem, sed parum valent verbo: quem nos furorem, melagxoli/an melancholian GV -iam KRH illi vocant; quasi vero atra bili atribili V 1 K (-bi li) atra- bili GR solum mens ac non non add. R c saepe vel iracundia graviore vel timore vel timore add. G 2 vel dolore moveatur; totum . . 322, 3 moveatur H quo genere Athamantem Alcmaeonem alomeonem K 1 alc meonem V (on in r. V c ) Aiacem Orestem furere dicimus. qui ita sit adfectus, eum dominum esse rerum suarum vetant duodecim duodecem R 1 V tab. 5, 7. Ciceronis locus obversatur Horatio s. 2, 3, 217 tabulae; itaque non est scriptum si insanus, sed si furiosus insanus et fur. Non. escit Bouhier esse incipit W esset Non. escit . stultitiam stultiam V ( ss rec ) stultia K (- 2 ) stultitia GR 1 (-ă 2 ) H enim censuerunt constantia, inconstantiam KR ( etiam m a m. 1 ut. v. ) V 1 ( sed in et m exp. 1 ) H inconstantia G insaniam enim censuerunt constantiam, id est sanitatem, tamen posse tueri Non. id est sanitate, vacantem posse tamen tueri mediocritatem officiorum et vitae communem cultum atque usitatum; furorem autem autem om. Non. esse rati sunt mentis ad omnia caecitatem. quod cum maius magis R 1 esse videatur quam insania, tamen eius modi est, ut furor in sapientem cadere possit, non possit insania. itaque stultitia censuerunt ... 13 insania itaque ... 13 cadere possit, insania non Non. 443, 2 sed haec alia quaestio est; nos ad propositum revertamur. 4.24. intellegatur igitur perturbationem iactantibus se opinionibus inconstanter et turbide in motu in motu immotus GRV (s del. rec ) H immot os K ( ss. c ) esse semper; cum autem hic fervor concitatioque animi inveteraverit et tamquam in venis medullisque insederit, tum existet existit X (exs. G) existet Küh. ( de fut. cf. p. 378, 14 comm. ad 1, 29 Sen. epist. 85, 9 al. ) inveteravit ... insedit ... existit Sey. et morbus et aegrotatio et offensiones eae, quae sunt eis morbis aegrotationibusque contrariae. Haec, quae dico, cogitatione inter se differunt, re quidem copulata sunt, eaque eaque GRV (eaq K 1 sed; add. 2 ) oriuntur ex libidine et ex laetitia. nam cum est concupita pecunia nec adhibita continuo ratio quasi quaedam Socratica medicina, quae sanaret sanet Bentl. permanet K 1 eam cupiditatem, permanat in venas et inhaeret in visceribus illud malum, existitque existit (exs. KR) qui m. X (que V rec s ) morbus et aegrotatio, quae evelli evelli Wopkens avelli inveterata non possunt, eique morbo nomen est avaritia; 4.68. haec laetitia quam turpis sit, satis est diligenter attendentem penitus videre. Et ut turpes sunt, qui ecferunt haec 13 effe om. V 1, add. V rec in mg., runt se eadem m. in r. se laetitia tum cum hecferunt K haec ferunt G qui efferunt R (i et ef m. rec. ) fruuntur Veneriis voluptatibus, sic flagitiosi, quiaesinflammato K 1 inflamato GRV qui eas inflammato animo concupiscunt. totus vero iste, qui volgo appellatur appellantur V 1 amor—nec nec ex ne V c hercule invenio, quo nomine alio possit appellari—, tantae levitatis est, ut nihil videam quod putem conferendum. quem Caecilius fr. 259 deum qui non summum putet, aut stultum aut rerum esse imperitum existumat, existumat s existumet X Cui cui Ciceroni trib. Mue. cuii Ribb. i/n manu sit, quem e/sse demente/m demente GRV 1 velit, Quem sa/pere, quem sana/ri, sanari Man. insanare K 1 insanire GRVK c quem in morbum i/nici, Quem co/ntra amari, quem e/xpeti, quem arce/ssier. hunc fere versum excidisse statuit Bentl. : quem odio esse, quem contemni, quem excludi foras arces sier Bentl. arcessiri (arcesciri V 1 )X o praeclaram emendatricem vitae poëticam, quae amo- 4.69. rem amore X ( in K s in fine eras. ) flagitii et levitatis auctorem in concilio deorum conlocandum conlocari dum G 1 putet! de comoedia loquor, quae, si haec flagitia non non s nos X ( cf.p.381, 26 ) nos non Ro b b. p. 103 probaremus, nulla esset omnino; quid ait ex tragoedia princeps ille Argonautarum? argonautarū V (rū in r. V c ) Tu/ me amoris tumamoris K tum ea moris R ma/gis quam honoris se/rvavisti servavisti Crat. servasti gra/tia. Ennius Med. exul 278 quid ergo? hic amor Medeae quanta miseriarum excitavit incendia! atque ea tamen apud alium poëtam patri dicere audet se se s V 3 sed X Trag. inc. 174 coniugem habuisse illum, Amor quem dederat, qui plus pollet potiorque est est G ( exp. 1 est ss. 2 ) patre. 4.70. Sed poëtas ludere sinamus, quorum fabulis in hoc flagitio versari ipsum videmus Iovem: ad at G 1 magistros virtutis philosophos veniamus, qui amorem quimorem quā orem K 1 -i amorem in r. G 2 negant stupri esse St. fr. 3, 653 Epic. 483 et in eo litigant cum Epicuro non multum, ut opinio mea fert, mentiente. quis est enim iste ista K 1 amor amicitiae? cur neque deformem adulescentem quisquam amat neque formosum senem? mihi quidem haec in Graecorum gymnasiis nata consuetudo videtur, in quibus isti liberi et concessi sunt amores. bene ergo Ennius: Ennius sc. 395 Fla/giti flagitii X cives G(?)R rec princi/pium est nudare i/nter civis co/rpora. qui ut sint, quod fieri posse video, pudici, solliciti tamen et anxii sunt, eoque magis, quod se ipsi continent et coërcent. 4.71. atque, ut muliebris amores omittam, quibus maiorem licentiam natura concessit, quis aut de Ganymedi ganumedi K nymedi G 1 ganymedis V rec raptu dubitat, quid poëtae velint, aut non intellegit, quid apud Euripidem et loquatur et cupiat Eurip. Chrysippo p. 632 N. Laius? quid denique homines doctissimi et summi poë- tae de se ipsis et carminibus edunt edunt Lb. edant cf. praef. et cantibus? fortis vir in sua re p. cognitus quae de iuvenum amore scribit Alcaeus! nam Anacreontis quidem tota poësis est amatoria. maxume vero omnium flagrasse amore Reginum Ibycum apparet ex scriptis. Atque horum omnium lubidinosos esse amores videmus: philosophi sumus exorti, et et ex G 1 auctore quidem nostro Platone, quem non iniuria Dicaearchus accusat, qui amori auctoritatem tribueremus. 4.72. Stoici vero et sapientem amaturum esse St. fr. 3, 652 dicunt et amorem ipsum conatum amicitiae faciendae ex pulchritudinis specie definiunt. qui si qui si quin V quis est in rerum natura sine sollicitudine, sine desiderio, sine cura, sine suspirio, sit sane; vacat enim omni libidine; haec autem de libidine oratio est. sin autem est aliquis amor, ut est certe, qui nihil absit aut non multum ab insania, qualis in Leucadia est: si quidem sit quisquam Turpil. 115 deus, cui cuii Ribb. ad V ego sim curae — 4.73. at id erat deis dehis X (de is V) omnibus curandum, quem ad modum hic frueretur voluptate amatoria! heu me infelicem! —nihil verius. probe et ille: sanusne es, sanun es Wo. qui temere lamentare? sic sic hic Mdv. ( at cf. ita div. 2, 82 ) insanus videtur etiam suis. at at ad KR effecit KRG (tragoediasfeffecit) V rec (affecit V 1 ) efficit s quas tragoedias efficit! Te, te s et X Apo/llo sancte, fe/r opem, teque, amni/potens tequea omnipotens GR tequeaomnipotens K te- que omnipotens V amnipotens Wölfflin ap. Ribb. omnip. vulgo Neptune, i/nvoco, Vosque a/deo, Venti! mundum totum se ad amorem suum sublevandum conversurum putat, Venerem unam excludit ut iniquam: nam quid quid add. K c ego te appellem, Venus? eam prae lubidine lib. V negat curare quicquam: quasi vero ipse non propter lubidinem lib. V tanta flagitia et faciat et dicat. 4.74. —sic igitur adfecto haec adhibenda curatio est, ut et illud quod cupiat ostendatur ostendat s ostendatur Dav. ostendas Bouhier quam leve, quam contemnendum, quam nihili nihil V sit omnino, quam facile vel aliunde vel aliunde bis K 1 vel ali ende G (i in r. et u? ) vel alio modo perfici vel omnino neglegi possit; abducendus etiam est non etiam est non in r. V c numquam ad alia studia sollicitudines curas negotia, loci denique mutatione tamquam aegroti non convalescentes saepe curandus est; 4.75. etiam novo quidam amore veterem amorem Hier. epist. 125, 14 tamquam clavo clavo clava V clavum eiciendum putant; maxume autem admonendus idmonendus V 3 est, quantus sit furor amoris. add. Bai. omnibus enim ex animi perturbationibus est profecto nulla vehementior, ut, si iam ipsa illa accusare accuss. K nolis, stupra dico et corruptelas et adulteria, incesta denique, quorum omnium accusabilis accuss. K est turpitudo,—sed ut haec omittas, omittas ex comitas V 3 perturbatio ipsa mentis in amore foeda per se est. 4.76. nam ut illa praeteream, quae sunt furoris, futuris K 1 furoris haec ipsa per sese sese V ( exp. 3 ) quam habent levitatem, quae videntur esse mediocria, Iniu/riae Ter. Eun. 59–63 Suspi/ciones i/nimicitiae induciae RV indu/tiae Bellu/m pax rursum! ince/rta haec si tu si tu s sit ut X ( prius t exp. V 3 ) po/stules Ratio/ne certa fa/cere, nihilo plu/s plus add. G 2 agas, Quam si/ des operam, ut cu/m ratione insa/nias. haec inconstantia mutabilitasque mentis quem non ipsa pravitate deterreat? est etiam etiam Man. enim illud, quod in omni perturbatione dicitur, demonstrandum, nullam esse nisi opinabilem, nisi iudicio susceptam, nisi voluntariam. etenim si naturalis amor esset, amor esset ex amorem et K c et amarent omnes et semper amarent et idem amarent, et idem amarent om. H neque alium pudor, alium cogitatio, alium satietas deterreret. etenim ... 26 deterreret H deterret G 1 Ira vero, quae quae -ae in r. V 2 quam diu perturbat animum, dubitationem insaniae non habet, cuius inpulsu imp. KR existit etiam inter fratres tale iurgium:
13. Philodemus of Gadara, De Ira \ , 7.16-7.24 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

14. Horace, Odes, 1.34 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.34. 2. Now Antiochus was not satisfied either with his unexpected taking the city, or with its pillage, or with the great slaughter he had made there; but being overcome with his violent passions, and remembering what he had suffered during the siege, he compelled the Jews to dissolve the laws of their country, and to keep their infants uncircumcised, and to sacrifice swine’s flesh upon the altar; 1.34. 7. Now when at the evening Herod had already dismissed his friends to refresh themselves after their fatigue, and when he was gone himself, while he was still hot in his armor, like a common soldier, to bathe himself, and had but one servant that attended him, and before he was gotten into the bath, one of the enemies met him in the face with a sword in his hand, and then a second, and then a third, and after that more of them;
15. Horace, Sermones, 1.2.31-1.2.35, 1.4.31-1.4.32, 1.4.110 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

16. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 1.1-1.49, 1.136-1.145, 1.486, 1.593, 1.692, 1.698, 1.704, 1.780, 1.856, 1.922-1.934, 1.1042-1.1048, 1.1106-1.1108, 2.205, 2.263-2.265, 2.317-2.332, 2.409, 2.447-2.448, 2.569-2.580, 2.1142-2.1145, 3.28-3.29, 3.79-3.84, 3.296-3.307, 3.453, 3.463-3.473, 3.580-3.581, 3.660-3.663, 3.670-3.678, 3.687, 3.731-3.732, 3.741-3.753, 3.760-3.770, 3.828-3.1094, 4.337-4.352, 4.547-4.548, 4.638-4.641, 4.664-4.667, 4.678-4.683, 4.714-4.721, 4.962-4.1068, 4.1070-4.1287, 5.206-5.217, 5.380-5.395, 5.436-5.442, 5.960-5.965, 5.1159, 5.1308-5.1349, 6.86, 6.97-6.98, 6.100, 6.116-6.117, 6.191-6.193, 6.255, 6.278, 6.306-6.308, 6.329, 6.357-6.378, 6.571, 6.777-6.778, 6.786-6.787, 6.821-6.823, 6.1117-6.1120, 6.1163-6.1177 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

17. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 1.76-1.86 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Sallust, Catiline, 11-13, 10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

19. Strabo, Geography, 10.4.12 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

20. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.546-1.549, 4.538-4.539, 4.548-4.549, 4.560-4.583, 4.590-4.629 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.546. I bring thee tidings that thy comrades all 1.547. are safe at land; and all thy ships, conveyed 1.548. by favoring breezes, safe at anchor lie; 1.549. or else in vain my parents gave me skill 4.538. death on the mid-sea rocks, and often call 4.539. with dying gasps on Dido's name—while I 4.548. irresolute with horror, while his soul 4.549. framed many a vain reply. Her swooning shape 4.560. ply well their task and push into the sea 4.561. the lofty ships. Now floats the shining keel 4.562. and oars they bring all leafy from the grove 4.563. with oak half-hewn, so hurried was the flight. 4.564. Behold them how they haste—from every gate 4.565. forth-streaming!—just as when a heap of corn 4.566. is thronged with ants, who, knowing winter nigh 4.567. refill their granaries; the long black line 4.568. runs o'er the levels, and conveys the spoil 4.569. in narrow pathway through the grass; a part 4.570. with straining and assiduous shoulder push 4.571. the kernels huge; a part array the file 4.572. and whip the laggards on; their busy track 4.573. warms quick and eager with unceasing toil. 4.574. O Dido, how thy suffering heart was wrung 4.575. that spectacle to see! What sore lament 4.576. was thine, when from the towering citadel 4.577. the whole shore seemed alive, the sea itself 4.578. in turmoil with loud cries! Relentless Love 4.579. to what mad courses may not mortal hearts 4.580. by thee be driven? Again her sorrow flies 4.581. to doleful plaint and supplication vain; 4.582. again her pride to tyrant Love bows down 4.583. lest, though resolved to die, she fail to prove 4.590. my sorrow asks thee, Anna! Since of thee 4.591. thee only, did that traitor make a friend 4.592. and trusted thee with what he hid so deep — 4.593. the feelings of his heart; since thou alone 4.594. hast known what way, what hour the man would yield 4.595. to soft persuasion—therefore, sister, haste 4.596. and humbly thus implore our haughty foe: 4.597. ‘I was not with the Greeks what time they swore 4.598. at Aulis to cut off the seed of Troy ; 4.599. I sent no ships to Ilium . Pray, have I 4.600. profaned Anchises' tomb, or vexed his shade?’ 4.601. Why should his ear be deaf and obdurate 4.602. to all I say? What haste? May he not make 4.603. one last poor offering to her whose love 4.604. is only pain? O, bid him but delay 4.605. till flight be easy and the winds blow fair. 4.606. I plead no more that bygone marriage-vow 4.607. by him forsworn, nor ask that he should lose 4.608. his beauteous Latium and his realm to be. 4.609. Nothing but time I crave! to give repose 4.610. and more room to this fever, till my fate 4.611. teach a crushed heart to sorrow. I implore 4.612. this last grace. (To thy sister's grief be kind!) 4.614. Such plaints, such prayers, again and yet again 4.615. betwixt the twain the sorrowing sister bore. 4.616. But no words move, no lamentations bring 4.617. persuasion to his soul; decrees of Fate 4.618. oppose, and some wise god obstructs the way 4.619. that finds the hero's ear. oft-times around 4.620. the aged strength of some stupendous oak 4.621. the rival blasts of wintry Alpine winds 4.622. mite with alternate wrath: Ioud is the roar 4.623. and from its rocking top the broken boughs 4.624. are strewn along the ground; but to the crag 4.625. teadfast it ever clings; far as toward heaven 4.626. its giant crest uprears, so deep below 4.627. its roots reach down to Tartarus:—not less 4.628. the hero by unceasing wail and cry 4.629. is smitten sore, and in his mighty heart
21. Vergil, Eclogues, 2.4, 2.67 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.4. the thick-leaved shadowy-soaring beech-tree grove 2.67. you are a boor, nor heeds a whit your gift
22. Vergil, Georgics, 3.242-3.283, 3.566 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.242. The north wind stoops, and scatters from his path 3.243. Dry clouds and storms of placeName key= 3.244. And rippling plains 'gin shiver with light gusts; 3.245. A sound is heard among the forest-tops; 3.246. Long waves come racing shoreward: fast he flies 3.247. With instant pinion sweeping earth and main. 3.248. A steed like this or on the mighty course 3.249. of placeName key= 3.250. Red foam-flakes from his mouth, or, kindlier task 3.251. With patient neck support the Belgian car. 3.252. Then, broken at last, let swell their burly frame 3.253. With fattening corn-mash, for, unbroke, they will 3.254. With pride wax wanton, and, when caught, refuse 3.255. Tough lash to brook or jagged curb obey. 3.256. But no device so fortifies their power 3.257. As love's blind stings of passion to forefend 3.258. Whether on steed or steer thy choice be set. 3.259. Ay, therefore 'tis they banish bulls afar 3.260. To solitary pastures, or behind 3.261. Some mountain-barrier, or broad streams beyond 3.262. Or else in plenteous stalls pen fast at home. 3.263. For, even through sight of her, the female waste 3.264. His strength with smouldering fire, till he forget 3.265. Both grass and woodland. She indeed full oft 3.266. With her sweet charms can lovers proud compel 3.267. To battle for the conquest horn to horn. 3.268. In Sila's forest feeds the heifer fair 3.269. While each on each the furious rivals run; 3.270. Wound follows wound; the black blood laves their limbs; 3.271. Horns push and strive against opposing horns 3.272. With mighty groaning; all the forest-side 3.273. And far placeName key= 3.274. Nor wont the champions in one stall to couch; 3.275. But he that's worsted hies him to strange clime 3.276. Far off, an exile, moaning much the shame 3.277. The blows of that proud conqueror, then love's lo 3.278. Avenged not; with one glance toward the byre 3.279. His ancient royalties behind him lie. 3.280. So with all heed his strength he practiseth 3.281. And nightlong makes the hard bare stones his bed 3.282. And feeds on prickly leaf and pointed rush 3.283. And proves himself, and butting at a tree 3.566. of cattle; nor seize they single lives alone
23. Juvenal, Satires, 15.131-15.174 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Plutarch, Dialogue On Love, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. Plutarch, It Is Impossible To Live Pleasantly In The Manner of Epicurus, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. Statius, Siluae, 2.7.76 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

27. Suetonius, Nero, 31 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

28. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 2.20 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

29. Tertullian, On The Apparel of Women, 2.1-2.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

30. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 6.3, 6.11, 6.22, 7.33, 7.36, 7.131, 7.175, 10.118-10.119 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.3. He was the first to define statement (or assertion) by saying that a statement is that which sets forth what a thing was or is. He used repeatedly to say, I'd rather be mad than feel pleasure, and We ought to make love to such women as will feel a proper gratitude. When a lad from Pontus was about to attend his lectures, and asked him what he required, the answer was, Come with a new book, a new pen, and new tablets, if you have a mind to (implying the need of brains as well). When someone inquired what sort of wife he ought to marry, he said, If she's beautiful, you'll not have her to yourself; if she's ugly, you'll pay for it dearly. Being told that Plato was abusing him, he remarked, It is a royal privilege to do good and be ill spoken of. 6.11. And he held virtue to be sufficient in itself to ensure happiness, since it needed nothing else except the strength of a Socrates. And he maintained that virtue is an affair of deeds and does not need a store of words or learning; that the wise man is self-sufficing, for all the goods of others are his; that ill repute is a good thing and much the same as pain; that the wise man will be guided in his public acts not by the established laws but by the law of virtue; that he will also marry in order to have children from union with the handsomest women; furthermore that he will not disdain to love, for only the wise man knows who are worthy to be loved. 6.22. Through watching a mouse running about, says Theophrastus in the Megarian dialogue, not looking for a place to lie down in, not afraid of the dark, not seeking any of the things which are considered to be dainties, he discovered the means of adapting himself to circumstances. He was the first, say some, to fold his cloak because he was obliged to sleep in it as well, and he carried a wallet to hold his victuals, and he used any place for any purpose, for breakfasting, sleeping, or conversing. And then he would say, pointing to the Stoa of Zeus and the Pompeion, that the Athenians had provided him with places to live in. 7.33. Again, in the Republic, making an invidious contrast, he declares the good alone to be true citizens or friends or kindred or free men; and accordingly in the view of the Stoics parents and children are enemies, not being wise. Again, it is objected, in the Republic he lays down community of wives, and at line 200 prohibits the building of sanctuaries, law-courts and gymnasia in cities; while as regards a currency he writes that we should not think it need be introduced either for purposes of exchange or for travelling abroad. Further, he bids men and women wear the same dress and keep no part of the body entirely covered. 7.36. of the many disciples of Zeno the following are the most famous: Persaeus, son of Demetrius, of Citium, whom some call a pupil and others one of the household, one of those sent him by Antigonus to act as secretary; he had been tutor to Antigonus's son Halcyoneus. And Antigonus once, wishing to make trial of him, caused some false news to be brought to him that his estate had been ravaged by the enemy, and as his countece fell, Do you see, said he, that wealth is not a matter of indifference?The following works are by Persaeus:of Kingship.The Spartan Constitution.of Marriage.of Impiety.Thyestes.of Love.Exhortations.Interludes.Four books of Anecdotes.Memorabilia.A Reply to Plato's Laws in seven books. 7.131. It is also their doctrine that amongst the wise there should be a community of wives with free choice of partners, as Zeno says in his Republic and Chrysippus in his treatise On Government [and not only they, but also Diogenes the Cynic and Plato]. Under such circumstances we shall feel paternal affection for all the children alike, and there will be an end of the jealousies arising from adultery. The best form of government they hold to be a mixture of democracy, kingship, and aristocracy (or the rule of the best).Such, then, are the statements they make in their ethical doctrines, with much more besides, together with their proper proofs: let this, however, suffice for a statement of them in a summary and elementary form. 7.175. Antiquities.of the Gods.of Giants.of Marriage.On Homer.of Duty, three books.of Good Counsel.of Gratitude.An Exhortation.of the Virtues.of Natural Ability.of Gorgippus.of Envy.of Love.of Freedom.The Art of Love.of Honour.of Fame.The Statesman.of Deliberation.of Laws.of Litigation.of Education.of Logic, three books.of the End.of Beauty.of Conduct.of Knowledge.of Kingship.of Friendship.On the Banquet.On the Thesis that Virtue is the same in Man and in Woman.On the Wise Man turning Sophist.of Usages.Lectures, two books.of Pleasure.On Properties.On Insoluble Problems.of Dialectic.of Moods or Tropes.of Predicates.This, then, is the list of his works. 10.118. When on the rack, however, he will give vent to cries and groans. As regards women he will submit to the restrictions imposed by the law, as Diogenes says in his epitome of Epicurus' ethical doctrines. Nor will he punish his servants; rather he will pity them and make allowance on occasion for those who are of good character. The Epicureans do not suffer the wise man to fall in love; nor will he trouble himself about funeral rites; according to them love does not come by divine inspiration: so Diogenes in his twelfth book. The wise man will not make fine speeches. No one was ever the better for sexual indulgence, and it is well if he be not the worse. 10.119. Nor, again, will the wise man marry and rear a family: so Epicurus says in the Problems and in the De Natura. Occasionally he may marry owing to special circumstances in his life. Some too will turn aside from their purpose. Nor will he drivel, when drunken: so Epicurus says in the Symposium. Nor will he take part in politics, as is stated in the first book On Life; nor will he make himself a tyrant; nor will he turn Cynic (so the second book On Life tells us); nor will he be a mendicant. But even when he has lost his sight, he will not withdraw himself from life: this is stated in the same book. The wise man will also feel grief, according to Diogenes in the fifth book of his Epilecta.
31. Lactantius, De Ira Dei, 10.17 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

32. Lactantius, De Opificio Dei, 2.10, 3.21, 6.1 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

33. Epicurus, Letter To Menoeceus, 131

34. Epicurus, Letters, 398

35. Epicurus, Letters, 398



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aelianus Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 268
aeneas Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
alcibiades Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 74
alcinous Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 43
amor, as destructive force Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 97
amor, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90, 91
amor Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 48, 49
anger Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
anger / irascibility, empty Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 74
animals, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90, 91
animals Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90, 91, 97
antisthenes, socratic, marriage is for procreation, love is destructive except to the wise, sex should be with those who are grateful for it Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 275
aristotle Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 266; Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90
ataraxia Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 53
athenaios Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 78
atom/atomism/atomistic explanation of the world Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 215
author function, implied author Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 136
avernus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 91
behaviour Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
biography, of lucretius Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 223
body parts, chest Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 63
body parts, skin Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 63
body parts, throat Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 63
booth, wayne Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 136
callimachus Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 124
chrysippus Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 78, 268
cicero, marcus tullius Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 266
cicero Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90
citations Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 268
civil war Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 48
clarity/clear Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 214
cleanthes (kleanthes) Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 268
clinamen Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 21
closure Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 52, 53, 56, 63
crete Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 268
cycle of growth and decay, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 234
cynicism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90
cynics/cynicism, condemned/satirized by greek writers Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 74
cynics/cynicism, diatribes by Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 74
cyprus Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 268
death Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 266
design, of the poem Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 52, 53, 56, 63
diatribe Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 108
dido, as lover Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 54
diogenes laertios Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 268
disease, as a closural device Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 52, 53, 56, 63
disease, as a force of (re)creation Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 21
disease, as a force of destruction Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 21
dreams Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 91; Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 56
eclogues, and theme of desire Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 213
elegy Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 54
emotion Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
empedocles Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 234
energeia (ἐνάργεια) Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 215
epicureanism, lucretian imagery Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 213
epicureanism, on erotic desire Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 213
epicureanism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90
epicureans, and food Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 43
epicureans, language of Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 43
epicureans Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
epicurus/epicureanism, parrhesia Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 102
epicurus Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
epicurus (and epicurean) Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 48, 49
epikouros (epicurus) Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 266, 268
epilogismos Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
eras, elegiac Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 213
eras, epicureanism on Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 213
eros Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 266, 268
eros (sexual desire), and epicureanism Hubbard, A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities (2014) 424
erotic desire Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 74
erysipelas Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 63
euripides Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 78, 268
false beliefs Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 74
female, excitement during sex Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 56
finales, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 97
fowler, don Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 21
frankness, contrasted with harsh criticism Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 74
friends/friendship Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 74
friendship, three levels of Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 74
friendship Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 266
furor, and erotic / sexual desire Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 52, 56
furor Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 48, 49
galatea Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 49
gallus, cornelius Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 48, 49
genre, elegy Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 213
gigante, marcello Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 74
god/goddess Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 215
god; gods Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 268
gowers, emily Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 74
hellenism Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 268
hellenistic Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 48
hellenistic epigram Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 124
heraclitus (author of homeric problems) Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 43
herodotus Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
homer Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 43
hope, and madness Kazantzidis and Spatharas, Hope in Ancient Literature, History, and Art (2018) 17
horses Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 97
imagery, military Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 234
implied author Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 136
intertextuality Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 43
irascibility Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 74
jebb, richard Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 136
jerome Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 136, 137; Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 223
kenney, edward Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 124
knowledge Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 214
leander Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 97
lethargy Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 52, 63
love, against erotic love, antisthenes, democritus, epicurus, lucretius, aristippus, cynics, epictetus Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 275
love, love, sex, marriage, and procreation, independent of each other Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 275
love Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 54; Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 214, 215; Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 275
love affair, of aeneas and dido Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 54
lucretius, animals in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90, 91
lucretius, biography Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 223
lucretius, cycle of growth and decay in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 234
lucretius, devotion to epicurus Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 223
lucretius, epicurean, erotic love discouraged Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 275
lucretius, epicurean, marriage is only for procreation Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 275
lucretius, implied author in Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 136
lucretius, in tennyson Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 149
lucretius, lanti-lucrèce chez lucrèce Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 137
lucretius, parrhesia Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 102
lucretius, read as document of the authors mind Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 136, 137
lucretius, victorian biofictional readings of Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 136, 137, 149
lucretius, war in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 234
lucretius Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 78, 266, 268; Cain, Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God (2023) 58; Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199; Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 74; Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 102
lucullus Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 223
lust Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 275
madness, of love Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 49
marriage, epicurean' Hubbard, A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities (2014) 424
mars Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 234
medical, idiom in latin Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 56
medical, intertexts Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 56
medicina amoris Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 49
memmius Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
memory, loss of it as a consequence of disease Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 52, 63
metaphor Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 214, 215
musonius some level of equality required, marriage only for procreation, antisthenes, lucretius Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 275
naples Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 49
nature Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 214
neikos Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 234
neoterics (and neoteric poetry) Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 48
nero Kazantzidis and Spatharas, Hope in Ancient Literature, History, and Art (2018) 17
novi poetae Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 124
odysseus Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 43
ovid Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90
pain (dolor) Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 63
parrhesia Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 102
particles, tertullian Cain, Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God (2023) 58
pastoral, design, Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 213
pastoral, epicurean ethos of Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 213
pastoral, ideal vision of Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 213
pastoral, song as pharmahon Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 213
pastoral Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 49
patin, m. Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 137
paul of tarsus Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 266
perkell, christine Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 213
persona Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 136
phaeacians Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 43
phaedrus Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 54
phantasia Kazantzidis and Spatharas, Hope in Ancient Literature, History, and Art (2018) 17
philodemus Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 49; Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
philodemus of gadara, condemnation of cynicism Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 74
philodemus of gadara, cynic influences on Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 74
philodemus of gadara, depictions of anger Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 74
philosophy Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
philoxenus of cythera Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 49
plague, and closure Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 63
plague Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 214, 215
plato Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 266; Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90
pleasure Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 74
plutarch Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 43; Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
poison imagery Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 63
polignac, melchior de Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 137
politicus, symposium Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 54
polyphemus Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 49
procreation, relation to marriage, sole purpose, required, not required Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 275
procreation Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 275
progress Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
prokopton Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
ratio Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 215
restlessness, erotic Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 53
rome Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 48
sacer ignis / sacred fire Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 63
salamis Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 268
schofield, malcolm Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 275
schroeder, f. m. Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 74
seelenheilung Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 74
sellar, w. y. Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 136
semen Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 56
senses, touch Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 21, 63
sex, random sex advocated Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 275
sex, sex debunked Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 275
sexual intercourse Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 21, 56
siro Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 49
sleep Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 52
socrates Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 74
soul Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 78; Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 215
souls Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 49
sponte sua Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 21
stoic philosophy Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 54
stoicism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90
stoics Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
storms Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 234
strabon Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 78, 268
students Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 74
surface, of the body Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 63
teachers/teaching Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 74
telos Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 43
tennyson, alfred lord, biofictional reception of lucretius Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 149
tennyson, alfred lord, lucretius Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 149
tertullian of carthage, and women Cain, Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God (2023) 58
tertullian of carthage, cosmology Cain, Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God (2023) 58
tertullian of carthage, gladiator games Cain, Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God (2023) 58
tertullian of carthage, men Cain, Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God (2023) 58
tertullian of carthage, particles Cain, Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God (2023) 58
tertullian of carthage, passivity Cain, Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God (2023) 58
tertullian of carthage, sexual arousal, male Cain, Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God (2023) 58
theocritus Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 49
theophrastus Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 78, 266, 268
thucydides Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 63
tradition Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
truth Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 74
values Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 48
venus, and sexual desire / intercourse Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 21, 124
venus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90, 91, 234; Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 48, 49
vergil, bucolics Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 49
vergil Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 199
vice Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 74
virgil, reception of lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 97
war, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 234
war, in presocratic philosophy Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 234
water Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 266
women Cain, Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God (2023) 58; Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 74
wounds Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 21, 53, 56
xenophon Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90
zeno of citium, stoic, hence different conception of freedom from emotion(apatheia) Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 275
zeno of sidon Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 74