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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7289
Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 11


nanJustin: There will be no other God, O Trypho, nor was there from eternity any other existing, but He who made and disposed all this universe. Nor do we think that there is one God for us, another for you, but that He alone is God who led your fathers out from Egypt with a strong hand and a high arm. Nor have we trusted in any other (for there is no other), but in Him in whom you also have trusted, the God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob. But we do not trust through Moses or through the law; for then we would do the same as yourselves. But now -(for I have read that there shall be a final law, and a covenant, the chiefest of all, which it is now incumbent on all men to observe, as many as are seeking after the inheritance of God. For the law promulgated on Horeb is now old, and belongs to yourselves alone; but this is for all universally. Now, law placed against law has abrogated that which is before it, and a covenant which comes after in like manner has put an end to the previous one; and an eternal and final law - namely, Christ - has been given to us, and the covenant is trustworthy, after which there shall be no law, no commandment, no ordinance. Have you not read this which Isaiah says: 'Hearken unto Me, hearken unto Me, my people; and, you kings, give ear unto Me: for a law shall go forth from Me, and My judgment shall be for a light to the nations. My righteousness approaches swiftly, and My salvation shall go forth, and nations shall trust in My arm?' And by Jeremiah, concerning this same new covenant, He thus speaks: 'Behold, the days come, says the Lord, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah; not according to the covenant which I made with their fathers, in the day that I took them by the hand, to bring them out of the land of Egypt' Jeremiah 31:31-32). If, therefore, God proclaimed a new covenant which was to be instituted, and this for a light of the nations, we see and are persuaded that men approach God, leaving their idols and other unrighteousness, through the name of Him who was crucified, Jesus Christ, and abide by their confession even unto death, and maintain piety. Moreover, by the works and by the attendant miracles, it is possible for all to understand that He is the new law, and the new covenant, and the expectation of those who out of every people wait for the good things of God. For the true spiritual Israel, and descendants of Judah, Jacob, Isaac, and Abraham (who in uncircumcision was approved of and blessed by God on account of his faith, and called the father of many nations), are we who have been led to God through this crucified Christ, as shall be demonstrated while we proceed.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

20 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 22.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

22.6. וַיִּקַּח אַבְרָהָם אֶת־עֲצֵי הָעֹלָה וַיָּשֶׂם עַל־יִצְחָק בְּנוֹ וַיִּקַּח בְּיָדוֹ אֶת־הָאֵשׁ וְאֶת־הַמַּאֲכֶלֶת וַיֵּלְכוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם יַחְדָּו׃ 22.6. And Abraham took the wood of the burnt-offering, and laid it upon Isaac his son; and he took in his hand the fire and the knife; and they went both of them together."
2. Anon., Jubilees, 2.13-2.14, 6.1-6.3, 17.3, 18.9-18.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.13. and all the lakes, and all the dew of the earth, and the seed which is sown, and all sprouting things, and fruit-bearing trees, and trees of the wood, and the garden of Eden, in Eden, and all (plants after their kind). 2.14. These four great works God created on the third day. 6.1. And on the new moon of the third month he went forth from the ark, and built an altar on that mountain. 6.2. And he made atonement for the earth, and took a kid and made atonement by its blood for all the guilt of the earth; for everything that had been on it had been destroyed, save those that were in the ark with Noah. 6.3. And he placed the fat thereof on the altar, and he took an ox, and a goat, and a sheep and kids, and salt, and a turtle-dove, and the young of a dove 17.3. and Abraham rejoiced and blessed God because he had seen his sons and had not died childless. 18.9. and stretched forth his hand to take the knife to slay Isaac his son.
3. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 14 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Those, then, who put these things together, and cavil at them, and raise malicious objections, will be easily refuted separately by those who can produce ready solutions of all such questions as arise from the plain words of the law, arguing in a spirit far from contentious, and not encountering them by sophisms drawn from any other source, but following the connection of natural consequences, which does not permit them to stumble, but which easily puts aside any impediments that arise, so that the course of their arguments proceeds without any interruption or mishap.
4. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 63 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

63. The connection therefore between the reason which is devoted to contemplation and those powers which are citizen wives, or concubines, has here been explained to the best of my power. We must now proceed to investigate what follows, and endeavour to frame a proper connection for an argument. "Abraham," says the sacred historian, "listened to the voice of Sarah." For it is necessary for him who is a learner to be obedient to the injunctions of virtue:
5. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 119 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

119. Having now, therefore, said what was proper on the subject of fugitives, we will proceed with what follows in the regular order of the context. In the first place it is said, "The angel of the Lord found her in the Way," pitying the soul which out of modesty had voluntarily committed the danger of wandering about, and very nearly becoming a conductor of her return to opinion void of error.
6. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 28, 65, 131 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

131. Then, preserving the natural order of things, and having a regard to the connection between what comes afterwards and what has gone before, he says next, "And a fountain went up from the earth and watered the whole face of the earth." For other philosophers affirm that all water is one of the four elements of which the world was composed. But Moses, who was accustomed to contemplate and comprehend matters with a more acute and far-sighted vision, considers thus: the vast sea is an element, being a fourth part of the entire universe, which the men after him denominated the ocean, while they look upon the smaller seas which we sail over in the light of harbours. And he drew a distinction between the sweet and drinkable water and that of the sea, attributing the former to the earth, and considering it a portion of the earth, rather than of the ocean, on account of the reason which I have already mentioned, that is to say, that the earth may be held together by the sweet qualities of the water as by a chain; the water acting in the manner of glue. For if the earth were left entirely dry, so that no moisture arose and penetrated through its holes rising to the surface in various directions, it would split. But now it is held together, and remains lasting, partly by the force of the wind which unites it, and partly because the moisture does not allow it to become dry, and so to be broken up into larger and smaller fragments.
7. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 2.4-2.6, 2.9-2.10, 4.6-4.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.4. For He hath made manifest to us by all the prophets that He wanteth neither sacrifices nor whole burnt offerings nor oblations, saying at one time; 2.5. What to Me is the multitude of your sacrifices, saith the Lord I am full of whole burnt-offerings, and the fat of lambs and the blood of bulls and of goats desire not, not though ye should come to be seen of Me. or who required these things at your hands? Ye shall continue no more to tread My court. If ye bring fine flour, it is in vain; incense is an abomination to Me; your new moons and your Sabbaths I cannot away with. 2.6. These things therefore He annulled, that the new law of our Lord Jesus Christ, being free from the yoke of constraint, might have its oblation not made by human hands. 2.9. So we ought to perceive, unless we are without understanding, the mind of the goodness of our Father; for He speaketh to us, desiring us not to go astray like them but to seek how we may approach Him. 4.6. Ye ought therefore to understand. Moreover I ask you this one thing besides, as being one of yourselves and loving you all in particular more than my own soul, to give heed to yourselves now, and not to liken yourselves to certain persons who pile up sin upon sin, saying that our covet remains to them also. 4.7. Ours it is; but they lost it in this way for ever, when Moses had just received it. For the scripture saith; And Moses was in the mountain fasting forty days and forty nights, and he received the covet from the Lord, even tablets of stone written with the finger of the hand of the Lord. 4.8. But they lost it by turning unto idols. For thus saith the Lord; Moses, Moses, come down quickly; for thy people whom thou broughtest out of the land of Egypt hath done unlawfully. And Moses understood, and threw the two tables from his hands; and their covet was broken in pieces, that the covet of the beloved Jesus might be sealed unto our hearts in the hope which springeth from faith in Him. 4.9. But though I would fain write many things, not as a teacher, but as becometh one who loveth you not to fall short of that which we possess, I was anxious to write to you, being your devoted slave. Wherefore let us take heed in these last days. For the whole time of our faith shall profit us nothing, unless we now, in the season of lawlessness and in the offenses that shall be, as becometh sons of God, offer resistance, that the Black One may not effect an entrance.
8. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. New Testament, Colossians, 1.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.15. who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation.
11. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 56.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

56.2. אָמַר לְיִצְחָק, בְּנִי, רוֹאֶה אַתָּה מַה שֶּׁאֲנִי רוֹאֶה, אָמַר לוֹ הֵן. אָמַר לִשְׁנֵי נְעָרָיו, רוֹאִים אַתֶּם מַה שֶּׁאֲנִי רוֹאֶה, אָמְרוּ לוֹ לַאו. אָמַר הוֹאִיל וַחֲמוֹר אֵינוֹ רוֹאֶה וְאַתֶּם אֵין אַתֶּם רוֹאִים (בראשית כב, ה): שְׁבוּ לָכֶם פֹּה עִם הַחֲמוֹר. וּמִנַּיִין שֶׁהָעֲבָדִים דּוֹמִין לִבְהֵמָה, מֵהָכָא, שְׁבוּ לָכֶם פֹּה עִם הַחֲמוֹר, עַם הַחֲמוֹר. רַבָּנָן מַיְתֵי לֵיהּ מֵהָכָא מִמַּתַּן תּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כ, ט י): שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל מְלַאכְתֶּךָ וגו' אַתָּה וּבִנְךָ וּבִתֶּךָ וְעַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתְךָ וּבְהֶמְתֶּךָ, אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק עָתִיד הַמָּקוֹם לִרָחֵק מִבְּעָלָיו, וּלְעוֹלָם, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (תהלים קלב, יד): זֹאת מְנוּחָתִי עֲדֵי עַד פֹּה אֵשֵׁב, לִכְשֶׁיָּבוֹא אוֹתוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ (זכריה ט, ט): עָנִי וְרֹכֵב עַל חֲמוֹר. (בראשית כב, ה): וַאֲנִי וְהַנַּעַר נֵלְכָה עַד כֹּה, אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי נֵלֵךְ וְנִרְאֶה מַה יִּהְיֶה בְּסוֹפוֹ שֶׁל כֹּה. (בראשית כב, ה): וְנִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה וְנָשׁוּבָה אֲלֵיכֶם, בִּשְֹּׂרוֹ שֶׁהוּא חוֹזֵר מֵהַר הַמּוֹרִיָה בְּשָׁלוֹם. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק הַכֹּל בִּזְכוּת הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה, וְאַבְרָהָם לֹא חָזַר מֵהַר הַמּוֹרִיָּה בְּשָׁלוֹם אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה, וְנִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה וְנָשׁוּבָה אֲלֵיכֶם. יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא נִגְאֲלוּ אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות ד, לא): וַיַּאֲמֵן הָעָם וגו' וַיִקְדּוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ. הַתּוֹרָה לֹא נִתְּנָה אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כד, א): וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתֶם מֵרָחֹק. חַנָּה לֹא נִפְקְדָה אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל א א, כח): וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ שָׁם לַה': הַגָּלֻיּוֹת אֵינָן מִתְכַּנְסוֹת אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה כז, יג): וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִתָּקַע בְּשׁוֹפָר גָּדוֹל וגו' וְהִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לַה' בְּהַר הַקֹּדֶשׁ בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם. בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ לֹא נִבְנָה אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים צט, ט): רוֹמְמוּ ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לְהַר קָדְשׁוֹ. הַמֵּתִים אֵינָן חַיִּין אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים צה, ו): בֹּאוּ נִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה וְנִכְרָעָה נִבְרְכָה לִפְנֵי ה' עֹשֵׂנוּ. 56.2. He then said to him [Itzchak]: ‘Itzchak, my son do you what I see?’ ‘Yes,’ he replied. He said to his two servants: ‘Do you see what I see?’ ‘No,’ they answered. ‘Since you do not see it, “stay here with the donkey,” (Gen. 22:5), he bade them, because you are like the donkey, it follows that slaves are like cattle. The Rabbis proved [it from this verse spoken at] the Revelation: Six days you shall labor, and do all your work … you, nor your daughter, nor your man-servant, nor your maid-servant, nor your cattle (Ex. 20:10). R. Itzchak said: This place shall one day be alienated from its Owner. For ever? [No], for it is stated, “This is My resting-place forever; here will I dwell for I have desired it” (Ps. 132:14) — when he comes of whom it is written, “Lowly, and riding upon a donkey” (Zech. 1:9). “And I and the lad will go just there” — Ad Koh. Said R. Joshua b. Levi: We will go and see what is to be the eventual outcome of Koh. “And we will worship, and we will come back to you.” He informed him [through these words] that he [Itzchak] would return safely from Mount Moriah. R. Itzchak said: Everything happened as a reward for worshipping. Abraham returned in peace from Mount Moriah only as a reward for worshipping. “And we will worship, and we will come back to you.” Israel were redeemed only as a reward for worshipping: “And the people believed … then they bowed their heads and worshipped” (Ex. 4:31). The Torah was given only as a reward for worshipping: “And worship y’all afar off” (Ex. 24:1). Hannah was remembered only as a reward for worshipping: “And they worshipped before the Lord” (I Sam. 1:19). The exiles will be reassembled only as a reward for worshipping: “And it shall come to pass in that day, that a great horn shall be blown; and they shall come that were lost … and that were dispersed … and they shall worship Ad-nai in the holy mountain at Jerusalem” (Isa. 27:13). The Temple was built only as a reward for worshipping: “Exalt y’all Ad-nai our God, and worship at His holy mountain” (Ps. 99:9). The dead will come to life again only as a reward for worshipping: “O come, let us worship and bend the knee; let us kneel before Ad-nai our Maker (Ps 95:6)."
12. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 3.3.3, 3.11.8-3.11.9 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

13. Justin, First Apology, 10.1, 21.1, 23.2, 32.4-32.6, 38.8, 53.2-53.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. But we have received by tradition that God does not need the material offerings which men can give, seeing, indeed, that He Himself is the provider of all things. And we have been taught, and are convinced, and do believe, that He accepts those only who imitate the excellences which reside in Him, temperance, and justice, and philanthropy, and as many virtues as are peculiar to a God who is called by no proper name. And we have been taught that He in the beginning did of His goodness, for man's sake, create all things out of unformed matter; and if men by their works show themselves worthy of this His design, they are deemed worthy, and so we have received - of reigning in company with Him, being delivered from corruption and suffering. For as in the beginning He created us when we were not, so do we consider that, in like manner, those who choose what is pleasing to Him are, on account of their choice, deemed worthy of incorruption and of fellowship with Him. For the coming into being at first was not in our own power; and in order that we may follow those things which please Him, choosing them by means of the rational faculties He has Himself endowed us with, He both persuades us and leads us to faith. And we think it for the advantage of all men that they are not restrained from learning these things, but are even urged thereto. For the restraint which human laws could not effect, the Word, inasmuch as He is divine, would have effected, had not the wicked demons, taking as their ally the lust of wickedness which is in every man, and which draws variously to all manner of vice, scattered many false and profane accusations, none of which attach to us.
14. Justin, Second Apology, 2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2. A certain woman lived with an intemperate husband; she herself, too, having formerly been intemperate. But when she came to the knowledge of the teachings of Christ she became sober-minded, and endeavoured to persuade her husband likewise to be temperate, citing the teaching of Christ, and assuring him that there shall be punishment in eternal fire inflicted upon those who do not live temperately and conformably to right reason. But he, continuing in the same excesses, alienated his wife from him by his actions. For she, considering it wicked to live any longer as a wife with a husband who sought in every way means of indulging in pleasure contrary to the law of nature, and in violation of what is right, wished to be divorced from him. And when she was overpersuaded by her friends, who advised her still to continue with him, in the idea that some time or other her husband might give hope of amendment, she did violence to her own feeling and remained with him. But when her husband had gone into Alexandria, and was reported to be conducting himself worse than ever, she - that she might not, by continuing in matrimonial connection with him, and by sharing his table and his bed, become a partaker also in his wickednesses and impieties - gave him what you call a bill of divorce, and was separated from him. But this noble husband of hers - while he ought to have been rejoicing that those actions which formerly she unhesitatingly committed with the servants and hirelings, when she delighted in drunkenness and every vice, she had now given up, and desired that he too should give up the same - when she had gone from him without his desire, brought an accusation against her, affirming that she was a Christian. And she presented a paper to you, the Emperor, a very bold apostrophe, like that of Huss to the Emperor Sigismund, which crimsoned his forehead with a blush of shame.]}-- requesting that first she be permitted to arrange her affairs, and afterwards to make her defense against the accusation, when her affairs were set in order. And this you granted. And her quondam husband, since he was now no longer able to prosecute her, directed his assaults against a man, Ptolem us, whom Urbicus punished, and who had been her teacher in the Christian doctrines. And this he did in the following way. He persuaded a centurion - who had cast Ptolem us into prison, and who was friendly to himself - to take Ptolem us and interrogate him on this sole point: whether he were a Christian? And Ptolem us, being a lover of truth, and not of a deceitful or false disposition, when he confessed himself to be a Christian, was bound by the centurion, and for a long time punished in the prison And, at last, when the man came to Urbicus, he was asked this one question only: whether he was a Christian? And again, being conscious of his duty, and the nobility of it through the teaching of Christ, he confessed his discipleship in the divine virtue. For he who denies anything either denies it because he condemns the thing itself, or he shrinks from confession because he is conscious of his own unworthiness or alienation from it, neither of which cases is that of the true Christian. And when Urbicus ordered him to be led away to punishment, one Lucius, who was also himself a Christian, seeing the unreasonable judgment that had thus been given, said to Urbicus: What is the ground of this judgment? Why have you punished this man, not as an adulterer, nor fornicator, nor murderer, nor thief, nor robber, nor convicted of any crime at all, but who has only confessed that he is called by the name of Christian? This judgment of yours, O Urbicus, does not become the Emperor Pius, nor the philosopher, the son of C sar, nor the sacred senate. And he said nothing else in answer to Lucius than this: You also seem to me to be such an one. And when Lucius answered, Most certainly I am, he again ordered him also to be led away. And he professed his thanks, knowing that he was delivered from such wicked rulers, and was going to the Father and King of the heavens. And still a third having come forward, was condemned to be punished.
15. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 8.4, 11.1, 16.4, 30.1, 35.5, 42.1, 80.4, 84.2, 93.4, 100.2-100.3, 103.2, 120.2, 125.3, 128.3, 138.2, 142.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. And when they ceased, I again addressed them. Justin: Is there any other matter, my friends, in which we are blamed, than this, that we live not after the law, and are not circumcised in the flesh as your forefathers were, and do not observe sabbaths as you do? Are our lives and customs also slandered among you? And I ask this: have you also believed concerning us, that we eat men; and that after the feast, having extinguished the lights, we engage in promiscuous concubinage? Or do you condemn us in this alone, that we adhere to such tenets, and believe in an opinion, untrue, as you think? Trypho: This is what we are amazed at, but those things about which the multitude speak are not worthy of belief; for they are most repugt to human nature. Moreover, I am aware that your precepts in the so-called Gospel are so wonderful and so great, that I suspect no one can keep them; for I have carefully read them. But this is what we are most at a loss about: that you, professing to be pious, and supposing yourselves better than others, are not in any particular separated from them, and do not alter your mode of living from the nations, in that you observe no festivals or sabbaths, and do not have the rite of circumcision; and further, resting your hopes on a man that was crucified, you yet expect to obtain some good thing from God, while you do not obey His commandments. Have you not read, that that soul shall be cut off from his people who shall not have been circumcised on the eighth day? And this has been ordained for strangers and for slaves equally. But you, despising this covet rashly, reject the consequent duties, and attempt to persuade yourselves that you know God, when, however, you perform none of those things which they do who fear God. If, therefore, you can defend yourself on these points, and make it manifest in what way you hope for anything whatsoever, even though you do not observe the law, this we would very gladly hear from you, and we shall make other similar investigations.
16. Tertullian, Apology, 2.7-2.8, 7.3, 15.1-15.2, 15.4, 21.16 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

17. Cyprian, On The Lord'S Prayer, 10 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

18. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 5.1.49 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

5.1.49. But all the others were added to the Church. While these were being examined, a certain Alexander, a Phrygian by birth, and physician by profession, who had resided in Gaul for many years, and was well known to all on account of his love to God and boldness of speech (for he was not without a share of apostolic grace), standing before the judgment seat, and by signs encouraging them to confess, appeared to those standing by as if in travail.
19. Anon., Epistle To Diognetus, 4

20. Melito of Sardis, On Pascha, 58



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adam and eve, in geneology of error Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 167
adversus ioudaios writings Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 95
angel Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 141
angelic sin, as epistemological transgression Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 167
apocalyptic literature, and book of daniel Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 167
apocalyptic literature, history of scholarship on Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 167
apollonius Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 323
apologists, apologetic Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 323
apologists, generally Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 529, 530
apology, apologetics, christian Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 167
ascension of isaiah Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
bar kokhba Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 97
bar kokhba revolt/ war Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 273
bar kokhba revolt Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 167
canon, canonization, and prophecy Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
canon, canonization Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
christ, according to justin martyr Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 529, 530
christianity, attitudes towards jews in Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 167
circumcision Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 167
cleanthes Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 323
clement of alexandria Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150; Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 95
cross Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 273
cyprian Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 95
daimon(es) Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 97
educated, erudite Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 323
enochic literary tradition, place of book of dreams in Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 167
ethnicity Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 97
exegesis, allegorical Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 202
exegesis, in gnosticism Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 202
ferguson, everett Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
frankfurter, david Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
genesis, and book of the watchers Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 167
gnosticism, gnostics Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
god, justin martyr Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 529
harnack, adolf Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
heaven Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 141
historiography, christian Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 167
identity Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 97
intermarriage Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 167
irenaeus Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
jerusalem Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 167
jesus Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 167
jewish christianity Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 97
jewish succession, ritual and legal observance Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 202
jews, judaism Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 97
justin martyr, theology Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 529, 530
justin martyr, viin Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
justin martyr Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 273; Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 97; Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 167
knowledge, revealed Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 167
lieu, judith m. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
literary production Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 167
logos, doctrine of Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 323
luz, ulrich Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
marcion Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150; Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 273
martyr, justin, on the law Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 202
martyr, justin, polemic against exegesis of gnostics Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 202
martyrdom Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 97
mcdonald, lee martin Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
melito of sardis Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
montanism Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
new testament Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
noah Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 167
nomina sacra Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 273
novelty, viii-ix, christian embrace of, viii-ix Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
old testament Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
perennis Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 323
persecution, martyrs Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 323
philo of alexandria Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 202
physics Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 323
prophecy, and canon Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
prophecy, cessation of Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
pseudepigrapha, christian signature features Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 97
qumran Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 141
räisänen, heikki Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
scripture, as weapon/criterion against heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 202
scripture, justin martyr on Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 202
self-definition, christian Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 167
socially elevated Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 323
socrates Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 323
staurogram Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 273
stewart (-sykes), alistair Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
stoicism, stoics Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 323
tertullian Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 273; Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 95
torah Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 273
trials' Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 323
εἱρμός Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 202
συνάφεια Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 202
– as crucifixion Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 141
– blessing of jacob Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 141
– compared to jesus Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 141
– iconography of Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 141
– in origen Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 141
– rabbinic attitude toward Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 141
– rabbinic exegesis of Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 141