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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7456
Livy, History, 21.31


nanAfter this rousing appeal he dismissed them with orders to prepare themselves by food and rest for the march. The next day they advanced up the left bank of the Rhone towards the central districts of Gaul, not because this was the most direct route to the Alps, but because he thought that there would be less likelihood of the Romans meeting him, for he had no desire to engage them before he arrived in Italy. Four days' marching brought him to the "Island." Here the Isara and the Rhone, flowing down from different points in the Alps, enclose a considerable extent of land and then unite their channels; the district thus enclosed is called the "Island." The adjacent country was inhabited by the Allobroges, a tribe who even in those days were second to none in Gaul in power and reputation. At the time of Hannibal's visit a quarrel had broken out between two brothers who were each aspiring to the sovereignty. The elder brother, whose name was Brancus, had hitherto been the chief, but was now expelled by a party of the younger men, headed by his brother, who found an appeal to violence more successful than an appeal to right. Hannibal's timely appearance on the scene led to the question being referred to him; he was to decide who was the legitimate claimant to the kingship. He pronounced in favour of the elder brother, who had the support of the senate and the leading men. In return for this service he received assistance in provisions and supplies of all kinds, especially of clothing, a pressing necessity in view of the notorious cold of the Alps. After settling the feud amongst the Allobroges, Hannibal resumed his march. He did not take the direct course to the Alps, but turned to the left towards the Tricastini; then, skirting the territory of the Vocontii, he marched in the direction of the Tricorii. Nowhere did he meet with any difficulty until he arrived at the Durance. This river, which also takes its rise in the Alps, is of all the rivers of Gaul the most difficult to cross. Though carrying down a great volume of water, it does not lend itself to navigation, for it is not kept in by banks, but flows in many separate channels. As it is constantly shifting its bottom and the direction of its currents, the task of fording it is a most hazardous one, whilst the shingle and boulders carried down make the foothold insecure and treacherous. It happened to be swollen by rain at the time, and the men were thrown into much disorder whilst crossing it, whilst their fears and confused shouting added considerably to their difficulties.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

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1. Herodotus, Histories, 1.163 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.163. Phocaea was the first Ionian town that he attacked. These Phocaeans were the earliest of the Greeks to make long sea-voyages, and it was they who discovered the Adriatic Sea, and Tyrrhenia, and Iberia, and Tartessus,,not sailing in round freightships but in fifty-oared vessels. When they came to Tartessus they made friends with the king of the Tartessians, whose name was Arganthonius; he ruled Tartessus for eighty years and lived a hundred and twenty. ,The Phocaeans won this man's friendship to such a degree that he invited them to leave Ionia and settle in his country wherever they liked; and then, when he could not persuade them to, and learned from them how the Median power was increasing, he gave them money to build a wall around their city. ,He gave it generously: for the circuit of the wall is of not a few stades, and all this is made of great stones well fitted together.
2. Cicero, Letters To His Friends, 5.12.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3. Cicero, Pro Fonteio, 36 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4. Polybius, Histories, 3.47.6-3.47.9, 3.48.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.47.6.  Some of the writers who have described this passage of the Alps, from the wish to impress their readers by the marvels they recount of these mountains, are betrayed into two vices ever most alien to true history; for they are compelled to make both false statements and statements which contradict each other. 3.47.7.  While on the one hand introducing Hannibal as a commander of unequalled courage and foresight, they incontestably represent him to us as entirely wanting in prudence 3.47.8.  and again, being unable to bring their series of falsehoods to any close or issue they introduce gods and the sons of gods into the sober history of the facts. 3.47.9.  By representing the Alps as being so steep and rugged that not only horses and troops accompanied by elephants, but even active men on foot would have difficult in passing, and at the same time picturing to us the desolation of the country as being such, that unless some god or hero had met Hannibal and showed him the way, his whole army would have gone astray and perished utterly, they unquestionably fall into both the above vices. 3.48.8.  The natural consequence is that they get into the same difficulties as tragic dramatists all of whom, to bring their dramas to a close, require a deus ex machina, as the data they choose on which to found their plots are false and contrary to reasonable probability.
5. Livy, History, 21.21-21.22 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6. Strabo, Geography, 4.1.4-4.1.5, 4.1.11 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4.1.4. Marseilles, founded by the Phocaeans, is built in a stony region. Its harbour lies beneath a rock, which is shaped like a theatre, and looks towards the south. It is well surrounded with walls, as well as the whole city, which is of considerable size. Within the citadel are placed the Ephesium and the sanctuary of the Delphian Apollo. This latter sanctuary is common to all the Ionians; the Ephesium is a temple consecrated to Artemis of Ephesus. They say that when the Phocaeans were about to quit their country, an oracle commanded them to take from Diana of Ephesus a conductor for their voyage. On arriving at Ephesus they therefore inquired how they might be able to obtain from the goddess what was enjoined them. The goddess appeared in a dream to Aristarcha, one of the most honourable women of the city, and commanded her to accompany the Phocaeans, and to take with her a likeness of the sacred objects. These things being performed, and the colony being settled, the Phocaeans founded a sanctuary, and evinced their great respect for Aristarcha by making her priestess. All the colonies [sent out from Marseilles ] hold this goddess in peculiar reverence, preserving both the shape of the cult image [xoanon], and also every rite observed in the metropolis. 4.1.5. The Massilians live under a well-regulated aristocracy. They have a council composed of 600 persons called timouchi, who enjoy this dignity for life. Fifteen of these preside over the council, and have the management of current affairs; these fifteen are in their turn presided over by three of their number, in whom rests the principal authority; and these again by one. No one can become a timouchus who has not children, and who has not been a citizen for three generations. Their laws, which are the same as those of the Ionians, they expound in public. Their country abounds in olives and vines, but on account of its ruggedness the wheat is poor. Consequently they trust more to the resources of the sea than of the land, and avail themselves in preference of their excellent position for commerce. Nevertheless they have been enabled by the power of perseverance to take in some of the surrounding plains, and also to found cities: of this number are the cities they founded in Iberia as a rampart against the Iberians, in which they introduced the worship of Diana of Ephesus, as practised in their father-land, with the Grecian mode of sacrifice. In this number too are Rhoa [and] Agatha, [built for defence] against the barbarians dwelling around the river Rhone; also Tauroentium, Olbia, Antipolis and Nicaea, [built as a rampart] against the nation of the Salyes and the Ligurians who inhabit the Alps. They possess likewise dry docks and armouries. Formerly they had an abundance of vessels, arms, and machines, both for the purposes of navigation and for besieging towns; by means of which they defended themselves against the barbarians, and likewise obtained the alliance of the Romans, to whom they rendered many important services; the Romans in their turn assisting in their aggrandizement. Sextius, who defeated the Salyes, founded, not far from Marseilles, a city which was named after him and the hot waters, some of which they say have lost their heat. Here he established a Roman garrison, and drove from the sea-coast which leads from Marseilles to Italy the barbarians, whom the Massilians were not able to keep back entirely. However, all he accomplished by this was to compel the barbarians to keep at a distance of twelve stadia from those parts of the coast which possessed good harbours, and at a distance of eight stadia where it was rugged. The land which they thus abandoned, he presented to the Massilians. In their city are laid up heaps of booty taken in naval engagements against those who disputed the sea unjustly. Formerly they enjoyed singular good fortune, as well in other matters as also in their amity with the Romans. of this [amity] we find numerous signs, amongst others the statue of Diana which the Romans dedicated on the Aventine mount, of the same figure as that of the Massilians. Their prosperity has in a great measure decayed since the war of Pompey against Caesar, in which they sided with the vanquished party. Nevertheless some traces of their ancient industry may still be seen amongst the inhabitants, especially the making of engines of war and ship-building. Still as the surrounding barbarians, now that they are under the dominion of the Romans, become daily more civilized, and leave the occupation of war for the business of towns and agriculture, there is no longer the same attention paid by the inhabitants of Marseilles to these objects. The aspect of the city at the present day is a proof of this. For all those who profess to be men of taste, turn to the study of elocution and philosophy. Thus this city for some little time back has become a school for the barbarians, and has communicated to the Galatae such a taste for Greek literature, that they even draw contracts on the Grecian model. While at the present day it so entices the noblest of the Romans, that those desirous of studying resort thither in preference to Athens. These the Galatae observing, and being at leisure on account of the peace, readily devote themselves to similar pursuits, and that not merely individuals, but the public generally; professors of the arts and sciences, and likewise of medicine, being employed not only by private persons, but by towns for common instruction. of the wisdom of the Massilians and the simplicity of their life, the following will not be thought an insignificant proof. The largest dowry amongst them consists of one hundred gold pieces, with five for dress, and five more for golden ornaments. More than this is not lawful. Caesar and his successors treated with moderation the offences of which they were guilty during the war, in consideration of their former friendship; and have preserved to the state the right of governing according to its ancient laws. So that neither Marseilles nor the cities dependent on it are under submission to the governors sent [into the Narbonnaise]. So much for Marseilles.
7. Tacitus, Annals, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.5.  Italy, on either seaboard, was protected by fleets at Misenum and Ravenna; the adjacent coast of Gaul by a squadron of fighting ships, captured by Augustus at the victory of Actium and sent with strong crews to the town of Forum Julium. Our main strength, however, lay on the Rhine — eight legions ready to cope indifferently with the German or the Gaul. The Spains, finally subdued not long before, were kept by three. Mauretania, by the national gift, had been transferred to King Juba. Two legions held down the remainder of Africa; a similar number, Egypt: then, from the Syrian marches right up to the Euphrates, four sufficed for the territories enclosed in that enormous reach of ground; while, on the borders, the Iberian, the Albanian, and other monarchs, were secured against alien power by the might of Rome. Thrace was held by Rhoemetalces and the sons of Cotys; the Danube bank by two legions in Pannonia and two in Moesia; two more being posted in Dalmatia, geographically to the rear of the other four, and within easy call, should Italy claim sudden assistance — though, in any case, the capital possessed a standing army of its own: three urban and nine praetorian cohorts, recruited in the main from Etruria and Umbria or Old Latium and the earlier Roman colonies. Again, at suitable points of the provinces, there were the federate warships, cavalry divisions and auxiliary cohorts in not much inferior strength: but to trace them was dubious, as they shifted from station to station, and, according to the exigency of the moment, increased in number or were occasionally diminished.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
actium, battle of Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
adunicates Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
allobroges Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
alps, maritime Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
alps Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 68
camactulici Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
cavares Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
cicero Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 68
deciates Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
druentia river Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
europe, rivers of Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
fabius, q. Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
fabius maximus aemilianus, q. Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
forum iuli Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
gallia narbonensis Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
hannibal Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 68
hannibal of carthage Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
ionia, ionians Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
italy (italia) Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
julius caesar, c. Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
ligauni Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
livy Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 68
massilia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
oxubii Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
periplous, periploi' Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
phocaea Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
polybius Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 68
pyrenees Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
quariates Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
rhodanus river Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
segovellauni Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
suebri Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
suelteri Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
tricores Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
tritolli Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
varus river Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
verucini Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
vocontii Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 131
zama Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 68