Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 6.118

Αὖθις δέ, ὡς ἀνακαλέσας τοὺς ἄνδρας ἀπὸ τῆς Γοφνὰ Τίτος ἐκέλευσε μετὰ τοῦ ̓Ιωσήπου περιελθόντας τὸ τεῖχος ὀφθῆναι τῷ δήμῳ, πλεῖστοι πρὸς τοὺς ̔Ρωμαίους ἔφευγον.3. However, when Titus had recalled those men from Gophna, he gave orders that they should go round the wall, together with Josephus, and show themselves to the people; upon which a great many fled to the Romans.

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

11 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 10.1-10.9, 10.12, 10.14-10.19 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.1. וּמַרְאֵיהֶם דְּמוּת אֶחָד לְאַרְבַּעְתָּם כַּאֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה הָאוֹפַן בְּתוֹךְ הָאוֹפָן׃ 10.1. וָאֶרְאֶה וְהִנֵּה אֶל־הָרָקִיעַ אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשׁ הַכְּרֻבִים כְּאֶבֶן סַפִּיר כְּמַרְאֵה דְּמוּת כִּסֵּא נִרְאָה עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 10.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָאִישׁ לְבֻשׁ הַבַּדִּים וַיֹּאמֶר בֹּא אֶל־בֵּינוֹת לַגַּלְגַּל אֶל־תַּחַת לַכְּרוּב וּמַלֵּא חָפְנֶיךָ גַחֲלֵי־אֵשׁ מִבֵּינוֹת לַכְּרֻבִים וּזְרֹק עַל־הָעִיר וַיָּבֹא לְעֵינָי׃ 10.2. הִיא הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר רָאִיתִי תַּחַת אֱלֹהֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּנְהַר־כְּבָר וָאֵדַע כִּי כְרוּבִים הֵמָּה׃ 10.3. וְהַכְּרֻבִים עֹמְדִים מִימִין לַבַּיִת בְּבֹאוֹ הָאִישׁ וְהֶעָנָן מָלֵא אֶת־הֶחָצֵר הַפְּנִימִית׃ 10.4. וַיָּרָם כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה מֵעַל הַכְּרוּב עַל מִפְתַּן הַבָּיִת וַיִּמָּלֵא הַבַּיִת אֶת־הֶעָנָן וְהֶחָצֵר מָלְאָה אֶת־נֹגַהּ כְּבוֹד יְהוָה׃ 10.5. וְקוֹל כַּנְפֵי הַכְּרוּבִים נִשְׁמַע עַד־הֶחָצֵר הַחִיצֹנָה כְּקוֹל אֵל־שַׁדַּי בְּדַבְּרוֹ׃ 10.6. וַיְהִי בְּצַוֺּתוֹ אֶת־הָאִישׁ לְבֻשׁ־הַבַּדִּים לֵאמֹר קַח אֵשׁ מִבֵּינוֹת לַגַּלְגַּל מִבֵּינוֹת לַכְּרוּבִים וַיָּבֹא וַיַּעֲמֹד אֵצֶל הָאוֹפָן׃ 10.7. וַיִּשְׁלַח הַכְּרוּב אֶת־יָדוֹ מִבֵּינוֹת לַכְּרוּבִים אֶל־הָאֵשׁ אֲשֶׁר בֵּינוֹת הַכְּרֻבִים וַיִּשָּׂא וַיִּתֵּן אֶל־חָפְנֵי לְבֻשׁ הַבַּדִּים וַיִּקַּח וַיֵּצֵא׃ 10.8. וַיֵּרָא לַכְּרֻבִים תַּבְנִית יַד־אָדָם תַּחַת כַּנְפֵיהֶם׃ 10.9. וָאֶרְאֶה וְהִנֵּה אַרְבָּעָה אוֹפַנִּים אֵצֶל הַכְּרוּבִים אוֹפַן אֶחָד אֵצֶל הַכְּרוּב אֶחָד וְאוֹפַן אֶחָד אֵצֶל הַכְּרוּב אֶחָד וּמַרְאֵה הָאוֹפַנִּים כְּעֵין אֶבֶן תַּרְשִׁישׁ׃ 10.12. וְכָל־בְּשָׂרָם וְגַבֵּהֶם וִידֵיהֶם וְכַנְפֵיהֶם וְהָאוֹפַנִּים מְלֵאִים עֵינַיִם סָבִיב לְאַרְבַּעְתָּם אוֹפַנֵּיהֶם׃ 10.14. וְאַרְבָּעָה פָנִים לְאֶחָד פְּנֵי הָאֶחָד פְּנֵי הַכְּרוּב וּפְנֵי הַשֵּׁנִי פְּנֵי אָדָם וְהַשְּׁלִישִׁי פְּנֵי אַרְיֵה וְהָרְבִיעִי פְּנֵי־נָשֶׁר׃ 10.15. וַיֵּרֹמּוּ הַכְּרוּבִים הִיא הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר רָאִיתִי בִּנְהַר־כְּבָר׃ 10.16. וּבְלֶכֶת הַכְּרוּבִים יֵלְכוּ הָאוֹפַנִּים אֶצְלָם וּבִשְׂאֵת הַכְּרוּבִים אֶת־כַּנְפֵיהֶם לָרוּם מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ לֹא־יִסַּבּוּ הָאוֹפַנִּים גַּם־הֵם מֵאֶצְלָם׃ 10.17. בְּעָמְדָם יַעֲמֹדוּ וּבְרוֹמָם יֵרוֹמּוּ אוֹתָם כִּי רוּחַ הַחַיָּה בָּהֶם׃ 10.18. וַיֵּצֵא כְּבוֹד יְהוָה מֵעַל מִפְתַּן הַבָּיִת וַיַּעֲמֹד עַל־הַכְּרוּבִים׃ 10.19. וַיִּשְׂאוּ הַכְּרוּבִים אֶת־כַּנְפֵיהֶם וַיֵּרוֹמּוּ מִן־הָאָרֶץ לְעֵינַי בְּצֵאתָם וְהָאוֹפַנִּים לְעֻמָּתָם וַיַּעֲמֹד פֶּתַח שַׁעַר בֵּית־יְהוָה הַקַּדְמוֹנִי וּכְבוֹד אֱלֹהֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲלֵיהֶם מִלְמָעְלָה׃ 10.1. Then I looked, and, behold, upon the firmament that was over the head of the cherubim, there appeared above them as it were a sapphire stone, as the appearance of the likeness of a throne." 10.2. And He spoke unto the man clothed in linen, and said: ‘Go in between the wheelwork, even under the cherub, and fill both thy hands with coals of fire from between the cherubim, and dash them against the city.’ And he went in in my sight." 10.3. Now the cherubim stood on the right side of the house, when the man went in; and the cloud filled the inner court." 10.4. And the glory of the LORD mounted up from the cherub to the threshold of the house; and the house was filled with the cloud, and the court was full of the brightness of the LORD’S glory." 10.5. And the sound of the wings of the cherubim was heard even to the outer court, as the voice of God Almighty when He speaketh." 10.6. And it came to pass, when He commanded the man clothed in linen, saying: ‘Take fire from between the wheelwork, from between the cherubim’, that he went in, and stood beside a wheel." 10.7. And the cherub stretched forth his hand from between the cherubim unto the fire that was between the cherubim, and took thereof, and put it into the hands of him that was clothed in linen, who took it and went out." 10.8. And there appeared in the cherubim the form of a man’s hand under their wings." 10.9. And I looked, and behold four wheels beside the cherubim, one wheel beside one cherub, and another wheel beside another cherub; and the appearance of the wheels was as the colour of a beryl stone." 10.12. And their whole body, and their backs, and their hands, and their wings, and the wheels were full of eyes round about, even the wheels that they four had." 10.14. And every one had four faces: the first face was the face of the cherub, and the second face was the face of a man, and the third the face of a lion, and the fourth the face of an eagle." 10.15. And the cherubim mounted up—this is the living creature that I saw by the river Chebar." 10.16. And when the cherubim went, the wheels went beside them; and when the cherubim lifted up their wings to mount up from the earth, the same wheels also turned not from beside them." 10.17. When they stood, these stood, and when they mounted up, these mounted up with them; for the spirit of the living creature was in them." 10.18. And the glory of the LORD went forth from off the threshold of the house, and stood over the cherubim." 10.19. And the cherubim lifted up their wings, and mounted up from the earth in my sight when they went forth, and the wheels beside them; and they stood at the door of the east gate of the LORD’S house; and the glory of the God of Israel was over them above."
2. Anon., 2 Baruch, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 18.159-18.160, 18.259, 19.276-19.277, 20.100 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18.159. He then pretended that he would do as he bid him; but when night came on, he cut his cables, and went off, and sailed to Alexandria, where he desired Alexander the alabarch to lend him two hundred thousand drachmae; but he said he would not lend it to him, but would not refuse it to Cypros, as greatly astonished at her affection to her husband, and at the other instances of her virtue; 18.259. Many of these severe things were said by Apion, by which he hoped to provoke Caius to anger at the Jews, as he was likely to be. But Philo, the principal of the Jewish embassage, a man eminent on all accounts, brother to Alexander the alabarch, and one not unskillful in philosophy, was ready to betake himself to make his defense against those accusations; 19.276. he also took away from Antiochus that kingdom which he was possessed of, but gave him a certain part of Cilicia and Commagena: he also set Alexander Lysimachus, the alabarch, at liberty, who had been his old friend, and steward to his mother Antonia, but had been imprisoned by Caius, whose son [Marcus] married Bernice, the daughter of Agrippa. 19.277. But when Marcus, Alexander’s son, was dead, who had married her when she was a virgin, Agrippa gave her in marriage to his brother Herod, and begged for him of Claudius the kingdom of Chalcis.
4. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 4.616-4.618, 4.620, 5.45-5.46, 5.205, 5.362-5.420, 5.510, 5.541-5.547, 6.94-6.110, 6.113-6.117, 6.124-6.127, 6.129, 6.236-6.243 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.616. 6. Justly, therefore, did Vespasian desire to obtain that government, in order to corroborate his attempts upon the whole empire; so he immediately sent to Tiberius Alexander, who was then governor of Egypt and of Alexandria, and informed him what the army had put upon him, and how he, being forced to accept of the burden of the government, was desirous to have him for his confederate and supporter. 4.617. Now as soon as ever Alexander had read this letter, he readily obliged the legions and the multitude to take the oath of fidelity to Vespasian, both which willingly complied with him, as already acquainted with the courage of the man, from that his conduct in their neighborhood. 4.618. Accordingly Vespasian, looking upon himself as already intrusted with the government, got all things ready for his journey [to Rome]. Now fame carried this news abroad more suddenly than one could have thought, that he was emperor over the east, upon which every city kept festivals, and celebrated sacrifices and oblations for such good news; 5.45. as also there came Tiberius Alexander, who was a friend of his, most valuable, both for his goodwill to him, and for his prudence. He had formerly been governor of Alexandria 5.45. This miserable procedure made Titus greatly to pity them, while they caught every day five hundred Jews; nay, some days they caught more: yet it did not appear to be safe for him to let those that were taken by force go their way, and to set a guard over so many he saw would be to make such as guarded them useless to him. The main reason why he did not forbid that cruelty was this, that he hoped the Jews might perhaps yield at that sight, out of fear lest they might themselves afterwards be liable to the same cruel treatment. 5.46. but was now thought worthy to be general of the army [under Titus]. The reason of this was, that he had been the first who encouraged Vespasian very lately to accept this his new dominion, and joined himself to him with great fidelity, when things were uncertain, and fortune had not yet declared for him. He also followed Titus as a counselor, very useful to him in this war, both by his age and skill in such affairs. 5.46. 3. In the meantime Antiochus Epiphanes came to the city, having with him a considerable number of other armed men, and a band called the Macedonian band about him, all of the same age, tall, and just past their childhood, armed, and instructed after the Macedonian manner, whence it was that they took that name. Yet were many of them unworthy of so famous a nation; 5.205. for its height was fifty cubits; and its doors were forty cubits; and it was adorned after a most costly manner, as having much richer and thicker plates of silver and gold upon them than the other. These nine gates had that silver and gold poured upon them by Alexander, the father of Tiberius. 5.362. 3. So Josephus went round about the wall, and tried to find a place that was out of the reach of their darts, and yet within their hearing, and besought them, in many words, to spare themselves, to spare their country and their temple, and not to be more obdurate in these cases than foreigners themselves; 5.363. for that the Romans, who had no relation to those things, had a reverence for their sacred rites and places, although they belonged to their enemies, and had till now kept their hands off from meddling with them; while such as were brought up under them, and, if they be preserved, will be the only people that will reap the benefit of them, hurry on to have them destroyed. 5.364. That certainly they have seen their strongest walls demolished, and that the wall still remaining was weaker than those that were already taken. That they must know the Roman power was invincible, and that they had been used to serve them; 5.365. for, that in case it be allowed a right thing to fight for liberty, that ought to have been done at first; but for them that have once fallen under the power of the Romans, and have now submitted to them for so many long years, to pretend to shake off that yoke afterward, was the work of such as had a mind to die miserably, not of such as were lovers of liberty. 5.366. Besides, men may well enough grudge at the dishonor of owning ignoble masters over them, but ought not to do so to those who have all things under their command; for what part of the world is there that hath escaped the Romans, unless it be such as are of no use for violent heat, or for violent cold? 5.367. And evident it is that fortune is on all hands gone over to them; and that God, when he had gone round the nations with this dominion, is now settled in Italy. That, moreover, it is a strong and fixed law, even among brute beasts, as well as among men, to yield to those that are too strong for them; and to suffer those to have dominion who are too hard 5.368. for the rest in war; for which reason it was that their forefathers, who were far superior to them, both in their souls and bodies, and other advantages, did yet submit to the Romans, which they would not have suffered, had they not known that God was with them. 5.369. As for themselves, what can they depend on in this their opposition, when the greatest part of their city is already taken? and when those that are within it are under greater miseries than if they were taken, although their walls be still standing? 5.371. for although the Romans should leave off the siege, and not fall upon the city with their swords in their hands, yet was there an insuperable war that beset them within, and was augmented every hour, unless they were able to wage war with famine, and fight against it, or could alone conquer their natural appetites. 5.372. He added this further, how right a thing it was to change their conduct before their calamities were become incurable, and to have recourse to such advice as might preserve them, while opportunity was offered them for so doing; for that the Romans would not be mindful of their past actions to their disadvantage, unless they persevered in their insolent behavior to the end; because they were naturally mild in their conquests, and preferred what was profitable, before what their passions dictated to them; 5.373. which profit of theirs lay not in leaving the city empty of inhabitants, nor the country a desert; on which account Caesar did now offer them his right hand for their security. Whereas, if he took the city by force, he would not save anyone of them, and this especially, if they rejected his offers in these their utmost distresses; 5.374. for the walls that were already taken could not but assure them that the third wall would quickly be taken also. And though their fortifications should prove too strong for the Romans to break through them, yet would the famine fight for the Romans against them. 5.375. 4. While Josephus was making this exhortation to the Jews, many of them jested upon him from the wall, and many reproached him; nay, some threw their darts at him: but when he could not himself persuade them by such open good advice, he betook himself to the histories belonging to their own nation 5.376. and cried out aloud, “O miserable creatures! are you so unmindful of those that used to assist you, that you will fight by your weapons and by your hands against the Romans? When did we ever conquer any other nation by such means? 5.377. and when was it that God, who is the Creator of the Jewish people, did not avenge them when they had been injured? Will not you turn again, and look back, and consider whence it is that you fight with such violence, and how great a Supporter you have profanely abused? Will not you recall to mind the prodigious things done for your forefathers and this holy place, and how great enemies of yours were by him subdued under you? 5.378. I even tremble myself in declaring the works of God before your ears, that are unworthy to hear them; however, hearken to me, that you may be informed how you fight not only against the Romans, but against God himself. 5.379. In old times there was one Necao, king of Egypt, who was also called Pharaoh; he came with a prodigious army of soldiers, and seized queen Sarah, the mother of our nation. 5.381. Was not our queen sent back, without any defilement, to her husband, the very next evening?—while the king of Egypt fled away, adoring this place which you have defiled by shedding thereon the blood of your own countrymen; and he also trembled at those visions which he saw in the night season, and bestowed both silver and gold on the Hebrews, as on a people beloved by God. 5.382. Shall I say nothing, or shall I mention the removal of our fathers into Egypt, who, when they were used tyrannically, and were fallen under the power of foreign kings for four hundred years together, and might have defended themselves by war and by fighting, did yet do nothing but commit themselves to God? 5.383. Who is there that does not know that Egypt was overrun with all sorts of wild beasts, and consumed by all sorts of distempers? how their land did not bring forth its fruit? how the Nile failed of water? how the ten plagues of Egypt followed one upon another? and how by those means our fathers were sent away under a guard, without any bloodshed, and without running any dangers, because God conducted them as his peculiar servants? 5.384. Moreover, did not Palestine groan under the ravage the Assyrians made, when they carried away our sacred ark? asdid their idol Dagon, and as also did that entire nation of those that carried it away 5.385. how they were smitten with a loathsome distemper in the secret parts of their bodies, when their very bowels came down together with what they had eaten, till those hands that stole it away were obliged to bring it back again, and that with the sound of cymbals and timbrels, and other oblations, in order to appease the anger of God for their violation of his holy ark. 5.386. It was God who then became our General, and accomplished these great things for our fathers, and this because they did not meddle with war and fighting, but committed it to him to judge about their affairs. 5.387. When Sennacherib, king of Assyria, brought along with him all Asia, and encompassed this city round with his army, did he fall by the hands of men? 5.388. were not those hands lifted up to God in prayers, without meddling with their arms, when an angel of God destroyed that prodigious army in one night? when the Assyrian king, as he rose the next day, found a hundred fourscore and five thousand dead bodies, and when he, with the remainder of his army, fled away from the Hebrews, though they were unarmed, and did not pursue them. 5.389. You are also acquainted with the slavery we were under at Babylon, where the people were captives for seventy years; yet were they not delivered into freedom again before God made Cyrus his gracious instrument in bringing it about; accordingly they were set free by him, and did again restore the worship of their Deliverer at his temple. 5.391. for example, when the king of Babylon besieged this very city, and our king Zedekiah fought against him, contrary to what predictions were made to him by Jeremiah the prophet, he was at once taken prisoner, and saw the city and the temple demolished. Yet how much greater was the moderation of that king, than is that of your present governors, and that of the people then under him, than is that of you at this time! 5.392. for when Jeremiah cried out aloud, how very angry God was at them, because of their transgressions, and told them that they should be taken prisoners, unless they would surrender up their city, neither did the king nor the people put him to death; 5.393. but for you (to pass over what you have done within the city, which I am not able to describe as your wickedness deserves) you abuse me, and throw darts at me, who only exhort you to save yourselves, as being provoked when you are put in mind of your sins, and cannot bear the very mention of those crimes which you every day perpetrate. 5.394. For another example, when Antiochus, who was called Epiphanes, lay before this city, and had been guilty of many indignities against God, and our forefathers met him in arms, they then were slain in the battle, this city was plundered by our enemies, and our sanctuary made desolate for three years and six months. And what need I bring any more examples? 5.395. Indeed what can it be that hath stirred up an army of the Romans against our nation? Is it not the impiety of the inhabitants? Whence did our servitude commence? 5.396. Was it not derived from the seditions that were among our forefathers, when the madness of Aristobulus and Hyrcanus, and our mutual quarrels, brought Pompey upon this city, and when God reduced those under subjection to the Romans who were unworthy of the liberty they had enjoyed? 5.397. After a siege, therefore, of three months, they were forced to surrender themselves, although they had not been guilty of such offenses, with regard to our sanctuary and our laws, as you have; and this while they had much greater advantages to go to war than you have. 5.398. Do not we know what end Antigonus, the son of Aristobulus, came to, under whose reign God provided that this city should be taken again upon account of the people’s offenses? When Herod, the son of Antipater, brought upon us Sosius, and Sosius brought upon us the Roman army, they were then encompassed and besieged for six months, till, as a punishment for their sins, they were taken, and the city was plundered by the enemy. 5.399. Thus it appears that arms were never given to our nation, but that we are always given up to be fought against, and to be taken; 5.401. As for you, what have you done of those things that are recommended by our legislator? and what have you not done of those things that he hath condemned? How much more impious are you than those who were so quickly taken! 5.402. You have not avoided so much as those sins that are usually done in secret; I mean thefts, and treacherous plots against men, and adulteries. You are quarreling about rapines and murders, and invent strange ways of wickedness. Nay, the temple itself is become the receptacle of all, and this Divine place is polluted by the hands of those of our own country; which place hath yet been reverenced by the Romans when it was at a distance from them, when they have suffered many of their own customs to give place to our law. 5.403. And, after all this, do you expect Him whom you have so impiously abused to be your supporter? To be sure then you have a right to be petitioners, and to call upon Him to assist you, so pure are your hands! 5.404. Did your king [Hezekiah] lift up such hands in prayer to God against the king of Assyria, when he destroyed that great army in one night? And do the Romans commit such wickedness as did the king of Assyria, that you may have reason to hope for the like vengeance upon them? 5.405. Did not that king accept of money from our king on this condition, that he should not destroy the city, and yet, contrary to the oath he had taken, he came down to burn the temple? while the Romans do demand no more than that accustomed tribute which our fathers paid to their fathers; 5.406. and if they may but once obtain that, they neither aim to destroy this city, nor to touch this sanctuary; nay, they will grant you besides, that your posterity shall be free, and your possessions secured to you, and will preserve your holy laws inviolate to you. 5.407. And it is plain madness to expect that God should appear as well disposed towards the wicked as towards the righteous, since he knows when it is proper to punish men for their sins immediately; accordingly he brake the power of the Assyrians the very first night that they pitched their camp. 5.408. Wherefore, had he judged that our nation was worthy of freedom, or the Romans of punishment, he had immediately inflicted punishment upon those Romans, as he did upon the Assyrians, when Pompey began to meddle with our nation, or when after him Sosius came up against us, or when Vespasian laid waste Galilee, or, lastly, when Titus came first of all near to the city; 5.409. although Magnus and Sosius did not only suffer nothing, but took the city by force; as did Vespasian go from the war he made against you to receive the empire; and as for Titus, those springs that were formerly almost dried up when they were under your power since he is come, run more plentifully than they did before; 5.411. The same wonderful sign you had also experience of formerly, when the forementioned king of Babylon made war against us, and when he took the city, and burnt the temple; while yet I believe the Jews of that age were not so impious as you are. 5.412. Wherefore I cannot but suppose that God is fled out of his sanctuary, and stands on the side of those against whom you fight. 5.413. Now, even a man, if he be but a good man, will fly from an impure house, and will hate those that are in it; and do you persuade yourselves that God will abide with you in your iniquities, who sees all secret things, and hears what is kept most private? 5.414. Now, what crime is there, I pray you, that is so much as kept secret among you, or is concealed by you? nay, what is there that is not open to your very enemies? for you show your transgressions after a pompous manner, and contend one with another which of you shall be more wicked than another; and you make a public demonstration of your injustice, as if it were virtue. 5.415. However, there is a place left for your preservation, if you be willing to accept of it; and God is easily reconciled to those that confess their faults, and repent of them. 5.416. O hard-hearted wretches as you are! cast away all your arms, and take pity of your country already going to ruin; return from your wicked ways, and have regard to the excellency of that city which you are going to betray, to that excellent temple with the donations of so many countries in it. 5.417. Who could bear to be the first that should set that temple on fire? who could be willing that these things should be no more? and what is there that can better deserve to be preserved? O insensible creatures, and more stupid than are the stones themselves! 5.418. And if you cannot look at these things with discerning eyes, yet, however, have pity upon your families, and set before every one of your eyes your children, and wives, and parents, who will be gradually consumed either by famine or by war. 5.419. I am sensible that this danger will extend to my mother, and wife, and to that family of mine who have been by no means ignoble, and indeed to one that hath been very eminent in old time; and perhaps you may imagine that it is on their account only that I give you this advice; if that be all, kill them; nay, take my own blood as a reward, if it may but procure your preservation; for I am ready to die, in case you will but return to a sound mind after my death.” 5.541. 3. In the meantime, Josephus, as he was going round the city, had his head wounded by a stone that was thrown at him; upon which he fell down as giddy. Upon which fall of his the Jews made a sally, and he had been hurried away into the city, if Caesar had not sent men to protect him immediately; 5.542. and as these men were fighting, Josephus was taken up, though he heard little of what was done. So the seditious supposed they had now slain that man whom they were the most desirous of killing, and made thereupon a great noise, in way of rejoicing. 5.543. This accident was told in the city, and the multitude that remained became very disconsolate at the news, as being persuaded that he was really dead, on whose account alone they could venture to desert to the Romans. 5.544. But when Josephus’s mother heard in prison that her son was dead, she said to those that watched about her, That she had always been of opinion, since the siege of Jotapata, [that he would be slain,] and she should never enjoy him alive any more. 5.545. She also made great lamentation privately to the maidservants that were about her, and said, That this was all the advantage she had of bringing so extraordinary a person as this son into the world; that she should not be able even to bury that son of hers, by whom she expected to have been buried herself. 5.546. However, this false report did not put his mother to pain, nor afford merriment to the robbers, long; for Josephus soon recovered of his wound, and came out, and cried out aloud, That it would not be long ere they should be punished for this wound they had given him. He also made a fresh exhortation to the people to come out upon the security that would be given them. 5.547. This sight of Josephus encouraged the people greatly, and brought a great consternation upon the seditious. 6.94. while he himself had Josephus brought to him (for he had been informed that on that very day, which was the seventeenth day of Panemus, [Tamuz,] the sacrifice called “the Daily Sacrifice” had failed, and had not been offered to God, for want of men to offer it, and that the people were grievously troubled at it) 6.95. and commanded him to say the same things to John that he had said before, that if he had any malicious inclination for fighting, he might come out with as many of his men as he pleased, in order to fight, without the danger of destroying either his city or temple; but that he desired he would not defile the temple, nor thereby offend against God. That he might, if he pleased, offer the sacrifices which were now discontinued by any of the Jews whom he should pitch upon. 6.96. Upon this Josephus stood in such a place where he might be heard, not by John only, but by many more, and then declared to them what Caesar had given him in charge, and this in the Hebrew language. 6.97. So he earnestly prayed them to spare their own city, and to prevent that fire which was just ready to seize upon the temple, and to offer their usual sacrifices to God therein. 6.98. At these words of his a great sadness and silence were observed among the people. But the tyrant himself cast many reproaches upon Josephus, with imprecations besides; and at last added this withal, that he did never fear the taking of the city, because it was God’s own city. 6.99. In answer to which, Josephus said thus, with a loud voice:—“To be sure, thou hast kept this city wonderfully pure for God’s sake; the temple also continues entirely unpolluted! Nor hast thou been guilty of any impiety against him, for whose assistance thou hopest! He still receives his accustomed sacrifices! 6.101. and thou imputest those sins to the Romans, who to this very time take care to have our laws observed, and almost compel these sacrifices to be still offered to God, which have by thy means been intermitted! 6.102. Who is there that can avoid groans and lamentations at the amazing change that is made in this city? since very foreigners and enemies do now correct that impiety which thou hast occasioned; while thou, who art a Jew, and wast educated in our laws, art become a greater enemy to them than the others. 6.103. But still, John, it is never dishonorable to repent, and amend what hath been done amiss, even at the last extremity. Thou hast an instance before thee in Jechoniah, the king of the Jews, if thou hast a mind to save the city 6.104. who, when the king of Babylon made war against him, did of his own accord go out of this city before it was taken, and did undergo a voluntary captivity with his family, that the sanctuary might not be delivered up to the enemy, and that he might not see the house of God set on fire; 6.105. on which account he is celebrated among all the Jews, in their sacred memorials, and his memory is become immortal, and will be conveyed fresh down to our posterity through all ages. 6.106. This, John, is an excellent example in such a time of danger, and I dare venture to promise that the Romans shall still forgive thee. 6.107. And take notice that I, who make this exhortation to thee, am one of thine own nation; I, who am a Jew, do make this promise to thee. And it will become thee to consider who I am that give thee this counsel, and whence I am derived; for while I am alive I shall never be in such slavery, as to forego my own kindred, or forget the laws of our forefathers. 6.108. Thou hast indignation at me again, and makest a clamor at me, and reproachest me; indeed, I cannot deny that I am worthy of worse treatment than all this amounts to, because, in opposition to fate, I make this kind invitation to thee, and endeavor to force deliverance upon those whom God hath condemned. 6.109. And who is there that does not know what the writings of the ancient prophets contain in them,—and particularly that oracle which is just now going to be fulfilled upon this miserable city? For they foretold that this city should be then taken when somebody shall begin the slaughter of his own countrymen. 6.113. yet did that discourse influence a great many of the better sort; and truly some of them were so afraid of the guards sent by the seditious, that they tarried where they were, but still were satisfied that both they and the city were doomed to destruction. Some also there were who, watching for a proper opportunity when they might quietly get away, fled to the Romans 6.114. of whom were the high priests Joseph and Jesus, and of the sons of high priests three, whose father was Ishmael, who was beheaded in Cyrene, and four sons of Matthias, as also one son of the other Matthias, who ran away after his father’s death, and whose father was slain by Simon the son of Gioras, with three of his sons, as I have already related; many also of the other nobility went over to the Romans, together with the high priests. 6.115. Now Caesar not only received these men very kindly in other respects, but, knowing they would not willingly live after the customs of other nations, he sent them to Gophna, and desired them to remain there for the present, and told them, that when he was gotten clear of this war, he would restore each of them to their possessions again; 6.116. o they cheerfully retired to that small city which was allotted them, without fear of any danger. But as they did not appear, the seditious gave out again that these deserters were slain by the Romans,—which was done in order to deter the rest from running away, by fear of the like treatment. 6.117. This trick of theirs succeeded now for a while, as did the like trick before; for the rest were hereby deterred from deserting, by fear of the like treatment. 6.124. 4. Now Titus was deeply affected with this state of things, and reproached John and his party, and said to them, “Have not you, vile wretches that you are, by our permission, put up this partition-wall before your sanctuary? 6.125. Have not you been allowed to put up the pillars thereto belonging, at due distances, and on it to engrave in Greek, and in your own letters, this prohibition, that no foreigner should go beyond that wall. 6.126. Have not we given you leave to kill such as go beyond it, though he were a Roman? And what do you do now, you pernicious villains? Why do you trample upon dead bodies in this temple? and why do you pollute this holy house with the blood of both foreigners and Jews themselves? 6.127. I appeal to the gods of my own country, and to every god that ever had any regard to this place (for I do not suppose it to be now regarded by any of them); I also appeal to my own army, and to those Jews that are now with me, and even to you yourselves, that I do not force you to defile this your sanctuary; 6.129. 5. As Josephus explained these things from the mouth of Caesar, both the robbers and the tyrant thought that these exhortations proceeded from Titus’s fear, and not from his goodwill to them, and grew insolent upon it. 6.236. 3. But then, on the next day, Titus commanded part of his army to quench the fire, and to make a road for the more easy marching up of the legions, while he himself gathered the commanders together. 6.237. of those there were assembled the six principal persons: Tiberius Alexander, the commander [under the general] of the whole army; with Sextus Cerealis, the commander of the fifth legion; and Larcius Lepidus, the commander of the tenth legion; and Titus Frigius, the commander of the fifteenth legion: 6.238. there was also with them Eternius, the leader of the two legions that came from Alexandria; and Marcus Antonius Julianus, procurator of Judea: after these came together all the rest of the procurators and tribunes. Titus proposed to these that they should give him their advice what should be done about the holy house. 6.239. Now, some of these thought it would be the best way to act according to the rules of war, [and demolish it,] because the Jews would never leave off rebelling while that house was standing; at which house it was that they used to get all together. 6.241. But Titus said, that “although the Jews should get upon that holy house, and fight us thence, yet ought we not to revenge ourselves on things that are iimate, instead of the men themselves;” and that he was not in any case for burning down so vast a work as that was, because this would be a mischief to the Romans themselves, as it would be an ornament to their government while it continued. 6.242. So Fronto, and Alexander, and Cerealis grew bold upon that declaration, and agreed to the opinion of Titus. 6.243. Then was this assembly dissolved, when Titus had given orders to the commanders that the rest of their forces should lie still; but that they should make use of such as were most courageous in this attack. So he commanded that the chosen men that were taken out of the cohorts should make their way through the ruins, and quench the fire.
5. Josephus Flavius, Life, 422-423, 415 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6. New Testament, James, 5.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.16. Confess your offenses to one another, and pray one for another, that you may be healed. The effective, earnest prayer of a righteous man is powerfully effective.
7. New Testament, Luke, 21.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

21.21. Then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains. Let those who are in the midst of her depart. Let those who are in the country not enter therein.
8. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

56b. איברא מלכא את דאי לאו מלכא את לא מימסרא ירושלים בידך דכתיב (ישעיהו י, לד) והלבנון באדיר יפול ואין אדיר אלא מלך דכתיב (ירמיהו ל, כא) והיה אדירו ממנו וגו' ואין לבנון אלא ביהמ"ק שנאמר (דברים ג, כה) ההר הטוב הזה והלבנון ודקאמרת אי מלכא אנא אמאי לא קאתית לגבאי עד האידנא בריוני דאית בן לא שבקינן,אמר ליה אילו חבית של דבש ודרקון כרוך עליה לא היו שוברין את החבית בשביל דרקון אישתיק קרי עליה רב יוסף ואיתימא רבי עקיבא (ישעיהו מד, כה) משיב חכמים אחור ודעתם יסכל איבעי ליה למימר ליה שקלינן צבתא ושקלינן ליה לדרקון וקטלינן ליה וחביתא שבקינן לה,אדהכי אתי פריסתקא עליה מרומי אמר ליה קום דמית ליה קיסר ואמרי הנהו חשיבי דרומי לאותיבך ברישא הוה סיים חד מסאני בעא למסיימא לאחרינא לא עייל בעא למשלפא לאידך לא נפק אמר מאי האי,אמר ליה לא תצטער שמועה טובה אתיא לך דכתיב (משלי טו, ל) שמועה טובה תדשן עצם אלא מאי תקנתיה ליתי איניש דלא מיתבא דעתך מיניה ולחליף קמך דכתיב (משלי יז, כב) ורוח נכאה תיבש גרם עבד הכי עייל אמר ליה ומאחר דחכמיתו כולי האי עד האידנא אמאי לא אתיתו לגבאי אמר ליה ולא אמרי לך אמר ליה אנא נמי אמרי לך,אמר ליה מיזל אזילנא ואינש אחרינא משדרנא אלא בעי מינאי מידי דאתן לך אמר ליה תן לי יבנה וחכמיה ושושילתא דרבן גמליאל ואסוותא דמסיין ליה לרבי צדוק קרי עליה רב יוסף ואיתימא רבי עקיבא (ישעיהו מד, כה) משיב חכמים אחור ודעתם יסכל איבעי למימר ליה לשבקינהו הדא זימנא,והוא סבר דלמא כולי האי לא עביד והצלה פורתא נמי לא הוי,אסוותא דמסיין ליה לרבי צדוק מאי היא יומא קמא אשקיוה מיא דפארי למחר מיא דסיפוקא למחר מיא דקימחא עד דרווח מיעיה פורתא פורתא,אזל שדריה לטיטוס ואמר (דברים לב, לז) אי אלהימו צור חסיו בו זה טיטוס הרשע שחירף וגידף כלפי מעלה,מה עשה תפש זונה בידו ונכנס לבית קדשי הקדשים והציע ספר תורה ועבר עליה עבירה ונטל סייף וגידר את הפרוכת ונעשה נס והיה דם מבצבץ ויוצא וכסבור הרג את עצמו שנאמר (תהלים עד, ד) שאגו צורריך בקרב מועדיך שמו אותותם אותות,אבא חנן אומר (תהלים פט, ט) מי כמוך חסין יה מי כמוך חסין וקשה שאתה שומע ניאוצו וגידופו של אותו רשע ושותק דבי רבי ישמעאל תנא (שמות טו, יא) מי כמוכה באלים ה' מי כמוכה באלמים,מה עשה נטל את הפרוכת ועשאו כמין גרגותני והביא כל כלים שבמקדש והניחן בהן והושיבן בספינה לילך להשתבח בעירו שנאמר (קהלת ח, י) ובכן ראיתי רשעים קבורים ובאו וממקום קדוש יהלכו וישתכחו בעיר אשר כן עשו אל תיקרי קבורים אלא קבוצים אל תיקרי וישתכחו אלא וישתבחו,איכא דאמרי קבורים ממש דאפילו מילי דמטמרן איגלייא להון,עמד עליו נחשול שבים לטובעו אמר כמדומה אני שאלהיהם של אלו אין גבורתו אלא במים בא פרעה טבעו במים בא סיסרא טבעו במים אף הוא עומד עלי לטובעני במים אם גבור הוא יעלה ליבשה ויעשה עמי מלחמה יצתה בת קול ואמרה לו רשע בן רשע בן בנו של עשו הרשע בריה קלה יש לי בעולמי ויתוש שמה,אמאי קרי לה בריה קלה דמעלנא אית לה ומפקנא לית לה,עלה ליבשה ותעשה עמה מלחמה עלה ליבשה בא יתוש ונכנס בחוטמו ונקר במוחו שבע שנים יומא חד הוה קא חליף אבבא דבי נפחא שמע קל ארזפתא אישתיק אמר איכא תקנתא כל יומא מייתו נפחא ומחו קמיה לנכרי יהיב ליה ארבע זוזי לישראל אמר ליה מיסתייך דקא חזית בסנאך עד תלתין יומין עבד הכי מכאן ואילך כיון דדש דש,תניא אמר רבי פנחס בן ערובא אני הייתי בין גדולי רומי וכשמת פצעו את מוחו ומצאו בו כצפור דרור משקל שני סלעים במתניתא תנא כגוזל בן שנה משקל שני ליטרין,אמר אביי נקטינן פיו של נחושת וצפורניו של ברזל כי הוה קא מיית אמר להו ליקליוה לההוא גברא ולבדרי לקיטמיה אשב ימי דלא לשכחיה אלהא דיהודאי ולוקמיה בדינא,אונקלוס בר קלוניקוס בר אחתיה דטיטוס הוה בעי לאיגיורי אזל אסקיה לטיטוס בנגידא אמר ליה מאן חשיב בההוא עלמא אמר ליה ישראל מהו לאידבוקי בהו אמר ליה מילייהו נפישין ולא מצית לקיומינהו זיל איגרי בהו בההוא עלמא והוית רישא דכתיב (איכה א, ה) היו צריה לראש וגו' כל המיצר לישראל נעשה ראש אמר ליה דיניה דההוא גברא במאי א"ל 56b. bin truth, you are a king,if not now, then in the future. bAs if you are not a king, Jerusalem will not be handed over into your hand, as it is written: “And the Lebanon shall fall by a mighty one”(Isaiah 10:34). bAnd “mighty one”means bonly a king, as it is written: “And their mighty one shall be of themselves,and their ruler shall proceed from the midst of them” (Jeremiah 30:21), indicating that “mighty one” parallels “ruler.” bAnd “Lebanon”means bonly the Temple, as it is stated: “That good mountain and the Lebanon”(Deuteronomy 3:25). bAndas for bwhat you saidwith your second comment: bIf I am a king why didn’t you come to me until now, there are zealots among uswho bdid not allow usto do this.,Understanding that Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai was prepared to ask him not to destroy the Temple, Vespasian bsaid to him: Ifthere is ba barrel of honey and a snake [ iderakon /i] is wrapped around it, wouldn’t they break the barrel in order tokill bthe snake?In similar fashion, I am forced to destroy the city of Jerusalem in order to kill the zealots barricaded within it. Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bwas silentand did not answer. In light of this, bRav Yoseflater breadthe following verse babout him, and some saythat it was bRabbi Akivawho applied the verse to Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: “I am the Lord… bWho turns wise men backward and makes their knowledge foolish”(Isaiah 44:25). As Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bshould have saidthe following btoVespasian in response: In such a case, bwe take tongs, remove the snake, and kill it, andin this way bwe leave the barrelintact. So too, you should kill the rebels and leave the city as it is., bIn the meantime,as they were talking, ba messenger [ iferistaka /i] arrived from Rome,and bsaid to him: Rise, for the emperor has died, and the noblemen of Rome plan to appoint you astheir bleaderand make you the next emperor. At that time Vespasian bwas wearingonly bone shoe,and when bhe tried to put on the other one, it would not go onhis foot. bHethen btried to remove the othershoe that he was already wearing, but bit would not come off. He said: What is this? /b,Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: Be not distressedor troubled, for bgood tidings have reached you, as it is written: “Good tidings make the bone fat”(Proverbs 15:30), and your feet have grown fatter out of joy and satisfaction. Vespasian said to him: bBut what is the remedy?What must I do in order to put on my shoe? Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: Have someone with whom you are displeased come and pass before you, as it is written: “A broken spirit dries the bones”(Proverbs 17:22). bHe did this, andhis shoe bwent onhis foot. Vespasian bsaid to him: Since you are so wise, why didn’t you come tosee bme until now?Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: But didn’t Ialready btell you?Vespasian bsaid to him: I also told youwhat I had to say.,Vespasian then bsaid toRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: bI will be goingto Rome to accept my new position, band I will send someone elsein my place to continue besieging the city and waging war against it. bButbefore I leave, bask something of me that Ican bgive you.Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: Give me Yavne and its Sagesand do not destroy it, bandspare bthe dynasty of Rabban Gamlieland do not kill them as if they were rebels, bandlastly give me bdoctors to heal Rabbi Tzadok. Rav Yosef readthe following verse babout him, and some saythat it was bRabbi Akivawho applied the verse to Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: “I am the Lord… bWho turns wise men backward and makes their knowledge foolish”(Isaiah 44:25), as bhe should have said to him to leavethe Jews alone bthis time. /b, bAndwhy didn’t Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai make this request? bHe maintainedthat Vespasian bmight not do that muchfor him, band there would not be even a smallamount of bsalvation.Therefore, he made only a modest request, in the hope that he would receive at least that much.,The Gemara asks: bWhatwas he requesting when he asked for bdoctors to heal Rabbi Tzadok?How did they heal him? bThe first day they gave him water to drinkthat contained bbran [ iparei /i]. The nextday they gave him bwatercontaining bflour mixed with bran [ isipuka /i]. The following daythey gave him bwatercontaining bflour.In this way they slowly restored his ability to eat, allowing bhis stomach to broaden little by little. /b,§ Vespasian bwentback to Rome and bsent Titusin his place. The Gemara cites a verse that was expounded as referring to Titus: b“And he shall say: Where is their God, their rock in whom they trusted?”(Deuteronomy 32:37). bThis is the wicked Titus, who insulted and blasphemed God on High. /b, bWhat didTitus bdowhen he conquered the Temple? bHe took a prostitute with his hand, and entered the Holy of Holieswith her. bHethen bspread out a Torah scrollunderneath him band committed a sin,i.e., engaged in sexual intercourse, bon it.Afterward bhe took a sword and cut into the curtainseparating between the Sanctuary and the Holy of Holies. bAnd a miracle was performed and blood spurted forth.Seeing the blood, bhemistakenly bthoughtthat bhe had killed himself.Here, the term himself is a euphemism for God. Titus saw blood issuing forth from the curtain in God’s meeting place, the Temple, and he took it as a sign that he had succeeded in killing God Himself. bAs it is stated: “Your enemies roar in the midst of Your meeting place; they have set up their own signs for signs”(Psalms 74:4)., bAbba Ḥa says:The verse states: b“Who is strong like You, O Lord?”(Psalms 89:9). bWho is strong and indurate like You, as You hear the abuse and the blasphemy of that wicked man and remain silent.Similarly, bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taughtthat the verse: b“Who is like You, O Lord, among the gods [ ielim /i]”(Exodus 15:11), should be read as: bWho is like You among the mute [ iilmim /i],for You conduct Yourself like a mute and remain silent in the face of Your blasphemers., bWhatelse did Titus bdo? He took the curtain and formed it like a large basket, and brought all of thesacred bvessels of the Temple and placed them in it. And he put them on a ship to go and be praised in his citythat he had conquered Jerusalem, bas it is stated: “And so I saw the wicked buried, and come to their rest; but those that had done right were gone from the holy place, and were forgotten in the city; this also is vanity”(Ecclesiastes 8:10). bDo not readthe word bas “buried [ ikevurim /i].” Rather,read it as bcollected [ ikevutzim /i].And bdo not readthe word bas “and were forgotten [ iveyishtakeḥu /i].” Rather,read it as: bAnd they were praised [ iveyishtabeḥu /i].According to this interpretation, the verse speaks of those who will gather and collect items “from the holy place,” the Temple, and be praised in their city about what they had done., bThere arethose bwho saythat the verse is to be read as written, as it is referring to items that were bactually buried.This is because beven items that had been buried were revealed to them,i.e., Titus and his soldiers, as they found all of the sacred vessels.,It is further related about Titus that he was once traveling bat seaand ba wave rose up against himand threatened bto drown him.Titus bsaid: It seems to me that their God,the God of Israel, bhas power only in water. Pharaoh roseagainst them and bHe drowned him in water. Sisera roseagainst them and bHe drowned him in water.Here btoo, He has risen up against me to drown me in water. If He isreally bmighty, let Him go up on dry land andthere bwage war against me. A Divine Voice issued forth and said to him: Wicked one, son of a wicked one, grandson of Esau the wicked,for you are among his descendants and act just like him, bI have a lowly creature in My world and it is called a gnat. /b,The Gemara interjects: bWhy is it called a lowly creature?It is called this bbecause it has an entrancefor taking in food, bbut it does not have an exitfor excretion.,The Gemara resumes its story about Titus. The Divine Voice continued: bGo up on dry land and make war with it. He went up on dry land,and ba gnat came, entered his nostril, and picked at his brain for seven years.Titus suffered greatly from this until bone day he passed by the gate of a blacksmith’s shop.The gnat bheard the sound of a hammerand bwas silentand still. Titus bsaid:I see that bthere is a remedyfor my pain. bEvery day they would bring a blacksmith who hammered before him. He would give four dinarsas payment bto a gentileblacksmith, and bto a Jew he wouldsimply bsay: It is enough for you that you see your enemyin so much pain. bHe did this for thirty daysand it was effective until then. bFrom thatpoint bforward, sincethe gnat bbecame accustomedto the hammering, bit became accustomedto it, and once again it began to pick away at Titus’s brain., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Pineḥas ben Arova said: I wasat that time bamong the noblemen of Rome, and whenTitus bdied they split open his head and foundthat the gnat had grown to bthe size of a sparrow weighing two isela /i. It was taught inanother ibaraita /i:It was blikea one- byear-old pigeon weighing two ilitra /i. /b, bAbaye said: We have a traditionthat bits mouthwas made bof copper and its claws werefashioned of biron. WhenTitus bwas dying, he said tohis attendants: bBurn that man,i.e., me, band scatter his ashes across the seven seas, so that the God of the Jews should not find me and stand me for judgment. /b,§ The Gemara relates: bOnkelos bar Kalonikos, the son of Titus’s sister, wanted to convertto Judaism. bHe wentand braised Titusfrom the grave bthrough necromancy,and bsaid to him: Who ismost bimportant in that worldwhere you are now? Titus bsaid to him: The Jewish people.Onkelos asked him: bShould Ithen battachmyself bto themhere in this world? Titus bsaid to him: Their commandments are numerous, and you will not be able to fulfill them.It is best that you do as follows: bGoout and bbattle against them in that world, and you will become the chief, as it is written: “Her adversaries [ itzareha /i] have become the chief”(Lamentations 1:5), which means: bAnyone who distresses [ imeitzer /i] Israel will become the chief.Onkelos bsaid to him: What is the punishment of that man,a euphemism for Titus himself, in the next world? Titus bsaid to him: /b
9. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

66b. שחתן פוסק הוא פוסק פחות חומש:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנו רבנן אין צריך לומר ראשון תלמיד חכם ושני עם הארץ אלא אפילו ראשון עם הארץ ושני תלמיד חכם יכול לומר לאחיך הייתי רוצה ליתן לך אי אפשי ליתן:,פסקה להכניס לו אלף דינר כו': היינו רישא תנא שומא רבה וקתני שומא זוטא תנא שומא דידיה וקתני שומא דידה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big פסקה להכניס לו כספים סלעה נעשה ששה דינרין החתן מקבל עליו עשרה דינרים לקופה לכל מנה ומנה רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר הכל כמנהג המדינה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big היינו פוסק כנגדם חמשה עשר מנה,תנא עסקא רבה ותנא עסקא זוטא וצריכא דאי תנא עסקא רבה דנפיש רווחא אבל עסקא זוטא דזוטר רווחא אימא לא צריכא ואי אשמעינן עסקא זוטא דזוטר זיונא אבל עסקא רבה דנפיש זיונא אימא לא צריכא:,החתן מקבל עליו עשרה דינר לקופה: מאי קופה אמר רב אשי קופה של בשמים ואמר רב אשי לא נאמרו דברים הללו אלא בירושלים,בעי רב אשי במנה הנישום או במנה המתקבל,את"ל מנה המתקבל יום ראשון או כל יום ויום את"ל כל יום ויום שבת ראשונה או כל שבת ושבת את"ל כל שבת ושבת חדש ראשון או כל חדש וחדש את"ל כל חדש וחדש שנה ראשונה או כל שנה ושנה תיקו,א"ר יהודה אמר רב מעשה בבתו של נקדימון בן גוריון שפסקו לה חכמים ארבע מאות זהובים לקופה של בשמים לבו ביום אמרה להם כך תפסקו לבנותיכם וענו אחריה אמן:,ת"ר מעשה ברבן יוחנן בן זכאי שהיה רוכב על החמור והיה יוצא מירושלים והיו תלמידיו מהלכין אחריו ראה ריבה אחת שהיתה מלקטת שעורים מבין גללי בהמתן של ערביים כיון שראתה אותו נתעטפה בשערה ועמדה לפניו,אמרה לו רבי פרנסני אמר לה בתי מי את אמרה לו בת נקדימון בן גוריון אני אמר לה בתי ממון של בית אביך היכן הלך אמרה לו רבי לא כדין מתלין מתלא בירושלים מלח ממון חסר ואמרי לה חסד ושל בית חמיך היכן הוא אמרה לו בא זה ואיבד את זה,אמרה לו רבי זכור אתה כשחתמת על כתובתי אמר להן לתלמידיו זכור אני כשחתמתי על כתובתה של זו והייתי קורא בה אלף אלפים דינרי זהב מבית אביה חוץ משל חמיה בכה רבן יוחנן בן זכאי ואמר אשריכם ישראל בזמן שעושין רצונו של מקום אין כל אומה ולשון שולטת בהם ובזמן שאין עושין רצונו של מקום מוסרן ביד אומה שפלה ולא ביד אומה שפלה אלא ביד בהמתן של אומה שפלה,ונקדימון בן גוריון לא עבד צדקה והתניא אמרו עליו על נקדימון בן גוריון כשהיה יוצא מביתו לבית המדרש כלי מילת היו 66b. the bson-in-law pledgesaccording to the amount of the dowry that the bride brings, bhe pledges one-fifth lessin the marriage contract, which is the actual value of the property., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara cites a ibaraitato expand upon the mishna’s statement that the father is not required to give the second son-in-law the gift that he promised the first son-in-law, as follows. bThe Sages taught: Needless to say,this ruling applies when the bfirstis ba Torah scholar andthe bsecondis ban ignoramus,since the father-in-law has a reason to refuse to give the second a dowry like the first. bBut evenif the bfirstis ban ignoramus andthe bsecondis ba Torah scholar,the father-in-law bmay say: To your brother, I wanted to givethis dowry, but bto you I do not want to giveit, since the obligation incurred was to a specific individual.,The mishna discusses the relationship between the value of the dowry the bride brings in and the amount of money the groom records in the marriage contract, and various examples are illustrated, e.g., if the woman bpledged to bring him one thousanddinars. The Gemara asks: bTheselatter examples in the mishna bare the same as the first clause of the mishna,and they all illustrate the same ficial conditions. Why was it not sufficient to mention only the case of the thousand dinars? The Gemara explains: The itanna bteachesabout ba large appraisalof her substantial property, band healso bteachesabout ba small appraisalin a case where she has minimal property, to illustrate that there is no halakhic difference between them. Similarly, the itanna bteachesabout the husband’s own bappraisalof how to assess how much she must provide, band healso bteachesabout the wife’s own initial bappraisalthat she did and the corresponding amount that he must write., strongMISHNA: /strong If bshe pledged to bring him moneyand not articles to serve as a dowry, bher isela /i,i.e., four dinars, bbecomes sixdinars with respect to the husband’s obligation in the marriage contract. This follows the standard outlined in the previous mishna: The groom increases his obligation by one half since he will profit from this money. Additionally, the bgroom accepts upon himselfto give btendinars bto the accountfor her needs, bfor each and every hundred dinarsthat she brings. bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Everythingis bin accordance with the regional custom. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong Concerning the first clause, that her iselabecomes six dinars, the Gemara asks: bThis isidentical to that which was taught in the previous mishna, that if she brings one thousand dinars in her dowry, bhe pledges against them fifteen hundred dinars.Why does the mishna cite another example to demonstrate the same principle?,The Gemara responds: The itanna btaughtabout blargeinvestment bcapitaland btaughtabout bsmallinvestment bcapital. Andit is bnecessaryto relate to both situations, bbecause if he taughtonly the case of blarge capital, whichhas babundant profit,you might think that only then does the husband add one-half. bHowever,for bsmall capital, whichhas bsmall profit,you could bsaythat this is bnotthe case. Therefore, it is bnecessaryto also state the principle in this mishna. bAndconversely, bifthe itannahad btaught usonly about bsmall capital,then you might think that bbecauseit has blittle expense,one must add a half. bHowever,with regard to blarge capital,for bwhichthere is babundant expense,you could bsaythat the husband need bnotadd as much. Therefore, it is bnecessaryto state both cases to teach that the husband adds one-half to the sum in any case.,The mishna states that the bson-in-law accepts upon himselfto give bten dinars to the account.The Gemara asks: bWhatis this baccount? Rav Ashi said:It is ban accountfor expenses bof perfumesand cosmetics. bAnd Rav Ashi said: This statement was said onlyfor women bin Jerusalem,where the women are accustomed to using an abundance of perfume.,According to the mishna, the husband must give ten dinars for each and every hundred dinars that she brings. bRav Ashi raises a dilemma:Does this speak bofeach bhundred dinars that are appraisedin her dowry, bor ofeach bhundred dinars that are acceptedby the husband in the marriage contract, which is the appraisal reduced by one-fifth?, bIf you saythat the mishna speaks of each bhundred dinars that is accepted,is the intent that he gives a one-time sum only on the bfirst day oron beach day? If you saythat he gives it bevery day,does he give it only the bfirst weekof marriage bor each week? If you sayhe gives it beach week,does he give it only the bfirst month or each month? If you sayhe gives it beach month,does he give it only the bfirst yearof marriage bor each year?The Gemara does not determine how the calculation must be rendered and with what frequency the husband is required to provide for her cosmetics, and the dilemmas bshall standunresolved.,§ bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said:There was ban incident involvingthe bdaughter of Nakdimon ben Guryon. When the Sages designated for her four hundred goldcoins bfor her account of perfumes,from her late husband’s estate, bforuse bon that same day, sheblessed them and bsaid to them: Thisis how byoushould also bpledge for yourown bdaughters, and they answered after her: Amen. /b,Apropos the daughter of Nakdimon ben Guryon, the Gemara relates what later became of her: bThe Sages taught:There was ban incident involving Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai. When he was riding on a donkey and leaving Jerusalem, and his students were walking after himto learn from him, bhe saw a certain young woman who was gathering barley from among the dung of the animals of Arabs.She was so poor that she subsisted on the undigested barley within the dung. bWhen she saw him, she wrapped herself in her hair,as she had nothing else with which to cover herself, and bstood before him. /b, bShe said to him: My teacher, sustain me.He did not recognize her, so bhe said to her: My daughter, who are you? She said to him: I amthe bdaughter of Nakdimon ben Guryon. He said to her: My daughter, the money of your father’s household, where didit bgo?How did you become so poor? bShe said to him: My teacher, is it notthat they bsay such a proverb in Jerusalem: Salt for money is lacking [ iḥaser /i]?There is nothing with which to preserve it and prevent it from being lost. bAnd some saythe proverb asserts that bkindness [ iḥesed /i]is salt for money, i.e., using money for acts of kindness preserves it. He continued to ask her: bAndthe money bof your father-in-law’s house,which was used properly, for benevolent acts, bwhere is it? She said to him: This one came and destroyed that one;all the money was combined, and it was all lost together., bShe said to him: My teacher,do byou remember when you signed on my marriage contract? He said to his students: I remember that when I signed on the marriage contract of thiswoman, band I read in it,it listed ba thousand thousands,i.e., one million bgold dinarsas a dowry bfrom her father’s house, aside from thatwhich was promised her bfrom her father-in-law. Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai cried and said: How fortunate are you, Israel,for bwhenIsrael bperforms the will ofthe bOmnipresent, no nation or tonguecan brule over them; and whenIsrael bdoes not perform the will of the Omnipresent, He delivers them into the hand of a lowly nation. Notonly are they delivered binto the hand of a lowly nation, but even into the hand of the animals of a lowly nation,as in the pitiful instance of Nakdimon’s daughter.,The recorded incident implies that Nakdimon lost all of his wealth after having failed to use it for acts of kindness. The Gemara asks: bAnd did not Nakdimon ben Guryon perform charity? Isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThey said about Nakdimon ben Guryonthat bwhen he would leave his hometo go bto the study hall,there were bfine woolen garmentshis attendants bwould /b
10. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 3.5.3 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

3.5.3. But the people of the church in Jerusalem had been commanded by a revelation, vouchsafed to approved men there before the war, to leave the city and to dwell in a certain town of Perea called Pella. And when those that believed in Christ had come there from Jerusalem, then, as if the royal city of the Jews and the whole land of Judea were entirely destitute of holy men, the judgment of God at length overtook those who had committed such outrages against Christ and his apostles, and totally destroyed that generation of impious men.
11. Epiphanius, De Mensuris Et Ponderibus, 15, 14 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
alexander, gaius julius (the alabarch) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 260
alexander, tiberius julius Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 260
alexandria, citizenship in Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 260
alexandria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 260
jerusalem, conquest by titus Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 260
jerusalem Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 260
josephus, on alexander the alabarch Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 260
lysimachus Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 260
pella, flight to Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 98
philo of alexandria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 260
prayer Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 98
priest and high priest Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 98
romans/roman empire/rome Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 98
rome Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 260
temple in jerusalem, destruction of' Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 98
vespasian Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 260