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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7456
Livy, History, 26.27.14
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

16 results
1. Hesiod, Works And Days, 734, 733 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

733. Or fast-approaching blizzards, new-made wine
2. Herodotus, Histories, 2.64 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.64. Furthermore, it was the Egyptians who first made it a matter of religious observance not to have intercourse with women in temples or to enter a temple after such intercourse without washing. Nearly all other peoples are less careful in this matter than are the Egyptians and Greeks, and consider a man to be like any other animal; ,for beasts and birds (they say) are seen to mate both in the temples and in the sacred precincts; now were this displeasing to the god, the beasts would not do so. This is the reason given by others for practices which I, for my part, dislike;
3. Cicero, Philippicae, 11.24 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4. Cicero, Pro Scauro, 48 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5. Dionysius of Halycarnassus, Roman Antiquities, 2.66-2.67, 2.66.6 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.66. 1.  Numa, upon taking over the rule, did not disturb the individual hearths of the curiae, but erected one common to them all in the space between the Capitoline hill and the Palatine (for these hills had already been united by a single wall into one city, and the Forum, in which the temple is built, lies between them), and he enacted, in accordance with the ancestral custom of the Latins, that the guarding of the holy things should be committed to virgins.,2.  There is some doubt, however, what it is that is kept in this temple and for what reason the care of it has been assigned to virgins, some affirming that nothing is preserved there but the fire, which is visible to everybody. And they very reasonably argue that the custody of the fire was committed to virgins, rather than to men, because fire in incorrupt and a virgin is undefiled, and the most chaste of mortal things must be agreeable to the purest of those that are divine.,3.  And they regard the fire as consecrated to Vesta because that goddess, being the earth and occupying the central place in the universe, kindles the celestial fires from herself. But there are some who say that besides the fire there are some holy things in the temple of the goddess that may not be revealed to the public, of which only the pontiffs and the virgins have knowledge. As a strong confirmation of this story they cite what happened at the burning of the temple during the First Punic War between the Romans and the Carthaginians over Sicily.,4.  For when the temple caught fire and the virgins fled from the flames, one of the pontiffs, Lucius Caecilius, called Metellus, a man of consular rank, the same who exhibited a hundred and thirty-eight elephants in the memorable triumph which he celebrated for his defeat of the Carthaginians in Sicily, neglecting his own safety for the sake of the public good, ventured to force his way into the burning structure, and, snatching up the holy things which the virgins had abandoned, saved them from the fire; for which he received the honours from the State, as the inscription upon his statue on the Capitol testifies.,5.  Taking this incident, then, as an admitted fact, they add some conjectures of their own. Thus, some affirm that the objects preserved here are a part of those holy things which were once in Samothrace; that Dardanus removed them out of that island into the city which he himself had built, and that Aeneas, when he fled from the Troad, brought them along with the other holy things into Italy. But others declare that it is the Palladium that fell from Heaven, the same that was in the possession of the people of Ilium; for they hold that Aeneas, being well acquainted with it, brought it into Italy, whereas the Achaeans stole away the copy, — an incident about which many stories have been related both by poets and by historians.,6.  For my part, I find from very many evidences that there are indeed some holy things, unknown to the public, kept by the virgins, and not the fire alone; but what they are I do not think should be inquired into too curiously, either by me of by anyone else who wishes to observe the reverence due to the gods. 2.66.6.  For my part, I find from very many evidences that there are indeed some holy things, unknown to the public, kept by the virgins, and not the fire alone; but what they are I do not think should be inquired into too curiously, either by me of by anyone else who wishes to observe the reverence due to the gods. 2.67. 1.  The virgins who serve the goddess were originally four and were chosen by the kings according to the principles established by Numa, but afterwards, from the multiplicity of the sacred rites they perform, their number was increased of six, and has so remained down to our time. They live in the temple of the goddess, into which none who wish are hindered from entering in the daytime, whereas it is not lawful for any man to remain there at night.,2.  They were required to remain undefiled by marriage for the space of thirty years, devoting themselves to offering sacrifices and performing the other rites ordained by law. During the first ten years their duty was to learn their functions, in the second ten to perform them, and during the remaining ten to teach others. After the expiration of the term of thirty years nothing hindered those who so desired from marrying, upon laying aside their fillets and the other insignia of their priesthood. And some, though very few, have done this; but they came to ends that were not at all happy or enviable. In consequence, the rest, looking upon their misfortunes as ominous, remain virgins in the temple of the goddess till their death, and then once more another is chosen by the pontiffs to supply the vacancy.,3.  Many high honours have been granted them by the commonwealth, as a result of which they feel no desire either for marriage or for children; and severe penalties have been established for their misdeeds. It is the pontiffs who by law both inquire into and punish these offences; to Vestals who are guilty of lesser misdemeanours they scourge with rods, but those who have suffered defilement they deliver up to the most shameful and the most miserable death.,4.  While they are yet alive they are carried upon a bier with all the formality of a funeral, their friends and relations attending them with lamentations, and after being brought as far as the Colline Gate, they are placed in an underground cell prepared within the walls, clad in their funeral attire; but they are not given a monument or funeral rites or any other customary solemnities.,5.  There are many indications, it seems, when a priestess is not performing her holy functions with purity, but the principal one is the extinction of the fire, which the Romans dread above all misfortunes, looking upon it, from whatever cause it proceeds, as an omen that portends the destruction of the city; and they bring fire again into the temple with many supplicatory rites, concerning which I shall speak on the proper occasion.
6. Livy, History, 22.57.2-22.57.6 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7. Ovid, Fasti, 1.527-1.528, 1.530, 3.143, 3.417-3.428, 6.436-6.454 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.527. Sacred father here: Vesta, receive the gods of Troy! 1.528. In time the same hand will guard the world and you 1.530. The safety of the country will lie with Augustus’ house: 3.143. Also, it’s said, a new fire is lit at her secret shrine 3.417. Give thanks to her, and offer incense on the Trojan hearth. 3.418. To the countless titles Caesar chose to earn 3.419. The honour of the High Priesthood was added. 3.420. Caesar’s eternal godhead protects the eternal fire 3.421. You may see the pledges of empire conjoined. 3.422. Gods of ancient Troy, worthiest prize for that Aenea 3.423. Who carried you, your burden saving him from the enemy 3.424. A priest of Aeneas’ line touches your divine kindred: 3.425. Vesta in turn guard the life of your kin! 3.426. You fires, burn on, nursed by his sacred hand: 3.427. Live undying, our leader, and your flames, I pray. 3.428. The Nones of March are free of meetings, because it’s thought 6.436. Vesta guards it: who sees all things by her unfailing light. 6.437. How worried the Senate was, when Vesta’s temple 6.438. Caught fire: and she was nearly buried by her own roof! 6.439. Holy fires blazed, fed by sinful fires 6.440. Sacred and profane flames were merged. 6.441. The priestesses with streaming hair, wept in amazement: 6.442. Fear had robbed them of their bodily powers. 6.443. Metellus rushed into their midst, crying in a loud voice: 6.444. ‘Run and help, there’s no use in weeping. 6.445. Seize fate’s pledges in your virgin hands: 6.446. They won’t survive by prayers, but by action. 6.447. Ah me! Do you hesitate?’ he said. He saw them 6.448. Hesitating, sinking in terror to their knees. 6.449. He took up water, and holding his hands aloft, cried: 6.450. ‘Forgive me, holy relics! A man enters where no man should. 6.451. If it’s wrong, let the punishment fall on me: 6.452. Let my life be the penalty, so Rome is free of harm.’ 6.453. He spoke and entered. The goddess he carried away 6.454. Was saved by her priest’s devotion, and she approved.
8. Ovid, Tristia, 3.1.70-3.1.72 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Propertius, Elegies, 4.4, 4.4.33-4.4.36 (1st cent. BCE

10. Vergil, Aeneis, 2.296 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.296. each dragon coiled, and on the shrinking flesh
11. Silius Italicus, Punica, 13.36-13.81 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. Valerius Maximus, Memorable Deeds And Sayings, 9.6.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 9.27.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9.27.6. At Thespiae is also a sanctuary of Heracles. The priestess there is a virgin, who acts as such until she dies. The reason of this is said to be as follows. Heracles, they say, had intercourse with the fifty daughters of Thestius, except one, in a single night. She was the only one who refused to have connection with him. Heracles,thinking that he had been insulted, condemned her to remain a virgin all her life, serving him as his priest.
14. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 9.39, 10.8 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9.39. To Mustius. I have been warned by the haruspices to put into better repair and enlarge the temple of Ceres, which stands on my estate, as it is very old and cramped for room, and on one day in the year attracts great crowds of people. For on the Ides of September all the population of the country-side flocks thither; much business is transacted, many vows are registered and paid, but there is no place near where people can take refuge either from storm or heat. I think, therefore, that I shall be showing my generosity, and at the same time display my piety, if I rebuild the temple as handsomely as possible and add to it a portico, the former for the use of the goddess, the latter for the people who attend there. So I should like you to buy me four columns of any kind of marble you think fit, as well as sufficient marble for the pavement and walls. I shall also have to get made or buy a statue of the goddess, for the old one, which was made of wood, has lost some of its limbs through age. As for the portico, I don't think there is anything that I need ask you for at present, unless it be that you should sketch me a plan to suit the situation of the place. The portico cannot be carried all round the temple, inasmuch as on one side of the floor of the building there is a river with very steep banks, and on the other there runs a road. Beyond the road, there is a spacious meadow which would be a very suitable place to build the portico, as it is right opposite the temple, unless you can think of a better plan - you who make a practice of overcoming natural difficulties by your professional skill. Farewell. 10.8. To Trajan. When, Sir, your late father, * both by a very fine speech and by setting them a most honourable example himself, urged every citizen to deeds of liberality, I sought permission from him to transfer to a neighbouring township all the statues of the emperors which had come into my possession by various bequests and were kept just as I had received them ill my distant estates, and to add thereto a statue of himself. He granted the request and made most flattering references to myself, and I immediately wrote to the decurions asking them to assign me a plot of ground upon which I might erect a temple ** at my own cost, and they offered to let me choose the site myself as a mark of appreciation of the task I had undertaken. But first my own ill-health, then your father's illness, and subsequently the anxieties of the office you bestowed upon me, have prevented my proceeding with the work. However, I think the present is a convenient opportunity for getting on with it, for my month of duty ends on the Kalends of September and the following month contains a number of holidays. I ask, therefore, as a special favour, that you will allow me to adorn with your statue the work which I am about to begin ; and secondly, that in order to complete it as soon as possible, you will grant me leave of absence. It would be alien to my frank disposition if I were to conceal from your goodness the fact that you will, if you grant me leave, be incidentally aiding very materially my private fices. The rent of my estates in that district exceeds 400,000 sesterces, and if the new tets are to be settled in time for the next pruning, the letting of the farms must not be any further delayed. Besides, the succession of bad vintages we have had forces me to consider the question of making certain abatements, and I cannot enter into that question unless I am on the spot. So, Sir, if for these reasons you grant me leave for thirty days, I shall owe to your kindness the speedy fulfilment of a work of loyalty and the settlement of my private fices. I cannot reduce the length of leave I ask for to narrower limits, inasmuch as the township and the estates I have spoken of are more than a hundred and fifty miles from Rome. 0
15. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 9.39, 10.8 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9.39. To Mustius. I have been warned by the haruspices to put into better repair and enlarge the temple of Ceres, which stands on my estate, as it is very old and cramped for room, and on one day in the year attracts great crowds of people. For on the Ides of September all the population of the country-side flocks thither; much business is transacted, many vows are registered and paid, but there is no place near where people can take refuge either from storm or heat. I think, therefore, that I shall be showing my generosity, and at the same time display my piety, if I rebuild the temple as handsomely as possible and add to it a portico, the former for the use of the goddess, the latter for the people who attend there. So I should like you to buy me four columns of any kind of marble you think fit, as well as sufficient marble for the pavement and walls. I shall also have to get made or buy a statue of the goddess, for the old one, which was made of wood, has lost some of its limbs through age. As for the portico, I don't think there is anything that I need ask you for at present, unless it be that you should sketch me a plan to suit the situation of the place. The portico cannot be carried all round the temple, inasmuch as on one side of the floor of the building there is a river with very steep banks, and on the other there runs a road. Beyond the road, there is a spacious meadow which would be a very suitable place to build the portico, as it is right opposite the temple, unless you can think of a better plan - you who make a practice of overcoming natural difficulties by your professional skill. Farewell. 10.8. To Trajan. When, Sir, your late father, * both by a very fine speech and by setting them a most honourable example himself, urged every citizen to deeds of liberality, I sought permission from him to transfer to a neighbouring township all the statues of the emperors which had come into my possession by various bequests and were kept just as I had received them ill my distant estates, and to add thereto a statue of himself. He granted the request and made most flattering references to myself, and I immediately wrote to the decurions asking them to assign me a plot of ground upon which I might erect a temple ** at my own cost, and they offered to let me choose the site myself as a mark of appreciation of the task I had undertaken. But first my own ill-health, then your father's illness, and subsequently the anxieties of the office you bestowed upon me, have prevented my proceeding with the work. However, I think the present is a convenient opportunity for getting on with it, for my month of duty ends on the Kalends of September and the following month contains a number of holidays. I ask, therefore, as a special favour, that you will allow me to adorn with your statue the work which I am about to begin ; and secondly, that in order to complete it as soon as possible, you will grant me leave of absence. It would be alien to my frank disposition if I were to conceal from your goodness the fact that you will, if you grant me leave, be incidentally aiding very materially my private fices. The rent of my estates in that district exceeds 400,000 sesterces, and if the new tets are to be settled in time for the next pruning, the letting of the farms must not be any further delayed. Besides, the succession of bad vintages we have had forces me to consider the question of making certain abatements, and I cannot enter into that question unless I am on the spot. So, Sir, if for these reasons you grant me leave for thirty days, I shall owe to your kindness the speedy fulfilment of a work of loyalty and the settlement of my private fices. I cannot reduce the length of leave I ask for to narrower limits, inasmuch as the township and the estates I have spoken of are more than a hundred and fifty miles from Rome. 0
16. Servius, Commentary On The Aeneid, 2.166 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aeneas, and the palladium Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 163
aeneas, and the penates Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 163
aeneas Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 208
ancestors Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 208
anchises Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 163
ancilia, the salian shields Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 208
antigonus (historian) Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 175
ariadne Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 175
athena Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 163
augustan religious innovations Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 208
augustus, caesar (augustus) Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 208
augustus, trojan ancestry of Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 163
augustus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 12
chastity, lack of chastity, impudicitia Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 208
cicero Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 175
constantinople, and the palladium Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 163
dionysius of halicarnassus, on romes trojan origins Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 163
divinity (of a mortal) Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 208
eulogy Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 208
exile poetry of ovid Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 208
family Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 175
festivals, salian festival Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 208
greek, art Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 12
hellenism Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 12
holliday, p. j. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 12
homer, the iliad Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 12
identity, roman Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 12
immortality, of augustus Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 208
incestum Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 208
julius caesar, c., and trojan ancestry Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 163
julius caesar, deification, divinity Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 208
lanuvium Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 163
livia drusilla, julia augusta Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 208
lucian Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 12
mars Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 208
numa popilius Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 163
numen Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 208
objects, and political competition Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 12
objects, and power Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 12
objects, their maintenance Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 12
objects, upkeep of Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 12
palatine Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 208
palladium, as talisman Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 163
palladium, odysseus and diomedes steal Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 163
palladium, origins of Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 163
palladium Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 208; Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 163
patronage Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 12
pausanias Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 12
penates Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 208; Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 163
phallus Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 208
pietas Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 163
pledges of the empire, imperii pignora Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 208
pontifex maximus Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 208
procopius, on romes trojan origins Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 163
propertius Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 175
rape Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 175
religious innovations Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 208
rome, palatine hill, and palladium Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 163
rome, tabularium Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 12
rome, temple of vesta Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 163
salii Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 208
scylla Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 175
spurius tarpeius Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 175
talisman Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 163
tarpeia as amazon, as vestal Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 175
thersites Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 12
tiberius, villa at sperlonga Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 163
tiberius Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 208
trojan Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 208
trojans, and augustus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 163
trojans, and caesar Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 163
trojans Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 163
troy Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 163
venus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 163
vergil Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 208
vesta Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 208
vestal virgins Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 163
vestas fire Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 208
virginity, of goddesses Hubbard, A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities (2014) 167
virginity, of religious cults' Hubbard, A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities (2014) 167
war, weapons (arma) Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 208
women Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 12