Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7456
Livy, History, 21.10


nanThe result was that, beyond being received and heard by the Carthaginian senate, the embassy found its mission a failure. Hanno alone, against the whole senate, spoke in favour of observing the treaty, and his speech was listened to in silence out of respect to his personal authority, not because his hearers approved of his sentiments. He appealed to them in the name of the gods, who are the witnesses and arbiters of treaties, not to provoke a war with Rome in addition to the one with Saguntum. "I urged you," he said, "and warned you not to send Hamilcar's son to the army. That man's spirit, that man's offspring cannot rest; as long as any single representative of the blood and name of Barca survives our treaty with Rome will never remain unimperilled. You have sent to the army, as though supplying fuel to the fire, a young man who is consumed with a passion for sovereign power, and who recognises that the only way to it lies in passing his life surrounded by armed legions and perpetually stirring up fresh wars. It is you, therefore, who have fed this fire which is now scorching you. Your armies are investing Saguntum, which by the terms of the treaty they are forbidden to approach; before long the legions of Rome will invest Carthage, led by the same generals under the same divine guidance under which they avenged our breach of treaty obligations in the late war. Are you strangers to the enemy, to yourselves, to the fortunes of each nation? That worthy commander of yours refused to allow ambassadors who came from allies, on behalf of allies, to enter his camp, and set at naught the law of nations. Those men, repulsed from a place to which even an enemy's envoys are not refused access, have come to us; they ask for the satisfaction which the treaty prescribes; they demand the surrender of the guilty party in order that the State may clear itself from all taint of guilt. The slower they are to take action, the longer they are in commencing war, so much the more persistence and determination, I fear, will they show when war has begun. Remember the Aegates and Eryx, and all you had to go through for four-and-twenty years. This boy was not commanding then, but his father, Hamilcar — a second Mars as his friends would have us believe. But we broke the treaty then as we are breaking it now; we did not keep our hands off Tarentum or, which is the same thing, off Italy then any more than we are keeping our hands off Saguntum now, and so gods and men combined to defeat us, and the question in dispute, namely, which nation had broken the treaty, was settled by the issue of the war, which, like an impartial judge, left the victory on the side which was in the right. It is against Carthage that Hannibal is now bringing up his vineae and towers, it is Carthage whose walls he is shaking with his battering rams. The ruins of Saguntum — would that I might prove a false prophet — will fall on our heads, and the war which was begun with Saguntum will have to be carried on with Rome. "'Shall we then surrender Hannibal?' some one will say. I am quite aware that as regards him my advice will have little weight, owing to my differences with his father, but whilst I was glad to hear of Hamilcar's death, for if he were alive we should already be involved in war with Rome, I feel nothing but loathing and detestation for this youth, the mad firebrand who is kindling this war. Not only do I hold that he ought to be surrendered as an atonement for the broken treaty, but even if no demand for his surrender were made I consider that he ought to be deported to the farthest corner of the earth, exiled to some spot from which no tidings of him, no mention of his name, could reach us, and where it would be impossible for him to disturb the welfare and tranquillity of our State. This then is what I propose: 'That a commission be at once despatched to Rome to inform the senate of our compliance with their demands, and a second to Hannibal ordering him to withdraw his army from Saguntum and then surrendering him to the Romans in accordance with the terms of the treaty, and I also propose that a third body of commissioners be sent to make reparation to the Saguntines.'


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

6 results
1. Cicero, On Divination, 1.49 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.49. Hoc item in Sileni, quem Coelius sequitur, Graeca historia est (is autem diligentissume res Hannibalis persecutus est): Hannibalem, cum cepisset Saguntum, visum esse in somnis a Iove in deorum concilium vocari; quo cum venisset, Iovem imperavisse, ut Italiae bellum inferret, ducemque ei unum e concilio datum, quo illum utentem cum exercitu progredi coepisse; tum ei ducem illum praecepisse, ne respiceret; illum autem id diutius facere non potuisse elatumque cupiditate respexisse; tum visam beluam vastam et immanem circumplicatam serpentibus, quacumque incederet, omnia arbusta, virgulta, tecta pervertere, et eum admiratum quaesisse de deo, quodnam illud esset tale monstrum; et deum respondisse vastitatem esse Italiae praecepisseque, ut pergeret protinus, quid retro atque a tergo fieret, ne laboraret. 1.49. Another story of Hannibal is found in the history written in Greek by Silenus, whom Coelius follows, and who, by the way, was a very painstaking student of Hannibals career. After his capture of Saguntum Hannibal dreamed that Jupiter summoned him to a council of the gods. When he arrived Jupiter ordered him to carry the war into Italy, and gave him one of the divine council as a guide whom he employed when he being the march with his army. This guide cautioned Hannibal not to look back. But, carried away by curiosity, he could refrain no longer and looked back. Then he saw a horrible beast of enormous size, enveloped with snakes, and wherever it went it overthrew every tree and shrub and every house. In his amazement Hannibal asked what the monster was. The god replied that it was the desolation of Italy and ordered him to press right on and not to worry about what happened behind him and in the rear.
2. Livy, History, 21.6-21.9, 21.11-21.15, 21.11.3, 21.21-21.22, 30.45 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3. Vergil, Aeneis, 4.670 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4.670. lifts on his shoulder the wide wheel of heaven
4. Lucan, Pharsalia, 10.31-10.32, 10.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5. Silius Italicus, Punica, 2.292-2.293, 2.296 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6. Suetonius, Iulius, 7.1-7.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
acropolis, in the augustan age Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 39
aeneas, and fama Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 176
aeneas, as scipio Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 185
aeneas, meeting Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 176
alco Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 273
alexander the great, as caesar Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 183
alexander the great, as hannibal Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 182, 184
alexander the great, tomb of Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 184
alorcus Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 273
alps, hannibals march Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 178
antiochus Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 180
appian of alexandria Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 188, 190
arae neptuniae Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 190
artabanus, uncle of xerxes Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 39
augustus, as alexander Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 184
augustus, representations of barbarians Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 39
baetica Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 120
caesar, gaius julius, as alexander Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 183
caesarea in mauretania Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 120
carthage, carthaginians, and romans Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 120
carthage, in the aeneid Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 273
carthage, political impotence Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 187
carthage Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 187
carthago nova (new carthage) Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 120
cato the elder, marcus porcius cato Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 176
censorinus, lucius marcius Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 273
cicero, marcus tullius Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 179, 181, 182, 184
civil war, as hannibal Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 177, 182
civil war, dream at gades Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 183
civil war, in lucan Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 184
cleopatra selene Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 120
editania Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 120
fabius Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 187
fear, associated with women/the feminine Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 187
hannibal of carthage Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 120
hiberus river, in northern hispania Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 120
hiberus river in baetica Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 120
hispania Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 120
iber river Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 120
iberia (hispania) Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 120
juba ii of mauretania Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 120
julius caesar, c. Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 120
mauretania Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 120
navigation Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 120
periplous, periploi' Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 120
phocaea Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 120
pompeius (pompey) magnus, cn. Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 120
punic wars, first, second Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 120
saguntum Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 187; Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 120
saturn, cape Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 120
tader river Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 120
tarraco, tarracon Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 120
udiva river Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 120
valentia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 120
vareia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 120