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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7306
Justinus, Epitome Historiarum Philippicarum, 24.4
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1. Cicero, On Divination, 1.37, 1.81 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.37. Age, barbari vani atque fallaces; num etiam Graiorum historia mentita est? Quae Croeso Pythius Apollo, ut de naturali divinatione dicam, quae Atheniensibus, quae Lacedaemoniis, quae Tegeatis, quae Argivis, quae Corinthiis responderit, quis ignorat? Collegit innumerabilia oracula Chrysippus nec ullum sine locuplete auctore atque teste; quae, quia nota tibi sunt, relinquo; defendo unum hoc: Numquam illud oraclum Delphis tam celebre et tam clarum fuisset neque tantis donis refertum omnium populorum atque regum, nisi omnis aetas oraclorum illorum veritatem esset experta. 1.81. Obiciuntur etiam saepe formae, quae reapse nullae sunt, speciem autem offerunt; quod contigisse Brenno dicitur eiusque Gallicis copiis, cum fano Apollinis Delphici nefarium bellum intulisset. Tum enim ferunt ex oraclo ecfatam esse Pythiam: Ego próvidebo rem ístam et albae vírgines. Ex quo factum, ut viderentur virgines ferre arma contra et nive Gallorum obrueretur exercitus. Aristoteles quidem eos etiam, qui valetudinis vitio furerent et melancholici dicerentur, censebat habere aliquid in animis praesagiens atque divinum. Ego autem haud scio an nec cardiacis hoc tribuendum sit nec phreneticis; animi enim integri, non vitiosi est corporis divinatio. 1.37. Come, let us admit that the barbarians are all base deceivers, but are the Greek historians liars too?Speaking now of natural divination, everybody knows the oracular responses which the Pythian Apollo gave to Croesus, to the Athenians, Spartans, Tegeans, Argives, and Corinthians. Chrysippus has collected a vast number of these responses, attested in every instance by abundant proof. But I pass them by as you know them well. I will urge only this much, however, in defence: the oracle at Delphi never would have been so much frequented, so famous, and so crowded with offerings from peoples and kings of every land, if all ages had not tested the truth of its prophecies. For a long time now that has not been the case. 1.81. Frequently, too, apparitions present themselves and, though they have no real substance, they seem to have. This is illustrated by what is said to have happened to Brennus and to his Gallic troops after he had made an impious attack on the temple of Apollo at Delphi. The story is that the Pythian priestess, in speaking from the oracle, said to Brennus:To this the virgins white and I will see.The result was that the virgins were seen fighting against the Gauls, and their army was overwhelmed with snow.[38] Aristotle thought that even the people who rave from the effects of sickness and are called hypochondriacs have within their souls some power of foresight and of prophecy. But, for my part, I am inclined to think that such a power is not to be distributed either to a diseased stomach or to a disordered brain. On the contrary, it is the healthy soul and not the sickly body that has the power of divination.
2. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 14.117 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

14.117. 1.  While the Romans were in a weakened condition because of the misfortune we have described, the Volscians went to war against them. Accordingly the Roman military tribunes enrolled soldiers, took the field with their army, and pitched camp on the Campus Martius, as it is called, two hundred stades distant from Rome.,2.  Since the Volscians lay over against them with a larger force and were assaulting the camp, the citizens in Rome, fearing for the safety of those in the encampment, appointed Marcus Furius dictator.  . . .,3.  These armed all the men of military age and marched out during the night. At day-break they caught the Volscians as they were assaulting the camp, and appearing on their rear easily put them to flight. When the troops in the camp then sallied forth, the Volscians were caught in the middle and cut down almost to a man. Thus a people that passed for powerful in former days was by this disaster reduced to the weakest among the neighbouring tribes.,4.  After the battle the dictator, on hearing that Bola was being besieged by the Aeculani, who are now called the Aequicoli, led forth his troops and slew most of the besieging army. From here he marched to the territory of Sutrium, a Roman colony, which the Tyrrhenians had forcibly occupied. Falling unexpectedly upon the Tyrrhenians, he slew many of them and recovered the city for the people of Sutrium.,5.  The Gauls on their way from Rome laid siege to the city of Veascium which was an ally of the Romans. The dictator attacked them, slew the larger number of them, and got possession of all their baggage, included in which was the gold which they had received for Rome and practically all the booty which they had gathered in the seizure of the city.,6.  Despite the accomplishment of such great deeds, envy on the part of the tribunes prevented his celebrating a triumph. There are some, however, who state that he celebrated a triumph for his victory over the Tuscans in a chariot drawn by four white horses, for which the people two years later fined him a large sum of money. But we shall recur to this in the appropriate period of time.,7.  Those Celts who had passed into Iapygia turned back through the territory of the Romans; but soon thereafter the Cerii made a crafty attack on them by night and cut all of them to pieces in the Trausian Plain.,8.  The historian Callisthenes began his history with the peace of this year between the Greeks and Artaxerxes, the King of the Persians. His account embraced a period of thirty years in ten Books and he closed the last Book of his history with the seizure of the Temple of Delphi by Philomelus the Phocian.,9.  But for our part, since we have arrived at the peace between the Greeks and Artaxerxes, and at the threat to Rome offered by the Gauls, we shall make this the end of this Book, as we proposed at the beginning.
3. Livy, History, 5.48 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4. Plutarch, Camillus, 19, 22, 15 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.4.4, 10.12, 10.14, 10.16, 10.19.8, 10.23.7 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.4.4. So they tried to save Greece in the way described, but the Gauls, now south of the Gates, cared not at all to capture the other towns, but were very eager to sack Delphi and the treasures of the god. They were opposed by the Delphians themselves and the Phocians of the cities around Parnassus ; a force of Aetolians also joined the defenders, for the Aetolians at this time were pre-eminent for their vigorous activity. When the forces engaged, not only were thunderbolts and rocks broken off from Parnassus hurled against the Gauls, but terrible shapes as armed warriors haunted the foreigners. They say that two of them, Hyperochus and Amadocus, came from the Hyperboreans, and that the third was Pyrrhus son of Achilles. Because of this help in battle the Delphians sacrifice to Pyrrhus as to a hero, although formerly they held even his tomb in dishonor, as being that of an enemy. 10.23.7. They encamped where night overtook them in their retreat, and during the night there fell on them a “panic.” For causeless terrors are said to come from the god Pan. It was when evening was turning to night that the confusion fell on the army, and at first only a few became mad, and these imagined that they heard the trampling of horses at a gallop, and the attack of advancing enemies; but after a little time the delusion spread to all.
6. Callimachus, Hymns, 4.171

7. Justinus, Epitome Historiarum Philippicarum, 24.7



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aphrodite, calming influence of Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 11
areia, pronaia Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 56
artemis, in delphi Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 56
asclepius soter, and aristides Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 11
asclepius soter, zeus soter asclepius Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 11
athena, metis of Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 11
brennus, gallic chieftan Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 235
dioscuri, and maritime rescue Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 11
epiphany Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 56
eunomia soteira Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 11
gauls, gallic sack Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 235
gauls Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 235
ge hedraia Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 11
gods, divine functions, overlaps in Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 11
gods, paradigms for analysing Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 11
greece and greeks Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 235
hellenistic and roman myth/history, literature Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 235
hermes soter Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 11
italy Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 235
nike, cultic worship of Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 56
oracles, of apollo in delphi Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 11, 56
pan, and panic Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 56
plutarch Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 235
poseidon, and turbulence at sea Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 11
poseidon, asphaleios Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 11
rape Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 235
reader and audience Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 235
rome ara pacis, capitoline or mons tarpeius Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 235
simylus' Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 235
soteria (festival), in delphi Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 11, 56
soteria (in greek antiquity), panhellenic deliverance Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 56
soteria (in greek antiquity), phos as a metaphor for Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 56
themis soteira Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 11
tyche soteira, in poetry Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 11
tyche soter Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 11
vernant, j.-p. Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 11
winds as soteres, boreas Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 11
winds as soteres, euros Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 11
zeus, everything, ultimate control over Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 11
zeus, sovereignty over the sky and weather Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 11
zeus aitherios soter Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 11
zeus chalazios sozon Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 11
zeus keraunios soter Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 11
zeus soter, and earthquakes Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 11
zeus soter, in delphi Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 11
zeus soter, other saviour gods, juxtaposed with Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 11
zeus soter, rarely seen in action Jim, Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece (2022) 11