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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7468
Lucan, Pharsalia, 3.39-3.40


nanSo long as I may break thy nightly rest: No moment left thee for her love, but all By night to me, by day to Caesar given. Me not the oblivious banks of Lethe's stream Have made forgetful; and the kings of death Have suffered me to join thee; in mid fight I will be with thee, and my haunting ghost Remind thee Caesar's daughter was thy spouse. Thy sword kills not our pledges; civil war Shall make thee wholly mine." She spake and fled.


nanBut he, though heaven and hell thus bode defeat, More bent on war, with mind assured of ill, "Why dread vain phantoms of a dreaming brain? Or nought of sense and feeling to the soul Is left by death; or death itself is nought." Now fiery Titan in declining path Dipped to the waves, his bright circumference So much diminished as a growing moon Not yet full circled, or when past the full; When to the fleet a hospitable coast


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

4 results
1. Cicero, On Divination, 1.5, 1.62-1.64, 1.86, 1.109 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.5. Atque haec, ut ego arbitror, veteres rerum magis eventis moniti quam ratione docti probaverunt. Philosophorum vero exquisita quaedam argumenta, cur esset vera divinatio, collecta sunt; e quibus, ut de antiquissumis loquar, Colophonius Xenophanes unus, qui deos esse diceret, divinationem funditus sustulit; reliqui vero omnes praeter Epicurum balbutientem de natura deorum divinationem probaverunt, sed non uno modo. Nam cum Socrates omnesque Socratici Zenoque et ii, qui ab eo essent profecti, manerent in antiquorum philosophorum sententia vetere Academia et Peripateticis consentientibus, cumque huic rei magnam auctoritatem Pythagoras iam ante tribuisset, qui etiam ipse augur vellet esse, plurumisque locis gravis auctor Democritus praesensionem rerum futurarum conprobaret, Dicaearchus Peripateticus cetera divinationis genera sustulit, somniorum et furoris reliquit, Cratippusque, familiaris noster, quem ego parem summis Peripateticis iudico, isdem rebus fidem tribuit, reliqua divinationis genera reiecit. 1.62. Epicurum igitur audiemus potius? Namque Carneades concertationis studio modo hoc, modo illud ait; ille, quod sentit; sentit autem nihil umquam elegans, nihil decorum. Hunc ergo antepones Platoni et Socrati? qui ut rationem non redderent, auctoritate tamen hos minutos philosophos vincerent. Iubet igitur Plato sic ad somnum proficisci corporibus adfectis, ut nihil sit, quod errorem animis perturbationemque adferat. Ex quo etiam Pythagoriis interdictum putatur, ne faba vescerentur, quod habet inflationem magnam is cibus tranquillitati mentis quaerenti vera contrariam. 1.63. Cum ergo est somno sevocatus animus a societate et a contagione corporis, tum meminit praeteritorum, praesentia cernit, futura providet; iacet enim corpus dormientis ut mortui, viget autem et vivit animus. Quod multo magis faciet post mortem, cum omnino corpore excesserit. Itaque adpropinquante morte multo est divinior. Nam et id ipsum vident, qui sunt morbo gravi et mortifero adfecti, instare mortem; itaque iis occurrunt plerumque imagines mortuorum, tumque vel maxume laudi student, eosque, qui secus, quam decuit, vixerunt, peccatorum suorum tum maxume paenitet. 1.64. Divinare autem morientes illo etiam exemplo confirmat Posidonius, quod adfert, Rhodium quendam morientem sex aequales nominasse et dixisse, qui primus eorum, qui secundus, qui deinde deinceps moriturus esset. Sed tribus modis censet deorum adpulsu homines somniare, uno, quod provideat animus ipse per sese, quippe qui deorum cognatione teneatur, altero, quod plenus ae+r sit inmortalium animorum, in quibus tamquam insignitae notae veritatis appareant, tertio, quod ipsi di cum dormientibus conloquantur. Idque, ut modo dixi, facilius evenit adpropinquante morte, ut animi futura augurentur. 1.86. Cur fiat quidque, quaeris. Recte omnino; sed non nunc id agitur; fiat necne fiat, id quaeritur. Ut, si magnetem lapidem esse dicam, qui ferrum ad se adliciat et attrahat, rationem, cur id fiat, adferre nequeam, fieri omnino neges. Quod idem facis in divinatione, quam et cernimus ipsi et audimus et legimus et a patribus accepimus. Neque ante philosophiam patefactam, quae nuper inventa est, hac de re communis vita dubitavit, et, posteaquam philosophia processit, nemo aliter philosophus sensit, in quo modo esset auctoritas. 1.109. Sed ut, unde huc digressa est, eodem redeat oratio: si nihil queam disputare, quam ob rem quidque fiat, et tantum modo fieri ea, quae commemoravi, doceam, parumne Epicuro Carneadive respondeam? Quid, si etiam ratio exstat artificiosae praesensionis facilis, divinae autem paulo obscurior? Quae enim extis, quae fulgoribus, quae portentis, quae astris praesentiuntur, haec notata sunt observatione diuturna. Adfert autem vetustas omnibus in rebus longinqua observatione incredibilem scientiam; quae potest esse etiam sine motu atque inpulsu deorum, cum, quid ex quoque eveniat, et quid quamque rem significet, crebra animadversione perspectum est. 1.5. Now my opinion is that, in sanctioning such usages, the ancients were influenced more by actual results than convinced by reason. However certain very subtle arguments to prove the trustworthiness of divination have been gathered by philosophers. of these — to mention the most ancient — Xenophanes of Colophon, while asserting the existence of gods, was the only one who repudiated divination in its entirety; but all the others, with the exception of Epicurus, who babbled about the nature of the gods, approved of divination, though not in the same degree. For example, Socrates and all of the Socratic School, and Zeno and his followers, continued in the faith of the ancient philosophers and in agreement with the Old Academy and with the Peripatetics. Their predecessor, Pythagoras, who even wished to be considered an augur himself, gave the weight of his great name to the same practice; and that eminent author, Democritus, in many passages, strongly affirmed his belief in a presentiment of things to come. Moreover, Dicaearchus, the Peripatetic, though he accepted divination by dreams and frenzy, cast away all other kinds; and my intimate friend, Cratippus, whom I consider the peer of the greatest of the Peripatetics, also gave credence to the same kinds of divination but rejected the rest. 1.5. We read in a history by Agathocles that Hamilcar, the Carthaginian, during his siege of Syracuse heard a voice in his sleep telling him that he would dine the next day in Syracuse. At daybreak the following day a serious conflict broke out in his camp between the troops of the Carthaginians and their allies, the Siculi. When the Syracusans saw this they made a sudden assault on the camp and carried Hamilcar off alive. Thus the event verified the dream.History is full of such instances, and so is everyday life. 1.62. Then shall we listen to Epicurus rather than to Plato? As for Carneades, in his ardour for controversy he asserts this and now that. But, you retort, Epicurus says what he thinks. But he thinks nothing that is ever well reasoned, or worthy of a philosopher. Will you, then, put this man before Plato or Socrates, who though they gave no reason, would yet prevail over these petty philosophers by the mere weight of their name? Now Platos advice to us is to set out for the land of dreams with bodies so prepared that no error or confusion may assail the soul. For this reason, it is thought, the Pythagoreans were forbidden to indulge in beans; for that food produces great flatulence and induces a condition at war with a soul in search for truth. 1.63. When, therefore, the soul has been withdrawn by sleep from contact with sensual ties, then does it recall the past, comprehend the present, and foresee the future. For though the sleeping body then lies as if it were dead, yet the soul is alive and strong, and will be much more so after death when it is wholly free of the body. Hence its power to divine is much enhanced by the approach of death. For example, those in the grasp of a serious and fatal sickness realize the fact that death impends; and so, visions of dead men generally appear to them and then their desire for fame is strongest; while those who have lived otherwise than as they should, feel, at such a time, the keenest sorrow for their sins. 1.64. Moreover, proof of the power of dying men to prophesy is also given by Posidonius in his well-known account of a certain Rhodian, who, when on his death-bed, named six men of equal age and foretold which of them would die first, which second, and so on. Now Posidonius holds the view that there are three ways in which men dream as the result of divine impulse: first, the soul is clairvoyant of itself because of its kinship with the gods; second, the air is full of immortal souls, already clearly stamped, as it were, with the marks of truth; and third, the gods in person converse with men when they are asleep. And, as I said just now, it is when death is at hand that men most readily discern signs of the future. 1.86. You ask why everything happens. You have a perfect right to ask, but that is not the point at issue now. The question is, Does it happen, or does it not? For example, if I were to say that the magnet attracted iron and drew it to itself, and I could not tell you why, then I suppose you would utterly deny that the magnet had any such power. At least that is the course you pursue in regard to the existence of the power of divination, although it is established by our reading and by the traditions of our forefathers. Why, even before the dawn of philosophy, which is a recent discovery, the average man had no doubt about divination, and, since its development, no philosopher of any sort of reputation has had any different view. 1.109. But let us bring the discussion back to the point from which it wandered. Assume that I can give no reason for any of the instances of divination which I have mentioned and that I can do no more than show that they did occur, is that not a sufficient answer to Epicurus and to Carneades? And what does it matter if, as between artificial and natural divination, the explanation of the former is easy and of the latter is somewhat hard? For the results of those artificial means of divination, by means of entrails, lightnings, portents, and astrology, have been the subject of observation for a long period of time. But in every field of inquiry great length of time employed in continued observation begets an extraordinary fund of knowledge, which may be acquired even without the intervention or inspiration of the gods, since repeated observation makes it clear what effect follows any given cause, and what sign precedes any given event.
2. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 1.1018, 4.453-4.456 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3. Lucan, Pharsalia, 3.9-3.35, 3.40, 4.478-4.479, 4.512-4.515, 4.519-4.520, 9.101, 9.630-9.632, 9.636-9.637, 9.885-9.887 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4. Seneca The Younger, Troades, 393-395, 397, 392 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
acheron Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 266
aeneas Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 279
afterlife Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 266, 273, 274, 275
beginnings (of poetry books) Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 279
bolton, edmund, nero caesar, or monarchie depraved Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 99
caesar, julius Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 266
cato the younger, suicide of Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 99
chaos Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 278
cicero Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 276
cornelia Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 265, 266, 278
creusa Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 274
death Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 266, 273, 274, 275
dreams Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 265, 266, 279
elysium Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 266
fear, of death Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 273
fear Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 266
focalization Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 273
ghosts Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 274
gwinne, matthew, nero, tragoedia nova Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 99
hades Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 279
homer Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 278
lucan, and the pisonian conspiracy Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 99
lucan, biofictional reception in early modern england Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 99
lucan, in matthew gwinnes nero, tragoedia nova Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 99
meteorology, clouds Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 278
militarism/warfare Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 265, 266
moon Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 266, 279
nero, as character in matthew gwinnes nero, tragoedia nova Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 99
parcae Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 266
phaethon Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 279
pharsalus Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 279
posidonius Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 276
prophecy Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 276
reader (within the poem) Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 273
religio/superstition Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 279
scaevinus, flavius Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 99
seneca the younger Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 276, 278
sense-perception Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 274
simulacra Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 274
soul Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 266, 278
stoicism Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 273, 275, 276, 278
tartarus Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 266, 278
the tragedy of nero Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 99
time Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 279
titan (sun) Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 266, 279
truth Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 276
underworld' Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 279
underworld Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 265
virgil Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 278, 279