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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



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Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 80.3-80.4
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1. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 8.14, 29.13, 42.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.14. וְהָיָה לְמִקְדָּשׁ וּלְאֶבֶן נֶגֶף וּלְצוּר מִכְשׁוֹל לִשְׁנֵי בָתֵּי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְפַח וּלְמוֹקֵשׁ לְיוֹשֵׁב יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 29.13. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲדֹנָי יַעַן כִּי נִגַּשׁ הָעָם הַזֶּה בְּפִיו וּבִשְׂפָתָיו כִּבְּדוּנִי וְלִבּוֹ רִחַק מִמֶּנִּי וַתְּהִי יִרְאָתָם אֹתִי מִצְוַת אֲנָשִׁים מְלֻמָּדָה׃ 42.8. אֲנִי יְהוָה הוּא שְׁמִי וּכְבוֹדִי לְאַחֵר לֹא־אֶתֵּן וּתְהִלָּתִי לַפְּסִילִים׃ 8.14. And He shall be for a sanctuary; but for a stone of stumbling and for a rock of offence to both the houses of Israel, for a gin and for a snare to the inhabitants of Jerusalem." 29.13. And the Lord said: Forasmuch as this people draw near, and with their mouth and with their lips do honour Me, But have removed their heart far from Me, And their fear of Me is a commandment of men learned by rote;" 42.8. I am the LORD, that is My name; And My glory will I not give to another, Neither My praise to graven images."
2. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 29 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

29. They have also writings of ancient men, who having been the founders of one sect or another have left behind them many memorials of the allegorical system of writing and explanation, whom they take as a kind of model, and imitate the general fashion of their sect; so that they do not occupy themselves solely in contemplation, but they likewise compose psalms and hymns to God in every kind of metre and melody imaginable, which they of necessity arrange in more dignified rhythm.
3. Philo of Alexandria, Hypothetica, 11.2-11.3, 11.14-11.17 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 77, 89-91, 76 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

76. These men, in the first place, live in villages, avoiding all cities on account of the habitual lawlessness of those who inhabit them, well knowing that such a moral disease is contracted from associations with wicked men, just as a real disease might be from an impure atmosphere, and that this would stamp an incurable evil on their souls. of these men, some cultivating the earth, and others devoting themselves to those arts which are the result of peace, benefit both themselves and all those who come in contact with them, not storing up treasures of silver and of gold, nor acquiring vast sections of the earth out of a desire for ample revenues, but providing all things which are requisite for the natural purposes of life;
5. Ignatius, To The Smyrnaeans, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 13.311, 18.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.311. But here one may take occasion to wonder at one Judas, who was of the sect of the Essenes, and who never missed the truth in his predictions; for this man, when he saw Antigonus passing by the temple, cried out to his companions and friends, who abode with him as his scholars, in order to learn the art of foretelling things to come? 18.21. and neither marry wives, nor are desirous to keep servants; as thinking the latter tempts men to be unjust, and the former gives the handle to domestic quarrels; but as they live by themselves, they minister one to another. 18.21. that it turned greatly to the advantage of his son among all; and, among others, the soldiery were so peculiarly affected to him, that they reckoned it an eligible thing, if need were, to die themselves, if he might but attain to the government.
7. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.78, 2.120-2.121, 2.137-2.145, 2.151, 2.160-2.161, 2.166 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.78. 5. And truly anyone would be surprised at Judas upon this occasion. He was of the sect of the Essenes, and had never failed or deceived men in his predictions before. Now, this man saw Antigonus as he was passing along by the temple, and cried out to his acquaintance (they were not a few who attended upon him as his scholars) 2.121. They do not absolutely deny the fitness of marriage, and the succession of mankind thereby continued; but they guard against the lascivious behavior of women, and are persuaded that none of them preserve their fidelity to one man. 2.137. 7. But now, if anyone hath a mind to come over to their sect, he is not immediately admitted, but he is prescribed the same method of living which they use, for a year, while he continues excluded; and they give him also a small hatchet, and the fore-mentioned girdle, and the white garment. 2.138. And when he hath given evidence, during that time, that he can observe their continence, he approaches nearer to their way of living, and is made a partaker of the waters of purification; yet is he not even now admitted to live with them; for after this demonstration of his fortitude, his temper is tried two more years; and if he appear to be worthy, they then admit him into their society. 2.139. And before he is allowed to touch their common food, he is obliged to take tremendous oaths, that, in the first place, he will exercise piety towards God, and then that he will observe justice towards men, and that he will do no harm to any one, either of his own accord, or by the command of others; that he will always hate the wicked, and be assistant to the righteous; 2.141. that he will be perpetually a lover of truth, and propose to himself to reprove those that tell lies; that he will keep his hands clear from theft, and his soul from unlawful gains; and that he will neither conceal anything from those of his own sect, nor discover any of their doctrines to others, no, not though anyone should compel him so to do at the hazard of his life. 2.142. Moreover, he swears to communicate their doctrines to no one any otherwise than as he received them himself; that he will abstain from robbery, and will equally preserve the books belonging to their sect, and the names of the angels [or messengers]. These are the oaths by which they secure their proselytes to themselves. 2.143. 8. But for those that are caught in any heinous sins, they cast them out of their society; and he who is thus separated from them does often die after a miserable manner; for as he is bound by the oath he hath taken, and by the customs he hath been engaged in, he is not at liberty to partake of that food that he meets with elsewhere, but is forced to eat grass, and to famish his body with hunger, till he perish; 2.144. for which reason they receive many of them again when they are at their last gasp, out of compassion to them, as thinking the miseries they have endured till they came to the very brink of death to be a sufficient punishment for the sins they had been guilty of. 2.145. 9. But in the judgments they exercise they are most accurate and just, nor do they pass sentence by the votes of a court that is fewer than a hundred. And as to what is once determined by that number, it is unalterable. What they most of all honor, after God himself, is the name of their legislator [Moses], whom, if anyone blaspheme, he is punished capitally. 2.151. They are long-lived also, insomuch that many of them live above a hundred years, by means of the simplicity of their diet; nay, as I think, by means of the regular course of life they observe also. They condemn the miseries of life, and are above pain, by the generosity of their mind. And as for death, if it will be for their glory, they esteem it better than living always; 2.161. However, they try their spouses for three years; and if they find that they have their natural purgations thrice, as trials that they are likely to be fruitful, they then actually marry them. But they do not use to accompany with their wives when they are with child, as a demonstration that they do not marry out of regard to pleasure, but for the sake of posterity. Now the women go into the baths with some of their garments on, as the men do with somewhat girded about them. And these are the customs of this order of Essenes. 2.166. Moreover, the Pharisees are friendly to one another, and are for the exercise of concord, and regard for the public; but the behavior of the Sadducees one towards another is in some degree wild, and their conversation with those that are of their own party is as barbarous as if they were strangers to them. And this is what I had to say concerning the philosophic sects among the Jews.
8. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.6-2.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.6. If he immersed for unconsecrated [food], and was presumed to be fit to eat unconsecrated [food], he is prohibited from [eating second] tithe. If he immersed for [second] tithe, and was presumed to be fit to eat [second] tithe, he is prohibited from [eating] terumah. If he immersed for terumah, and was presumed to be fit to eat terumah, he is prohibited from [eating] holy things. If he immersed for holy things, and was presumed to be fit to eat holy things he is prohibited from [touching the waters of] purification. If one immersed for something possessing a stricter [degree of holiness], one is permitted [to have contact with] something possessing a lighter [degree of holiness]. If he immersed but without special intention, it is as though he had not immersed." 2.7. The garments of an am haaretz possess midras-impurity for Pharisees. The garments of Pharisees possess midras-impurity for those who eat terumah. The garments of those who eat terumah possess midras-impurity for [those who eat] sacred things. The garments of [those who eat] sacred things possess midras-impurity for [those who occupy themselves with the waters of] purification. Yose ben Yoezer was the most pious in the priesthood, yet his apron was [considered to possess] midras-impurity for [those who ate] sacred things. Yoha ben Gudgada all his life used to eat [unconsecrated food] in accordance with the purity required for sacred things, yet his apron was [considered to possess] midras-impurity for [those who occupied themselves with the water of] purification."
9. Mishnah, Megillah, 4.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.8. If one says, “I will not pass before the ark in colored clothes,” even in white clothes he may not pass before it. [If one says], “I will not pass before it in shoes,” even barefoot he may not pass before it. One who makes his tefillin [for the head] round, it is dangerous and has no religious value. If he put them on his forehead or on the palm of his hand, behold this is the way of heresy. If he overlaid them with gold or put [the one for the hand] on his sleeve, behold this is the manner of the outsiders."
10. Mishnah, Sotah, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.4. She had barely finished drinking when her face turns yellow, her eyes protrude and her veins swell. And [those who see her] exclaim, “Remove her! Remove her, so that the temple-court should not be defiled”. If she had merit, it [causes the water] to suspend its effect upon her. Some merit suspends the effect for one year, some merit suspends the effects for two years, and some merit suspends the effect for three years. Hence Ben Azzai said: a person must teach his daughter Torah, so that if she has to drink [the water of bitterness], she should know that the merit suspends its effect. Rabbi Eliezer says: whoever teaches his daughter Torah teaches her lasciviousness. Rabbi Joshua says: a woman prefers one kav (of food) and sexual indulgence to nine kav and sexual separation. He used to say, a foolish pietist, a cunning wicked person, a female separatist, and the blows of separatists bring destruction upon the world."
11. Mishnah, Toharot, 4.12 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.12. \"A condition of doubt concerning non-sacred food\"--this refers to the cleanness practiced by Pharisees. \"A condition of doubt concerning a sheretz\" –according [to their condition at] the time they are found. \"A condition of doubt concerning negaim\" it is deemed clean in the beginning before it had been determined to be unclean, but after it had been determined to be unclean, a condition of doubt is deemed unclean. \"A condition of doubt concerning a nazirite vow\" [in such a condition of doubt he] is permitted [all that is forbidden to a nazirite]. \"A condition of doubt concerning first-borns\" whether they are human firstborn or firstborn of cattle, whether the firstborn of an unclean beast or a clean one, for the one who wishes to extract from his fellow bears the burden of proof."
12. Mishnah, Yadayim, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.6. The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, because you say that the Holy Scriptures defile the hands, but the books of Homer do not defile the hands. Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai said: Have we nothing against the Pharisees but this? Behold they say that the bones of a donkey are clean, yet the bones of Yoha the high priest are unclean. They said to him: according to the affection for them, so is their impurity, so that nobody should make spoons out of the bones of his father or mother. He said to them: so also are the Holy Scriptures according to the affection for them, so is their uncleanness. The books of Homer which are not precious do not defile the hands."
13. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 10.32 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.32. Give no occasions for stumbling, either to Jews, or to Greeks,or to the assembly of God;
14. New Testament, 2 John, 10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. New Testament, Acts, 4.2, 5.27, 5.29-5.32, 23.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.2. being upset because they taught the people and proclaimed in Jesus the resurrection from the dead. 5.27. When they had brought them, they set them before the council. The high priest questioned them 5.29. But Peter and the apostles answered, "We must obey God rather than men. 5.30. The God of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom you killed, hanging him on a tree. 5.31. God exalted him with his right hand to be a Prince and a Savior, to give repentance to Israel, and remission of sins. 5.32. We are His witnesses of these things; and so also is the Holy Spirit, whom God has given to those who obey him. 23.8. For the Sadducees say that there is no resurrection, neither angel, nor spirit; but the Pharisees confess all of these.
16. New Testament, Jude, 11-19, 8-10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

17. New Testament, Titus, 3.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.10. Avoid a factious man after a first and second warning;
18. New Testament, Luke, 20.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

20.27. Some of the Sadducees came to him, those who deny that there is a resurrection.
19. New Testament, Mark, 3.6, 8.15, 12.1-12.12, 12.18, 12.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.6. The Pharisees went out, and immediately conspired with the Herodians against him, how they might destroy him. 8.15. He charged them, saying, "Take heed: beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and the yeast of Herod. 12.1. He began to speak to them in parables. "A man planted a vineyard, put a hedge around it, dug a pit for the winepress, built a tower, rented it out to a farmer, and went into another country. 12.2. When it was time, he sent a servant to the farmer to get from the farmer his share of the fruit of the vineyard. 12.3. They took him, beat him, and sent him away empty. 12.4. Again, he sent another servant to them; and they threw stones at him, wounded him in the head, and sent him away shamefully treated. 12.5. Again he sent another; and they killed him; and many others, beating some, and killing some. 12.6. Therefore still having one, his beloved son, he sent him last to them, saying, 'They will respect my son.' 12.7. But those farmers said among themselves, 'This is the heir. Come, let's kill him, and the inheritance will be ours.' 12.8. They took him, killed him, and cast him out of the vineyard. 12.9. What therefore will the lord of the vineyard do? He will come and destroy the farmers, and will give the vineyard to others. 12.10. Haven't you even read this Scripture: 'The stone which the builders rejected, The same was made the head of the corner. 12.11. This was from the Lord, It is marvelous in our eyes'? 12.12. They tried to seize him, but they feared the multitude; for they perceived that he spoke the parable against them. They left him, and went away. 12.18. There came to him Sadducees, who say that there is no resurrection. They asked him, saying 12.23. In the resurrection, when they rise, whose wife will she be of them? For the seven had her as a wife.
20. New Testament, Matthew, 21.43, 22.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

21.43. Therefore I tell you, the Kingdom of God will be taken away from you, and will be given to a nation bringing forth its fruits. 22.23. On that day Sadducees (those who say that there is no resurrection) came to him. They asked him
21. Anon., Marytrdom of Polycarp, 10.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10.1. 1 But when he persisted again, and said: "Swear by the genius of Caesar," he answered him: "If you vainly suppose that I will swear by the genius of Caesar, as you say, and pretend that you are ignorant who I am, listen plainly: I am a Christian. And if you wish to learn the doctrine of Christianity fix a day and listen.
22. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.13-1.16 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.13. One Ecphantus, a native of Syracuse, affirmed that it is not possible to attain a true knowledge of things. He defines, however, as he thinks, primary bodies to be indivisible, and that there are three variations of these, viz., bulk, figure, capacity, from which are generated the objects of sense. But that there is a determinable multitude of these, and that this is infinite. And that bodies are moved neither by weight nor by impact, but by divine power, which he calls mind and soul; and that of this the world is a representation; wherefore also it has been made in the form of a sphere by divine power. And that the earth in the middle of the cosmical system is moved round its own centre towards the east. 1.14. Hippo, a native of Rhegium, asserted as originating principles, coldness, for instance water, and heat, for instance fire. And that fire, when produced by water, subdued the power of its generator, and formed the world. And the soul, he said, is sometimes brain, but sometimes water; for that also the seed is that which appears to us to arise out of moisture, from which, he says, the soul is produced. So far, then, we think we have sufficiently adduced (the opinions of) these; wherefore, inasmuch as we have adequately gone in review through the tenets of physical speculators, it seems to remain that we now turn to Socrates and Plato, who gave special preference to moral philosophy. 1.15. Socrates, then, was a hearer of Archelaus, the natural philosopher; and he, reverencing the rule, Know yourself, and having assembled a large school, had Plato (there), who was far superior to all his pupils. (Socrates) himself left no writings after him. Plato, however, taking notes of all his (lectures on) wisdom, established a school, combining together natural, ethical, (and) logical (philosophy). But the points Plato determined are these following. 1.16. Plato (lays down) that there are three originating principles of the universe, (namely) God, and matter, and exemplar; God as the Maker and Regulator of this universe, and the Being who exercises providence over it; but matter, as that which underlies all (phenomena), which (matter) he styles both receptive and a nurse, out of the arrangement of which proceeded the four elements of which the world consists; (I mean) fire, air, earth, water, from which all the rest of what are denominated concrete substances, as well as animals and plants, have been formed. And that the exemplar, which he likewise calls ideas, is the intelligence of the Deity, to which, as to an image in the soul, the Deity attending, fabricated all things. God, he says, is both incorporeal and shapeless, and comprehensible by wise men solely; whereas matter is body potentially, but with potentiality not as yet passing into action, for being itself without form and without quality, by assuming forms and qualities, it became body. That matter, therefore, is an originating principle, and coeval with the Deity, and that in this respect the world is uncreated. For (Plato) affirms that (the world) was made out of it. And that (the attribute of) imperishableness necessarily belongs to (literally follows) that which is uncreated. So far forth, however, as body is supposed to be compounded out of both many qualities and ideas, so far forth it is both created and perishable. But some of the followers of Plato mingled both of these, employing some such example as the following: That as a waggon can always continue undestroyed, though undergoing partial repairs from time to time, so that even the parts each in turn perish, yet itself remains always complete; so after this manner the world also, although in parts it perishes, yet the things that are removed, being repaired, and equivalents for them being introduced, it remains eternal. Some maintain that Plato asserts the Deity to be one, ingenerable and incorruptible, as he says in The Laws: God, therefore, as the ancient account has it, possesses both the beginning, and end, and middle of all things. Thus he shows God to be one, on account of His having pervaded all things. Others, however, maintain that Plato affirms the existence of many gods indefinitely, when he uses these words: God of gods, of whom I am both the Creator and Father. But others say that he speaks of a definite number of deities in the following passage: Therefore the mighty Jupiter, wheeling his swift chariot in heaven; and when he enumerates the offspring of the children of heaven and earth. But others assert that (Plato) constituted the gods as generable; and on account of their having been produced, that altogether they were subject to the necessity of corruption, but that on account of the will of God they are immortal, (maintaining this) in the passage already quoted, where, to the words, God of gods, of whom I am Creator and Father, he adds, indissoluble through the fiat of My will; so that if (God) were disposed that these should be dissolved, they would easily be dissolved. And he admits natures (such as those) of demons, and says that some of them are good, but others worthless. And some affirm that he states the soul to be uncreated and immortal, when he uses the following words, Every soul is immortal, for that which is always moved is immortal; and when he demonstrates that the soul is self-moved, and capable of originating motion. Others, however, (say that Plato asserted that the soul was) created, but rendered imperishable through the will of God. But some (will have it that he considered the soul) a composite (essence), and generable and corruptible; for even he supposes that there is a receptacle for it, and that it possesses a luminous body, but that everything generated involves a necessity of corruption. Those, however, who assert the immortality of the soul are especially strengthened in their opinion by those passages (in Plato's writings), where he says, that both there are judgments after death, and tribunals of justice in Hades, and that the virtuous (souls) receive a good reward, while the wicked (ones) suitable punishment. Some notwithstanding assert, that he also acknowledges a transition of souls from one body to another, and that different souls, those that were marked out for such a purpose, pass into different bodies, according to the desert of each, and that after certain definite periods they are sent up into this world to furnish once more a proof of their choice. Others, however, (do not admit this to be his doctrine, but will have it that Plato affirms that the souls) obtain a place according to the desert of each; and they employ as a testimony the saying of his, that some good men are with Jove, and that others are ranging abroad (through heaven) with other gods; whereas that others are involved in eternal punishments, as many as during this life have committed wicked and unjust deeds. And people affirm that Plato says, that some things are without a mean, that others have a mean, that others are a mean. (For example, that) waking and sleep, and such like, are conditions without an intermediate state; but that there are things that had means, for instance virtue and vice; and there are means (between extremes), for instance grey between white and black, or some other color. And they say, that he affirms that the things pertaining to the soul are absolutely alone good, but that the things pertaining to the body, and those external (to it), are not any longer absolutely good, but reputed blessings. And that frequently he names these means also, for that it is possible to use them both well and ill. Some virtues, therefore, he says, are extremes in regard of intrinsic worth, but in regard of their essential nature means, for nothing is more estimable than virtue. But whatever excels or falls short of these terminates in vice. For instance, he says that there are four virtues- prudence, temperance, justice, fortitude- and that on each of these is attendant two vices, according to excess and defect: for example, on prudence, recklessness according to defect, and knavery according to excess; and on temperance, licentiousness according to defect, stupidity according to excess; and on justice, foregoing a claim according to defect, unduly pressing it according to excess; and on fortitude, cowardice according to defect, foolhardiness according to excess. And that these virtues, when inherent in a man, render him perfect, and afford him happiness. And happiness, he says, is assimilation to the Deity, as far as this is possible; and that assimilation to God takes place when any one combines holiness and justice with prudence. For this he supposes the end of supreme wisdom and virtue. And he affirms that the virtues follow one another in turn, and are uniform, and are never antagonistic to each other; whereas that vices are multiform, and sometimes follow one the other, and sometimes are antagonistic to each other. He asserts that fate exists; not, to be sure, that all things are produced according to fate, but that there is even something in our power, as in the passages where he says, The fault is his who chooses, God is blameless; and the following law of Adrasteia. And thus some (contend for his upholding) a system of fate, whereas others one of free-will. He asserts, however, that sins are involuntary. For into what is most glorious of the things in our power, which is the soul, no one would (deliberately) admit what is vicious, that is, transgression, but that from ignorance and an erroneous conception of virtue, supposing that they were achieving something honourable, they pass into vice. And his doctrine on this point is most clear in The Republic, where he says, But, again, you presume to assert that vice is disgraceful and abhorred of God; how then, I may ask, would one choose such an evil thing? He, you reply, (would do so) who is worsted by pleasures. Therefore this also is involuntary, if to gain a victory be voluntary; so that, in every point of view, the committing an act of turpitude, reason proves to be involuntary. Some one, however, in opposition to this (Plato), advances the contrary statement, Why then are men punished if they sin involuntary? But he replies, that he himself also, as soon as possible, may be emancipated from vice, and undergo punishment. For that the undergoing punishment is not an evil, but a good thing, if it is likely to prove a purification of evils; and that the rest of mankind, hearing of it, may not transgress, but guard against such an error. (Plato, however, maintains) that the nature of evil is neither created by the Deity, nor possesses subsistence of itself, but that it derives existence from contrariety to what is good, and from attendance upon it, either by excess and defect, as we have previously affirmed concerning the virtues. Plato unquestionably then, as we have already stated, collecting together the three departments of universal philosophy, in this manner formed his speculative system.
23. Justin, First Apology, 7.3, 10.2, 12.9-12.10, 14.2-14.3, 16.8, 26.5-26.6, 26.8, 30.1, 31.7, 59.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Justin, Second Apology, 2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2. A certain woman lived with an intemperate husband; she herself, too, having formerly been intemperate. But when she came to the knowledge of the teachings of Christ she became sober-minded, and endeavoured to persuade her husband likewise to be temperate, citing the teaching of Christ, and assuring him that there shall be punishment in eternal fire inflicted upon those who do not live temperately and conformably to right reason. But he, continuing in the same excesses, alienated his wife from him by his actions. For she, considering it wicked to live any longer as a wife with a husband who sought in every way means of indulging in pleasure contrary to the law of nature, and in violation of what is right, wished to be divorced from him. And when she was overpersuaded by her friends, who advised her still to continue with him, in the idea that some time or other her husband might give hope of amendment, she did violence to her own feeling and remained with him. But when her husband had gone into Alexandria, and was reported to be conducting himself worse than ever, she - that she might not, by continuing in matrimonial connection with him, and by sharing his table and his bed, become a partaker also in his wickednesses and impieties - gave him what you call a bill of divorce, and was separated from him. But this noble husband of hers - while he ought to have been rejoicing that those actions which formerly she unhesitatingly committed with the servants and hirelings, when she delighted in drunkenness and every vice, she had now given up, and desired that he too should give up the same - when she had gone from him without his desire, brought an accusation against her, affirming that she was a Christian. And she presented a paper to you, the Emperor, a very bold apostrophe, like that of Huss to the Emperor Sigismund, which crimsoned his forehead with a blush of shame.]}-- requesting that first she be permitted to arrange her affairs, and afterwards to make her defense against the accusation, when her affairs were set in order. And this you granted. And her quondam husband, since he was now no longer able to prosecute her, directed his assaults against a man, Ptolem us, whom Urbicus punished, and who had been her teacher in the Christian doctrines. And this he did in the following way. He persuaded a centurion - who had cast Ptolem us into prison, and who was friendly to himself - to take Ptolem us and interrogate him on this sole point: whether he were a Christian? And Ptolem us, being a lover of truth, and not of a deceitful or false disposition, when he confessed himself to be a Christian, was bound by the centurion, and for a long time punished in the prison And, at last, when the man came to Urbicus, he was asked this one question only: whether he was a Christian? And again, being conscious of his duty, and the nobility of it through the teaching of Christ, he confessed his discipleship in the divine virtue. For he who denies anything either denies it because he condemns the thing itself, or he shrinks from confession because he is conscious of his own unworthiness or alienation from it, neither of which cases is that of the true Christian. And when Urbicus ordered him to be led away to punishment, one Lucius, who was also himself a Christian, seeing the unreasonable judgment that had thus been given, said to Urbicus: What is the ground of this judgment? Why have you punished this man, not as an adulterer, nor fornicator, nor murderer, nor thief, nor robber, nor convicted of any crime at all, but who has only confessed that he is called by the name of Christian? This judgment of yours, O Urbicus, does not become the Emperor Pius, nor the philosopher, the son of C sar, nor the sacred senate. And he said nothing else in answer to Lucius than this: You also seem to me to be such an one. And when Lucius answered, Most certainly I am, he again ordered him also to be led away. And he professed his thanks, knowing that he was delivered from such wicked rulers, and was going to the Father and King of the heavens. And still a third having come forward, was condemned to be punished.
25. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 11.2, 17.1, 35.3-35.6, 36.2, 38.2, 47.2-47.3, 55.3, 58.1, 62.2, 63.5, 64.1, 68.8, 69.1, 78.10, 80.2, 80.4-80.5, 84.3, 117.5, 120.6, 137.2, 140.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. Lucian, The Passing of Peregrinus, 13-14, 12 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

27. Tatian, Oration To The Greeks, 25.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

28. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 2.25.8, 4.22, 5.20 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

2.25.8. And that they both suffered martyrdom at the same time is stated by Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, in his epistle to the Romans, in the following words: You have thus by such an admonition bound together the planting of Peter and of Paul at Rome and Corinth. For both of them planted and likewise taught us in our Corinth. And they taught together in like manner in Italy, and suffered martyrdom at the same time. I have quoted these things in order that the truth of the history might be still more confirmed.
29. Synesius of Cyrene, Dion, 3.2 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

30. Jerome, Letters, 127 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

31. Jerome, Letters, 127 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

32. Jerome, Letters, 127 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
apocalypticism, chiliasm Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 376, 390
apologists, generally Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 532
asia minor Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 390
assembling Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 376
baptizers Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 180
baths Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 376
blasphemy, heresy as Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 66, 67, 85
buckley, j. j. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 180
canon, development of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 200
causality Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 390
celibacy, and essenes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
christian (cristianî) Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 265
christian church, unity of the Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 186
christianity = cristianismî, christians, graeco-roman views of Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 267
claudius apollinaris Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 186
clement of rome, and heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 85
community Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 390
cultus, christian Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 376
deacon Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 376
dio chrysostoms essenes, as ideal stoic polis/city Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
dionysios of corinth Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 186
dualism Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 297
elder (presbyter) Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 376
essenes, historically verifiable essene features Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
exegesis, in gnosticism Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 200
exegesis, in justin Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 200
florinus Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 390
galileans Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 66, 67
genistae Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 180
genists Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 66, 67
gnosticism, specific doctrines Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 85
great church Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 390
hairesis Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 66, 67, 85
hegesippos Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 186
hegesippus, seven schools of jewish law Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 180
hegesippus Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 390; Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 180
hellenians Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 66, 67; Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 180
heresy, division/multiplicity of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 67
heresy, heretics Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 267, 297
heresy, reduction/amalgamation of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 85
heretics {see also gnostics; marcionites) Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 376, 390
history, as christian history Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 265
hospitality Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 376
house, possession of Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 376
house community Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 376
idolatry Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 297
imperial court Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 390
imperial freedpersons Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 390
irenaeus Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 390
israel, used of christians Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 265
jewish law/legal schools, and the hakhamim (sages) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
jewish law/legal schools, essenes as separate Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
jewish law/legal schools, hegesippus seven schools Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 180
jewish law/legal schools, justin martyrs list Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 180
jewish law/legal schools Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 180
jewish succession, listing of sects of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 66, 67
john, gospel of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 180
josephus essenes, admission and lifestyle Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
josephus essenes, and celibacy Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
josephus essenes, and women Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
josephus essenes, daily routine and meals Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
josephus essenes, legal system Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
josephus essenes, marriage and children Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
josephus essenes, oaths of commitment Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
josephus essenes, purity and purification rituals Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
josephus essenes, wealth and communality Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
judaea, region of, sabbath, rules of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
judaism, second temple Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 180
justin Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 376, 390
justin martyr, and pharisee identity Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 180
justin martyr, legal schools presentation of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 180
justin martyr, theology Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 532
justin martyr Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 186; Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 180, 197
labelling Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 267
logos, acccording to justin martyr Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 532
logos, doctrine of Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 376, 390
magi, criticism as heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 85
marcion Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 390; Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 267
mareotis, lake, essene identity and Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
markion Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 186
martyr, justin, distinctive features of his heresiology Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 66
martyr, justin, doctrine of scripture Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 200
martyr, justin, naming sects Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 66, 67
martyr, justin, on the relation of the church to jewish identity Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 66
martyr, justin, use of greek models for heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 85
matthew, gospel of, herodians, use of term in Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
meals Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 376
menander Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 22
meristae Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 180
miltiades Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 390
myrtinus Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 376
names Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 22
office, office holder Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 376
old testament, criticism of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 85, 200
old testament Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 200
orthodoxy, in judaism, in christianity Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 297
orthodoxy, unity of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 67
other, the, mythicized Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 297
other, the Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 297
perushim, essenes link with Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
pharisaic-rabbinic connection, in early christian literature Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 70
pharisees, depiction as chief priests Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 180
pharisees, in justin martyr Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 180
pharisees Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 66, 67
philistines, philosophy, christianity as Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 267
philos essenes, and communality Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
philos essenes, and mosaic law Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
philos essenes, and women Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
philos essenes, as aged mature men Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
philosophical school Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 22
philosophy, criticized as divided Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 67
plinys essenes, celibacy of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
pluralism, theological Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 390
ptolemy (valentinian, teacher of justin, apol. Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 390
purity and purification rituals, and the essenes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 180, 197
purity and purification rituals, extreme purification Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 180
purity and purification rituals, in josephus' Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
purity and purification rituals Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 180
race, christians as Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 265
rhodon Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 390
roman church Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 186
sadducees Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 66, 67
sadducees (tsedukim/tseduqim), in justin martyr Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 180
samaritans/samarians Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 180
schools, christian Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 22
schools Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 376
scripture, as weapon/criterion against heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 200
scripture, christian, justin martyr Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 532
scripture, justin martyr on Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 200
serapion of antioch Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 186
simon magus Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 390; Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 22
succession, heretical succession Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 85
succession Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 85
synesius of crete, presentation of dios essenes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
syntagma by justin Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 22
tatianos (tatian) Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 186
teachers Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 376
temple, the, destruction of (66 ce) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 180
tolerance Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 390
valentinus Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 267
via latina Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 390
victor Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 390
αἱρεσιώτης Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 66, 67
διαδοχή Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 85
παραχαράσσειν Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 66
σχίσμα Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 66
ἀκολουθεῖν Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 66
ἀπόδειξις Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 200
ἀσεβής Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 66, 67
ἄθεος Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 66, 67