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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7468
Lucan, Pharsalia, 9.980-9.986


nanThy haunts, Salpuga? Yet the Stygian Maids Have given thee power to snap the fatal threads. Thus nor the day with brightness, nor the night With darkness gave them peace. The very earth On which they lay they feared; nor leaves nor straw They piled for couches, but upon the ground Unshielded from the fates they laid their limbs, Cherished beneath whose warmth in chill of night The frozen pests found shelter; in whose jaws Harmless the while, the lurking venom slept.


nanThy haunts, Salpuga? Yet the Stygian Maids Have given thee power to snap the fatal threads. Thus nor the day with brightness, nor the night With darkness gave them peace. The very earth On which they lay they feared; nor leaves nor straw They piled for couches, but upon the ground Unshielded from the fates they laid their limbs, Cherished beneath whose warmth in chill of night The frozen pests found shelter; in whose jaws Harmless the while, the lurking venom slept.


nanThy haunts, Salpuga? Yet the Stygian Maids Have given thee power to snap the fatal threads. Thus nor the day with brightness, nor the night With darkness gave them peace. The very earth On which they lay they feared; nor leaves nor straw They piled for couches, but upon the ground Unshielded from the fates they laid their limbs, Cherished beneath whose warmth in chill of night The frozen pests found shelter; in whose jaws Harmless the while, the lurking venom slept.


nanThy haunts, Salpuga? Yet the Stygian Maids Have given thee power to snap the fatal threads. Thus nor the day with brightness, nor the night With darkness gave them peace. The very earth On which they lay they feared; nor leaves nor straw They piled for couches, but upon the ground Unshielded from the fates they laid their limbs, Cherished beneath whose warmth in chill of night The frozen pests found shelter; in whose jaws Harmless the while, the lurking venom slept.


nanThy haunts, Salpuga? Yet the Stygian Maids Have given thee power to snap the fatal threads. Thus nor the day with brightness, nor the night With darkness gave them peace. The very earth On which they lay they feared; nor leaves nor straw They piled for couches, but upon the ground Unshielded from the fates they laid their limbs, Cherished beneath whose warmth in chill of night The frozen pests found shelter; in whose jaws Harmless the while, the lurking venom slept.


nanThy haunts, Salpuga? Yet the Stygian Maids Have given thee power to snap the fatal threads. Thus nor the day with brightness, nor the night With darkness gave them peace. The very earth On which they lay they feared; nor leaves nor straw They piled for couches, but upon the ground Unshielded from the fates they laid their limbs, Cherished beneath whose warmth in chill of night The frozen pests found shelter; in whose jaws Harmless the while, the lurking venom slept.


nanThy haunts, Salpuga? Yet the Stygian Maids Have given thee power to snap the fatal threads. Thus nor the day with brightness, nor the night With darkness gave them peace. The very earth On which they lay they feared; nor leaves nor straw They piled for couches, but upon the ground Unshielded from the fates they laid their limbs, Cherished beneath whose warmth in chill of night The frozen pests found shelter; in whose jaws Harmless the while, the lurking venom slept.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

34 results
1. Hesiod, Theogony, 80, 79 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

79. Rose up. They to their father made their way
2. Homer, Iliad, 1.414-1.418, 18.52-18.64, 18.458, 19.302, 22.408-22.411, 24.720-24.776 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

1.414. /and that the son of Atreus, wide-ruling Agamemnon may know his blindness in that he did no honour to the best of the Achaeans. Then Thetis answered him as she wept:Ah me, my child, why did I rear you, cursed in my child-bearing? Would that it had been your lot to remain by your ships without tears and without grief 1.415. /since your span of life is brief and endures no long time; but now you are doomed to a speedy death and are laden with sorrow above all men; therefore to an evil fate I bore you in our halls. Yet in order to tell this your word to Zeus who delights in the thunderbolt I will myself go to snowy Olympus, in hope that he may be persuaded. 1.416. /since your span of life is brief and endures no long time; but now you are doomed to a speedy death and are laden with sorrow above all men; therefore to an evil fate I bore you in our halls. Yet in order to tell this your word to Zeus who delights in the thunderbolt I will myself go to snowy Olympus, in hope that he may be persuaded. 1.417. /since your span of life is brief and endures no long time; but now you are doomed to a speedy death and are laden with sorrow above all men; therefore to an evil fate I bore you in our halls. Yet in order to tell this your word to Zeus who delights in the thunderbolt I will myself go to snowy Olympus, in hope that he may be persuaded. 1.418. /since your span of life is brief and endures no long time; but now you are doomed to a speedy death and are laden with sorrow above all men; therefore to an evil fate I bore you in our halls. Yet in order to tell this your word to Zeus who delights in the thunderbolt I will myself go to snowy Olympus, in hope that he may be persuaded. 18.52. /With these the bright cave was filled, and they all alike beat their breasts, and Thetis was leader in their lamenting:Listen, sister Nereids, that one and all ye may hear and know all the sorrows that are in my heart. Ah, woe is me unhappy, woe is me that bare to my sorrow the best of men 18.53. /With these the bright cave was filled, and they all alike beat their breasts, and Thetis was leader in their lamenting:Listen, sister Nereids, that one and all ye may hear and know all the sorrows that are in my heart. Ah, woe is me unhappy, woe is me that bare to my sorrow the best of men 18.54. /With these the bright cave was filled, and they all alike beat their breasts, and Thetis was leader in their lamenting:Listen, sister Nereids, that one and all ye may hear and know all the sorrows that are in my heart. Ah, woe is me unhappy, woe is me that bare to my sorrow the best of men 18.55. /for after I had borne a son peerless and stalwart, pre-eminent among warriors, and he shot up like a sapling; then when I had reared him as a tree in a rich orchard plot, I sent him forth in the beaked ships to Ilios to war with the Trojans; but never again shall I welcome him 18.56. /for after I had borne a son peerless and stalwart, pre-eminent among warriors, and he shot up like a sapling; then when I had reared him as a tree in a rich orchard plot, I sent him forth in the beaked ships to Ilios to war with the Trojans; but never again shall I welcome him 18.57. /for after I had borne a son peerless and stalwart, pre-eminent among warriors, and he shot up like a sapling; then when I had reared him as a tree in a rich orchard plot, I sent him forth in the beaked ships to Ilios to war with the Trojans; but never again shall I welcome him 18.58. /for after I had borne a son peerless and stalwart, pre-eminent among warriors, and he shot up like a sapling; then when I had reared him as a tree in a rich orchard plot, I sent him forth in the beaked ships to Ilios to war with the Trojans; but never again shall I welcome him 18.59. /for after I had borne a son peerless and stalwart, pre-eminent among warriors, and he shot up like a sapling; then when I had reared him as a tree in a rich orchard plot, I sent him forth in the beaked ships to Ilios to war with the Trojans; but never again shall I welcome him 18.60. /back to his home, to the house of Peleus. And while yet he liveth, and beholdeth the light of the sun, he hath sorrow, neither can I anywise help him, though I go to him. Howbeit go I will, that I may behold my dear child, and hear what grief has come upon him while yet he abideth aloof from the war. 18.61. /back to his home, to the house of Peleus. And while yet he liveth, and beholdeth the light of the sun, he hath sorrow, neither can I anywise help him, though I go to him. Howbeit go I will, that I may behold my dear child, and hear what grief has come upon him while yet he abideth aloof from the war. 18.62. /back to his home, to the house of Peleus. And while yet he liveth, and beholdeth the light of the sun, he hath sorrow, neither can I anywise help him, though I go to him. Howbeit go I will, that I may behold my dear child, and hear what grief has come upon him while yet he abideth aloof from the war. 18.63. /back to his home, to the house of Peleus. And while yet he liveth, and beholdeth the light of the sun, he hath sorrow, neither can I anywise help him, though I go to him. Howbeit go I will, that I may behold my dear child, and hear what grief has come upon him while yet he abideth aloof from the war. 18.64. /back to his home, to the house of Peleus. And while yet he liveth, and beholdeth the light of the sun, he hath sorrow, neither can I anywise help him, though I go to him. Howbeit go I will, that I may behold my dear child, and hear what grief has come upon him while yet he abideth aloof from the war. 18.458. /after the valiant son of Menoetius had wrought sore harm, Apollo slew him amid the foremost fighters and gave glory to Hector. Therefore am I now come to thy knees, if so be thou wilt be minded to give my son, that is doomed to a speedy death, shield and helmet, and goodly greaves fitted with ankle-pieces 19.302. /Wherefore I wail for thee in thy death and know no ceasing, for thou wast ever kind. So spake she wailing, and thereto the women added their laments; Patroclus indeed they mourned, but therewithal each one her own sorrows. But around Achilles gathered the elders of the Achaeans, beseeching him that he would eat; but he refused them, moaning the while: 22.408. /So was his head all befouled with dust; but his mother tore her hair and from her flung far her gleaming veil and uttered a cry exceeding loud at sight of her son. And a piteous groan did his father utter, and around them the folk was holden of wailing and groaning throughout the city. 22.409. /So was his head all befouled with dust; but his mother tore her hair and from her flung far her gleaming veil and uttered a cry exceeding loud at sight of her son. And a piteous groan did his father utter, and around them the folk was holden of wailing and groaning throughout the city. 22.410. /Most like to this was it as though all beetling Ilios were utterly burning with fire. And the folk had much ado to hold back the old man in his frenzy, fain as he was to go forth from the Dardanian gates. To all he made prayer, grovelling the while in the filth 22.411. /Most like to this was it as though all beetling Ilios were utterly burning with fire. And the folk had much ado to hold back the old man in his frenzy, fain as he was to go forth from the Dardanian gates. To all he made prayer, grovelling the while in the filth 24.720. /laid him on a corded bedstead, and by his side set singers, leaders of the dirge, who led the song of lamentation—they chanted the dirge, and thereat the women made lament. And amid these white-armed Andromache led the wailing, holding in her arms the while the head of man-slaying Hector: 24.721. /laid him on a corded bedstead, and by his side set singers, leaders of the dirge, who led the song of lamentation—they chanted the dirge, and thereat the women made lament. And amid these white-armed Andromache led the wailing, holding in her arms the while the head of man-slaying Hector: 24.722. /laid him on a corded bedstead, and by his side set singers, leaders of the dirge, who led the song of lamentation—they chanted the dirge, and thereat the women made lament. And amid these white-armed Andromache led the wailing, holding in her arms the while the head of man-slaying Hector: 24.723. /laid him on a corded bedstead, and by his side set singers, leaders of the dirge, who led the song of lamentation—they chanted the dirge, and thereat the women made lament. And amid these white-armed Andromache led the wailing, holding in her arms the while the head of man-slaying Hector: 24.724. /laid him on a corded bedstead, and by his side set singers, leaders of the dirge, who led the song of lamentation—they chanted the dirge, and thereat the women made lament. And amid these white-armed Andromache led the wailing, holding in her arms the while the head of man-slaying Hector: 24.725. / Husband, perished from out of life art thou, yet in thy youth, and leavest me a widow in thy halls; and thy son is still but a babe, the son born of thee and me in our haplessness; neither do I deem that he will come to manhood, for ere that shall this city be wasted utterly. For thou hast perished that didst watch thereover 24.726. / Husband, perished from out of life art thou, yet in thy youth, and leavest me a widow in thy halls; and thy son is still but a babe, the son born of thee and me in our haplessness; neither do I deem that he will come to manhood, for ere that shall this city be wasted utterly. For thou hast perished that didst watch thereover 24.727. / Husband, perished from out of life art thou, yet in thy youth, and leavest me a widow in thy halls; and thy son is still but a babe, the son born of thee and me in our haplessness; neither do I deem that he will come to manhood, for ere that shall this city be wasted utterly. For thou hast perished that didst watch thereover 24.728. / Husband, perished from out of life art thou, yet in thy youth, and leavest me a widow in thy halls; and thy son is still but a babe, the son born of thee and me in our haplessness; neither do I deem that he will come to manhood, for ere that shall this city be wasted utterly. For thou hast perished that didst watch thereover 24.729. / Husband, perished from out of life art thou, yet in thy youth, and leavest me a widow in thy halls; and thy son is still but a babe, the son born of thee and me in our haplessness; neither do I deem that he will come to manhood, for ere that shall this city be wasted utterly. For thou hast perished that didst watch thereover 24.730. /thou that didst guard it, and keep safe its noble wives and little children. These, I ween, shall soon be riding upon the hollow ships, and I among them; and thou, my child, shalt follow with me to a place where thou shalt labour at unseemly tasks, toiling before the face of some ungentle master, or else some Achaean shall seize thee by the arm 24.731. /thou that didst guard it, and keep safe its noble wives and little children. These, I ween, shall soon be riding upon the hollow ships, and I among them; and thou, my child, shalt follow with me to a place where thou shalt labour at unseemly tasks, toiling before the face of some ungentle master, or else some Achaean shall seize thee by the arm 24.732. /thou that didst guard it, and keep safe its noble wives and little children. These, I ween, shall soon be riding upon the hollow ships, and I among them; and thou, my child, shalt follow with me to a place where thou shalt labour at unseemly tasks, toiling before the face of some ungentle master, or else some Achaean shall seize thee by the arm 24.733. /thou that didst guard it, and keep safe its noble wives and little children. These, I ween, shall soon be riding upon the hollow ships, and I among them; and thou, my child, shalt follow with me to a place where thou shalt labour at unseemly tasks, toiling before the face of some ungentle master, or else some Achaean shall seize thee by the arm 24.734. /thou that didst guard it, and keep safe its noble wives and little children. These, I ween, shall soon be riding upon the hollow ships, and I among them; and thou, my child, shalt follow with me to a place where thou shalt labour at unseemly tasks, toiling before the face of some ungentle master, or else some Achaean shall seize thee by the arm 24.735. /and hurl thee from the wall, a woeful death, being wroth for that Hector slew his brother haply, or his father, or his son, seeing that full many Achaeans at the hands of Hector have bitten the vast earth with their teeth; for nowise gentle was thy father in woeful war. 24.736. /and hurl thee from the wall, a woeful death, being wroth for that Hector slew his brother haply, or his father, or his son, seeing that full many Achaeans at the hands of Hector have bitten the vast earth with their teeth; for nowise gentle was thy father in woeful war. 24.737. /and hurl thee from the wall, a woeful death, being wroth for that Hector slew his brother haply, or his father, or his son, seeing that full many Achaeans at the hands of Hector have bitten the vast earth with their teeth; for nowise gentle was thy father in woeful war. 24.738. /and hurl thee from the wall, a woeful death, being wroth for that Hector slew his brother haply, or his father, or his son, seeing that full many Achaeans at the hands of Hector have bitten the vast earth with their teeth; for nowise gentle was thy father in woeful war. 24.739. /and hurl thee from the wall, a woeful death, being wroth for that Hector slew his brother haply, or his father, or his son, seeing that full many Achaeans at the hands of Hector have bitten the vast earth with their teeth; for nowise gentle was thy father in woeful war. 24.740. /Therefore the folk wail for him throughout the city, and grief unspeakable and sorrow hast thou brought upon thy parents, Hector; and for me beyond all others shall grievous woes be left. For at thy death thou didst neither stretch out thy hands to me from thy bed, nor speak to me any word of wisdom whereon 24.741. /Therefore the folk wail for him throughout the city, and grief unspeakable and sorrow hast thou brought upon thy parents, Hector; and for me beyond all others shall grievous woes be left. For at thy death thou didst neither stretch out thy hands to me from thy bed, nor speak to me any word of wisdom whereon 24.742. /Therefore the folk wail for him throughout the city, and grief unspeakable and sorrow hast thou brought upon thy parents, Hector; and for me beyond all others shall grievous woes be left. For at thy death thou didst neither stretch out thy hands to me from thy bed, nor speak to me any word of wisdom whereon 24.743. /Therefore the folk wail for him throughout the city, and grief unspeakable and sorrow hast thou brought upon thy parents, Hector; and for me beyond all others shall grievous woes be left. For at thy death thou didst neither stretch out thy hands to me from thy bed, nor speak to me any word of wisdom whereon 24.744. /Therefore the folk wail for him throughout the city, and grief unspeakable and sorrow hast thou brought upon thy parents, Hector; and for me beyond all others shall grievous woes be left. For at thy death thou didst neither stretch out thy hands to me from thy bed, nor speak to me any word of wisdom whereon 24.745. /I might have pondered night and day with shedding of tears. 24.746. /I might have pondered night and day with shedding of tears. 24.747. /I might have pondered night and day with shedding of tears. 24.748. /I might have pondered night and day with shedding of tears. 24.749. /I might have pondered night and day with shedding of tears. So spake she wailing, and thereat the women made lament. And among them Hecabe in turns led the vehement wailing:Hector, far dearest to my heart of all my children, lo, when thou livedst thou wast dear to the gods 24.750. /and therefore have they had care of thee for all thou art in the doom of death. For of other sons of mine whomsoever he took would swift-footed Achilles sell beyond the unresting sea, unto Samos and Imbros and Lemnos, shrouded in smoke, but, when from thee he had taken away thy life with the long-edged bronze 24.751. /and therefore have they had care of thee for all thou art in the doom of death. For of other sons of mine whomsoever he took would swift-footed Achilles sell beyond the unresting sea, unto Samos and Imbros and Lemnos, shrouded in smoke, but, when from thee he had taken away thy life with the long-edged bronze 24.752. /and therefore have they had care of thee for all thou art in the doom of death. For of other sons of mine whomsoever he took would swift-footed Achilles sell beyond the unresting sea, unto Samos and Imbros and Lemnos, shrouded in smoke, but, when from thee he had taken away thy life with the long-edged bronze 24.753. /and therefore have they had care of thee for all thou art in the doom of death. For of other sons of mine whomsoever he took would swift-footed Achilles sell beyond the unresting sea, unto Samos and Imbros and Lemnos, shrouded in smoke, but, when from thee he had taken away thy life with the long-edged bronze 24.754. /and therefore have they had care of thee for all thou art in the doom of death. For of other sons of mine whomsoever he took would swift-footed Achilles sell beyond the unresting sea, unto Samos and Imbros and Lemnos, shrouded in smoke, but, when from thee he had taken away thy life with the long-edged bronze 24.755. /oft would he drag thee about the barrow of his comrade, Patroclus, whom thou didst slay; howbeit even so might he not raise him up. all dewy-fresh thou liest in my halls as wert thou g newly slain, like as one whom Apollo of the silver bow assaileth with his gentle shafts and slayeth. 24.756. /oft would he drag thee about the barrow of his comrade, Patroclus, whom thou didst slay; howbeit even so might he not raise him up. all dewy-fresh thou liest in my halls as wert thou g newly slain, like as one whom Apollo of the silver bow assaileth with his gentle shafts and slayeth. 24.757. /oft would he drag thee about the barrow of his comrade, Patroclus, whom thou didst slay; howbeit even so might he not raise him up. all dewy-fresh thou liest in my halls as wert thou g newly slain, like as one whom Apollo of the silver bow assaileth with his gentle shafts and slayeth. 24.758. /oft would he drag thee about the barrow of his comrade, Patroclus, whom thou didst slay; howbeit even so might he not raise him up. all dewy-fresh thou liest in my halls as wert thou g newly slain, like as one whom Apollo of the silver bow assaileth with his gentle shafts and slayeth. 24.759. /oft would he drag thee about the barrow of his comrade, Patroclus, whom thou didst slay; howbeit even so might he not raise him up. all dewy-fresh thou liest in my halls as wert thou g newly slain, like as one whom Apollo of the silver bow assaileth with his gentle shafts and slayeth. 24.760. /So spake she wailing, and roused unabating lament. And thereafter Helen was the third to lead the wailing:Hector, far dearest to my heart of all my husband's brethren! In sooth my husband is godlike Alexander, that brought me to Troy-land —would I died ere then! 24.761. /So spake she wailing, and roused unabating lament. And thereafter Helen was the third to lead the wailing:Hector, far dearest to my heart of all my husband's brethren! In sooth my husband is godlike Alexander, that brought me to Troy-land —would I died ere then! 24.762. /So spake she wailing, and roused unabating lament. And thereafter Helen was the third to lead the wailing:Hector, far dearest to my heart of all my husband's brethren! In sooth my husband is godlike Alexander, that brought me to Troy-land —would I died ere then! 24.763. /So spake she wailing, and roused unabating lament. And thereafter Helen was the third to lead the wailing:Hector, far dearest to my heart of all my husband's brethren! In sooth my husband is godlike Alexander, that brought me to Troy-land —would I died ere then! 24.764. /So spake she wailing, and roused unabating lament. And thereafter Helen was the third to lead the wailing:Hector, far dearest to my heart of all my husband's brethren! In sooth my husband is godlike Alexander, that brought me to Troy-land —would I died ere then! 24.765. /For this is now the twentieth year from the time when I went from thence and am gone from my native land, but never yet heard I evil or despiteful word from thee; nay, if so be any other spake reproachfully of me in the halls, a brother of thine or a sister, or brother's fair-robed wife 24.766. /For this is now the twentieth year from the time when I went from thence and am gone from my native land, but never yet heard I evil or despiteful word from thee; nay, if so be any other spake reproachfully of me in the halls, a brother of thine or a sister, or brother's fair-robed wife 24.767. /For this is now the twentieth year from the time when I went from thence and am gone from my native land, but never yet heard I evil or despiteful word from thee; nay, if so be any other spake reproachfully of me in the halls, a brother of thine or a sister, or brother's fair-robed wife 24.768. /For this is now the twentieth year from the time when I went from thence and am gone from my native land, but never yet heard I evil or despiteful word from thee; nay, if so be any other spake reproachfully of me in the halls, a brother of thine or a sister, or brother's fair-robed wife 24.769. /For this is now the twentieth year from the time when I went from thence and am gone from my native land, but never yet heard I evil or despiteful word from thee; nay, if so be any other spake reproachfully of me in the halls, a brother of thine or a sister, or brother's fair-robed wife 24.770. /or thy mother—but thy father was ever gentle as he had been mine own—yet wouldst thou turn them with speech and restrain them by the gentleness of thy spirit and thy gentle words. Wherefore I wail alike for thee and for my hapless self with grief at heart; for no longer have I anyone beside in broad Troy 24.771. /or thy mother—but thy father was ever gentle as he had been mine own—yet wouldst thou turn them with speech and restrain them by the gentleness of thy spirit and thy gentle words. Wherefore I wail alike for thee and for my hapless self with grief at heart; for no longer have I anyone beside in broad Troy 24.772. /or thy mother—but thy father was ever gentle as he had been mine own—yet wouldst thou turn them with speech and restrain them by the gentleness of thy spirit and thy gentle words. Wherefore I wail alike for thee and for my hapless self with grief at heart; for no longer have I anyone beside in broad Troy 24.773. /or thy mother—but thy father was ever gentle as he had been mine own—yet wouldst thou turn them with speech and restrain them by the gentleness of thy spirit and thy gentle words. Wherefore I wail alike for thee and for my hapless self with grief at heart; for no longer have I anyone beside in broad Troy 24.774. /or thy mother—but thy father was ever gentle as he had been mine own—yet wouldst thou turn them with speech and restrain them by the gentleness of thy spirit and thy gentle words. Wherefore I wail alike for thee and for my hapless self with grief at heart; for no longer have I anyone beside in broad Troy 24.775. /that is gentle to me or kind; but all men shudder at me. 24.776. /that is gentle to me or kind; but all men shudder at me.
3. Aristotle, Poetics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

4. Ennius, Annales, 13, 404-406, 12 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5. Cicero, On Divination, 1.114 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.114. Ergo et ii, quorum animi spretis corporibus evolant atque excurrunt foras, ardore aliquo inflammati atque incitati cernunt illa profecto, quae vaticites pronuntiant, multisque rebus inflammantur tales animi, qui corporibus non inhaerent, ut ii, qui sono quodam vocum et Phrygiis cantibus incitantur. Multos nemora silvaeque, multos amnes aut maria commovent, quorum furibunda mens videt ante multo, quae sint futura. Quo de genere illa sunt: Eheú videte! Iúdicabit ínclitum iudícium inter deás tris aliquis, Quó iudicio Lácedaemonia múlier, Furiarum úna, adveniet. Eodem enim modo multa a vaticitibus saepe praedicta sunt, neque solum verbis, sed etiam Versibus, quos olim Fauni vatesque canebant. Similiter Marcius et Publicius vates cecinisse dicuntur; 1.114. Those then, whose souls, spurning their bodies, take wings and fly abroad — inflamed and aroused by a sort of passion — these men, I say, certainly see the things which they foretell in their prophecies. Such souls do not cling to the body and are kindled by many different influences. For example, some are aroused by certain vocal tones, as by Phrygian songs, many by groves and forests, and many others by rivers and seas. I believe, too, that there were certain subterranean vapours which had the effect of inspiring persons to utter oracles. In all these cases the frenzied soul sees the future long in advance, as Cassandra did in the following instance:Alas! behold! some mortal will decideA famous case between three goddesses:Because of that decision there will comeA Spartan woman, but a Fury too.It is in this state of exaltation that many predictions have been made, not only in prose but alsoIn verse which once the fauns and bards did sing.
6. Cicero, Pro Archia, 24 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

24. quam multos scriptores rerum suarum magnus ille Alexander secum habuisse dicitur! atque is tamen, cum in Sigeo ad Achillis tumulum astitisset: 'o fortunate,' inquit, 'adulescens, qui tuae virtutis Homerum praeconem inveneris inveneris eb χ c : inveneras (-nisti k ) cett. !' et vere. nam, nisi Ilias Ilias Naugerius (2): illi (illa a : om. E ) ars codd. illa exstitisset, idem tumulus qui corpus eius contexerat nomen etiam obruisset. quid ? noster hic Magnus qui cum virtute fortunam adaequavit, nonne Theophanem Mytilenaeum, scriptorem rerum suarum, in contione militum civitate donavit, et nostri illi fortes viri, sed rustici ac milites, dulcedine quadam gloriae commoti quasi participes eiusdem laudis magno illud clamore approbaverunt?
7. Varro, On The Latin Language, 7.36 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

8. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 17.17.3 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

17.17.3.  He visited the tombs of the heroes Achilles, Ajax, and the rest and honoured them with offerings and other appropriate marks of respect, and then proceeded to make an accurate count of his accompanying forces. There were found to be, of infantry, twelve thousand Macedonians, seven thousand allies, and five thousand mercenaries, all of whom were under the command of Parmenion.
9. Horace, Odes, 3.30.1-3.30.2, 3.30.7-3.30.9 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

10. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 1.119 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

11. Ovid, Amores, 1.3.25, 1.15.7-1.15.13, 1.15.25-1.15.26 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Ovid, Ars Amatoria, 2.740 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Ovid, Epistulae (Heroides), 15.28 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 15.871-15.872, 15.876-15.879 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Ovid, Tristia, 4.10.59-4.10.60 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Propertius, Elegies, 2.34.66, 3.2.17-3.2.26 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

17. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.453-1.457, 1.488-1.493, 3.294-3.471, 5.604-5.699, 7.41, 7.45, 9.446-9.449, 9.481-9.497 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.453. art thou bright Phoebus' sister? Or some nymph 1.454. the daughter of a god? Whate'er thou art 1.455. thy favor we implore, and potent aid 1.456. in our vast toil. Instruct us of what skies 1.457. or what world's end, our storm-swept lives have found! 1.488. her grief and stricken love. But as she slept 1.489. her husband's tombless ghost before her came 1.490. with face all wondrous pale, and he laid bare 1.491. his heart with dagger pierced, disclosing so 1.492. the blood-stained altar and the infamy 1.493. that darkened now their house. His counsel was 3.294. or ken our way. Three days of blinding dark 3.295. three nights without a star, we roved the seas; 3.296. The fourth, land seemed to rise. Far distant hills 3.297. and rolling smoke we saw. Down came our sails 3.298. out flew the oars, and with prompt stroke the crews 3.299. wept the dark waves and tossed the crested foam. 3.300. From such sea-peril safe, I made the shores 3.301. of Strophades,—a name the Grecians gave 3.302. to islands in the broad Ionic main, — 3.303. the Strophades, where dread Celaeno bides 3.304. with other Harpies, who had quit the halls 3.305. of stricken Phineus, and for very fear 3.306. fled from the routed feast; no prodigy 3.307. more vile than these, nor plague more pitiless 3.308. ere rose by wrath divine from Stygian wave; 3.309. birds seem they, but with face like woman-kind; 3.310. foul-flowing bellies, hands with crooked claws 3.311. and ghastly lips they have, with hunger pale. 3.312. Scarce had we made the haven, when, behold! 3.313. Fair herds of cattle roaming a wide plain 3.314. and horned goats, untended, feeding free 3.315. in pastures green, surprised our happy eyes. 3.316. with eager blades we ran to take and slay 3.317. asking of every god, and chicfly Jove 3.318. to share the welcome prize: we ranged a feast 3.319. with turf-built couches and a banquet-board 3.320. along the curving strand. But in a trice 3.321. down from the high hills swooping horribly 3.322. the Harpies loudly shrieking, flapped their wings 3.323. natched at our meats, and with infectious touch 3.324. polluted all; infernal was their cry 3.325. the stench most vile. Once more in covert far 3.326. beneath a caverned rock, and close concealed 3.327. with trees and branching shade, we raised aloft 3.328. our tables, altars, and rekindled fires. 3.329. Once more from haunts unknown the clamorous flock 3.330. from every quarter flew, and seized its prey 3.331. with taloned feet and carrion lip most foul. 3.332. I called my mates to arms and opened war 3.333. on that accursed brood. My band obeyed; 3.334. and, hiding in deep grass their swords and shields 3.335. in ambush lay. But presently the foe 3.336. wept o'er the winding shore with loud alarm : 3.337. then from a sentry-crag, Misenus blew 3.338. a signal on his hollow horn. My men 3.339. flew to the combat strange, and fain would wound 3.340. with martial steel those foul birds of the sea; 3.341. but on their sides no wounding blade could fall 3.342. nor any plume be marred. In swiftest flight 3.343. to starry skies they soared, and left on earth 3.344. their half-gnawed, stolen feast, and footprints foul. 3.345. Celaeno only on a beetling crag 3.346. took lofty perch, and, prophetess of ill 3.347. hrieked malediction from her vulture breast: 3.348. “Because of slaughtered kine and ravished herd 3.349. ons of Laomedon, have ye made war? 3.350. And will ye from their rightful kingdom drive 3.351. the guiltless Harpies? Hear, O, hear my word 3.352. (Long in your bosoms may it rankle sore!) 3.353. which Jove omnipotent to Phoebus gave 3.354. Phoebus to me: a word of doom, which I 3.355. the Furies' elder sister, here unfold: 3.356. ‘To Italy ye fare. The willing winds 3.357. your call have heard; and ye shall have your prayer 3.358. in some Italian haven safely moored. 3.359. But never shall ye rear the circling walls 3.360. of your own city, till for this our blood 3.361. by you unjustly spilt, your famished jaws 3.363. She spoke: her pinions bore her to the grove 3.364. and she was seen no more. But all my band 3.365. huddered with shock of fear in each cold vein; 3.366. their drooping spirits trusted swords no more 3.367. but turned to prayers and offerings, asking grace 3.368. carce knowing if those creatures were divine 3.369. or but vast birds, ill-omened and unclean. 3.370. Father Anchises to the gods in heaven 3.371. uplifted suppliant hands, and on that shore 3.372. due ritual made, crying aloud; “Ye gods 3.373. avert this curse, this evil turn away! 3.374. Smile, Heaven, upon your faithful votaries.” 3.375. Then bade he launch away, the chain undo 3.376. et every cable free and spread all sail. 3.377. O'er the white waves we flew, and took our way 3.378. where'er the helmsman or the winds could guide. 3.379. Now forest-clad Zacynthus met our gaze 3.380. engirdled by the waves; Dulichium 3.381. ame, and Neritos, a rocky steep 3.382. uprose. We passed the cliffs of Ithaca 3.383. that called Laertes king, and flung our curse 3.384. on fierce Ulysses' hearth and native land. 3.385. nigh hoar Leucate's clouded crest we drew 3.386. where Phoebus' temple, feared by mariners 3.387. loomed o'er us; thitherward we steered and reached 3.388. the little port and town. Our weary fleet 3.390. So, safe at land, our hopeless peril past 3.391. we offered thanks to Jove, and kindled high 3.392. his altars with our feast and sacrifice; 3.393. then, gathering on Actium 's holy shore 3.394. made fair solemnities of pomp and game. 3.395. My youth, anointing their smooth, naked limbs 3.396. wrestled our wonted way. For glad were we 3.397. who past so many isles of Greece had sped 3.398. and 'scaped our circling foes. Now had the sun 3.399. rolled through the year's full circle, and the waves 3.400. were rough with icy winter's northern gales. 3.401. I hung for trophy on that temple door 3.402. a swelling shield of brass (which once was worn 3.403. by mighty Abas) graven with this line: 3.404. SPOIL OF AENEAS FROM TRIUMPHANT FOES. 3.405. Then from that haven I command them forth; 3.406. my good crews take the thwarts, smiting the sea 3.407. with rival strokes, and skim the level main. 3.408. Soon sank Phaeacia's wind-swept citadels 3.409. out of our view; we skirted the bold shores 3.410. of proud Epirus, in Chaonian land 3.412. Here wondrous tidings met us, that the son 3.413. of Priam, Helenus, held kingly sway 3.414. o'er many Argive cities, having wed 3.415. the Queen of Pyrrhus, great Achilles' son 3.416. and gained his throne; and that Andromache 3.417. once more was wife unto a kindred lord. 3.418. Amazement held me; all my bosom burned 3.419. to see the hero's face and hear this tale 3.420. of strange vicissitude. So up I climbed 3.421. leaving the haven, fleet, and friendly shore. 3.422. That self-same hour outside the city walls 3.423. within a grove where flowed the mimic stream 3.424. of a new Simois, Andromache 3.425. with offerings to the dead, and gifts of woe 3.426. poured forth libation, and invoked the shade 3.427. of Hector, at a tomb which her fond grief 3.428. had consecrated to perpetual tears 3.429. though void; a mound of fair green turf it stood 3.430. and near it rose twin altars to his name. 3.431. She saw me drawing near; our Trojan helms 3.432. met her bewildered eyes, and, terror-struck 3.433. at the portentous sight, she swooning fell 3.434. and lay cold, rigid, lifeless, till at last 3.435. carce finding voice, her lips addressed me thus : 3.436. “Have I true vision? Bringest thou the word 3.437. of truth, O goddess-born? Art still in flesh? 3.438. Or if sweet light be fled, my Hector, where?” 3.439. With flood of tears she spoke, and all the grove 3.440. reechoed to her cry. Scarce could I frame 3.441. brief answer to her passion, but replied 3.442. with broken voice and accents faltering: 3.443. “I live, 't is true. I lengthen out my days 3.444. through many a desperate strait. But O, believe 3.445. that what thine eyes behold is vision true. 3.446. Alas! what lot is thine, that wert unthroned 3.447. from such a husband's side? What after-fate 3.448. could give thee honor due? Andromache 3.450. With drooping brows and lowly voice she cried : 3.451. “O, happy only was that virgin blest 3.452. daughter of Priam, summoned forth to die 3.453. in sight of Ilium, on a foeman's tomb! 3.454. No casting of the lot her doom decreed 3.455. nor came she to her conqueror's couch a slave. 3.456. Myself from burning Ilium carried far 3.457. o'er seas and seas, endured the swollen pride 3.458. of that young scion of Achilles' race 3.459. and bore him as his slave a son. When he 3.460. ued for Hermione, of Leda's line 3.461. and nuptial-bond with Lacedaemon's Iords 3.462. I, the slave-wife, to Helenus was given 3.463. and slave was wed with slave. But afterward 3.464. Orestes, crazed by loss of her he loved 3.465. and ever fury-driven from crime to crime 3.466. crept upon Pyrrhus in a careless hour 3.467. and murdered him upon his own hearth-stone. 3.468. Part of the realm of Neoptolemus 3.469. fell thus to Helenus, who called his lands 3.470. Chaonian, and in Trojan Chaon's name 3.471. his kingdom is Chaonia. Yonder height 5.604. in soothing words: “Ill-starred! What mad attempt 5.605. is in thy mind? Will not thy heart confess 5.606. thy strength surpassed, and auspices averse? 5.607. Submit, for Heaven decrees!” With such wise words 5.608. he sundered the fell strife. But trusty friends 5.609. bore Dares off: his spent limbs helpless trailed 5.610. his head he could not lift, and from his lips 5.611. came blood and broken teeth. So to the ship 5.612. they bore him, taking, at Aeneas' word 5.613. the helmet and the sword—but left behind 5.614. Entellus' prize of victory, the bull. 5.615. He, then, elate and glorying, spoke forth: 5.616. “See, goddess-born, and all ye Teucrians, see 5.617. what strength was mine in youth, and from what death 5.618. ye have clelivered Dares.” Saying so 5.619. he turned him full front to the bull, who stood 5.620. for reward of the fight, and, drawing back 5.621. his right hand, poising the dread gauntlet high 5.622. wung sheer between the horns and crushed the skull; 5.623. a trembling, lifeless creature, to the ground 5.624. the bull dropped forward dead. Above the fallen 5.625. Entellus cried aloud, “This victim due 5.626. I give thee, Eryx, more acceptable 5.627. than Dares' death to thy benigt shade. 5.628. For this last victory and joyful day 5.630. Forthwith Aeneas summons all who will 5.631. to contest of swift arrows, and displays 5.632. reward and prize. With mighty hand he rears 5.633. a mast within th' arena, from the ship 5.634. of good Sergestus taken; and thereto 5.635. a fluttering dove by winding cord is bound 5.636. for target of their shafts. Soon to the match 5.637. the rival bowmen came and cast the lots 5.638. into a brazen helmet. First came forth 5.639. Hippocoon's number, son of Hyrtacus 5.640. by cheers applauded; Mnestheus was the next 5.641. late victor in the ship-race, Mnestheus crowned 5.642. with olive-garland; next Eurytion 5.643. brother of thee, O bowman most renowned 5.644. Pandarus, breaker of the truce, who hurled 5.645. his shaft upon the Achaeans, at the word 5.646. the goddess gave. Acestes' Iot and name 5.647. came from the helmet last, whose royal hand 5.648. the deeds of youth dared even yet to try. 5.649. Each then with strong arm bends his pliant bow 5.650. each from the quiver plucks a chosen shaft. 5.651. First, with loud arrow whizzing from the string 5.652. the young Hippocoon with skyward aim 5.653. cuts through the yielding air; and lo! his barb 5.654. pierces the very wood, and makes the mast 5.655. tremble; while with a fluttering, frighted wing 5.656. the bird tugs hard,—and plaudits fill the sky. 5.657. Boldly rose Mnestheus, and with bow full-drawn 5.658. aimed both his eye and shaft aloft; but he 5.659. failing, unhappy man, to bring his barb 5.660. up to the dove herself, just cut the cord 5.661. and broke the hempen bond, whereby her feet 5.662. were captive to the tree: she, taking flight 5.663. clove through the shadowing clouds her path of air. 5.664. But swiftly—for upon his waiting bow 5.665. he held a shaft in rest—Eurytion 5.666. invoked his brother's shade, and, marking well 5.667. the dove, whose happy pinions fluttered free 5.668. in vacant sky, pierced her, hard by a cloud; 5.669. lifeless she fell, and left in light of heaven 5.670. her spark of life, as, floating down, she bore 5.671. the arrow back to earth. Acestes now 5.672. remained, last rival, though the victor's palm 5.673. to him was Iost; yet did the aged sire 5.674. to show his prowess and resounding bow 5.675. hurl forth one shaft in air; then suddenly 5.676. all eyes beheld such wonder as portends 5.677. events to be (but when fulfilment came 5.678. too late the fearful seers its warning sung): 5.679. for, soaring through the stream of cloud, his shaft 5.680. took fire, tracing its bright path in flame 5.681. then vanished on the wind,—as oft a star 5.682. will fall unfastened from the firmament 5.683. while far behind its blazing tresses flow. 5.684. Awe-struck both Trojan and Trinacrian stood 5.685. calling upon the gods. Nor came the sign 5.686. in vain to great Aeneas. But his arms 5.687. folded the blest Acestes to his heart 5.688. and, Ioading him with noble gifts, he cried: 5.689. “Receive them, sire! The great Olympian King 5.690. ome peerless honor to thy name decrees 5.691. by such an omen given. I offer thee 5.692. this bowl with figures graven, which my sire 5.693. good gray Anchises, for proud gift received 5.694. of Thracian Cisseus, for their friendship's pledge 5.695. and memory evermore.” Thereon he crowned 5.696. his brows with garland of the laurel green 5.697. and named Acestes victor over all. 5.698. Nor could Eurytion, noble youth, think ill 5.699. of honor which his own surpassed, though he 7.41. hore-haunting birds of varied voice and plume 9.446. that no man smite behind us. I myself 9.447. will mow the mighty fieid, and lead thee on 9.448. in a wide swath of slaughter.” With this word 9.449. he shut his lips; and hurled him with his sword 9.481. the youth thrust home his sword, then drew it back 9.482. death-dripping, while the bursting purple stream 9.483. of life outflowed, with mingling blood and wine. 9.484. Then, flushed with stealthy slaughter, he crept near 9.485. the followers of Messapus, where he saw 9.486. their camp-fire dying down, and tethered steeds 9.487. upon the meadow feeding. Nisus then 9.488. knew the hot lust of slaughter had swept on 9.489. too far, and cried, “Hold off! For, lo 9.490. the monitory dawn is nigh. Revenge 9.491. has fed us to the full. We have achieved 9.492. clean passage through the foe.” Full many a prize 9.493. was left untaken: princely suits of mail 9.494. enwrought with silver pure, huge drinking-bowls 9.495. and broideries fair. Yet grasped Euryalus 9.496. the blazonry at Rhamnes' corselet hung 9.497. and belt adorned with gold: which were a gift
18. Vergil, Eclogues, 8.9-8.10, 9.34 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

19. Vergil, Georgics, 1.24-1.42, 1.498-1.504, 2.176, 3.10-3.48 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.24. Minerva, from whose hand the olive sprung; 1.25. And boy-discoverer of the curved plough; 1.26. And, bearing a young cypress root-uptorn 1.27. Silvanus, and Gods all and Goddesses 1.28. Who make the fields your care, both ye who nurse 1.29. The tender unsown increase, and from heaven 1.30. Shed on man's sowing the riches of your rain: 1.31. And thou, even thou, of whom we know not yet 1.32. What mansion of the skies shall hold thee soon 1.33. Whether to watch o'er cities be thy will 1.34. Great Caesar, and to take the earth in charge 1.35. That so the mighty world may welcome thee 1.36. Lord of her increase, master of her times 1.37. Binding thy mother's myrtle round thy brow 1.38. Or as the boundless ocean's God thou come 1.39. Sole dread of seamen, till far placeName key= 1.40. Before thee, and Tethys win thee to her son 1.41. With all her waves for dower; or as a star 1.42. Lend thy fresh beams our lagging months to cheer 1.498. So too, after rain 1.499. Sunshine and open skies thou mayst forecast 1.500. And learn by tokens sure, for then nor dimmed 1.501. Appear the stars' keen edges, nor the moon 1.502. As borrowing of her brother's beams to rise 1.503. Nor fleecy films to float along the sky. 1.504. Not to the sun's warmth then upon the shore 2.176. Nor Ganges fair, and Hermus thick with gold 3.10. And Pelops for his ivory shoulder famed 3.11. Keen charioteer? Needs must a path be tried 3.12. By which I too may lift me from the dust 3.13. And float triumphant through the mouths of men. 3.14. Yea, I shall be the first, so life endure 3.15. To lead the Muses with me, as I pa 3.16. To mine own country from the Aonian height; 3.17. I, placeName key= 3.18. of Idumaea, and raise a marble shrine 3.19. On thy green plain fast by the water-side 3.20. Where Mincius winds more vast in lazy coils 3.21. And rims his margent with the tender reed. 3.22. Amid my shrine shall Caesar's godhead dwell. 3.23. To him will I, as victor, bravely dight 3.24. In Tyrian purple, drive along the bank 3.25. A hundred four-horse cars. All placeName key= 3.26. Leaving Alpheus and Molorchus' grove 3.27. On foot shall strive, or with the raw-hide glove; 3.28. Whilst I, my head with stripped green olive crowned 3.29. Will offer gifts. Even 'tis present joy 3.30. To lead the high processions to the fane 3.31. And view the victims felled; or how the scene 3.32. Sunders with shifted face, and placeName key= 3.33. Inwoven thereon with those proud curtains rise. 3.34. of gold and massive ivory on the door 3.35. I'll trace the battle of the Gangarides 3.36. And our Quirinus' conquering arms, and there 3.37. Surging with war, and hugely flowing, the placeName key= 3.38. And columns heaped on high with naval brass. 3.39. And placeName key= 3.40. And quelled Niphates, and the Parthian foe 3.41. Who trusts in flight and backward-volleying darts 3.42. And trophies torn with twice triumphant hand 3.43. From empires twain on ocean's either shore. 3.44. And breathing forms of Parian marble there 3.45. Shall stand, the offspring of Assaracus 3.46. And great names of the Jove-descended folk 3.47. And father Tros, and placeName key= 3.48. of Cynthus. And accursed Envy there
20. Lucan, Pharsalia, 1.1-1.4, 1.63, 1.66, 1.68, 1.151-1.156, 2.40-2.42, 4.500, 6.304, 6.350, 6.402, 7.7-7.20, 7.24, 7.29-7.36, 7.403-7.407, 7.419, 7.553, 7.768, 8.820-8.822, 8.831-8.833, 8.835-8.837, 8.843-8.846, 9.13-9.14, 9.169-9.170, 9.173, 9.232-9.233, 9.961-9.979, 9.981-9.999, 9.1104-9.1108, 10.14-10.19, 10.193-10.218, 10.252-10.267 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Martial, Epigrams, 1.1.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Martial, Epigrams, 1.1.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

23. Plutarch, Alexander The Great, 15.7-15.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 1.8.5, 10.1.46-10.1.51 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.8.5.  It is therefore an admirable practice which now prevails, to begin by reading Homer and Vergil, although the intelligence needs to be further developed for the full appreciation of their merits: but there is plenty of time for that since the boy will read them more than once. In the meantime let his mind be lifted by the sublimity of heroic verse, inspired by the greatness of its theme and imbued with the loftiest sentiments.
25. Silius Italicus, Punica, 4.396-4.400, 4.525-4.528, 6.122, 6.653-6.697, 8.593-8.594, 13.778-13.797, 15.328 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. Statius, Siluae, 2.7, 3.2.101-3.2.126 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

27. Suetonius, Augustus, 18.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

28. Suetonius, Caligula, 52 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

29. Tacitus, Annals, 1.61-1.62 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.61.  There came upon the Caesar, therefore, a passionate desire to pay the last tribute to the fallen and their leader, while the whole army present with him were stirred to pity at thought of their kindred, of their friends, ay! and of the chances of battle and of the lot of mankind. Sending Caecina forward to explore the secret forest passes and to throw bridges and causeways over the flooded marshes and treacherous levels, they pursued their march over the dismal tract, hideous to sight and memory. Varus' first camp, with its broad sweep and measured spaces for officers and eagles, advertised the labours of three legions: then a half-ruined wall and shallow ditch showed that there the now broken remt had taken cover. In the plain between were bleaching bones, scattered or in little heaps, as the men had fallen, fleeing or standing fast. Hard by lay splintered spears and limbs of horses, while human skulls were nailed prominently on the tree-trunks. In the neighbouring groves stood the savage altars at which they had slaughtered the tribunes and chief centurions. Survivors of the disaster, who had escaped the battle or their chains, told how here the legates fell, there the eagles were taken, where the first wound was dealt upon Varus, and where he found death by the suicidal stroke of his own unhappy hand. They spoke of the tribunal from which Arminius made his harangue, all the gibbets and torture-pits for the prisoners, and the arrogance with which he insulted the standards and eagles. 1.62.  And so, six years after the fatal field, a Roman army, present on the ground, buried the bones of the three legions; and no man knew whether he consigned to earth the remains of a stranger or a kinsman, but all thought of all as friends and members of one family, and, with anger rising against the enemy, mourned at once and hated. At the erection of the funeral-mound the Caesar laid the first sod, paying a dear tribute to the departed, and associating himself with the grief of those around him. But Tiberius disapproved, possibly because he put an invidious construction on all acts of Germanicus, possibly because he held that the sight of the unburied dead must have given the army less alacrity for battle and more respect for the enemy, while a commander, invested with the augurate and administering the most venerable rites of religion, ought to have avoided all contact with a funeral ceremony.
30. Tacitus, Histories, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

31. Valerius Flaccus Gaius, Argonautica, 2.244-2.246 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

32. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 51.16.5, 68.29-68.30, 7776.7.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

51.16.5.  After this he viewed the body of Alexander and actually touched it, whereupon, it is said, a piece of the nose was broken off. But he declined to view the remains of the Ptolemies, though the Alexandrians were extremely eager to show them, remarking, "I wished to see a king, not corpses." For this same reason he would not enter the presence of Apis, either, declaring that he was accustomed to worship gods, not cattle. 68.29. 1.  Then he came to the ocean itself, and when he had learned its nature and had seen a ship sailing to India, he said: "I should certainly have crossed over to the Indi, too, if I were still young." For he began to think about the Indi and was curious about their affairs, and he counted Alexander a lucky man. Yet he would declare that he himself had advanced farther than Alexander, and would so write to the senate, although he was unable to preserve even the territory that he had subdued.,2.  For this achievement he obtained among other honours the privilege of celebrating a triumph for as many nations as he pleased; for by reason of the large number of the peoples of whom he was constantly writing to them they were unable in some cases to follow him intelligently or even to use the names correctly.,3.  So the people in Rome were preparing for him a triumphal arch besides many other tributes in his own forum and were getting ready to go forth an unusual distance to meet him on his return. But he was destined never to reach Rome again nor to accomplish anything comparable to his previous exploits, and furthermore to lose even those earlier acquisitions.,4.  For during the time that he was sailing down to the ocean and returning from there again all the conquered districts were thrown into turmoil and revolted, and the garrisons placed among the various peoples were either expelled or slain. 68.30. 1.  Trajan learned of this at Babylon; for he had gone there both because of its fame — though he saw nothing but mounds and stones and ruins to justify this — and because of Alexander, to whose spirit he offered sacrifice in the room where he had died. When he learned of the revolt, he sent Lusius and Maximus against the rebels.,2.  The latter was defeated in battle and perished; but Lusius, in addition to many other successes, recovered Nisibis, and besieged and captured Edessa, which he sacked and burned. Seleucia was also captured by Erucius Clarus and Julius Alexander, lieutets, and was burned.,3.  Trajan, fearing that the Parthians, too, might begin a revolt, desired to give them a king of their own. Accordingly, when he came to Ctesiphon, he called together in a great plain all the Romans and likewise all the Parthians that were there at the time; then he mounted a lofty platform, and after describing in grandiloquent language what he had accomplished, he appointed Parthamaspates king over the Parthians and set the diadem upon his head. LXXV  
33. Herodian, History of The Empire After Marcus, 1.15.9 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

34. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.12.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.12.1. So Pyrrhus was the first to cross the Ionian Sea from Greece to attack the Romans. 280 B.C. And even he crossed on the invitation of the Tarentines. For they were already involved in a war with the Romans, but were no match for them unaided. Pyrrhus was already in their debt, because they had sent a fleet to help him in his war with Corcyra, but the most cogent arguments of the Tarentine envoys were their accounts of Italy, how its prosperity was equal to that of the whole of Greece, and their plea that it was wicked to dismiss them when they had come as friends and suppliants in their hour of need. When the envoys urged these considerations, Pyrrhus remembered the capture of Troy, which he took to be an omen of his success in the war, as he was a descendant of Achilles making war upon a colony of Trojans.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
achilles Chrysanthou (2022), Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire. 233; Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 33, 34; Price, Finkelberg and Shahar (2021), Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity, 21
aegyptiaca Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 206
aeneas Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 292, 294; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 292, 294
alexander the great,model for viri militares Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 206
alexander the great Chrysanthou (2022), Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire. 233
anchoring allusions Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 22, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35
antigonus i monophthalmus Chrysanthou (2022), Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire. 233
antiphony Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 234, 255, 257, 263
antonius,m. Price, Finkelberg and Shahar (2021), Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity, 21
apis,egyptian deity Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 206
apostrophe Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 26, 35
appearance Chrysanthou (2022), Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire. 233
augustus Price, Finkelberg and Shahar (2021), Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity, 21
barbarians Chrysanthou (2022), Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire. 233
caesar,julius,character in lucan Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 255, 260
caesar,julius,commentarii de bello civili Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 26, 28
caesar (julius) Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 292, 293; Chrysanthou (2022), Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire. 233; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 292, 293
caligula Chrysanthou (2022), Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire. 233; Price, Finkelberg and Shahar (2021), Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity, 21
calliope Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 22, 260
caracalla Chrysanthou (2022), Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire. 233
carthage Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 294; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 294
cato the younger Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 263
claudius Price, Finkelberg and Shahar (2021), Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity, 21
cleopatra vii,hostess to caesar Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 85
closure,passim Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 263, 264, 269
cornelia,as conventional mourner Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 234
cornelia Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 254
cornelius scipio africanus,p. (maior) Price, Finkelberg and Shahar (2021), Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity, 21
cornelius sulla,l. Price, Finkelberg and Shahar (2021), Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity, 21
cornelius tacitus Price, Finkelberg and Shahar (2021), Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity, 21
demetrius poliorcetes Chrysanthou (2022), Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire. 233
dionysus Chrysanthou (2022), Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire. 233
dress' Chrysanthou (2022), Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire. 233
ekphrasis Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 85
ennius,alignment with / adaptation of homer Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 30, 31
ennius,model / anti-model for lucan Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 28, 29, 30, 31, 34, 35, 234
ennius,time and space in Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 29, 34, 35
euryalus Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 293; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 293
gods,the absence of their providence in lucan Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 27
goos Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 257
hannibal Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 313; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 313
hector Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 294; Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 257; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 294
homer,aligned with ennius Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 30, 31
homer,lucans use of Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 234, 254, 255, 257, 260, 261
homer,model / anti-model for lucan Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 27, 28, 33, 34, 35, 221, 234, 254, 255, 257, 260, 261
homer,praise in Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 234, 260, 261
homer,standing in rome Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 260, 261
homer Chrysanthou (2022), Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire. 233
imperial patron Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 206
isaeum campense,temple of isis Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 206
julius caesar,c. Price, Finkelberg and Shahar (2021), Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity, 21
juno Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 294; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 294
logos,logoi,and statius Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 206
mantua Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 292; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 292
marcus aurelius Chrysanthou (2022), Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire. 233
memnon Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 294; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 294
memphis,birthplace of lucans acoreus Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 206
memphis,cultic center Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 206
metanarrative perspectives Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 55, 85
metapoetic diction,fama Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 264
metapoetic diction,magnus Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 260, 261
muses Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 27
narrator Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 221
nenia,and lucans narrator Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 32, 269
nenia,nero,reign of Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 269
nero Chrysanthou (2022), Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire. 233; Price, Finkelberg and Shahar (2021), Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity, 21
nile,past and present Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 85
nile,subject matter of art Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 85
nile mosaic of praeneste Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 85
nisus Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 293; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 293
nostos,as master-trope explored by lucan Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 221
octavian Chrysanthou (2022), Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire. 233
odysseus Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 221, 257
ovid,as model and anti-model for lucan Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 26, 27, 28, 29, 33, 234
ovid Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 260
patroclus Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 255
pelusium,mouth of the nile Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 55
penthesilea Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 294; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 294
pharsalia,as a character Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 269
pharsalia,as place and time Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 32, 35, 269
pharsalia,name of the poem Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 255, 269
phoebus Price, Finkelberg and Shahar (2021), Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity, 21
pompey,as object of lament Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 234
pompey (gnaeus pompeius magnus),escapes the nile in lucan Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 55
populus romanus,as central character in the pharsalia Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 221
punic wars,first Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 294; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 294
punic wars,second Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 292, 293, 294, 313; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 292, 293, 294, 313
pyrrhus Price, Finkelberg and Shahar (2021), Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity, 21
regulus Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 294; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 294
revisionism,of egypt and the nile Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 55, 206
rhoeteum Price, Finkelberg and Shahar (2021), Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity, 21
scaeva Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 264
scipio africanus,and achilles Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 292, 293, 294, 313; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 292, 293, 294, 313
scipio africanus,imitatio of alexander the great by Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 292, 293, 294, 313; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 292, 293, 294, 313
scipio africanus,katabasis of Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 292, 293, 294; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 292, 293, 294
scipio africanus,meeting with homer Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 292, 293, 294; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 292, 293, 294
scipio africanus,meeting with virtus and voluptas Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 313; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 313
sibyl Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 292, 293, 294; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 292, 293, 294
sigeum Price, Finkelberg and Shahar (2021), Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity, 21
silius italicus,and cicero Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 313; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 313
silius italicus,and ennius Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 292, 293, 294, 313; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 292, 293, 294, 313
silius italicus,and homer Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 292, 293, 294, 313; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 292, 293, 294, 313
silius italicus,and lucan Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 292, 293; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 292, 293
silius italicus,and lucretius Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 292, 293, 294, 313; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 292, 293, 294, 313
silius italicus,and the tradition on kingship Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 313; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 313
silius italicus,and virgil Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 292, 293, 294; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 292, 293, 294
silius italicus,nekyia in Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 292, 293, 294, 313; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 292, 293, 294, 313
simois Price, Finkelberg and Shahar (2021), Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity, 21
sophia,investigates egyptian deities Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 206
space and time in the ph. Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 29, 30
statius,as early reader of lucan Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 22
theriomorphism,trademark institution of egypt,investigated by statius Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 206
thetis Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 33
threnos Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 257
tombs,of alexander the great Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 206
tombs,of apis Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 206
tombs,of cleopatra Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 206
tombs,of pompey Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 55
tombs,pose challenge to emulate the famous dead Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 206
trajan Chrysanthou (2022), Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire. 233
troy,site of in the ph. Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 22, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 221, 257
troy Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 292; Price, Finkelberg and Shahar (2021), Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity, 21; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 292
uates Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 27, 28, 30, 31
underworld Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 292, 293, 294, 313; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 292, 293, 294, 313
vacca Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 32
vergilius maro,p. Price, Finkelberg and Shahar (2021), Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity, 21
virgil,as model and anti-model for lucan Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 26, 27, 28, 29, 234
virgil Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 30