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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7287
Justin, First Apology, 54


nanBut those who hand down the myths which the poets have made, adduce no proof to the youths who learn them; and we proceed to demonstrate that they have been uttered by the influence of the wicked demons, to deceive and lead astray the human race. For having heard it proclaimed through the prophets that the Christ was to come, and that the ungodly among men were to be punished by fire, they put forward many to be called sons of Jupiter, under the impression that they would be able to produce in men the idea that the things which were said with regard to Christ were mere marvellous tales, like the things which were said by the poets. And these things were said both among the Greeks and among all nations where they [the demons] heard the prophets foretelling that Christ would specially be believed in; but that in hearing what was said by the prophets they did not accurately understand it, but imitated what was said of our Christ, like men who are in error, we will make plain. The prophet Moses, then, was, as we have already said, older than all writers; and by him, as we have also said before, it was thus predicted: There shall not fail a prince from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until He come for whom it is reserved; and He shall be the desire of the Gentiles, binding His foal to the vine, washing His robe in the blood of the grape. Genesis 49:10 The devils, accordingly, when they heard these prophetic words, said that Bacchus was the son of Jupiter, and gave out that he was the discoverer of the vine, and they number wine [or, the ass] among his mysteries; and they taught that, having been torn in pieces, he ascended into heaven. And because in the prophecy of Moses it had not been expressly intimated whether He who was to come was the Son of God, and whether He would, riding on the foal, remain on earth or ascend into heaven, and because the name of foal could mean either the foal of an ass or the foal of a horse, they, not knowing whether He who was foretold would bring the foal of an ass or of a horse as the sign of His coming, nor whether He was the Son of God, as we said above, or of man, gave out that Bellerophon, a man born of man, himself ascended to heaven on his horse Pegasus. And when they heard it said by the other prophet Isaiah, that He should be born of a virgin, and by His own means ascend into heaven, they pretended that Perseus was spoken of. And when they knew what was said, as has been cited above, in the prophecies written aforetime, Strong as a giant to run his course, they said that Hercules was strong, and had journeyed over the whole earth. And when, again, they learned that it had been foretold that He should heal every sickness, and raise the dead, they produced Æsculapius.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

6 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 49.8-49.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

49.8. יְהוּדָה אַתָּה יוֹדוּךָ אַחֶיךָ יָדְךָ בְּעֹרֶף אֹיְבֶיךָ יִשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ לְךָ בְּנֵי אָבִיךָ׃ 49.9. גּוּר אַרְיֵה יְהוּדָה מִטֶּרֶף בְּנִי עָלִיתָ כָּרַע רָבַץ כְּאַרְיֵה וּכְלָבִיא מִי יְקִימֶנּוּ׃ 49.11. אֹסְרִי לַגֶּפֶן עירה [עִירוֹ] וְלַשֹּׂרֵקָה בְּנִי אֲתֹנוֹ כִּבֵּס בַּיַּיִן לְבֻשׁוֹ וּבְדַם־עֲנָבִים סותה [סוּתוֹ׃] 49.12. חַכְלִילִי עֵינַיִם מִיָּיִן וּלְבֶן־שִׁנַּיִם מֵחָלָב׃ 49.8. Judah, thee shall thy brethren praise; Thy hand shall be on the neck of thine enemies; Thy father’s sons shall bow down before thee." 49.9. Judah is a lion’s whelp; From the prey, my son, thou art gone up. He stooped down, he couched as a lion, And as a lioness; who shall rouse him up?" 49.10. The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, Nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, As long as men come to Shiloh; And unto him shall the obedience of the peoples be." 49.11. Binding his foal unto the vine, And his ass’s colt unto the choice vine; He washeth his garments in wine, And his vesture in the blood of grapes;" 49.12. His eyes shall be red with wine, And his teeth white with milk."
2. Anon., 1 Enoch, 32.6 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

32.6. I said: 'How beautiful is the tree, and how attractive is its look!' Then Raphael the holy angel, who was with me, answered me and said: 'This is the tree of wisdom, of which thy father old (in years) and thy aged mother, who were before thee, have eaten, and they learnt wisdom and their eyes were opened, and they knew that they were naked and they were driven out of the garden.'
3. Vergil, Aeneis, 6.566-6.567, 6.569, 6.637-6.678 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6.566. The vital essence. Willingly, alas! 6.567. They now would suffer need, or burdens bear 6.569. Around them winds the sad, unlovely wave 6.637. A feeble shout, or vainly opened wide 6.639. Here Priam's son, with body rent and torn 6.640. Deiphobus Deïphobus is seen,—his mangled face 6.641. His face and bloody hands, his wounded head 6.642. of ears and nostrils infamously shorn. 6.643. Scarce could Aeneas know the shuddering shade 6.644. That strove to hide its face and shameful scar; 6.645. But, speaking first, he said, in their own tongue: 6.646. “Deiphobus, strong warrior, nobly born 6.647. of Teucer's royal stem, what ruthless foe 6.648. Could wish to wreak on thee this dire revenge? 6.649. Who ventured, unopposed, so vast a wrong? 6.650. The rumor reached me how, that deadly night 6.651. Wearied with slaying Greeks, thyself didst fall 6.652. Prone on a mingled heap of friends and foes. 6.653. Then my own hands did for thy honor build 6.654. An empty tomb upon the Trojan shore 6.655. And thrice with echoing voice I called thy shade. 6.656. Thy name and arms are there. But, 0 my friend 6.657. Thee could I nowhere find, but launched away 6.658. Nor o'er thy bones their native earth could fling.” 6.659. To him the son of Priam thus replied: 6.660. “Nay, friend, no hallowed rite was left undone 6.661. But every debt to death and pity due 6.662. The shades of thy Deiphobus received. 6.663. My fate it was, and Helen's murderous wrong 6.664. Wrought me this woe; of her these tokens tell. 6.665. For how that last night in false hope we passed 6.666. Thou knowest,—ah, too well we both recall! 6.667. When up the steep of Troy the fateful horse 6.668. Came climbing, pregt with fierce men-at-arms 6.669. 't was she, accurst, who led the Phrygian dames 6.670. In choric dance and false bacchantic song 6.671. And, waving from the midst a lofty brand 6.672. Signalled the Greeks from Ilium 's central tower 6.673. In that same hour on my sad couch I lay 6.674. Exhausted by long care and sunk in sleep 6.675. That sweet, deep sleep, so close to tranquil death. 6.676. But my illustrious bride from all the house 6.677. Had stolen all arms; from 'neath my pillowed head 6.678. She stealthily bore off my trusty sword;
4. Justin, First Apology, 23.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Concerning chastity, He uttered such sentiments as these: Whosoever looks upon a woman to lust after her, has committed adultery with her already in his heart before God. And, If your right eye offend you, cut it out; for it is better for you to enter into the kingdom of heaven with one eye, than, having two eyes, to be cast into everlasting fire. And, Whosoever shall marry her that is divorced from another husband, commits adultery. And, There are some who have been made eunuchs of men, and some who were born eunuchs, and some who have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven's sake; but all cannot receive this saying. Matthew 19:12 So that all who, by human law, are twice married, are in the eye of our Master sinners, and those who look upon a woman to lust after her. For not only he who in act commits adultery is rejected by Him, but also he who desires to commit adultery: since not only our works, but also our thoughts, are open before God. And many, both men and women, who have been Christ's disciples from childhood, remain pure at the age of sixty or seventy years; and I boast that I could produce such from every race of men. For what shall I say, too, of the countless multitude of those who have reformed intemperate habits, and learned these things? For Christ called not the just nor the chaste to repentance, but the ungodly, and the licentious, and the unjust; His words being, I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance. Matthew 9:13 For the heavenly Father desires rather the repentance than the punishment of the sinner. And of our love to all, He taught thus: If you love them that love you, what new thing are you doing? For even fornicators do this. But I say unto you, Pray for your enemies, and love them that hate you, and bless them that curse you, and pray for them that despitefully use you. Matthew 5:46, 44; Luke 6:28 And that we should communicate to the needy, and do nothing for glory, He said, Give to him that asks, and from him that would borrow turn not away; for if you lend to them of whom you hope to receive, what new thing are you doing? Even the publicans do this. Lay not up for yourselves treasure upon earth, where moth and rust does corrupt, and where robbers break through; but lay up for yourselves treasure in heaven, where neither moth nor rust does corrupt. For what is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul? Or what shall a man give in exchange for it? Lay up treasure, therefore, in heaven, where neither moth nor rust does corrupt. And, Be kind and merciful, as your Father also is kind and merciful, and makes His sun to rise on sinners, and the righteous, and the wicked. Take no thought what you shall eat, or what you shall put on: are you not better than the birds and the beasts? And God feeds them. Take no thought, therefore, what you shall eat, or what you shall put on; for your heavenly Father knows that you have need of these things. But seek the kingdom of heaven, and all these things shall be added unto you. For where his treasure is, there also is the mind of a man. And, Do not these things to be seen of men; otherwise you have no reward from your Father which is in heaven. Matthew 6:1
5. Justin, Second Apology, 15, 5-6, 9, 12 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. For I myself, too, when I was delighting in the doctrines of Plato, and heard the Christians slandered, and saw them fearless of death, and of all other-things which are counted fearful, perceived that it was impossible that they could be living in wickedness and pleasure. For what sensual or intemperate man, or who that counts it good to feast on human flesh, could welcome death that he might be deprived of his enjoyments, and would not rather continue always the present life, and attempt to escape the observation of the rulers; and much less would he denounce himself when the consequence would be death? This also the wicked demons have now caused to be done by evil men. For having put some to death on account of the accusations falsely brought against us, they also dragged to the torture our domestics, either children or weak women, and by dreadful torments forced them to admit those fabulous actions which they themselves openly perpetrate; about which we are the less concerned, because none of these actions are really ours, and we have the unbegotten and ineffable God as witness both of our thoughts and deeds. For why did we not even publicly profess that these were the things which we esteemed good, and prove that these are the divine philosophy, saying that the mysteries of Saturn are performed when we slay a man, and that when we drink our fill of blood, as it is said we do, we are doing what you do before that idol you honour, and on which you sprinkle the blood not only of irrational animals, but also of men, making a libation of the blood of the slain by the hand of the most illustrious and noble man among you? And imitating Jupiter and the other gods in sodomy and shameless intercourse with woman, might we not bring as our apology the writings of Epicurus and the poets? But because we persuade men to avoid such instruction, and all who practise them and imitate such examples, as now in this discourse we have striven to persuade you, we are assailed in every kind of way. But we are not concerned, since we know that God is a just observer of all. But would that even now some one would mount a lofty rostrum, and shout with a loud voice; Be ashamed, be ashamed, you who charge the guiltless with those deeds which yourselves openly could commit, and ascribe things which apply to yourselves and to your gods to those who have not even the slightest sympathy with them. Be converted; become wise.
6. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 52, 54, 63, 69-70, 76, 41 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

41. Justin: And the offering of fine flour, sirs, which was prescribed to be presented on behalf of those purified from leprosy, was a type of the bread of the Eucharist, the celebration of which our Lord Jesus Christ prescribed, in remembrance of the suffering which He endured on behalf of those who are purified in soul from all iniquity, in order that we may at the same time thank God for having created the world, with all things therein, for the sake of man, and for delivering us from the evil in which we were, and for utterly overthrowing principalities and powers by Him who suffered according to His will. Hence God speaks by the mouth of Malachi, one of the twelve [prophets], as I said before, about the sacrifices at that time presented by you: 'I have no pleasure in you, says the Lord; and I will not accept your sacrifices at your hands: for, from the rising of the sun unto the going down of the same, My name has been glorified among the Gentiles, and in every place incense is offered to My name, and a pure offering: for My name is great among the Gentiles, says the Lord: but you profane it.' Malachi 1:10-12 [So] He then speaks of those Gentiles, namely us, who in every place offer sacrifices to Him, i.e., the bread of the Eucharist, and also the cup of the Eucharist, affirming both that we glorify His name, and that you profane [it]. The command of circumcision, again, bidding [them] always circumcise the children on the eighth day, was a type of the true circumcision, by which we are circumcised from deceit and iniquity through Him who rose from the dead on the first day after the Sabbath, [namely through] our Lord Jesus Christ. For the first day after the Sabbath, remaining the first of all the days, is called, however, the eighth, according to the number of all the days of the cycle, and [yet] remains the first.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adam, and christ Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 166
adam and eve, in geneology of error Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 166
adam and eve Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 166
and paganism, ; error constructed out of Sider, Christian and Pagan in the Roman Empire: The Witness of Tertullian (2001) 67
and paganism, ; falsified and persecuted Sider, Christian and Pagan in the Roman Empire: The Witness of Tertullian (2001) 67
and paganism, ; philosophers approach Sider, Christian and Pagan in the Roman Empire: The Witness of Tertullian (2001) 67
and paganism, ; strive for Sider, Christian and Pagan in the Roman Empire: The Witness of Tertullian (2001) 67
angelic descent, and anti-pagan polemics Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 172
angelic sin, as epistemological transgression Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 166, 172
apocalyptic literature, and book of daniel Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 166, 172
apocalyptic literature, history of scholarship on Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 166, 172
apology, apologetics, christian Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 166, 172
book of the watchers, and etiology of evil Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 166
celsus on Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 62
christ, and demons Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 172
christ, and fallen angels Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 172
christ, as logos Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 172
christ Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 166
christianity, and greco-roman culture Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 166
christianity, attitudes towards jews in Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 166
codex ottobianus McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 152
cosmology, in enochic literature Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 172
creation Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 172
demonology, and magic Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 166
demonology, christian Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 166, 172
demons, and pagan gods Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 166
demons, as enemies of christ Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 172
demons, pagan enslavement to Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 166, 172
demons, xii; falsify Sider, Christian and Pagan in the Roman Empire: The Witness of Tertullian (2001) 67
dionysus, cult of McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 151
dix, dom gregory McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 151
enoch, and revealed knowledge Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 172
enochic literary tradition, place of book of dreams in Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 166, 172
essenes McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 151
eucharist, of bread and water McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 151, 152
evil, problem of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 166
fallen angels, and pagan gods Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 166
fallen angels, as enemies of christ Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 172
fallen angels Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 172
genesis, and book of the watchers Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 166, 172
greco-roman culture, christian polemics against Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 172
harnack, adolf von McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 151, 152
historiography, christian Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 172
idolatry, as linked to fallen angels and demons Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 166
intermarriage Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 166, 172
jesus McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 151, 152
justin martyr, on jewish wisdom and greek culture Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 62
justin martyr McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 151, 152; Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 166, 172
kašrut McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 151
knowledge, revealed Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 166, 172
literary production Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 166, 172
mithras, cult of McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 152
moses, and greek philosophy Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 172
moses, christian redeployment of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 172
moses Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 172
noah Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 166, 172
numenius, justin martyr and Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 62
persecution Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 172
perushim McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 151
philosophers; approach truth Sider, Christian and Pagan in the Roman Empire: The Witness of Tertullian (2001) 67
philosophers; corrupt truth Sider, Christian and Pagan in the Roman Empire: The Witness of Tertullian (2001) 67
philosophy, and christianity Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 172
plato Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 172
poets; approach truth Sider, Christian and Pagan in the Roman Empire: The Witness of Tertullian (2001) 67
polytheism Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 166, 172
pyriphlegethon; fiery river in hades Sider, Christian and Pagan in the Roman Empire: The Witness of Tertullian (2001) 67
qumran McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 151
rechabites McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 151
scorn gods, ; ridicule christian beliefs Sider, Christian and Pagan in the Roman Empire: The Witness of Tertullian (2001) 67
sin, human culpability for Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 166
stroumsa, g. g. Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 62
tartarus; description of Sider, Christian and Pagan in the Roman Empire: The Witness of Tertullian (2001) 67
tatian and celsus, cultural history and hellenic deviance, tatian on Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 62
tatian and celsus, philosophical history and christian deviance, celsus on Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 62
tatian and celsus Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 62
therapeutae McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 151
wine' McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 152