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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



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Josephus Flavius, Life, 27
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1. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.203 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.203. God then cast a thunderbolt upon the city, and set it on fire, with its inhabitants; and laid waste the country with the like burning, as I formerly said when I wrote the Jewish War. But Lot’s wife continually turning back to view the city as she went from it, and being too nicely inquisitive what would become of it, although God had forbidden her so to do, was changed into a pillar of salt; for I have seen it, and it remains at this day.
2. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.259-2.261, 2.457-2.480, 2.559-2.561, 2.599, 3.539, 7.361-7.368 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.259. These were such men as deceived and deluded the people under pretense of Divine inspiration, but were for procuring innovations and changes of the government; and these prevailed with the multitude to act like madmen, and went before them into the wilderness, as pretending that God would there show them the signals of liberty. 2.261. 5. But there was an Egyptian false prophet that did the Jews more mischief than the former; for he was a cheat, and pretended to be a prophet also, and got together thirty thousand men that were deluded by him; 2.457. 1. Now the people of Caesarea had slain the Jews that were among them on the very same day and hour [when the soldiers were slain], which one would think must have come to pass by the direction of Providence; insomuch that in one hour’s time above twenty thousand Jews were killed, and all Caesarea was emptied of its Jewish inhabitants; for Florus caught such as ran away, and sent them in bonds to the galleys. 2.458. Upon which stroke that the Jews received at Caesarea, the whole nation was greatly enraged; so they divided themselves into several parties, and laid waste the villages of the Syrians, and their neighboring cities, Philadelphia, and Sebonitis, and Gerasa, and Pella, and Scythopolis 2.459. and after them Gadara, and Hippos; and falling upon Gaulonitis, some cities they destroyed there, and some they set on fire, and then they went to Kedasa, belonging to the Tyrians, and to Ptolemais, and to Gaba, and to Caesarea; 2.461. 2. However, the Syrians were even with the Jews in the multitude of the men whom they slew; for they killed those whom they caught in their cities, and that not only out of the hatred they bare them, as formerly, but to prevent the danger under which they were from them; 2.462. o that the disorders in all Syria were terrible, and every city was divided into two armies, encamped one against another, and the preservation of the one party was in the destruction of the other; 2.463. o the daytime was spent in shedding of blood, and the night in fear,—which was of the two the more terrible; for when the Syrians thought they had ruined the Jews, they had the Judaizers in suspicion also; and as each side did not care to slay those whom they only suspected on the other, so did they greatly fear them when they were mingled with the other, as if they were certainly foreigners. 2.464. Moreover, greediness of gain was a provocation to kill the opposite party, even to such as had of old appeared very mild and gentle towards them; for they without fear plundered the effects of the slain, and carried off the spoils of those whom they slew to their own houses, as if they had been gained in a set battle; and he was esteemed a man of honor who got the greatest share, as having prevailed over the greatest number of his enemies. 2.465. It was then common to see cities filled with dead bodies, still lying unburied, and those of old men, mixed with infants, all dead, and scattered about together; women also lay amongst them, without any covering for their nakedness: you might then see the whole province full of inexpressible calamities, while the dread of still more barbarous practices which were threatened was everywhere greater than what had been already perpetrated. 2.466. 3. And thus far the conflict had been between Jews and foreigners; but when they made excursions to Scythopolis, they found Jews that acted as enemies; for as they stood in battle-array with those of Scythopolis, and preferred their own safety before their relation to us, they fought against their own countrymen; 2.467. nay, their alacrity was so very great, that those of Scythopolis suspected them. These were afraid, therefore, lest they should make an assault upon the city in the nighttime, and, to their great misfortune, should thereby make an apology for themselves to their own people for their revolt from them. So they commanded them, that in case they would confirm their agreement and demonstrate their fidelity to them, who were of a different nation, they should go out of the city, with their families, to a neighboring grove; 2.468. and when they had done as they were commanded, without suspecting anything, the people of Scythopolis lay still for the interval of two days, to tempt them to be secure; but on the third night they watched their opportunity, and cut all their throats, some of them as they lay unguarded, and some as they lay asleep. The number that was slain was above thirteen thousand, and then they plundered them of all that they had. 2.469. 4. It will deserve our relation what befell Simon; he was the son of one Saul, a man of reputation among the Jews. This man was distinguished from the rest by the strength of his body, and the boldness of his conduct, although he abused them both to the mischieving of his countrymen; 2.471. But a just punishment overtook him for the murders he had committed upon those of the same nation with him; for when the people of Scythopolis threw their darts at them in the grove, he drew his sword, but did not attack any of the enemy; for he saw that he could do nothing against such a multitude; but he cried out after a very moving manner and said,— 2.472. “O you people of Scythopolis, I deservedly suffer for what I have done with relation to you, when I gave you such security of my fidelity to you, by slaying so many of those that were related to me. Wherefore we very justly experience the perfidiousness of foreigners, while we acted after a most wicked manner against our own nation. I will therefore die, polluted wretch as I am, by mine own hands; for it is not fit I should die by the hand of our enemies; 2.473. and let the same action be to me both a punishment for my great crimes, and a testimony of my courage to my commendation, that so no one of our enemies may have it to brag of, that he it was that slew me, and no one may insult upon me as I fall.” 2.474. Now when he had said this, he looked round about him upon his family with eyes of commiseration, and of rage (that family consisted of a wife and children, and his aged parents); 2.475. o, in the first place, he caught his father by his gray hairs, and ran his sword through him, and after him he did the same to his mother, who willingly received it; and after them he did the like to his wife and children, every one almost offering themselves to his sword, as desirous to prevent being slain by their enemies; 2.476. o when he had gone over all his family, he stood upon their bodies to be seen by all, and stretching out his right hand, that his action might be observed by all, he sheathed his entire sword into his own bowels. This young man was to be pitied, on account of the strength of his body and the courage of his soul; but since he had assured foreigners of his fidelity [against his own countrymen], he suffered deservedly. 2.477. 5. Besides this murder at Scythopolis, the other cities rose up against the Jews that were among them; those of Askelon slew two thousand five hundred, and those of Ptolemais two thousand, and put not a few into bonds; 2.478. those of Tyre also put a great number to death, but kept a greater number in prison; moreover, those of Hippos, and those of Gadara, did the like while they put to death the boldest of the Jews, but kept those of whom they wereafraid in custody; as did the rest of the cities of Syria, according as they every one either hated them or were afraid of them; 2.479. only the Antiochians, the Sidonians, and Apamians spared those that dwelt with them, andthey would not endure either to kill any of the Jews, or to put them in bonds. And perhaps they spared them, because their own number was so great that they despised their attempts. But I think that the greatest part of this favor was owing to their commiseration of those whom they saw to make no innovations. 2.559. 2. In the meantime, the people of Damascus, when they were informed of the destruction of the Romans, set about the slaughter of those Jews that were among them; 2.561. on which account it was that their greatest concern was, how they might conceal these things from them; so they came upon the Jews, and cut their throats, as being in a narrow place, in number ten thousand, and all of them unarmed, and this in one hour’s time, without any body to disturb them. 2.599. which multitude was crowded together in the hippodrome at Taricheae, and made a very peevish clamor against him; while some cried out, that they should depose the traitor; and others, that they should burn him. Now John irritated a great many, as did also one Jesus, the son of Sapphias, who was then governor of Tiberias. 3.539. Then came Vespasian, and ordered them all to stand in the stadium, and commanded them to kill the old men, together with the others that were useless, which were in number a thousand and two hundred. 7.361. What Roman weapons, I pray you, were those by which the Jews at Caesarea were slain? 7.362. On the contrary, when they were no way disposed to rebel, but were all the while keeping their seventh day festival, and did not so much as lift up their hands against the citizens of Caesarea, yet did those citizens run upon them in great crowds, and cut their throats, and the throats of their wives and children, and this without any regard to the Romans themselves, who never took us for their enemies till we revolted from them. 7.363. But some may be ready to say, that truly the people of Caesarea had always a quarrel against those that lived among them, and that when an opportunity offered itself, they only satisfied the old rancor they had against them. 7.364. What then shall we say to those of Scythopolis, who ventured to wage war with us on account of the Greeks? Nor did they do it by way of revenge upon the Romans, when they acted in concert with our countrymen. 7.365. Wherefore you see how little our goodwill and fidelity to them profited us, while they were slain, they and their whole families, after the most inhuman manner, which was all the requital that was made them for the assistance they had afforded the others; 7.366. for that very same destruction which they had prevented from falling upon the others did they suffer themselves from them, as if they had been ready to be the actors against them. It would be too long for me to speak at this time of every destruction brought upon us; 7.367. for you cannot but know that there was not anyone Syrian city which did not slay their Jewish inhabitants, and were not more bitter enemies to us than were the Romans themselves; 7.368. nay, even those of Damascus, when they were able to allege no tolerable pretense against us, filled their city with the most barbarous slaughters of our people, and cut the throats of eighteen thousand Jews, with their wives and children.
3. Josephus Flavius, Life, 26, 28, 296, 32, 341, 410, 42-55, 64, 66-67, 69, 17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
acmonia, julia severa inscription Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 127
agrippa ii Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 171
alexandrian jewry Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 127
apologetic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 208
asia minor Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 127
beit shean Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 93
bostra Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 93
caesarea maritima Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 171; Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 93
canatha Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 93
damascus Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 93
diaspora Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 208
dor Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 93
gadara Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 93
galilee Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 171
gerasa Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 93
gerousia Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 127
graeco-roman (law/custom) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 208
hamat gader Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 93
hippodromes Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 91, 93
ioudaios Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 208
jerusalem, roman destruction of Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 91
jewish war Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 171
josephus Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 91; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 208
judaea (roman province; see also yehud) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 208
judean (geographical-political) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 208
manumission Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 127
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 208
pella Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 171; Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 93
philadelphia Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 93
philip the arab Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 93
philoppopolis Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 93
pisidia, christians, diaspora synagogues Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 127
politeuma' Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 127
rabbinic literature, on theater attendance Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 91
revolt/war, under nero (great ~) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 208
rhetoric, rhetorical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 208
roman, empire Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 208
roman entertainment, jewish participation Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 91
rome, catacombs (jewish) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 127
rome, romans Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 171
scythopolis Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 171
sebaste Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 93
sepphoris Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 91
shechem Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 93
stadia Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 91, 93
synagogues Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 91
syria, greeks Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 127
syria, literary evidence Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 127
syria, pagan-jewish tension Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 127
temple, jerusalem Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 91
terichaeae Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 91
theaters, construction Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 93
theaters, in palestine Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 91, 93
tiberias Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 171; Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 91