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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7468
Lucan, Pharsalia, 2.9-2.10


nanMatter unformed to his subduing hand, And realms unbalanced, fix by stern decree' Unalterable laws to bind the whole (Himself, too, bound by law), so that for aye All Nature moves within its fated bounds? Or, is Chance sovereign over all, and we The sport of Fortune and her turning wheel? Whate'er be truth, keep thou the future veiled From mortal vision, and amid their fears May men still hope. Thus known how great the woes


nanBook 2 This was made plain the anger of the gods; The universe gave signs Nature reversed In monstrous tumult fraught with prodigies Her laws, and prescient spake the coming guilt. How seemed it just to thee, Olympus' king, That suffering mortals at thy doom should know By omens dire the massacre to come? Or did the primal parent of the world When first the flames gave way and yielding left


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

13 results
1. Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound, 6-7, 11 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11. στέργειν, φιλανθρώπου δὲ παύεσθαι τρόπου. Ἥφαιστος
2. Aratus Solensis, Phaenomena, 11-13, 5-10 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10. αὐτὸς γὰρ τά γε σήματʼ ἐν οὐρανῷ ἐστήριξεν
3. Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica, 2.1248-2.1259 (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.1248. ἠλίβατοι, τόθι γυῖα περὶ στυφελοῖσι πάγοισιν 2.1249. ἰλλόμενος χαλκέῃσιν ἀλυκτοπέδῃσι Προμηθεὺς 2.1250. αἰετὸν ἥπατι φέρβε παλιμπετὲς ἀίσσοντα. 2.1251. τὸν μὲν ἐπʼ ἀκροτάτης ἴδον ἕσπερον ὀξέι ῥοίζῳ 2.1252. νηὸς ὑπερπτάμενον νεφέων σχεδόν· ἀλλὰ καὶ ἔμπης 2.1253. λαίφεα πάντʼ ἐτίναξε, παραιθύξας πτερύγεσσιν. 2.1254. οὐ γὰρʼ ὅγʼ αἰθερίοιο φυὴν ἔχεν οἰωνοῖο 2.1255. ἶσα δʼ ἐυξέστοις ὠκύπτερα πάλλεν ἐρετμοῖς 2.1256. δηρὸν δʼ. οὐ μετέπειτα πολύστονον ἄιον αὐδὴν 2.1257. ἧπαρ ἀνελκομένοιο Προμηθέος· ἔκτυπε δʼ αἰθὴρ 2.1258. οἰμωγῇ, μέσφʼ αὖτις ἀπʼ οὔρεος ἀίσσοντα 2.1259. αἰετὸν ὠμηστὴν αὐτὴν ὁδὸν εἰσενόησαν.
4. Cicero, Academica, 2.121 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5. Cicero, On Divination, 1.54 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.54. Adiungamus philosophis doctissimum hominem, poe+tam quidem divinum, Sophoclem; qui, cum ex aede Herculis patera aurea gravis subrepta esset, in somnis vidit ipsum deum dicentem, qui id fecisset. Quod semel ille iterumque neglexit. Ubi idem saepius, ascendit in Arium pagum, detulit rem; Areopagitae conprehendi iubent eum, qui a Sophocle erat nominatus; is quaestione adhibita confessus est pateramque rettulit. Quo facto fanum illud Indicis Herculis nominatum est. 1.54. To the testimony of philosophers let us add that of a most learned man and truly divine poet, Sophocles. A heavy gold dish having been stolen from the temple of Hercules, the god himself appeared to Sophocles in a dream and told who had committed the theft. But Sophocles ignored the dream a first and second time. When it came again and again, he went up to the Areopagus and laid the matter before the judges who ordered the man named by Sophocles to be arrested. The defendant after examination confessed his crime and brought back the dish. This is the reason why that temple is called the temple of Hercules the Informer. [26]
6. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 2.21-2.28, 2.75, 2.77, 2.82, 2.93-2.94 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.21. 'That which has the faculty of reason is superior to that which has not the faculty of reason; but nothing is superior to the world; therefore the world has the faculty of reason.' A similar argument can be used to prove that the world is wise, and happy, and eternal; for things possessed of each of these attributes are superior to things devoid of them, and nothing is superior to the world. From this it will follow that the world is god. Zeno also argued thus: 2.22. 'Nothing devoid of sensation can have a part of itself that is sentient; but the world has parts that are sentient; therefore the world has parts that are sentient; therefore the world is not devoid of sensation.' He also proceeds to press the argument more closely: 'Nothing,' he says, 'that is iimate and irrational can give birth to an animate and rational being; but the world gives birth to animate and rational beings; therefore the world is animate and rational.' Furthermore he proved his argument by means of one of his favourite comparisons, as follows: 'If flutes playing musical tunes grew on an olive-tree, surely you would not question that the olive-tree possessed some knowledge of the art of flute-playing; or if plane-trees bore well-tuned lutes, doubtless you would likewise infer that the plane-trees possessed the art of music; why then should we not judge the world to be animate and endowed with wisdom, when it produces animate and wise offspring? 2.23. However, having begun to treat the subject in a different way from that which I proposed at the beginning (for I said that this part required no discussion, since the existence of god was manifest to everybody), in spite of this I should like to prove even this point by means of arguments drawn from Physics or Natural Philosophy. It is a law of Nature that all things capable of nurture and growth contain within them a supply of heat, without which their nurture and growth would not be possible; for everything of a hot, fiery nature supplies its own source of motion and activity; but that which is nourished and grows possesses a definite and uniform motion; and as long as this motion remains within us, so long sensation and life remain, whereas so soon as our heat is cooled and quenched we ourselves perish and are extinguished. 2.24. This doctrine Cleanthes enforces by these further arguments, to show how great is the supply of heat in every living body: he states that there is no food so heavy that it is not digested in twenty-four hours; and even the residue of our food which nature rejects contains heat. Again, the veins and arteries never cease throbbing with a flame-like pulse, and frequent cases have been observed when the heart of an animal on being torn out of its body has continued to beat with a rapid motion resembling the flickering of fire. Every living thing therefore, whether animal or vegetable, owes its vitality to the heat contained within it. From this it must be inferred that this element of heat possesses in itself a vital force that pervades the whole world. 2.25. We shall discern the truth of this more readily from a more detailed account of this all‑permeating fiery element as a whole. All the parts of the world (I will however only specify the most important) are supported and sustained by heat. This can be perceived first of all in the element of earth. We see fire produced by striking or rubbing stones together; and when newly dug, 'the earth doth steam with warmth'; and also warm water is drawn from running springs, and this occurs most of all in the winter-time, because a great store of heat is confined in the caverns of the earth, which in winter is denser and therefore confines more closely the heat stored in the soil. 2.26. It would require a long discourse and a great many arguments to enable me to show that all the seeds that earth receives in her womb, and all the plants which she spontaneously generates and holds fixed by their roots in the ground, owe both their origin and growth to this warm temperature of the soil. That water also contains an admixture of heat is shown first of all by its liquid nature; water would neither be frozen into ice by cold nor congealed into snow and hoar-frost unless it could also become fluid when liquefied and thawed by the admixture of heat; this is why moisture both hardens when exposed to a north wind or a frost from some other quarter, and also in turn softens when warmed, and evaporates with heat. Also the sea when violently stirred by the wind becomes warm, so that it can readily be realized that this great body of fluid contains heat; for we must not suppose the warmth in question to be derived from some external source, but stirred up from the lowest depths of the sea by violent motion, just as happens to our bodies when they are restored to warmth by movement and exercise. Indeed the air itself, though by nature the coldest of the elements, is by no means entirely devoid of heat; 2.27. indeed it contains even a considerable admixture of heat, for it is itself generated by exhalation from water, since air must be deemed to be a sort of vaporized water, and this vaporization is caused by the motion of the heat contained in the water. We may see an example of the same process when water is made to boil by placing fire beneath it. — There remains the fourth element: this is itself by nature glowing hot throughout and also imparts the warmth of health and life to all other substances. 2.28. Hence from the fact that all the parts of the world are sustained by heat the inference follows that the world itself also owes its continued preservation for so long a time to the same or a similar substance, and all the more so because it must be understood that this hot and fiery principle is interfused with the whole of nature in such a way as to constitute the male and female generative principles, and so to be the necessary cause of both the birth and the growth of all living creatures, whether animals or those whose roots are planted in the earth. 2.75. I therefore declare that the world and all its parts were set in order at the beginning and have been governed for all time by converse providence: a thesis which our school usually divides into three sections. The first is based on the argument proving that the gods exist; if this be granted, it must be admitted that the world is governed by their wisdom. The second proves that all things are under the sway of sentient nature, and that by it the universe is carried on in the most beautiful manner; and this proved, it follows that the universe was generated from living first causes. The third topic is the argument from the wonder that we feel at the marvel of creation, celestial and terrestrial. 2.77. in that case the nature of the gods is not superior to all else in power, inasmuch as it is subject to a necessity or nature that rules the sky, sea and land. But as a matter of fact nothing exists that is superior to god; it follows therefore that the world is ruled by him; therefore god is not obedient or subject to any form of nature, and therefore he himself rules all nature. In fact if we concede divine intelligence, we concede also divine providence, and providence exercised in things of the highest moment. Are then the gods ignorant what things are of the highest moment and how these are to be directed and upheld, or do they lack the strength to undertake and to perform duties so vast? But ignorance is foreign the time of divine nature, and weakness, with a consequent incapacity to perform one's office, in no way suits with the divine majesty. This proves our thesis that the world is governed by divine providence. 2.82. Some thinkers again denote by the term 'nature' the whole of existence — for example Epicurus, who divides the nature of all existing things into atoms, void, and the attributes of these. When we on the other hand speak of nature as the sustaining and governing principle of the world, we do not mean that the world is like a clod of earth or lump of stone or something else of that sort, which possesses only the natural principle of cohesion, but like a tree or an animal, displaying no haphazard structure, to be order and a certain semblance of design. 2.93. At this point must I not marvel that there should be anyone who can persuade himself that there are certain solid and indivisible particles of matter borne along by the force of gravity, and that the fortuitous collision of those particles produces this elaborate and beautiful world? I cannot understand why he who considers it possible for this to have occurred should not all think that, if a counts number of copies of the one-and‑twenty letters of alphabet, made of gold or what you will, were thrown together into some receptacle and then shaken out on the ground, it would be possible that they should produce the Annals of Ennius, all ready for the reader. I doubt whether chance could possibly succeed in producing even a single verse! 2.94. Yet according to the assertion of your friends, that out of particles of matter not endowed with heat, nor with any 'quality' (the Greek term poiotes), nor with sense, but colliding together at haphazard and by chance, the world has emerged complete, or rather a countless number of worlds are some of them being born and some perishing at every moment of time — yet if the clash of atoms can create a world, why can it not produce a colonnade, a temple, a house, a city, which are less and indeed much less difficult things to make? The fact is, they indulge in such random babbling about the world that for my part I cannot think that they have ever looked up at this marvellously beautiful sky — which is my next topic.
7. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 5.1-5.2 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

8. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.257, 1.279-1.283, 6.724-6.751 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.257. in panic through the leafy wood, nor ceased 1.279. Such was his word, but vexed with grief and care 1.280. feigned hopes upon his forehead firm he wore 1.281. and locked within his heart a hero's pain. 1.282. Now round the welcome trophies of his chase 1.283. they gather for a feast. Some flay the ribs 6.724. Harries them thus? What wailing smites the air?” 6.725. To whom the Sibyl, “Far-famed prince of Troy 6.726. The feet of innocence may never pass 6.727. Into this house of sin. But Hecate 6.728. When o'er th' Avernian groves she gave me power 6.729. Taught me what penalties the gods decree 6.730. And showed me all. There Cretan Rhadamanth 6.731. His kingdom keeps, and from unpitying throne 6.732. Chastises and lays bare the secret sins 6.733. of mortals who, exulting in vain guile 6.734. Elude till death, their expiation due. 6.735. There, armed forever with her vengeful scourge 6.736. Tisiphone, with menace and affront 6.737. The guilty swarm pursues; in her left hand 6.738. She lifts her angered serpents, while she calls 6.739. A troop of sister-furies fierce as she. 6.740. Then, grating loud on hinge of sickening sound 6.741. Hell's portals open wide. 0, dost thou see 6.742. What sentinel upon that threshold sits 6.744. Far, far within the dragon Hydra broods 6.745. With half a hundred mouths, gaping and black; 6.746. And Tartarus slopes downward to the dark 6.747. Twice the whole space that in the realms of light 6.748. Th' Olympian heaven above our earth aspires. — 6.749. Here Earth's first offspring, the Titanic brood 6.750. Roll lightning-blasted in the gulf profound; 6.751. The twin Aloidae Aloïdae , colossal shades
9. Lucan, Pharsalia, 1.128, 1.409-1.419, 1.642-1.645, 2.1-2.2, 2.4-2.9, 2.11-2.15, 4.807-4.808, 5.92-5.93, 7.387-7.459, 10.209-10.267 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Seneca The Younger, De Providentia (Dialogorum Liber I), 5.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Seneca The Younger, Natural Questions, 2.35.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Valerius Flaccus Gaius, Argonautica, 2.356, 3.377-3.417, 4.479-4.481, 5.154-5.170 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Manilius, Astronomica, 1.778-1.779



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aeneas Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 137
anchises Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 137
and n Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 220
argo Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 145
argonauts Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 99
autocracy, roman Keith and Edmondson, Roman Literary Cultures: Domestic Politics, Revolutionary Poetics, Civic Spectacle (2016) 248
caesar, julius\u2003 Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 137
carneades Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 210
cato the younger Keith and Edmondson, Roman Literary Cultures: Domestic Politics, Revolutionary Poetics, Civic Spectacle (2016) 248
causation, cause Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 210
chance Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 210
cicero Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 220; Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 137, 145
civil war, roman Keith and Edmondson, Roman Literary Cultures: Domestic Politics, Revolutionary Poetics, Civic Spectacle (2016) 248
colchis Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 145
creation narratives, in lucans works Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 169
cyzicus Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 137
democracy Keith and Edmondson, Roman Literary Cultures: Domestic Politics, Revolutionary Poetics, Civic Spectacle (2016) 248
divination Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 220
education Keith and Edmondson, Roman Literary Cultures: Domestic Politics, Revolutionary Poetics, Civic Spectacle (2016) 248
ennius, model / anti-model for lucan Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 120
ennius Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 145
epic Keith and Edmondson, Roman Literary Cultures: Domestic Politics, Revolutionary Poetics, Civic Spectacle (2016) 248
epictetus Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 220
epicureanism Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 137, 145; Kazantzidis and Spatharas, Hope in Ancient Literature, History, and Art (2018) 19, 199; Keith and Edmondson, Roman Literary Cultures: Domestic Politics, Revolutionary Poetics, Civic Spectacle (2016) 248
epicurus, on nature and the self Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 210
eschatology, in lucans works Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 169
fate Kazantzidis and Spatharas, Hope in Ancient Literature, History, and Art (2018) 199
fear, and hope ( spes ) Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 99
god and the divine Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 220
gods, the absence of their providence in lucan Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 120
grant, r. m. Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 220
hardie, philip Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 169
hope, and eros Kazantzidis and Spatharas, Hope in Ancient Literature, History, and Art (2018) 19
hope, and fear Kazantzidis and Spatharas, Hope in Ancient Literature, History, and Art (2018) 199
hope, and madness Kazantzidis and Spatharas, Hope in Ancient Literature, History, and Art (2018) 19
intelligent design Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 210
johnson, w. r. Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 220
juno, aen. Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 99
juno, arg. Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 99
jupiter, aen. Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 99
jupiter, arg. Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 99
jupiter Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 286
jupiter (see also zeus) Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 137, 145
juvenal Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 220
lucan, civil war Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 169
lucan Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 137, 145
lucretius Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 120; Keith and Edmondson, Roman Literary Cultures: Domestic Politics, Revolutionary Poetics, Civic Spectacle (2016) 248; Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 210
medea Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 145
mind Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 210
mopsus Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 137
narrator Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 120
natura Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 169
nature, laws of Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 210
ovid, metamorphoses Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 169
pessimism, as a consequence of deceived hopes Kazantzidis and Spatharas, Hope in Ancient Literature, History, and Art (2018) 199
phineus Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 99
pneuma Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 210
providence Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 220
quintilian Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 137
religion Keith and Edmondson, Roman Literary Cultures: Domestic Politics, Revolutionary Poetics, Civic Spectacle (2016) 248
republicanism Keith and Edmondson, Roman Literary Cultures: Domestic Politics, Revolutionary Poetics, Civic Spectacle (2016) 248
rome Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 137
science Keith and Edmondson, Roman Literary Cultures: Domestic Politics, Revolutionary Poetics, Civic Spectacle (2016) 248
sedley, d. Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 210
self, concepts of' Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 210
seneca, thyestes Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 169
space and time in the ph. Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 120
stoicism, fate Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 99
stoicism, stoics Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 210
stoicism Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 137, 145; Kazantzidis and Spatharas, Hope in Ancient Literature, History, and Art (2018) 199
teleology Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 220
thyestes Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 169
venus, aen. Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 99
virgil Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 137
zeus Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 286