Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7237
Josephus Flavius, Life, 279
NaN


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

24 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 11.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.16. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֶסְפָה־לִּי שִׁבְעִים אִישׁ מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יָדַעְתָּ כִּי־הֵם זִקְנֵי הָעָם וְשֹׁטְרָיו וְלָקַחְתָּ אֹתָם אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְהִתְיַצְּבוּ שָׁם עִמָּךְ׃ 11.16. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Gather unto Me seventy men of the elders of Israel, whom thou knowest to be the elders of the people, and officers over them; and bring them unto the tent of meeting, that they may stand there with thee."
2. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 10.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.1. דְּעוּ אֵפוֹא כִּי לֹא יִפֹּל מִדְּבַר יְהוָה אַרְצָה אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה עַל־בֵּית אַחְאָב וַיהוָה עָשָׂה אֵת אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר בְּיַד עַבְדּוֹ אֵלִיָּהוּ׃ 10.1. וּלְאַחְאָב שִׁבְעִים בָּנִים בְּשֹׁמְרוֹן וַיִּכְתֹּב יֵהוּא סְפָרִים וַיִּשְׁלַח שֹׁמְרוֹן אֶל־שָׂרֵי יִזְרְעֶאל הַזְּקֵנִים וְאֶל־הָאֹמְנִים אַחְאָב לֵאמֹר׃ 10.1. Now Ahab had seventy sons in Samaria. And Jehu wrote letters, and sent to Samaria, unto the rulers of Jezreel, even the elders, and unto them that brought up [the sons of] Ahab, saying:"
3. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 12.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 128 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

128. These things, and more still are said in a philosophical spirit about the number seven, on account of which it has received the highest honours, in the highest nature. And it is honoured by those of the highest reputation among both Greeks and barbarians, who devote themselves to mathematical sciences. It was also greatly honoured by Moses, a man much attached to excellence of all sorts, who described its beauty on the most holy pillars of the law, and wrote it in the hearts of all those who were subject to him, commanding them at the end of each period of six days to keep the seventh holy; abstaining from all other works which are done in the seeking after and providing the means of life, devoting that day to the single object of philosophizing with a view to the improvement of their morals, and the examination of their consciences: for conscience being seated in the soul as a judge, is not afraid to reprove men, sometimes employing pretty vehement threats; at other times by milder admonitions, using threats in regard to matters where men appear to be disobedient, of deliberate purpose, and admonitions when their offences seem involuntary, through want of foresight, in order to prevent their hereafter offending in a similar manner. XLIV.
5. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 2.127 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.127. And would you still sit down in your synagogues, collecting your ordinary assemblies, and reading your sacred volumes in security, and explaining whatever is not quite clear, and devoting all your time and leisure with long discussions to the philosophy of your ancestors?
6. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 2.62 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.62. Accordingly, on the seventh day there are spread before the people in every city innumerable lessons of prudence, and temperance, and courage, and justice, and all other virtues; during the giving of which the common people sit down, keeping silence and pricking up their ears, with all possible attention, from their thirst for wholesome instruction; but some of those who are very learned explain to them what is of great importance and use, lessons by which the whole of their lives may be improved.
7. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.215-2.216 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.215. for it was invariably the custom, as it was desirable on other days also, but especially on the seventh day, as I have already explained, to discuss matters of philosophy; the ruler of the people beginning the explanation, and teaching the multitude what they ought to do and to say, and the populace listening so as to improve in virtue, and being made better both in their moral character and in their conduct through life; 2.216. in accordance with which custom, even to this day, the Jews hold philosophical discussions on the seventh day, disputing about their national philosophy, and devoting that day to the knowledge and consideration of the subjects of natural philosophy; for as for their houses of prayer in the different cities, what are they, but schools of wisdom, and courage, and temperance, and justice, and piety, and holiness, and every virtue, by which human and divine things are appreciated, and placed upon a proper footing?
8. Philo of Alexandria, Hypothetica, 7.12-7.13 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7.12. What then did he do on this sabbath day? he commanded all the people to assemble together in the same place, and sitting down with one another, to listen to the laws with order and reverence, in order that no one should be ignorant of anything that is contained in them; 7.13. and, in fact, they do constantly assemble together, and they do sit down one with another, the multitude in general in silence, except when it is customary to say any words of good omen, by way of assent to what is being read. And then some priest who is present, or some one of the elders, reads the sacred laws to them, and interprets each of them separately till eventide; and then when separate they depart, having gained some skill in the sacred laws, and having made great advancers towards piety.
9. Philo of Alexandria, Against Flaccus, 74 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

74. for he arrested thirty-eight members of our council of elders, which our saviour and benefactor, Augustus, elected to manage the affairs of the Jewish nation after the death of the king of our own nation, having sent written commands to that effect to Manius Maximus when he was about to take upon himself for the second time the government of Egypt and of the country, he arrested them, I say, in their own houses, and commanded them to be thrown into prison, and arranged a splendid procession to send through the middle of the market-place a body of old men prisoners, with their hands bound, some with thongs and others with iron chains, whom he led in this plight into the theatre, a most miserable spectacle, and one wholly unsuited to the times.
10. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 134, 138-139, 156-157, 216, 312-316, 133 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

133. I omit to mention the ornaments in honour of the emperor, which were destroyed and burnt with these synagogues, such as gilded shields, and gilded crowns, and pillars, and inscriptions, for the sake of which they ought even to have abstained from and spared the other things; but they were full of confidence, inasmuch as they did not fear any chastisement at the hand of Gaius, as they well knew that he cherished an indescribable hatred against the Jews, so that their opinion was that no one could do him a more acceptable service than by inflicting every description of injury on the nation which he hated;
11. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 14.213-14.216, 14.235, 14.258, 14.260-14.261, 16.43-16.44, 16.160-16.161, 16.164, 16.167-16.170, 19.300-19.305 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.213. 8. “Julius Caius, praetor [consul] of Rome, to the magistrates, senate, and people of the Parians, sendeth greeting. The Jews of Delos, and some other Jews that sojourn there, in the presence of your ambassadors, signified to us, that, by a decree of yours, you forbid them to make use of the customs of their forefathers, and their way of sacred worship. 14.214. Now it does not please me that such decrees should be made against our friends and confederates, whereby they are forbidden to live according to their own customs, or to bring in contributions for common suppers and holy festivals, while they are not forbidden so to do even at Rome itself; 14.215. for even Caius Caesar, our imperator and consul, in that decree wherein he forbade the Bacchanal rioters to meet in the city, did yet permit these Jews, and these only, both to bring in their contributions, and to make their common suppers. 14.216. Accordingly, when I forbid other Bacchanal rioters, I permit these Jews to gather themselves together, according to the customs and laws of their forefathers, and to persist therein. It will be therefore good for you, that if you have made any decree against these our friends and confederates, to abrogate the same, by reason of their virtue and kind disposition towards us.” 14.235. 17. “Lucius Antonius, the son of Marcus, vice-quaestor, and vice-praetor, to the magistrates, senate, and people of the Sardians, sendeth greeting. Those Jews that are our fellowcitizens of Rome came to me, and demonstrated that they had an assembly of their own, according to the laws of their forefathers, and this from the beginning, as also a place of their own, wherein they determined their suits and controversies with one another. Upon their petition therefore to me, that these might be lawful for them, I gave order that these their privileges be preserved, and they be permitted to do accordingly.” 14.258. we have decreed, that as many men and women of the Jews as are willing so to do, may celebrate their Sabbaths, and perform their holy offices, according to the Jewish laws; and may make their proseuchae at the sea-side, according to the customs of their forefathers; and if any one, whether he be a magistrate or private person, hindereth them from so doing, he shall be liable to a fine, to be applied to the uses of the city.” 14.261. Now the senate and people have decreed to permit them to assemble together on the days formerly appointed, and to act according to their own laws; and that such a place be set apart for them by the praetors, for the building and inhabiting the same, as they shall esteem fit for that purpose; and that those that take care of the provision for the city, shall take care that such sorts of food as they esteem fit for their eating may be imported into the city.” 16.43. nor do we conceal those injunctions of ours by which we govern our lives, they being memorials of piety, and of a friendly conversation among men. And the seventh day we set apart from labor; it is dedicated to the learning of our customs and laws, we thinking it proper to reflect on them, as well as on any [good] thing else, in order to our avoiding of sin. 16.44. If any one therefore examine into our observances, he will find they are good in themselves, and that they are ancient also, though some think otherwise, insomuch that those who have received them cannot easily be brought to depart from them, out of that honor they pay to the length of time they have religiously enjoyed them and observed them. 16.161. When therefore they were thus afflicted, and found no end of their barbarous treatment they met with among the Greeks, they sent ambassadors to Caesar on those accounts, who gave them the same privileges as they had before, and sent letters to the same purpose to the governors of the provinces, copies of which I subjoin here, as testimonials of the ancient favorable disposition the Roman emperors had towards us. 16.164. But if any one be caught stealing their holy books, or their sacred money, whether it be out of the synagogue or public school, he shall be deemed a sacrilegious person, and his goods shall be brought into the public treasury of the Romans. 16.167. 4. Agrippa also did himself write after the manner following, on behalf of the Jews: “Agrippa, to the magistrates, senate, and people of the Ephesians, sendeth greeting. I will that the care and custody of the sacred money that is carried to the temple at Jerusalem be left to the Jews of Asia, to do with it according to their ancient custom; 16.168. and that such as steal that sacred money of the Jews, and fly to a sanctuary, shall be taken thence and delivered to the Jews, by the same law that sacrilegious persons are taken thence. I have also written to Sylvanus the praetor, that no one compel the Jews to come before a judge on the Sabbath day.” 16.169. 5. “Marcus Agrippa to the magistrates, senate, and people of Cyrene, sendeth greeting. The Jews of Cyrene have interceded with me for the performance of what Augustus sent orders about to Flavius, the then praetor of Libya, and to the other procurators of that province, that the sacred money may be sent to Jerusalem freely, as hath been their custom from their forefathers 19.301. This procedure of theirs greatly provoked Agrippa; for it plainly tended to the dissolution of the laws of his country. So he came without delay to Publius Petronius, who was then president of Syria, and accused the people of Doris. 19.302. Nor did he less resent what was done than did Agrippa; for he judged it a piece of impiety to transgress the laws that regulate the actions of men. So he wrote the following letter to the people of Doris in an angry strain: 19.303. “Publius Petronius, the president under Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, to the magistrates of Doris, ordains as follows: 19.304. Since some of you have had the boldness, or madness rather, after the edict of Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus was published, for permitting the Jews to observe the laws of their country, not to obey the same 19.305. but have acted in entire opposition thereto, as forbidding the Jews to assemble together in the synagogue, by removing Caesar’s statue, and setting it up therein, and thereby have offended not only the Jews, but the emperor himself, whose statue is more commodiously placed in his own temple than in a foreign one, where is the place of assembling together; while it is but a part of natural justice, that every one should have the power over the place belonging peculiarly to themselves, according to the determination of Caesar,—
12. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.285-2.291, 2.482, 2.570, 4.336, 7.44 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.285. Now the occasion of this war was by no means proportionable to those heavy calamities which it brought upon us. For the Jews that dwelt at Caesarea had a synagogue near the place, whose owner was a certain Cesarean Greek: the Jews had endeavored frequently to have purchased the possession of the place, and had offered many times its value for its price; 2.286. but as the owner overlooked their offers, so did he raise other buildings upon the place, in way of affront to them, and made workingshops of them, and left them but a narrow passage, and such as was very troublesome for them to go along to their synagogue. Whereupon the warmer part of the Jewish youth went hastily to the workmen, and forbade them to build there; 2.287. but as Florus would not permit them to use force, the great men of the Jews, with John the publican, being in the utmost distress what to do, persuaded Florus, with the offer of eight talents, to hinder the work. 2.288. He then, being intent upon nothing but getting money, promised he would do for them all they desired of him, and then went away from Caesarea to Sebaste, and left the sedition to take its full course, as if he had sold a license to the Jews to fight it out. 2.289. 5. Now on the next day, which was the seventh day of the week, when the Jews were crowding apace to their synagogue, a certain man of Caesarea, of a seditious temper, got an earthen vessel, and set it with the bottom upward, at the entrance of that synagogue, and sacrificed birds. This thing provoked the Jews to an incurable degree, because their laws were affronted, and the place was polluted. 2.291. Hereupon Jucundus, the master of the horse, who was ordered to prevent the fight, came thither, and took away the earthen vessel, and endeavored to put a stop to the sedition; but when he was overcome by the violence of the people of Caesarea, the Jews caught up their books of the law, and retired to Narbata, which was a place to them belonging, distant from Caesarea sixty furlongs. 2.482. Now there came certain men seventy in number, out of Batanea, who were the most considerable for their families and prudence of the rest of the people; these desired to have an army put into their hands, that if any tumult should happen, they might have about them a guard sufficient to restrain such as might rise up against them. 4.336. So they called together, by a public proclamation, seventy of the principal men of the populace, for a show, as if they were real judges, while they had no proper authority. Before these was Zacharias accused of a design to betray their polity to the Romans, and having traitorously sent to Vespasian for that purpose. 7.44. for though Antiochus, who was called Epiphanes, laid Jerusalem waste, and spoiled the temple, yet did those that succeeded him in the kingdom restore all the donations that were made of brass to the Jews of Antioch, and dedicated them to their synagogue, and granted them the enjoyment of equal privileges of citizens with the Greeks themselves; 7.44. So he sent out after him both horsemen and footmen, and easily overcame them, because they were unarmed men; of these many were slain in the fight, but some were taken alive, and brought to Catullus.
13. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.209-1.210, 2.10-2.11, 2.175 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.209. “There are a people called Jews, who dwell in a city the strongest of all other cities, which the inhabitants call Jerusalem, and are accustomed to rest on every seventh day; on which times they make no use of their arms, nor meddle with husbandry, nor take care of any affairs of life, but spread out their hands in their holy places, and pray till the evening. 2.11. that, he also set up pillars instead of gnomons, under which was represented a cavity like that of a boat, and the shadow that fell from their tops fell down upon that cavity, that it might go round about the like course as the sun itself goes round in the other.” 2.11. Now, if he knew the purity of our temple, he hath entirely omitted to take notice of it; but he forges a story about the seizing of a Grecian, about ineffable food, and the most delicious preparation of dainties; and pretends that strangers could go into a place whereinto the noblest men among the Jews are not allowed to enter, unless they be priests. 2.175. for he did not suffer the guilt of ignorance to go on without punishment, but demonstrated the law to be the best and the most necessary instruction of all others, permitting the people to leave off their other employments, and to assemble together for the hearing of the law, and learning it exactly, and this not once or twice, or oftener, but every week; which thing all the other legislators seem to have neglected. /p
14. Josephus Flavius, Life, 102, 104-109, 11, 110-113, 115, 118-119, 122-128, 130, 132, 134-135, 138, 14, 141-144, 146-149, 151, 153, 155-173, 175-184, 188-228, 230, 232, 235, 250, 252, 259, 264-265, 269-278, 28, 280-289, 29, 290-299, 30, 300-303, 309, 31, 313, 318, 32, 321, 33, 331, 336-339, 34, 340-349, 35, 350-359, 36, 360-367, 37, 370, 373, 376-379, 38, 381-384, 388-389, 39, 390-399, 40, 400-409, 41, 410, 412-413, 42-61, 63-76, 79-81, 84-87, 91-100 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Juvenal, Satires, 14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 1.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.6. The greater Sanhedrin was made up of seventy one and the little Sanhedrin of twenty three.From where do we learn that the greater Sanhedrin should be made up of seventy one? As it says, “Gather unto me seventy men of the elders of Israel” (Num. 11:16), and when Moses is added to them there is seventy one. Rabbi Judah says: “Seventy.” From where do we learn that the little Sanhedrin should be made up of twenty three? As it says, “The assembly shall judge”, “The assembly shall deliver” (Num. 35:24-25), an assembly that judges and an assembly that delivers, thus we have twenty. And from where do we know that an assembly has ten? As it says, “How long shall I bear this evil congregation?” (Num. 14:27) [which refers to the twelve spies] but Joshua and Caleb were not included. And from where do we learn that we should bring three others [to the twenty]? By inference from what it says, “You shall not follow after the many to do evil” (Ex. 23:2), I conclude that I must be with them to do well. Then why does it say, “[To follow] after the many to change judgment” (Ex. 23:2). [It means that] your verdict of condemnation should not be like your verdict of acquittal, for your verdict of acquittal is reached by the decision of a majority of one, but your verdict of condemnation must be reached by the decision of a majority of two. The court must not be divisible equally, therefore they add to them one more; thus they are twenty three. And how many should there be in a city that it may be fit to have a Sanhedrin? A hundred and twenty. Rabbi Nehemiah says: “Two hundred and thirty, so that [the Sanhedrin of twenty three] should correspond with them that are chiefs of [at least] groups of ten."
17. New Testament, Acts, 20.6-20.12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20.6. We sailed away from Philippi after the days of Unleavened Bread, and came to them at Troas in five days, where we stayed seven days. 20.7. On the first day of the week, when the disciples were gathered together to break bread, Paul talked with them, intending to depart on the next day, and continued his speech until midnight. 20.8. There were many lights in the upper chamber where we were gathered together. 20.9. A certain young man named Eutychus sat in the window, weighed down with deep sleep. As Paul spoke still longer, being weighed down by his sleep, he fell down from the third story, and was taken up dead. 20.10. Paul went down, and fell on him, and embracing him said, "Don't be troubled, for his life is in him. 20.11. When he had gone up, and had broken bread, and eaten, and had talked with them a long while, even until break of day, he departed. 20.12. They brought the boy alive, and were not a little comforted.
18. New Testament, John, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. Now there was a man of the Pharisees named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews.
19. New Testament, Matthew, 8.5-8.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.5. When he came into Capernaum, a centurion came to him, asking him 8.6. and saying, "Lord, my servant lies in the house paralyzed, grievously tormented. 8.7. Jesus said to him, "I will come and heal him. 8.8. The centurion answered, "Lord, I'm not worthy for you to come under my roof. Just say the word, and my servant will be healed. 8.9. For I am also a man under authority, having under myself soldiers. I tell this one, 'Go,' and he goes; and to another, 'Come,' and he comes; and to my servant, 'Do this,' and he does it. 8.10. When Jesus heard it, he marveled, and said to those who followed, "Most assuredly I tell you, I haven't found so great a faith, not even in Israel. 8.11. I tell you that many will come from the east and the west, and will sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the Kingdom of Heaven 8.12. but the sons of the kingdom will be thrown out into the outer darkness. There will be weeping and the gnashing of teeth. 8.13. Jesus said to the centurion, "Go your way. Let it be done for you as you as you have believed." His servant was healed in that hour.
20. Persius, Satires, 5.184 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Persius, Saturae, 5.184 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Tosefta, Megillah, 3.21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

23. Babylonian Talmud, Betzah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

15b. מתני׳ big strongיום /strong /big טוב שחל להיות ערב שבת לא יבשל בתחלה מיום טוב לשבת אבל מבשל הוא ליום טוב ואם הותיר הותיר לשבת ועושה תבשיל מערב יום טוב וסומך עליו לשבת,בית שמאי אומרים שני תבשילין ובית הלל אומרים תבשיל אחד ושוין בדג וביצה שעליו שהן שני תבשילין,אכלו או שאבד לא יבשל עליו בתחלה ואם שייר ממנו כל שהוא סומך עליו לשבת:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנא הני מילי אמר שמואל דאמר קרא (שמות כ, ז) זכור את יום השבת לקדשו זכרהו מאחר שבא להשכיחו,מאי טעמא אמר רבא כדי שיברור מנה יפה לשבת ומנה יפה ליום טוב,רב אשי אמר כדי שיאמרו אין אופין מיום טוב לשבת קל וחומר מיום טוב לחול,תנן עושה תבשיל מערב יום טוב וסומך עליו לשבת בשלמא לרב אשי דאמר כדי שיאמרו אין אופין מיום טוב לשבת היינו דמערב יום טוב אין ביום טוב לא אלא לרבא מאי איריא מערב יום טוב אפילו ביום טוב נמי,אין הכי נמי אלא גזרה שמא יפשע,ותנא מייתי לה מהכא (שמות טז, כג) את אשר תאפו אפו ואת אשר תבשלו בשלו מכאן אמר רבי אלעזר אין אופין אלא על האפוי ואין מבשלין אלא על המבושל מכאן סמכו חכמים לערובי תבשילין מן התורה,תנו רבנן מעשה ברבי אליעזר שהיה יושב ודורש כל היום כולו בהלכות יום טוב יצתה כת ראשונה אמר הללו בעלי פטסין כת שניה אמר הללו בעלי חביות כת שלישית אמר הללו בעלי כדין,כת רביעית אמר הללו בעלי לגינין כת חמישית אמר הללו בעלי כוסות התחילו כת ששית לצאת אמר הללו בעלי מארה,נתן עיניו בתלמידים התחילו פניהם משתנין אמר להם בני לא לכם אני אומר אלא להללו שיצאו שמניחים חיי עולם ועוסקים בחיי שעה,בשעת פטירתן אמר להם (נחמיה ח, י) לכו אכלו משמנים ושתו ממתקים ושלחו מנות לאין נכון לו כי קדוש היום לאדונינו ואל תעצבו כי חדות ה' היא מעוזכם,אמר מר שמניחין חיי עולם ועוסקין בחיי שעה והא שמחת יום טוב מצוה היא רבי אליעזר לטעמיה דאמר שמחת יום טוב רשות,דתניא רבי אליעזר אומר אין לו לאדם ביום טוב אלא או אוכל ושותה או יושב ושונה רבי יהושע אומר חלקהו חציו לה' וחציו לכם,אמר רבי יוחנן ושניהם מקרא אחד דרשו כתוב אחד אומר (דברים טז, ח) עצרת לה' אלהיך וכתוב אחד אומר (במדבר כט, לה) עצרת תהיה לכם הא כיצד רבי אליעזר סבר או כולו לה' או כולו לכם ורבי יהושע סבר חלקהו חציו לה' וחציו לכם,מאי לאין נכון לו אמר רב חסדא למי שלא הניח עירובי תבשילין איכא דאמרי מי שלא היה לו להניח עירובי תבשילין אבל מי שהיה לו להניח עירובי תבשילין ולא הניח פושע הוא,מאי כי חדות ה' היא מעוזכם אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי אליעזר בר' שמעון אמר להם הקדוש ברוך הוא לישראל בני לוו עלי וקדשו קדושת היום והאמינו בי ואני פורע,ואמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי אליעזר בר' שמעון הרוצה שיתקיימו נכסיו יטע בהן אדר שנאמר (תהלים צג, ד) אדיר במרום ה',אי נמי אדרא כשמיה כדאמרי אינשי מאי אדרא דקיימא לדרי דרי תניא נמי הכי שדה שיש בה אדר אינה נגזלת ואינה נחמסת ופירותיה משתמרין,תני רב תחליפא אחוה דרבנאי חוזאה 15b. strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to ba Festival that occurson bShabbat eve, one may not cook on the Festival with the initialintent to cook bfor Shabbat. However, he may cookon that day bfor the Festivalitself, band if he left overany food, bhe leftit bover for Shabbat.The early Sages also instituted an ordice: The joining of cooked foods [ ieiruv tavshilin /i], which the mishna explains. bOne may prepare a cooked dishdesignated for Shabbat bon a Festival eve and rely on itto cook on the Festival bfor Shabbat. /b,The itanna’imdisagreed with regard to the details of this ordice: bBeit Shammai say:For the purpose of the joining of cooked foods one must prepare btwo cooked dishes, and Beit Hillel say: One dishis sufficient. bAnd theyboth bagree with regard to a fish andthe begg that isfried bon it that these areconsidered btwo dishesfor this purpose.,If bone atethe food prepared before the Festival as an ieiruvand none of it remained for Shabbat, bor if it was lost, he may notrely bon itand bcook with the initialintent to cook for Shabbat. bIf he left any part ofthe ieiruv /i, he may brely on itto cook bfor Shabbat. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? What is the source of the ihalakhaof the joining of cooked foods and of the ihalakhathat one who failed to prepare such an ieiruvmay not cook on a Festival for Shabbat? bShmuel saidthat the source is bas the verse states: “Remember the Shabbat day, to keep it holy”(Exodus 20:8); from which he infers: bRemember itand safeguard it bfrom anotherday bthat comes to make it forgotten.When a Festival occurs on Friday, preoccupation with the Festival and the preparation and enjoyment of its meals could lead one to overlook Shabbat. Therefore, the Sages instituted an ordice to ensure that Shabbat will be remembered even then.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthat the Sages instituted this ordice in particular to ensure that Shabbat would not be overlooked? bRava said:The Sages did so in deference to Shabbat, and they instituted an ieiruv bso that one will select a choice portion for Shabbat and a choice portion for the Festival.If one fails to prepare a dish specifically for Shabbat before the Festival, it could lead to failure to show the appropriate deference to Shabbat., bRav Ashi stateda different reason: The Sages did so in deference to the Festival, bso thatpeople bwill say: One may not bake on a Festival for Shabbatunless he began to bake the day before; ball the more so,one may not bake bon a Festival for a weekday. /b, bWe learnedin the mishna: bOne may prepare a cooked dish on a Festival eve and rely on itto cook bfor Shabbat. Granted, according to Rav Ashi, who saidthat the reason for an ieiruvis bso thatpeople bwill say: One may not bake on a Festival for Shabbat; that iswhy bon a Festival eve, yes,one may prepare the ieiruv /i, but bon the Festivalitself, bno,one may not do so, as it is a reminder that in principle one may not cook on a Festival for Shabbat. bHowever, according to Rava,who stated that the reason for the ieiruvis to ensure that one selects choice portions for both the Festival and Shabbat, bwhydoes the mishna discuss bspecificallypreparation bon a Festival eve? Evenwere one to prepare a dish for Shabbat bon the Festival as well,it would guarantee that he accord the appropriate deference to Shabbat.,The Gemara answers: bYes, it is indeed so;that objective could have been achieved even on the Festival. bHowever,the Sages issued ba decreethat the ieiruvmust be prepared on the Festival eve blest one be negligentand fail to prepare one entirely.,The Gemara comments: bAnd a itannacitesthe proof for ieiruv tavshilin bfrom here,the following verse: “Tomorrow is a day of rest, a holy Shabbat to the Lord. bBake that which you will bake and cook that which you will cook,and all that remains put aside to be kept for you until the morning” (Exodus 16:23). bFrom here Rabbi Eliezer said: One may bakeon a Festival for Shabbat bonlyby relying bon that which wasalready bbakedfor Shabbat the day before, and adding to it; band one may cook onlyby relying bon that which wasalready bcooked. From thisverse bthe Sages establishedan allusion btothe bjoining of cooked foods from the Torah. /b,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThere was an incident involving Rabbi Eliezer, who was sitting and lecturing about the ihalakhotof the Festival throughout the entireFestival bday.When bthe first group leftin the middle of his lecture, bhe said: Thesemust be bowners of extremely large jugs [ ipittasin /i],who apparently have huge containers of wine awaiting them as well as a comparable amount of food, and they have left the house of study out of a craving for their food. After a while ba second groupdeparted. bHe said: These are owners of barrels,which are smaller than ipittasin /i. Later ba third grouptook its leave, and bhe said: These are owners of jugs,even smaller than barrels., bA fourth groupleft, and bhe said: These are owners of jars [ ilaginin /i],which are smaller than jugs. Upon the departure of ba fifth group, he said: These are owners of cups,which are smaller still. When ba sixth group began to leave, hebecame upset that the house of study was being left almost completely empty and bsaid: These are owners of a curse;i.e., they obviously do not have anything at home, so why are they leaving?, bHe cast his eyes upon the studentsremaining in the house of study. Immediately, btheir faces began to changecolor out of shame, as they feared he was referring to them and that perhaps they should have departed along with the others instead of staying. bHe said to them: My sons, I did not saythat babout you but about those who left, because they abandonthe beternal lifeof Torah band engage inthe btemporary lifeof eating., bAt the time ofthe remaining students’ bdepartureat the conclusion of Rabbi Eliezer’s lecture, bhe said to themthe verse: b“Go your way, eat the fat and drink the sweet, and send portions to him for whom nothing is prepared, for this day is holy to our Lord; and do not be grieved, for the joy of the Lord is your strength”(Nehemiah 8:10).,The Gemara clarifies this ibaraita /i. bThe Master saidabove: bBecause they abandon eternal life and engage in temporary life.The Gemara wonders at this: bBut isn’t the joy of the Festivalitself ba mitzvaand therefore part of eternal life? The Gemara answers: bRabbi Eliezerconforms bto hisstandard line of breasoning,as bhe said:Physical bjoy on a Festival ismerely boptional. /b, bAs it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer says: A person has noway of fulfilling the mitzva of ba Festivalcorrectly bapart from either eating and drinking,thereby fulfilling the mitzva of joy in a completely physical manner, bor sitting and studyingTorah, thereby emphasizing only the spiritual; and those who did not engage in Torah study to the fullest extent acted inappropriately. bRabbi Yehoshua says:There is no need for such a dichotomy; rather, simply bdivide it: Half to God,Torah study, band half to yourselves,engaging in eating, drinking, and other pleasurable activities., bRabbi Yoḥa said: And both of them derivedtheir opinions bfrom one verse,i.e., the two of them addressed the same apparent contradiction between two verses, resolving it in different ways. bOne verse states:“It shall be ba solemn assembly for the Lord, your God”(Deuteronomy 16:8), indicating a Festival dedicated to the service of God, band one verse states: “It shall be a solemn assembly for you”(Numbers 29:35), indicating a celebratory assembly for the Jewish people. bHow is thisto be reconciled? bRabbi Eliezer holdsthat the two verses should be understood as offering a choice: The day is to be beither entirely for God,in accordance with the one verse, bor entirely for you,as per the other verse; band Rabbi Yehoshua holdsthat it is possible to fulfill both verses: bSplitthe day into two, bhalf of it for God and half of it for you. /b,§ Since the ibaraitamentions the verse from Nehemiah, the Gemara poses the following question: bWhat isthe meaning of: “Send portions bto him for whom nothing is prepared”(Nehemiah 8:10)? bRav Ḥisda said:Send to one who does not have food of his own prepared for Shabbat that follows the Festival because bhe did not prepare a joining of cooked foodsand must therefore rely on others. bSome saythat he said the following: It is necessary to provide food for bone who did not havean opportunity bto prepare a joining of cooked foodson the eve of the Festival; bbut one who hadan opportunity bto prepare a joining of cooked foods and did not prepareone bis negligent,and there is no obligation to care for him.,The Gemara poses another question with regard to the same verse: bWhat isthe meaning of: b“For the joy of the Lord is your strength”? Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Shimon: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the Jewish people: My children, borrow on Myaccount, band sanctify the sanctity of the dayof Shabbat and the Festivals with wine, band trust in Me, and I will repaythis debt.,Apropos the statement attributed to Rabbi Yoḥa in the name of Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Shimon, the Gemara cites another statement that bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Shimon: One who wants his properties to be preservedand protected from ruin should bplant an ieder /itree bamong them, as it is stated: “The Lord on high is mighty [ iadir /i]”(Psalms 93:4). Due to the similarity of the words iederand iadir /i, this is understood to mean that the iedertree bestows permanence., bAlternatively: The ieder /itree will preserve one’s property, basimplied by bits name, as people say: What isalluded to in the name of bthe ieder /i?Its name hints bthatit bendures for many generations [ idarei /i]. This is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA field that contains an ieder /itree bwill be neither stolen nor forcibly removedfrom one’s possession, as the iederserves as a clear indication of its owner, band its fruit is preserved,as the unique odor of the iedersap wards off insects.,§ The Gemara returns to the previous issue: bRav Taḥlifa, brotherof bRavnai Ḥoza’a, taught: /b
24. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 8.7.12-8.7.13 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adjudication, alexandria Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 93
adjudication, jerusalem temple Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 93
alexandria Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 93
alexandrian jewry Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 93
ancient synagogue, pharisees/rabbis as leaders of Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 279
apostles (apostoli), of patriarch Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52
arbel Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 17, 263
archisynagogue, synagogue/proseuche Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 93
architecture, from first century to early fourth century Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 702
architecture, generally Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 702
architecture, influence of synagogues Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 702
arkhisunagôgeus Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 279
asia minor, synagogues Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 139
augustus Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 263
birkat hamazon (grace after meals) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52
bread Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 198
caesarea maritima Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 263
caligula gaius casaer Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 263
capernaum Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 62
chorazin Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 62
church fathers, rabbis and synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52
church fathers, women Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52
circumcision Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 198
commandments Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 198
communal meals Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 263
community Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 198, 203
decorations (in synagogue) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52
delos Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 263
edah Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 139
elders Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52
elders and synagogue, and amidah, seating Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 93
eucharist Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 198, 203
fast days, public, tiberias Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52
first jewish war Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 17
gadara Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 17
gamla Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 62
gaulanitis Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 17
gischala Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 17
hellenism Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 275
homily Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 82
hope Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 198, 203
iconography of Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 263, 275
idolatry Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52
in the morning Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 82
jerusalem Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 17, 263
josephus Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 17, 263, 275
judaizers Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52
khirbet qana Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 62
khirbet wadi hamam Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 62
leadership, synagogue, leadership, town, communal Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52, 93
leadership, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 93
lords day Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 198, 203
luke, jesus Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52
luke, roman centurion Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52
magdala, urban development Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 62
magdala Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 62; Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 17
matthew, roman centurion Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52
meals, jewish Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 29
mezuzah Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52
pagan, pagans, and synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 139
pagan, pagans, cyrene Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 102
patriarch, patriarchate, appointments Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52
patriarch, patriarchate, decline and disappearance Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52
persius Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 198
philo Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 90
plutarch Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 198
poleis Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 62
prayer, jewry, alexandria Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 93
prayers Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 263, 275
priest, priests, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52
priestly courses, inscriptions Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52
priests, and their influence Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 17
proseuche (prayer house), diaspora, egypt Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 90, 139
purpose-built communal structures Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 263, 275
qahal Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 139
reading, diaspora Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 139
rome Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 198
rosh hakeneset Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 279
sabbath, communal meals Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52
sabbath Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 29; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 198, 203
sabbath observance Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 263, 275
samaritans, leadership Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 93
sanctity, synagogue/proseuche Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 139
sanctity of, bima Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 93
sanctity of, dyplastoon Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 93
sanhedrin, jerusalem Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 93
sardis Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 93
sardis synagogue, seating, benches Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 93
sepphoris Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 17
septuagint, synagogue, community, congregation Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 139
septuagint, torah reading Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 90
septuagint, translation into greek Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 139
sermon Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 82
shema, women Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52
stadium, tiberias Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 93, 139
stobi synagogue, inscription Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52
stobi synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52
stone moldings/carvings Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52
sun Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 203
sunday Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 82; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 198, 203
symposium Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 29
synagoge Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 139
synagogue architecture, aisles Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 93
synagogue architecture, benches Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 93
synagogue service Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 29
synagogues, influence of christian architecture Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 702
synagogues Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 62; Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 263, 275
taricheae Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 17
temple of Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 275
tiberias, jewish revolt (66 c.e.) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52, 102, 139
tiberias Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 62; Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 17, 263; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 203
tiberias synagogues/proseuchai, meeting-place Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52, 93, 102, 139
torah Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 17
torah ark, chest, shrine Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 93
tractate soferim Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52
unleavened bread Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 203
urban development, elites Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 62
urban development, in the galilee Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 62
urban development, villages' Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 62
women, attraction to judaism Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52
women, christianity Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52
women, jerusalem temple Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52
women, samaritan Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52
women, synagogue attendance Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52
womens court Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52
yavnean period, rabbis as priests Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 52
yodefat Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 17
zealots Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 93