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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7574
Lucretius Carus, On The Nature Of Things, 1.38-1.43
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1. Hesiod, Works And Days, 1 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

1. Pierian Muses, with your songs of praise
2. Homer, Iliad, 1.8, 15.187-15.193, 20.61-20.66 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

1.8. /from the time when first they parted in strife Atreus' son, king of men, and brilliant Achilles.Who then of the gods was it that brought these two together to contend? The son of Leto and Zeus; for he in anger against the king roused throughout the host an evil pestilence, and the people began to perish 15.187. / Out upon it, verily strong though he be he hath spoken overweeningly, if in sooth by force and in mine own despite he will restrain me that am of like honour with himself. For three brethren are we, begotten of Cronos, and born of Rhea,—Zeus, and myself, and the third is Hades, that is lord of the dead below. And in three-fold wise are all things divided, and unto each hath been apportioned his own domain. 15.188. / Out upon it, verily strong though he be he hath spoken overweeningly, if in sooth by force and in mine own despite he will restrain me that am of like honour with himself. For three brethren are we, begotten of Cronos, and born of Rhea,—Zeus, and myself, and the third is Hades, that is lord of the dead below. And in three-fold wise are all things divided, and unto each hath been apportioned his own domain. 15.189. / Out upon it, verily strong though he be he hath spoken overweeningly, if in sooth by force and in mine own despite he will restrain me that am of like honour with himself. For three brethren are we, begotten of Cronos, and born of Rhea,—Zeus, and myself, and the third is Hades, that is lord of the dead below. And in three-fold wise are all things divided, and unto each hath been apportioned his own domain. 15.190. /I verily, when the lots were shaken, won for my portion the grey sea to be my habitation for ever, and Hades won the murky darkness, while Zeus won the broad heaven amid the air and the clouds; but the earth and high Olympus remain yet common to us all. Wherefore will I not in any wise walk after the will of Zeus; nay in quiet 15.191. /I verily, when the lots were shaken, won for my portion the grey sea to be my habitation for ever, and Hades won the murky darkness, while Zeus won the broad heaven amid the air and the clouds; but the earth and high Olympus remain yet common to us all. Wherefore will I not in any wise walk after the will of Zeus; nay in quiet 15.192. /I verily, when the lots were shaken, won for my portion the grey sea to be my habitation for ever, and Hades won the murky darkness, while Zeus won the broad heaven amid the air and the clouds; but the earth and high Olympus remain yet common to us all. Wherefore will I not in any wise walk after the will of Zeus; nay in quiet 15.193. /I verily, when the lots were shaken, won for my portion the grey sea to be my habitation for ever, and Hades won the murky darkness, while Zeus won the broad heaven amid the air and the clouds; but the earth and high Olympus remain yet common to us all. Wherefore will I not in any wise walk after the will of Zeus; nay in quiet 20.61. /and all her peaks, and the city of the Trojans, and the ships of the Achaeans. And seized with fear in the world below was Aidoneus, lord of the shades, and in fear leapt he from his throne and cried aloud, lest above him the earth be cloven by Poseidon, the Shaker of Earth, and his abode be made plain to view for mortals and immortals- 20.62. /and all her peaks, and the city of the Trojans, and the ships of the Achaeans. And seized with fear in the world below was Aidoneus, lord of the shades, and in fear leapt he from his throne and cried aloud, lest above him the earth be cloven by Poseidon, the Shaker of Earth, and his abode be made plain to view for mortals and immortals- 20.63. /and all her peaks, and the city of the Trojans, and the ships of the Achaeans. And seized with fear in the world below was Aidoneus, lord of the shades, and in fear leapt he from his throne and cried aloud, lest above him the earth be cloven by Poseidon, the Shaker of Earth, and his abode be made plain to view for mortals and immortals- 20.64. /and all her peaks, and the city of the Trojans, and the ships of the Achaeans. And seized with fear in the world below was Aidoneus, lord of the shades, and in fear leapt he from his throne and cried aloud, lest above him the earth be cloven by Poseidon, the Shaker of Earth, and his abode be made plain to view for mortals and immortals- 20.65. /the dread and dank abode, wherefor the very gods have loathing: so great was the din that arose when the gods clashed in strife. For against king Poseidon stood Phoebus Apollo with his winged arrows, and against Enyalius the goddess, flashing-eyed Athene; 20.66. /the dread and dank abode, wherefor the very gods have loathing: so great was the din that arose when the gods clashed in strife. For against king Poseidon stood Phoebus Apollo with his winged arrows, and against Enyalius the goddess, flashing-eyed Athene;
3. Homer, Odyssey, 6.42-6.46 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

4. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

441a. three existing kinds that composed its structure, the moneymakers, the helpers, the counsellors, so also in the soul there exists a third kind, this principle of high spirit, which is the helper of reason by nature unless it is corrupted by evil nurture? We have to assume it as a third, he said. Yes, said I, provided it shall have been shown to be something different from the rational, as it has been shown to be other than the appetitive. That is not hard to be shown, he said; for that much one can see in children, that they are from their very birth chock-full of rage and high spirit, but as for reason
5. Xenophon, Memoirs, 1.4.11-1.4.14 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.4.11. I assure you, that if I believed that the gods pay any heed to man, I would not neglect them. Then do you think them unheeding? In the first place, man is the only living creature that they have caused to stand upright; and the upright position gives him a wider range of vision in front and a better view of things above, and exposes him less to injury. Secondly, to grovelling creatures they have given feet that afford only the power of moving, whereas they have endowed man with hands, which are the instruments to which we chiefly owe our greater happiness. 1.4.12. Again, though all creatures have a tongue, the tongue of man alone has been formed by them to be capable of contact with different parts of the mouth, so as to enable us to articulate the voice and express all our wants to one another. Once more, for all other creatures they have prescribed a fixed season of sexual indulgence; in our case the only time limit they have set is old age. 1.4.13. Nor was the deity content to care for man’s body. What is of yet higher moment, he has implanted in him the noblest type of soul. For in the first place what other creature’s soul has apprehended the existence of gods who set in order the universe, greatest and fairest of things? And what race of living things other than man worships gods? And what soul is more apt than man’s to make provision against hunger and thirst, cold and heat, to relieve sickness and promote health, to acquire knowledge by toil, and to remember accurately all that is heard, seen, or learned? 1.4.14. For is it not obvious to you that, in comparison with the other animals, men live like gods, by nature peerless both in body and in soul? For with a man’s reason and the body of an ox we could not carry out our wishes, and the possession of hands without reason is of little worth. Do you, then, having received the two most precious gifts, yet think that the gods take no care of you? What are they to do, to make you believe that they are heedful of you?
6. Aratus Solensis, Phaenomena, 17-18, 16 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16. αὐτὸς καὶ προτέρη γενεή. Χαίροιτε δὲ Μοῦσαι
7. Aristotle, Politics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 1.30, 1.71 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.30. omne animal, simul atque natum sit, voluptatem appetere eaque gaudere ut summo bono, dolorem aspernari ut summum malum et, quantum possit, a se repellere, idque facere nondum depravatum ipsa natura incorrupte atque integre iudicante. itaque negat opus esse ratione neque disputatione, quam ob rem voluptas expetenda, fugiendus dolor sit. sentiri haec haec ħ BE hoc NV putat, ut calere ignem, nivem esse albam, dulce mel. dulce esse mel R mel dulce A quorum nihil oportere oportere V oporteret exquisitis rationibus confirmare, tantum tantum om. BE satis esse esse satis A admonere. interesse enim inter inter om. BE argumentum argumentumque BE argumentatum R augmentatum A conclusionemque rationis et inter mediocrem animadversionem atque admonitionem. altera occulta quaedam et quasi involuta aperiri, altera prompta promta AR et aperta iudicari. indicari NV etenim quoniam detractis de homine sensibus reliqui nihil est, necesse est quid aut ad naturam aut ad naturam AR ad naturam ( om. aut) BE aut naturam ( om. ad) N 1 aut secundum naturam N 2 aut verum (compend scr) V aut contra sit a natura ipsa iudicari. post iudicari add. in V voluptatem etiam per se expetendam esse et dolorem ipsum per se esse fugiendum; idem in N ab alt. m. in marg. adscr. posito post iudicari signo eo- demque in marg. ea quid percipit aut quid iudicat, quo aut petat aut fugiat aliquid, praeter voluptatem et et aut NV dolorem? 1.71. Quapropter si ea, quae dixi, sole ipso illustriora et clariora sunt, si omnia dixi hausta omnia dixi hausta = nihil dixi nisi quod haustum esset e fonte naturae, si tota oratio nostra omnem sibi fidem sensibus confirmat, id est incorruptis atque integris testibus, si infantes pueri, mutae etiam bestiae paene loquuntur magistra ac duce natura nihil esse prosperum nisi voluptatem, nihil asperum nisi dolorem, de quibus neque depravate iudicant neque corrupte, depravatae ... corruptae A nonne ei maximam gratiam habere debemus, qui hac exaudita quasi voce naturae sic eam firme graviterque comprehenderit, ut omnes bene sanos in viam placatae, tranquillae, quietae, beatae vitae deduceret? Qui quod tibi parum videtur eruditus, ea causa est, quod nullam eruditionem esse duxit, nisi quae beatae vitae disciplinam iuvaret.
9. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 2.130-2.153 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.130. Moreover the skill and industry of man also contribute to the preservation and security of certain animals and plants. For there are many species of both which could not survive without man's care. "Also a plentiful variety of conveniences is found in different regions for the productive cultivation of the soil by man. Egypt is watered by the Nile, which corps the land completely flooded all the summer and afterwards retires leaving the soil soft and covered with mud, in readiness for sowing. Mesopotamia is fertilized by the Euphrates, which as it were imports into it new fields every year. The Indus, the largest river in the world, not only manures and softens the soil but actually sows it with seed, for it is said to bring down with it a great quantity of seeds resembling corn. 2.131. And I could produce a number of other remarkable examples in a variety of places, and instance a variety of lands each prolific in a different kind of produce. But how great is the benevolence of nature, in giving birth to such an abundance and variety of delicious articles of food, and that not at one season only of the year, so that we have continually the delights of both novelty and plenty! How seasonable moreover and how some not for the human race alone but also for the animal and the various vegetable species is her gift of the Etesian winds! their breath moderates the excessive heat of summer, entirely also guide our ships across the sea upon a swift and steady course. Many instances must be passed over [and yet many are given]. 2.132. For it is impossible to recount the conveniences afforded by rivers, the ebb and flow . . . of the tides of the sea, the mountains clothed with forests, the salt-beds lying far inland from the sea‑coast, the copious stores of health-giving medicines that the earth contains, and all the countless arts necessary for livelihood and for life. Again the alternation of day and night contributes to the preservation of living creatures by affording one time for activity and another for repose. Thus every line of reasoning goes to prove that all things in this world of ours are marvellously governed by divine intelligence and wisdom for the safety and preservation of all. 2.133. Here somebody will ask, for whose sake was all this vast system contrived? For the sake of the trees and plants, for these, though without sensation, have their sustece from nature? But this at any rate is absurd. Then for the sake of the animals? It is no more likely that the gods took all this trouble for the sake of dumb, irrational creatures/ For whose sake then shall one pronounce the world to have been created? Doubtless for the sake of those living beings which have the use of reason; these are the gods and mankind, who assuredly surpass all other things in excellence, since the most excellent of all things is reason. Thus we are led to believe that the world and all the things that it contains were made for the sake of gods and men. "And that man has been cared for by divine providence will be more readily understood if we survey the whole structure of man and all the conformation and perfection of human nature. 2.134. There are three things requisite for the maintece of animal life, food, drink and breath; and for the reception of all of these the mouth is most consummately adapted, receiving as it does an abundant supply of breath through the nostrils which communicate with it. The structure of the teeth within the mouth serves to chew the food, and it is divided up and softened by them. The front teeth are sharp, and bite our viands into pieces; the back teeth, called molars, masticate them, the process of mastication apparently being assisted also by the tongue. 2.135. Next to the tongue comes the gullet, which is attached to its roots, and into which in the first place pass that substances that have been received in the mouth. The gullet is adjacent to the tonsils on either side of it, and reaches as far as the back or innermost part of the palate. The action and movements of the tongue drive and thrust the food down into the gullet, which receives it and drives it further down, the parts of the gullet below the food that is being swallowed dilating and the parts above it contracting. 2.136. The windpipe, or trachea as it is termed by physicians, has an orifice attached to the roots of the tongue a little above the point where the tongue is joined to the gullet; it reaches to the lungs, and receives the air inhaled by breathing, and also exhales it and passes it out from the lungs; it is covered by a sort of lid, provided for the purpose of preventing a morsel of food from accidentally falling into it and impeding the breath. Below the gullet lies the stomach, which is constructed as the receptacle of food and drink, whereas breath is inhaled by the lungs and heart. The stomach performs a number of remarkable operations; its structure consists principally of muscular fibres, and it is manifold and twisted; it compresses and contains the dry or moist nutriment that it receives, enabling it to be assimilated and digested; at one moment is astricted and at another relaxed, thus pressing and mixing together all that is passed into it, so that by means of the abundant heat which it possesses, and by its crushing the food, and also by the op of the breath, everything is digested and worked up so as to be easily distributed throughout the rest of the body. The lungs on the contrary are soft and of a loose and spongy consistency, well adapted to absorb the breath; which they inhale and exhale by alternately contracting and expanding, to provide frequent draughts of that aerial nutriment which is the chief support of animal life. 2.137. The alimentary juice secreted from the rest of the food by the stomach flows from the bowels to the liver through certain ducts or channels reaching to the liver, to which they are attached, and connecting up what are called the doorways of the liver with the middle intestine. From the liver different channels pass in different directions, and through these falls the food passed down from the liver. From this food is secreted bile, and the liquids excreted by the kidneys; the residue turns into blood be flows to the aforesaid doorways of the liver, to which all its channels lead. Flowing through these doorways the food at this very point pours into the so‑called vena cava or hollow vein, and through this, being now completely worked up and digested, flows to the heart, and from the heart is distributed all over the body through a rather large number of veins that reach to every part of the frame. 2.138. It would not be difficult to indicate the way in which the residue of the food is excreted by the alternate astriction and relaxation of the bowels; however this topic must be passed over lest my discourse should be somewhat offensive. Rather let me unfold the following instance of the incredible skilfulness of nature's handiwork. The air drawn into the lungs by breathing is warmed in the first instance by the breath itself and then by contact with the lungs; part of it is returned by the act of respiration, and part is received by a certain part of the heart called the cardiac ventricle, adjacent to which is a second similar vessel into which the blood flows from the liver three the vena cava mentioned above; and in this manner from these organs both the blood is diffused through the veins and the breath through the arteries all over the body. Both of these sets of vessels are very numerous and are closely interwoven with the tissues of the entire body; they testify to an extraordinary degree of skilful and divine craftsmanship. 2.139. Why need I speak about the bones, which are the framework of the body? their marvellous cartilages are nicely adapted to secure stability, and fitted to end off the joints and to allow of movement and bodily activity of every sort. Add thereto the nerves or sinews which hold the joints together and whose ramifications pervade the entire body; like the veins and arteries these lead from the heart as their starting-point and pass to all parts of the body. 2.140. Many further illustrations could be given of this wise and careful providence of nature, to illustrate the lavishness and splendour of the gifts bestowed by the gods on men. First, she has raised them from the ground to stand tall and upright, so that they might be able to behold the sky and so gain a knowledge of the gods. For men are sprung from the earth not as its inhabitants and denizens, but to be as it were the spectators of things supernal and heavenly, in the contemplation whereof no other species of animal participates. Next, the senses, posted in the citadel of the head as the reporters and messengers of the outer world, both in structure and position are marvellously adapted to their necessary services. The eyes as the watchmen have the highest station, to give them the widest outlook for the performance of their function. 2.141. The ears also, having the duty of perceiving sound, the nature of which is to rise, are rightly placed in the upper part of the body. The nostrils likewise are rightly placed high inasmuch as all smells travel upwards, but also, because they have much to do with discriminating food and drink, they have with good reason been brought into the neighbourhood of the mouth. Taste, which has the function of distinguishing the flavors of our various viands, is situated in that part of the face where nature has made an aperture for the passage of food and drink. The sense of touch is evenly diffused over all the body, to enable us to perceive all sorts of contacts and even the minutest impacts of both cold and heat. And just as architects relegate the drains of houses to the rear, away from the eyes and nose of the masters, since otherwise they would inevitably be somewhat offensive, so nature has banished the corresponding organs of the body far away from the neighbourhood of the senses. 2.142. Again what artificer but nature, who is unsurpassed in her cunning, could have attained such skilfulness in the construction of the senses? First, she has clothed and walled the eyes with membranes of the finest texture, which she has made on the one hand transparent so that we may be able to see through them, and on the other hand firm of substance, to serve as the outer cover of the eye. The eyes she has made mobile and smoothly turning, so as both to avoid any threatened injury and to direct their gaze easily in any direction they desire. The actually organ of vision, called the pupil or 'little doll,' is so small as easily to avoid objects that might injure it; and the lids, which are the covers of the eyes, are very soft to the touch so as not to hurt the pupil, and very neatly constructed as to be able both to shut the eyes in order that nothing may impinge upon them and to open them; and nature has provided that this process can be repeated again and again with extreme rapidity. 2.143. The eyelids are furnished with a palisade of hairs, whereby to ward off any impinging object while the eyes are open, and so that while they are closed in sleep, when we do not need the eyes for seeing, they may be as it were tucked up for repose. Moreover the eyes are in advantageously retired position, and shielded on all sides by surrounding prominences; for first the parts above them are covered by the eyebrows which prevent sweat from flowing down from the scalp and forehead; then the cheeks, which are placed beneath them and which slightly project, protect them from below; and the hose is so placed as to seem to be a wall separating the eyes from one another. 2.144. The organ of hearing on the other hand is always open, since we require this sense even when asleep, and when it receives a sound, we are aroused even from sleep. The auditory passage is winding, to prevent anything from being able to enter, as it might if the passage were clear and straight; it has further been provided that even the tiniest insect that may attempt to intrude may be caught in the sticky wax of the ears. On the outside project the organs which we call ears, which are constructed both to cover and protect the sense-organ and to prevent the sounds that reach them from sliding past and being lost before they strike the sense. The apertures of the ears are hard and gristly, and much convoluted, because things with these qualities reflect and amplify sound; this is why tortoise-shell or horn gives resoce to a lyre, and always why winding passages and enclosures have an echo which is louder than the original sound. 2.145. Similarly the nostrils, which to serve the purposes required of them have to be always open, have narrower apertures, to prevent the entrance of anything that may harm them; and they are always moist, which is useful to guard them against dust and many other things. The sense of taste is admirably shielded, being enclosed in the mouth in a manner well suited for the performance of its function and for its protection against harm. "And all the senses of man far excel those of the lower animals. In the first place our eyes have a finer perception of many things in the arts which appeal to the sense of sight, painting, modelling and sculpture, and also in bodily movements and gestures; since the eyes judge beauty and arrangement and so to speak propriety of colour and shape; and also other more important matters, for they also recognize virtues and vices, the angry and the friendly, the joyful and the sad, the brave man and the coward, the bold and the craven. 2.146. The ears are likewise marvellously skilful organs of discrimination; they judge differences of tone, of pitch and of key in the music of the voice and of wind and stringed instruments, and many different qualities of voice, sonorous and dull, smooth and rough, bass and treble, flexible and hard, distinctions discriminated by the human ear alone. Likewise the nostrils, the taste and in some measure the touch have highly sensitive faculties of discrimination. And the arts invented to appeal to and indulge these senses are even more numerous than I could wish. The developments of perfumery and of the meretricious adornment of the person are obvious examples. 2.147. Coming now to the actual mind and intellect of man, his reason, wisdom and foresight, one who cannot see that these owe their perfection to divine providence must in my view himself be devoid of these very faculties. While discussing this topic I could wish, Cotta, that I had the gift of your eloquence. How could not you describe first our powers of understanding, and then our faculty of conjoining premisses and consequences in a single act of apprehension, the faculty I mean that enables us to judge what conclusion follows from any given propositions and to put the inference in syllogistic form, and also to delimit particular terms in a succinct definition; whence we arrive at an understanding of the potency and the nature of knowledge, which is the most excellent part even of the divine nature. Again, how remarkable are the faculties which you Academics invalidate and abolish, our sensory and intellectual perception and comprehension of external objects; 2.148. it is by collating and comparing our precepts that we also create the arts that serve either practical necessities or the purpose of amusement. Then take the gift of speech, the queen of arts as you are fond of calling it — what a glorious, what a divine faculty it is! In the first place it enables us both to learn things we do not know and to teach things we do know to others; secondly it is our instrument for exhortation and persuasion, for consoling the afflicted and assuaging the fears of the terrified, for curbing passion and quenching appetite and anger; it is this that has united us in the bonds of justice, law and civil order, this that has sped us from savagery and barbarism. 2.149. Now careful consideration will show that the mechanism of speech displays a skill on nature's part that surpasses belief. In the first place there is an artery passing from the lugns to the back of the mouth, which is the channel by which the voice, originating from the mind, is caught and uttered. Next, the tongue is placed in the mouth and confined by the teeth; it modulates and defines the inarticulate flow of the voice and renders its sounds district and clear by striking the teeth and other parts of the mouth. Accordingly my school is fond of comparing the tongue to the quill of a lyre, the teeth to the strings, and the nostrils to the horns which echo the notes of the strings when the instrument is played. 2.150. Then what clever servants for a great variety of arts are the hands which nature has bestowed on man! The flexibility of the joints enables the fingers to close and open with equal ease, and to perform every motion without difficulty. Thus by the manipulation of the fingers the hand is enabled to paint, to model, to carve, and to draw forth the notes of the lyre and of the flute. And beside these arts of recreation there are those of utility, I mean agriculture and building, the weaving and stitching of garments, and the various modes of working bronze and iron; hence we realize that it was by applying the hand of the artificer to the discoveries of thought and observations of the senses that all our conveniences were attained, and we were enabled to have shelter, clothing and protection, and possessed cities, fortifications, houses and temples. 2.151. Moreover men's industry, that is to say the work of their hands, porticus us also our food in variety and abundance. It is the hand that gathers the divers products of the fields, whether to be consumed immediately or to be stored in repositories for the days to come; and our diet also includes flesh, fish and fowl, obtained partly by the chase and partly by breeding. We also tame the four-footed animals to carry us on their backs, their swiftness and strength bestowing strength and swiftness upon ourselves. We cause certain beasts to bear our burdens or to carry a yoke, we divert to our service the marvellously acute senses of elephants and the keen scent of hounds; we collect from the caves of the earth the iron which we need for tilling the land, we discover the deeply hidden veins of copper, silver and gold which serve us both for use and for adornment; we cut up a multitude of trees both wild and cultivated for timber which we employ partly by setting fire to it to warm our busy and cook our food, partly for building so as to shelter ourselves with houses and banish heat and cold. 2.152. Timber moreover is of great value for constructing ships, whose voyages supply an abundance of sustece of all sorts from all parts of the earth; and we alone have the power of controlling the most violent of nature's offspring, the sea and the winds, thanks to the science of navigation, and we use and enjoy many products of the sea. Likewise the entire command of the commodities produced on land is vested in mankind. We enjoy the fruits of the plains and of the mountains, the rivers and the lakes are ours, we sow corn, we plant trees, we fertilize the soil by irrigation, we confine the rivers and straighten or divert their courses. In fine, by means of our hands we essay to create as it were a second world within the world of nature. 2.153. Then moreover hasn't man's reason penetrated even to the sky? We alone of living creatures know the risings and settings and the courses of the stars, the human race has set limits to the day, the month and the year, and has learnt the eclipses of the sun and moon and foretold for all future time their occurrence, their extent and their dates. And contemplating the heavenly bodies the mind arrives at a knowledge of the gods, from which arises piety, with its comrades justice and the rest of the virtues, the sources of a life of happiness that vies with and resembles the divine existence and leaves us inferior to the celestial beings in nothing else save immortality, which is immaterial for happiness. I think that my exposition of these matters has been sufficient to prove how widely man's nature surpasses all other living creatures; and this should make it clear that neither such a conformation and arrangement of the members nor such power of mind and intellect can possibly have been created by chance.
10. Varro, On Agriculture, 1.1.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

11. Augustus, Res Gestae Divi Augusti, 34.1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 1.1-1.37, 1.39-1.145, 1.250-1.251, 1.486, 1.593, 1.730, 1.737-1.738, 1.741, 1.780, 1.856, 1.926-1.950, 1.1014-1.1015, 1.1042-1.1048, 1.1064, 2.9-2.19, 2.92-2.99, 2.205, 2.263-2.265, 2.317-2.332, 2.409, 2.447-2.448, 2.569-2.580, 2.600-2.643, 2.645, 2.652-2.654, 2.992-2.998, 2.1001, 2.1039, 2.1142-2.1145, 3.1-3.10, 3.12-3.22, 3.59-3.78, 3.296-3.307, 3.371, 4.1-4.5, 4.11-4.25, 4.337-4.352, 4.547-4.548, 4.638-4.641, 4.678-4.683, 4.714-4.721, 4.962-4.1287, 5.1-5.6, 5.20-5.21, 5.110-5.145, 5.206-5.217, 5.380-5.395, 5.436-5.442, 5.490-5.491, 5.622, 5.780-5.825, 5.1120-5.1142, 5.1204, 5.1392-5.1396, 6.76, 6.92-6.95, 6.97-6.98, 6.100, 6.116-6.117, 6.150-6.155, 6.191-6.193, 6.255, 6.278, 6.286, 6.306-6.308, 6.329, 6.357-6.378, 6.388, 6.571, 6.596-6.600, 6.644, 6.670, 6.777-6.778, 6.786-6.787, 6.821-6.823, 6.1117-6.1120, 6.1138-6.1286 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

13. Ovid, Amores, 2.17.20-2.17.21 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Ovid, Epistulae Ex Ponto, 3.9.53 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Ovid, Fasti, 4.7-4.12, 4.19-4.60, 4.82-4.132 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4.11. From ancient texts I sing the days and reasons 4.23. When Romulus established the length of the year 4.24. He recognised this, and commemorated your sires: 4.25. And as he granted first place among months to fierce Mars 4.26. Being the immediate cause of his own existence 4.27. So he granted the second month to Venus 4.28. Tracing his descent from her through many generations: 4.29. Searching for the roots of his race, unwinding the roll 4.30. of the centuries, he came at last to his divine kin. 4.31. He couldn’t be ignorant that Electra daughter of Atla 4.32. Bore Dardanus, that Electra had slept with Jove. 4.33. From Dardanus came Ericthonius, and from himTros: 4.34. He in turn produced Assaracus, and Assaracus Capys. 4.35. Next was Anchises, with whom Venu 4.36. Didn’t disdain to share the name of parent. 4.37. From them came Aeneas, whose piety was seen, carrying 4.38. Holy things, and a father as holy, on his shoulders, through the fire. 4.39. Now at last we come to the fortunate name of Iulus 4.40. Through whom the Julian house claims Teucrian ancestors. 4.41. Postumus was his, called Silvius among the Latin 4.42. Race, being born in the depth of the woods. 4.43. He was your father, Latinus. Alba followed Latinus: 4.44. Epytus was next to take your titles Alba. 4.45. Epytus gave his son Capys a Trojan name 4.46. And the same was your grandfather Calpetus. 4.47. When Tiberinus ruled his father’s kingdom after him 4.48. It’s said he drowned in a deep pool of the Tuscan river. 4.49. But before that he saw the birth of a son Agrippa 4.50. And a grandson Remulus, who was struck by lightning. 4.51. Aventinus followed them, from whom the place and the hill 4.52. Took their name. After him the realm passed to Proca. 4.53. He was succeeded by Numitor, brother to harsh Amulius. 4.54. Ilia and Lausus were then the children of Numitor. 4.55. Lausus fell to his uncle’s sword: Ilia pleased Mars 4.56. And bore you Quirinus, and your brother Remus. 4.57. You always claimed your parents were Mars and Venus 4.58. And deserved to be believed when you said so: 4.59. And you granted successive months to your race’s gods 4.60. So your descendants might not be in ignorance of the truth. 4.85. Where does envy not reach? Venus, there are some 4.86. Who’d grudge you your month, and snatch it away. 4.87. They say Spring was named from the open (apertum) season 4.88. Because Spring opens (aperit) everything and the sharp 4.89. Frost-bound cold vanishes, and fertile soil’s revealed 4.90. Though kind Venus sets her hand there and claims it. 4.91. She rules the whole world too, and truly deserves to: 4.92. She owns a realm not inferior to any god’s 4.93. Commands earth and heaven, and her native ocean 4.94. And maintains all beings from her source. 4.95. She created the gods (too numerous to mention): 4.96. She gave the crops and trees their first roots: 4.97. She brought the crude minds of men together 4.98. And taught them each to associate with a partner. 4.99. What but sweet pleasure creates all the race of birds? 4.100. Cattle wouldn’t mate, if gentle love were absent. 4.101. The wild ram butts the males with his horn 4.102. But won’t hurt the brow of his beloved ewe. 4.103. The bull, that the woods and pastures fear 4.104. Puts off his fierceness and follows the heifer. 4.105. The same force preserves whatever lives in the deep 4.106. And fills the waters with innumerable fish. 4.107. That force first stripped man of his wild apparel: 4.108. From it he learned refinement and elegance. 4.109. It’s said a banished lover first serenaded 4.110. His mistress by night, at her closed door 4.111. And eloquence then was the winning of a reluctant maid 4.112. And everyone pleaded his or her own cause. 4.113. A thousand arts are furthered by the goddess: and the wish 4.114. To delight has revealed many things that were hidden. 4.115. Who dares to steal her honour of naming the second month? 4.116. Let such madness be far from my thoughts. 4.117. Besides, though she’s powerful everywhere, her temple 4.118. Crowded, doesn’t she hold most sway in our City? 4.119. Venus, Roman, carried weapons to defend your Troy 4.120. And groaned at the spear wound in her gentle hand: 4.121. And she defeated two goddesses, by a Trojan judgement 4.122. (Ah! If only they hadn’t remembered her victory!) 4.123. And she was called the bride of Assaracus’s son 4.124. So that mighty Caesar would have Julian ancestors. 4.125. No season is more fitting for Venus than Spring: 4.126. In spring the earth gleams: in spring the ground’s soft 4.127. Now the grass pokes its tips through the broken soil 4.128. Now the vine bursts in buds through the swollen bark. 4.129. And lovely Venus deserves the lovely season 4.130. And is joined again to her darling Mars: 4.131. In Spring she tells the curving ships to sail, over 4.132. Her native seas, and fear the winter’s threat no longer.
16. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 1.2, 1.76-1.86, 15.622 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Ovid, Tristia, 3.3.73, 4.1.71-4.1.84, 4.10.1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.8, 1.263-1.266, 6.851-6.853 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.8. the city, and bring o'er his fathers' gods 1.263. had stored in jars, and prince-like sent away 1.264. with his Ioved guest;—this too Aeneas gave; 1.266. “Companions mine, we have not failed to feel 6.851. Eridanus, through forests rolling free. 6.852. Here dwell the brave who for their native land 6.853. Fell wounded on the field; here holy priests
19. Vergil, Georgics, 1.1-1.23, 1.41-1.42, 1.60-1.63, 1.316-1.334, 2.323-2.345, 2.475, 3.1-3.48, 3.242-3.283, 4.559-4.566 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.1. What makes the cornfield smile; beneath what star 1.2. Maecenas, it is meet to turn the sod 1.3. Or marry elm with vine; how tend the steer; 1.4. What pains for cattle-keeping, or what proof 1.5. of patient trial serves for thrifty bees;— 1.6. Such are my themes. O universal light 1.7. Most glorious! ye that lead the gliding year 1.8. Along the sky, Liber and Ceres mild 1.9. If by your bounty holpen earth once changed 1.10. Chaonian acorn for the plump wheat-ear 1.11. And mingled with the grape, your new-found gift 1.12. The draughts of Achelous; and ye Faun 1.13. To rustics ever kind, come foot it, Faun 1.14. And Dryad-maids together; your gifts I sing. 1.15. And thou, for whose delight the war-horse first 1.16. Sprang from earth's womb at thy great trident's stroke 1.17. Neptune; and haunter of the groves, for whom 1.18. Three hundred snow-white heifers browse the brakes 1.19. The fertile brakes of placeName key= 1.20. Thy native forest and Lycean lawns 1.21. Pan, shepherd-god, forsaking, as the love 1.22. of thine own Maenalus constrains thee, hear 1.23. And help, O lord of placeName key= 1.41. With all her waves for dower; or as a star 1.42. Lend thy fresh beams our lagging months to cheer 1.60. And teach the furrow-burnished share to shine. 1.61. That land the craving farmer's prayer fulfils 1.62. Which twice the sunshine, twice the frost has felt; 1.63. Ay, that's the land whose boundless harvest-crop 1.316. And when the first breath of his panting steed 1.317. On us the Orient flings, that hour with them 1.318. Red Vesper 'gins to trim his 'lated fires. 1.319. Hence under doubtful skies forebode we can 1.320. The coming tempests, hence both harvest-day 1.321. And seed-time, when to smite the treacherous main 1.322. With driving oars, when launch the fair-rigged fleet 1.323. Or in ripe hour to fell the forest-pine. 1.324. Hence, too, not idly do we watch the stars— 1.325. Their rising and their setting-and the year 1.326. Four varying seasons to one law conformed. 1.327. If chilly showers e'er shut the farmer's door 1.328. Much that had soon with sunshine cried for haste 1.329. He may forestall; the ploughman batters keen 1.330. His blunted share's hard tooth, scoops from a tree 1.331. His troughs, or on the cattle stamps a brand 1.332. Or numbers on the corn-heaps; some make sharp 1.333. The stakes and two-pronged forks, and willow-band 1.334. Amerian for the bending vine prepare. 2.323. A glance will serve to warn thee which is black 2.324. Or what the hue of any. But hard it i 2.325. To track the signs of that pernicious cold: 2.326. Pines only, noxious yews, and ivies dark 2.327. At times reveal its traces. 2.328. All these rule 2.329. Regarding, let your land, ay, long before 2.330. Scorch to the quick, and into trenches carve 2.331. The mighty mountains, and their upturned clod 2.332. Bare to the north wind, ere thou plant therein 2.333. The vine's prolific kindred. Fields whose soil 2.334. Is crumbling are the best: winds look to that 2.335. And bitter hoar-frosts, and the delver's toil 2.336. Untiring, as he stirs the loosened glebe. 2.337. But those, whose vigilance no care escapes 2.338. Search for a kindred site, where first to rear 2.339. A nursery for the trees, and eke whereto 2.340. Soon to translate them, lest the sudden shock 2.341. From their new mother the young plants estrange. 2.342. Nay, even the quarter of the sky they brand 2.343. Upon the bark, that each may be restored 2.344. As erst it stood, here bore the southern heats 2.345. Here turned its shoulder to the northern pole; 2.475. So scathe it, as the flocks with venom-bite 3.1. Thee too, great Pales, will I hymn, and thee 3.2. Amphrysian shepherd, worthy to be sung 3.3. You, woods and waves Lycaean. All themes beside 3.4. Which else had charmed the vacant mind with song 3.5. Are now waxed common. of harsh Eurystheus who 3.6. The story knows not, or that praiseless king 3.7. Busiris, and his altars? or by whom 3.8. Hath not the tale been told of Hylas young 3.9. Latonian Delos and Hippodame 3.10. And Pelops for his ivory shoulder famed 3.11. Keen charioteer? Needs must a path be tried 3.12. By which I too may lift me from the dust 3.13. And float triumphant through the mouths of men. 3.14. Yea, I shall be the first, so life endure 3.15. To lead the Muses with me, as I pa 3.16. To mine own country from the Aonian height; 3.17. I, placeName key= 3.18. of Idumaea, and raise a marble shrine 3.19. On thy green plain fast by the water-side 3.20. Where Mincius winds more vast in lazy coils 3.21. And rims his margent with the tender reed. 3.22. Amid my shrine shall Caesar's godhead dwell. 3.23. To him will I, as victor, bravely dight 3.24. In Tyrian purple, drive along the bank 3.25. A hundred four-horse cars. All placeName key= 3.26. Leaving Alpheus and Molorchus' grove 3.27. On foot shall strive, or with the raw-hide glove; 3.28. Whilst I, my head with stripped green olive crowned 3.29. Will offer gifts. Even 'tis present joy 3.30. To lead the high processions to the fane 3.31. And view the victims felled; or how the scene 3.32. Sunders with shifted face, and placeName key= 3.33. Inwoven thereon with those proud curtains rise. 3.34. of gold and massive ivory on the door 3.35. I'll trace the battle of the Gangarides 3.36. And our Quirinus' conquering arms, and there 3.37. Surging with war, and hugely flowing, the placeName key= 3.38. And columns heaped on high with naval brass. 3.39. And placeName key= 3.40. And quelled Niphates, and the Parthian foe 3.41. Who trusts in flight and backward-volleying darts 3.42. And trophies torn with twice triumphant hand 3.43. From empires twain on ocean's either shore. 3.44. And breathing forms of Parian marble there 3.45. Shall stand, the offspring of Assaracus 3.46. And great names of the Jove-descended folk 3.47. And father Tros, and placeName key= 3.48. of Cynthus. And accursed Envy there 3.242. The north wind stoops, and scatters from his path 3.243. Dry clouds and storms of placeName key= 3.244. And rippling plains 'gin shiver with light gusts; 3.245. A sound is heard among the forest-tops; 3.246. Long waves come racing shoreward: fast he flies 3.247. With instant pinion sweeping earth and main. 3.248. A steed like this or on the mighty course 3.249. of placeName key= 3.250. Red foam-flakes from his mouth, or, kindlier task 3.251. With patient neck support the Belgian car. 3.252. Then, broken at last, let swell their burly frame 3.253. With fattening corn-mash, for, unbroke, they will 3.254. With pride wax wanton, and, when caught, refuse 3.255. Tough lash to brook or jagged curb obey. 3.256. But no device so fortifies their power 3.257. As love's blind stings of passion to forefend 3.258. Whether on steed or steer thy choice be set. 3.259. Ay, therefore 'tis they banish bulls afar 3.260. To solitary pastures, or behind 3.261. Some mountain-barrier, or broad streams beyond 3.262. Or else in plenteous stalls pen fast at home. 3.263. For, even through sight of her, the female waste 3.264. His strength with smouldering fire, till he forget 3.265. Both grass and woodland. She indeed full oft 3.266. With her sweet charms can lovers proud compel 3.267. To battle for the conquest horn to horn. 3.268. In Sila's forest feeds the heifer fair 3.269. While each on each the furious rivals run; 3.270. Wound follows wound; the black blood laves their limbs; 3.271. Horns push and strive against opposing horns 3.272. With mighty groaning; all the forest-side 3.273. And far placeName key= 3.274. Nor wont the champions in one stall to couch; 3.275. But he that's worsted hies him to strange clime 3.276. Far off, an exile, moaning much the shame 3.277. The blows of that proud conqueror, then love's lo 3.278. Avenged not; with one glance toward the byre 3.279. His ancient royalties behind him lie. 3.280. So with all heed his strength he practiseth 3.281. And nightlong makes the hard bare stones his bed 3.282. And feeds on prickly leaf and pointed rush 3.283. And proves himself, and butting at a tree 4.559. With a great cry leapt on him, and ere he rose 4.560. Forestalled him with the fetters; he nathless 4.561. All unforgetful of his ancient craft 4.562. Transforms himself to every wondrous thing 4.563. Fire and a fearful beast, and flowing stream. 4.564. But when no trickery found a path for flight 4.565. Baffled at length, to his own shape returned 4.566. With human lips he spake, “Who bade thee, then
20. Juvenal, Satires, 15.131-15.174 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

21. Lucan, Pharsalia, 1.1-1.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 51.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 6.22 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.22. Through watching a mouse running about, says Theophrastus in the Megarian dialogue, not looking for a place to lie down in, not afraid of the dark, not seeking any of the things which are considered to be dainties, he discovered the means of adapting himself to circumstances. He was the first, say some, to fold his cloak because he was obliged to sleep in it as well, and he carried a wallet to hold his victuals, and he used any place for any purpose, for breakfasting, sleeping, or conversing. And then he would say, pointing to the Stoa of Zeus and the Pompeion, that the Athenians had provided him with places to live in.
24. Epicurus, Letters, 398

25. Epicurus, Letters, 398



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aetiology of labor Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 71
amor, as destructive force Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 97
amor, in georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 71
amor, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90, 91
anchoring allusions Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 46
animal imagery, humans as animals Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 69
animals, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90, 91
animals, origin and growth of Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 256
animals Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90, 91, 97
aphrodite Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 256
apostle, paul Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 43
aratus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 25
aristaeus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 23
aristotle Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90
ataraxia Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 244
athens Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 23
avernus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 91
banquets Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 231
bees Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 23
beginnings (of poetry books) Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 256
body, head Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 43
bonus eventus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 27
brutus, marcus Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 222
callimachus Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 137
calliope Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 46
carthage Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 256
ceres Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 27
cicero, allusion by lucretius to Gee, Aratus and the Astronomical Tradition (2013) 82, 83, 84, 85, 86
cicero Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90
closure Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 69
commager, steele Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 69
cupid Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 231
cycle of growth and decay, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 23, 24, 234
cycle of growth and decay, in the georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 23, 24
cynicism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90
death, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 23, 24
deification, of epicurus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 25, 27
deification, of octavian Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 25, 27
delphi Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 222
democritus Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 222
design, of the poem Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 69
deucalion Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 71
disease, as a closural device Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 69
divine being, aphrodite, venus Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 43
divine being, muses Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 43
divine being, zeus Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 43
dreams Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 91
effeminacy Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 231
egypt Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 43
empedoclean traces in exilic corpus Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 315, 316
empedocleo-lucretian background in metamorphoses, love/philia and strife/neikos Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 315, 316
empedocles Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 234; Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 222
ennius Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 256
epicurean proems in lucretius drn Gee, Aratus and the Astronomical Tradition (2013) 82, 83, 84, 85, 86
epicureanism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90, 244; Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 222
epicurus, authority in the de rerum natura Bryan, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 224; Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 224
epicurus/epicureanism, parrhesia Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 94, 95
epicurus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 24, 25, 27, 244
ethnography Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 43
etna Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 96
fear, of death Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 69
fighting (of vices and virtue) Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 231
filth, and the plague Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 137
finales, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 23, 97
finales Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 23, 244
flora Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 27
gale, monica Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 316
genealogy, of julians Pasco-Pranger, Founding the Year: Ovid's Fasti and the Poetics of the Roman Calendar (2006) 129
gods, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 238
gods, in the georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 27, 71
great mother (cybele) Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 222
happiness, joy Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 43
helicon Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 137
hesiod, allusions to Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 27
hesiod Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 25
hieros gamos Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 71
historiography Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 43
homer Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 24, 25
horses Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 97
imagery, journey Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 25
imagery, military Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 234, 238, 244
interpolation Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 43
intertextuality Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 71
janus in fasti Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 316
jewels Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 231
jupiter Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 27, 71
lamenting, as a distortive evocation of bucolic song Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 137
leander Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 97
liber Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 27
livius andronicus, model and anti-model for lucan Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 46
love, divine Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 43
lucretius, allusion to ciceros aratea throughout drn Gee, Aratus and the Astronomical Tradition (2013) 82, 83, 84, 85, 86
lucretius, animals in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90, 91
lucretius, culture-history in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 238
lucretius, cycle of growth and decay in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 23, 24, 234
lucretius, death in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 23, 24
lucretius, devotion to epicurus Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 224
lucretius, gods in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 238
lucretius, influence of on fasti Pasco-Pranger, Founding the Year: Ovid's Fasti and the Poetics of the Roman Calendar (2006) 129, 130
lucretius, parrhesia Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 94, 95
lucretius, politics in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 27
lucretius, venus in Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 95, 315, 316
lucretius, war in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 234, 238
lucretius Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 222; Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 46; Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 94, 95
luna Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 27
lympha Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 27
maecenas Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 25
magna mater (cybele) Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 222
mars Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 234; Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 256
mars and venus Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 94, 315, 316
memmius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 24, 25, 27
meteorology, clouds Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 96
meteorology, thunder Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 96
meteorology Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 96
metus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 24
militarism/warfare Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 256
minerva Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 27
month-names, aprilis Pasco-Pranger, Founding the Year: Ovid's Fasti and the Poetics of the Roman Calendar (2006) 129
moon Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 96
mountains Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 137
muses Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 25; Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 46
naevius, model and anti-model for lucan Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 46
nature, natural phenomena Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 43
nature Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 231
neikos Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 234
numinousness, conveyed in poetry Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 222
octavian Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 24, 25, 27, 244
orpheus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 23
otium Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 244
ovid, and empedocles Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 315, 316
ovid, as praeceptor amoris Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 94, 95
ovid, networks of philosophical meaning in Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 315
ovid, philosophical failure in exile Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 315, 316
ovid, soldier in exile Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 315
ovid Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90; Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 46
pacis, as mother of the gods Pasco-Pranger, Founding the Year: Ovid's Fasti and the Poetics of the Roman Calendar (2006) 130
pacis, as vegetative mother Pasco-Pranger, Founding the Year: Ovid's Fasti and the Poetics of the Roman Calendar (2006) 130
parrhesia Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 94, 95
perfumes Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 231
personification Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 71
personification vii Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 231
pessimism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 244
philia Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 244
philodemus, and parrhesia Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 94
philosophy, epicurean Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 43
philosophy, stoic Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 43
philosophy Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 43
plague, and emphasis on the body Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 69
plague Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 23; Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 256
planets Gee, Aratus and the Astronomical Tradition (2013) 84, 85
plato Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90
pleasure Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 231; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 43
podalirius Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 95
poetry and poetics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 238, 244
politics, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 27
politics, in the georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 23, 27
politics Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 256
praise of spring Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 71
proems, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 23, 24, 25, 27
reader (within the poem) Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 256
religion passim, altar Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 43
religion passim, imperial or royal cult Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 43
religion passim, myth Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 43
religion passim, origin of religion Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 43
religion passim, piety Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 43
religion passim, ritual, rite Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 43
religion passim, sacrifice Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 43
religions, roman, lucretius Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 222
religions, roman Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 222
remythologization Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 244
rhetoric, narrative Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 43
robigo Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 27
romulus, as calendar-builder Pasco-Pranger, Founding the Year: Ovid's Fasti and the Poetics of the Roman Calendar (2006) 129
ross, d. o. Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 71, 244
sanctus Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 222
senate, meets in temples Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 222
servius, as reader Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 46
sicily Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 222
sol Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 27
sphragis Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 244
statius, as early reader of lucan Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 46
stoicism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90
storms Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 71, 234
strife Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 256
tellus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 27, 71
templum' Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 222
theology Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 43
thomas, r. f. Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 71, 244
thucydides Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 23; Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 69, 137
topoi, of invocation of the muse Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 46
truth Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 43
underworld Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 25
varro Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 24, 27
venus, and mars Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 222; Pasco-Pranger, Founding the Year: Ovid's Fasti and the Poetics of the Roman Calendar (2006) 129
venus, as ancestor of romans and gens iulia Pasco-Pranger, Founding the Year: Ovid's Fasti and the Poetics of the Roman Calendar (2006) 129
venus, as creatrix of animals Pasco-Pranger, Founding the Year: Ovid's Fasti and the Poetics of the Roman Calendar (2006) 130
venus, the opening hymn to Kazantzidis, Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura" (2021) 69, 137
venus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 23, 24, 25, 27, 71, 90, 91, 234, 238; Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 256; Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 231
virgil, and homer Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 24, 25
virgil, and octavian Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 25, 27, 244
virgil, as model and anti-model for lucan Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 46
virgil, reception of lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 23, 24, 27, 97
virtue Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 231
vulcan Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 94
war, and agriculture Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 23
war, and poetry Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 238, 244
war, civil war Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 238, 244
war, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 234, 238
war, in presocratic philosophy Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 234
war, in the georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 244
war, octavian as warrior Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 244
weakening Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 231
wine Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 231
xenophon Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 90
zeus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 25
zoogony Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 71