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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7235
Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 4.48-4.85


πειράσομαι δ' ἐγώ, καθάπερ νῦν, ἐπὶ πάσης μάχης προάγειν τε ὑμῶν εἰς τοὺς πολεμίους καὶ τελευταῖος ἀποχωρεῖν.”For myself, I will endeavor, as I have now done, to go first before you against your enemies in every engagement, and to be the last that retires from it.”


προσελαύνοντες δὲ οἱ τῆς λίμνης ἐργάται καὶ δρασσόμενοι τοῦ συνεστῶτος ἕλκουσιν εἰς τὰ σκάφη, πληρώσασι δὲ ἀποκόπτειν οὐ ῥᾴδιον, ἀλλὰ δι' εὐτονίαν προσήρτηται τῷ μηρύματι τὸ σκάφος, ἕως ἂν ἐμμηνίῳ γυναικῶν αἵματι καὶ οὔρῳ διαλύσωσιν αὐτήν, οἷς μόνοις εἴκει.For myself, I will endeavor, as I have now done, to go first before you against your enemies in every engagement, and to be the last that retires from it.”


̔Ο μὲν οὖν τοιαῦτα λέγων τὴν στρατιὰν ἀνελάμβανεν, τοῖς δὲ Γαμαλεῦσιν πρὸς ὀλίγον μὲν θαρρῆσαι τῷ κατορθώματι παρέστη παραλόγως τε συμβάντι καὶ μεγάλως7. So Vespasian encouraged his army by this speech; but for the people of Gamala, it happened that they took courage for a little while, upon such great and unaccountable success as they had had.


καὶ διειληφότος τοῦ πολέμου τήν τε ὀρεινὴν ὅλην καὶ τὴν πεδιάδα πάσας οἱ ἐν τοῖς ̔Ιεροσολύμοις τὰς ἐξόδους ἀφῄρηντο: τοὺς μέν γε αὐτομολεῖν προαιρουμένους οἱ ζηλωταὶ παρεφυλάσσοντο, τοὺς δὲ οὔπω τὰ ̔Ρωμαίων φρονοῦντας εἶργεν ἡ στρατιὰ πανταχόθεν τὴν πόλιν περιέχουσα.7. So Vespasian encouraged his army by this speech; but for the people of Gamala, it happened that they took courage for a little while, upon such great and unaccountable success as they had had.


nanBut when they considered with themselves that they had now no hopes of any terms of accommodation, and reflecting upon it that they could not get away, and that their provisions began already to be short, they were exceedingly cast down, and their courage failed them;


οὐ μὴν εἰς τὸ δυνατὸν ἠμέλουν σωτηρίας, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὰ παραρρηχθέντα τοῦ τείχους οἱ γενναιότατοι καὶ τὰ μένοντα περισχόντες ἐφύλασσον οἱ λοιποί.yet did they not neglect what might be for their preservation, so far as they were able, but the most courageous among them guarded those parts of the wall that were beaten down, while the more infirm did the same to the rest of the wall that still remained round the city.


κἀπειδὴ πόλεσιν ἤδη φοβερὸς ἦν, πολλοὶ πρὸς τὴν ἰσχὺν καὶ τὴν εὔροιαν τῶν κατορθωμάτων ἐφθείροντο δυνατοί, καὶ οὐκέτι ἦν δούλων μόνων οὐδὲ λῃστῶν στρατός, ἀλλὰ καὶ δημοτικῶν οὐκ ὀλίγων ὡς πρὸς βασιλέα πειθαρχεῖν.yet did they not neglect what might be for their preservation, so far as they were able, but the most courageous among them guarded those parts of the wall that were beaten down, while the more infirm did the same to the rest of the wall that still remained round the city.


τῶν δὲ ̔Ρωμαίων ἐπιρρωννύντων τὰ χώματα καὶ πάλιν πειρωμένων προσβολῆς οἱ πολλοὶ διεδίδρασκον ἐκ τῆς πόλεως κατά τε δυσβάτων φαράγγων, ᾗπερ οὐκ ἔκειντο φυλακαί, καὶ διὰ τῶν ὑπονόμων.And as the Romans raised their banks, and attempted to get into the city a second time, a great many of them fled out of the city through impracticable valleys, where no guards were placed, as also through subterraneous caverns;


καὶ ὁ μὲν αὐτίκα τελευτᾷ, τοῖς δ' ̓Ιδουμαίοις ἤδη κατορρωδοῦσι τὴν ἰσχὺν τοῦ Σίμωνος ἔδοξε πρὸ τοῦ συμβαλεῖν κατασκέψασθαι τὴν στρατιὰν τῶν πολεμίων.And as the Romans raised their banks, and attempted to get into the city a second time, a great many of them fled out of the city through impracticable valleys, where no guards were placed, as also through subterraneous caverns;


ὅσοι γε μὴν δέει τοῦ ληφθῆναι παρέμενον, [ἐν] ἐνδείᾳ διεφθείροντο: πανταχόθεν γὰρ τροφὴ τοῖς μάχεσθαι δυναμένοις συνηθροίζετο.while those that were afraid of being caught, and for that reason staid in the city, perished for want of food; for what food they had was brought together from all quarters, and reserved for the fighting men.


ὡς δέ φασιν οἱ ἐπιχώριοι τὴν Χεβρὼν οὐ μόνον τῶν τῇδε πόλεων ἀλλὰ καὶ τῆς ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ Μέμφεως ἀρχαιοτέραν: δισχίλια γοῦν αὐτῇ καὶ τριακόσια ἔτη συναριθμεῖται.while those that were afraid of being caught, and for that reason staid in the city, perished for want of food; for what food they had was brought together from all quarters, and reserved for the fighting men.


Καὶ οἱ μὲν ἐν τοιούτοις πάθεσι διεκαρτέρουν, Οὐεσπασιανὸς δὲ πάρεργον ἐποιεῖτο τῆς πολιορκίας τοὺς τὸ ̓Ιταβύριον κατειληφότας ὄρος, ὅ ἐστι τοῦ μεγάλου πεδίου καὶ Σκυθοπόλεως μέσον:8. And these were the hard circumstances that the people of Gamala were in. But now Vespasian went about other work by the by, during this siege, and that was to subdue those that had seized upon Mount Tabor, a place that lies in the middle between the great plain and Scythopolis


τὸν δὲ οὐκ ἔλεος εἰσῆλθεν ἀλλ' ὀργὴ περὶ τῆς ἡρπασμένης, καὶ πρὸς τὸ τεῖχος τῶν ̔Ιεροσολύμων ἐλθὼν καθάπερ τὰ τρωθέντα τῶν θηρίων, ἐπειδὴ τοὺς τρώσαντας οὐ κατέλαβεν, ἐφ' οὓς εὗρε τὸν θυμὸν ἠφίει.8. And these were the hard circumstances that the people of Gamala were in. But now Vespasian went about other work by the by, during this siege, and that was to subdue those that had seized upon Mount Tabor, a place that lies in the middle between the great plain and Scythopolis


οὗ τὸ μὲν ὕψος ἐπὶ τριάκοντα σταδίους ἀνίσχει, μόλις προσβατὸν κατὰ τὸ προσάρκτιον κλίμα, πεδίον δ' ἐστὶν ἡ κορυφὴ σταδίων ἓξ καὶ εἴκοσι, πᾶν τετειχισμένον.whose top is elevated as high as thirty furlongs and is hardly to be ascended on its north side; its top is a plain of twenty-six furlongs, and all encompassed with a wall.


ἐν δὲ τούτῳ καὶ Οὐεσπασιανὸς ἀναστὰς ἐκ τῆς Καισαρείας πέμπτῃ Δαισίου μηνὸς ὥρμησεν ἐπὶ τὰ μηδέπω κατεστραμμένα τῶν τῆς ̓Ιουδαίας χωρίων.whose top is elevated as high as thirty furlongs and is hardly to be ascended on its north side; its top is a plain of twenty-six furlongs, and all encompassed with a wall.


ἤγειρε δὲ τοσοῦτον ὄντα τὸν περίβολον ὁ ̓Ιώσηπος ἐν τεσσαράκοντα ἡμέραις τῇ τε ἄλλῃ χορηγούμενος ὕλῃ κάτωθεν καὶ ὕδατι: καὶ γὰρ τοῖς ἐποίκοις μόνον ἦν ὄμβριον.Now, Josephus erected this so long a wall in forty days’ time, and furnished it with other materials, and with water from below, for the inhabitants only made use of rain water.


πόθοι δ' ἦσαν ἁρπαγῆς ἀπλήρωτοι καὶ τῶν πλουσίων οἴκων ἔρευνα φόνος τε ἀνδρῶν καὶ γυναικῶν ὕβρεις ἐπαίζοντοNow, Josephus erected this so long a wall in forty days’ time, and furnished it with other materials, and with water from below, for the inhabitants only made use of rain water.


πολλοῦ οὖν πλήθους ἐπὶ τοῦτο συνειλεγμένου Οὐεσπασιανὸς Πλάκιδον σὺν ἱππεῦσιν ἑξακοσίοις πέμπει.As therefore there was a great multitude of people gotten together upon this mountain, Vespasian sent Placidus with six hundred horsemen thither.


ἐν δὲ τούτῳ τὸ κατὰ τὴν πόλιν ἐσκεδασμένον πλῆθος τῶν ζηλωτῶν εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν πρὸς τοὺς διαπεφευγότας ἠθροίσθη, καὶ κατάγειν αὐτοὺς παρεσκευάσατο ̓Ιωάννης ἐπί τε τὸν δῆμον καὶ τοὺς ̓Ιδουμαίους.As therefore there was a great multitude of people gotten together upon this mountain, Vespasian sent Placidus with six hundred horsemen thither.


τούτῳ τὸ μὲν προσβαίνειν ἀμήχανον ἦν, ἐλπίδι δὲ δεξιῶν καὶ παρακλήσεως πρὸς εἰρήνην τοὺς πολλοὺς προεκαλεῖτο.Now, as it was impossible for him to ascend the mountain, he invited many of them to peace, by the offer of his right hand for their security, and of his intercession for them.


πλεονεκτοῦντες δὲ τῷ τόπῳ καὶ πύργους ἔτι προσκατεσκεύασαν τέσσαρας μεγίστους, ὡς ἀφ' ὑψηλοτέρων ποιοῖντο τὰς ἀφέσεις, τὸν μὲν κατὰ τὴν ἀνατολικὴν καὶ βόρειον γωνίανNow, as it was impossible for him to ascend the mountain, he invited many of them to peace, by the offer of his right hand for their security, and of his intercession for them.


κατῄεσαν δὲ ἀντεπιβουλεύοντες: ὅ τε γὰρ Πλάκιδος ὡμίλει πρᾳότερον σπουδάζων αὐτοὺς ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ λαβεῖν, κἀκεῖνοι κατῄεσαν ὡς πειθόμενοι δῆθεν, ἵνα ἀφυλάκτῳ προσπέσωσιν.Accordingly they came down, but with a treacherous design, as well as he had the like treacherous design upon them on the other side; for Placidus spoke mildly to them, as aiming to take them, when he got them into the plain; they also came down, as complying with his proposals, but it was in order to fall upon him when he was not aware of it:


περιαλγήσας δὲ τῷ πάθει καρτερεῖν τὴν βάσανον οὐχ οἷός τε ἦν καὶ τῆς πατρίδος πορθουμένης ἑτέροις προσευσχολεῖν πολέμοις.Accordingly they came down, but with a treacherous design, as well as he had the like treacherous design upon them on the other side; for Placidus spoke mildly to them, as aiming to take them, when he got them into the plain; they also came down, as complying with his proposals, but it was in order to fall upon him when he was not aware of it:


nanhowever, Placidus’s stratagem was too hard for theirs; for when the Jews began to fight, he pretended to run away, and when they were in pursuit of the Romans, he enticed them a great way along the plain, and then made his horsemen turn back; whereupon he beat them, and slew a great number of them, and cut off the retreat of the rest of the multitude, and hindered their return.


καὶ οἱ μὲν τὸ ̓Ιταβύριον καταλιπόντες ἐπὶ ̔Ιεροσολύμων ἔφευγον, οἱ δὲ ἐπιχώριοι πίστεις λαβόντες, ἐπιλελοίπει δ' αὐτοὺς ὕδωρ, τό τε ὄρος καὶ σφᾶς αὐτοὺς Πλακίδῳ παρέδοσαν.So they left Tabor, and fled to Jerusalem, while the people of the country came to terms with him, for their water failed them, and so they delivered up the mountain and themselves to Placidus.


τετείχισται μὲν οὕτως ἡ Αἴγυπτος πάντοθεν: τὸ μεταξὺ δὲ Πηλουσίου καὶ Συήνης μῆκος αὐτῆς σταδίων δισχιλίων, ὅ τε ἀπὸ τῆς Πλινθίνης ἀνάπλους εἰς τὸ Πηλούσιον σταδίων τρισχιλίων ἑξακοσίων.So they left Tabor, and fled to Jerusalem, while the people of the country came to terms with him, for their water failed them, and so they delivered up the mountain and themselves to Placidus.


Τῶν δ' ἐπὶ τῆς Γαμάλας οἱ παραβολώτεροι μὲν φεύγοντες διελάνθανον, οἱ δ' ἀσθενεῖς διεφθείροντο λιμῷ:9. But of the people of Gamala, those that were of the bolder sort fled away and hid themselves, while the more infirm perished by famine;


ὁ δ' ἀναζεύξας ἀπὸ Καισαρείας εἰς Βηρυτὸν παρῆν, ἔνθα πολλαὶ μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς Συρίας αὐτῷ, πολλαὶ δὲ κἀπὸ τῶν ἄλλων ἐπαρχιῶν πρεσβεῖαι συνήντων, στεφάνους παρ' ἑκάστης πόλεως καὶ συγχαρτικὰ προσφέρουσαι ψηφίσματα.9. But of the people of Gamala, those that were of the bolder sort fled away and hid themselves, while the more infirm perished by famine;


τὸ μάχιμον δ' ἀντεῖχεν τῇ πολιορκίᾳ, μέχρι δευτέρᾳ καὶ εἰκάδι μηνὸς ̔Υπερβερεταίου τρεῖς τῶν ἀπὸ τοῦ πέμπτου καὶ δεκάτου τάγματος στρατιῶται περὶ τὴν ἑωθινὴν φυλακὴν ὑποδύντες τὸν προύχοντα κατὰ τούτους πύργον ὑπορύσσουσιν ἡσυχῆ.but the men of war sustained the siege till the twoandtwentieth day of the month Hyperberetaeus [Tisri,] when three soldiers of the fifteenth legion, about the morning watch, got under a high tower that was near them, and undermined it, without making any noise;


Οὐεσπασιανὸς δὲ ταῖς πρεσβείαις χρηματίσας καὶ καταστησάμενος ἑκάστοις τὰς ἀρχὰς δικαίως καὶ διὰ τῶν ἀξίων εἰς ̓Αντιόχειαν ἀφικνεῖται.but the men of war sustained the siege till the twoandtwentieth day of the month Hyperberetaeus [Tisri,] when three soldiers of the fifteenth legion, about the morning watch, got under a high tower that was near them, and undermined it, without making any noise;


τοῖς δ' ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ φύλαξιν οὔτε προσιόντων αἴσθησις, νὺξ γὰρ ἦν, οὔτε προσελθόντων ἐγένετο. οἱ δὲ στρατιῶται φειδόμενοι τοῦ ψόφου καὶ πέντε τοὺς κραταιοτάτους ἐκκυλίσαντες λίθους ὑποπηδῶσι.nor when they either came to it, which was in the nighttime, nor when they were under it, did those that guarded it perceive them. These soldiers then upon their coming avoided making a noise, and when they had rolled away five of its strongest stones, they went away hastily;


τῆς δ' αὐτῆς νυκτὸς ἐμπίπτει μετάνοια τοῖς στρατιώταις καὶ δέος τοῦ προπέμψαντος, εἰ κρείσσων γένοιτο: σπασάμενοι δὲ τὰ ξίφη τὸν Καικίναν ὥρμησαν ἀνελεῖν, κἂν ἐπράχθη τὸ ἔργον αὐτοῖς, εἰ μὴ προσπίπτοντες οἱ χιλίαρχοι καθικέτευσαν αὐτούς.nor when they either came to it, which was in the nighttime, nor when they were under it, did those that guarded it perceive them. These soldiers then upon their coming avoided making a noise, and when they had rolled away five of its strongest stones, they went away hastily;


κατηρείπετο δὲ ὁ πύργος ἐξαίφνης μετὰ μεγίστου ψόφου, καὶ συγκατακρημνίζονται μὲν οἱ φύλακες αὐτῷ, θορυβηθέντες δὲ οἱ κατὰ τὰς ἄλλας φυλακὰς ἔφευγον:whereupon the tower fell down on a sudden, with a very great noise, and its guard fell headlong with it; so that those that kept guard at other places were under such disturbance, that they ran away;


καὶ μετὰ μίαν ἡμέραν εἰσελαύνει μὲν ̓Αντώνιος μετὰ τῆς δυνάμεως, ὑπήντων δ' οἱ Οὐιτελλίου καὶ τριχῆ κατὰ τὴν πόλιν συμβαλόντες ἀπώλοντο πάντες.whereupon the tower fell down on a sudden, with a very great noise, and its guard fell headlong with it; so that those that kept guard at other places were under such disturbance, that they ran away;


καὶ πολλοὺς διεκπαίειν τολμῶντας οἱ ̔Ρωμαῖοι διέφθειραν, ἐν οἷς καὶ ̓Ιώσηπόν τις ὑπὲρ τὸ παρερρηγμένον τοῦ τείχους ἐκδιδράσκοντα βαλὼν ἀναιρεῖ.the Romans also slew many of those that ventured to oppose them, among whom was Joseph, who was slain by a dart, as he was running away over that part of the wall that was broken down:


ἐκεῖθεν δ' ἀποβὰς ὁδεύει καὶ κατὰ πολίχνην Τάνιν αὐλίζεται. δεύτερος αὐτῷ σταθμὸς ̔Ηρακλέους πόλις καὶ τρίτος Πηλούσιον γίνεται.the Romans also slew many of those that ventured to oppose them, among whom was Joseph, who was slain by a dart, as he was running away over that part of the wall that was broken down:


τῶν δ' ἀνὰ τὴν πόλιν διασεισθέντων ὑπὸ τοῦ ψόφου διαδρομή τε ἦν καὶ πτόα πολλὴ καθάπερ εἰσπεπαικότων πάντων τῶν πολεμίων.but as those that were in the city were greatly affrighted at the noise, they ran hither and thither, and a great consternation fell upon them, as though all the enemy had fallen in at once upon them.


ἔνθα καὶ Χάρης κατακείμενος καὶ νοσηλευόμενος ἐκλείπει πολλοῦ δέους συνεργήσαντος εἰς θάνατον τῇ νόσῳ.Then it was that Chares, who was ill, and under the physician’s hands, gave up the ghost, the fear he was in greatly contributing to make his distemper fatal to him.


̔Ρωμαῖοί γε μὴν μεμνημένοι τοῦ προτέρου πταίσματος οὐκ εἰσέβαλλον ἕως τρίτῃ καὶ εἰκάδι τοῦ προειρημένου μηνός.But the Romans so well remembered their former ill success, that they did not enter the city till the three and twentieth day of the forementioned month.


nan10. At which time Titus, who was now returned, out of the indignation he had at the destruction the Romans had undergone while he was absent, took two hundred chosen horsemen and some footmen with him, and entered without noise into the city.


καὶ παρελθόντος οἱ μὲν φύλακες αἰσθόμενοι μετὰ βοῆς ἐχώρουν ἐπὶ τὰ ὅπλα, δήλης δὲ τῆς εἰσβολῆς ταχέως καὶ τοῖς εἴσω γενομένης, οἱ μὲν ἁρπάζοντες τὰ τέκνα καὶ γυναῖκας ἐπισυρόμενοι πρὸς τὴν ἄκραν ἀνέφευγον μετὰ κωκυτοῦ καὶ βοῆς, οἱ δὲ τὸν Τίτον ὑπαντιάζοντες ἀδιαλείπτως ἔπιπτον:Now, as the watch perceived that he was coming, they made a noise, and betook themselves to their arms; and as that his entrance was presently known to those that were in the city, some of them caught hold of their children and their wives, and drew them after them, and fled away to the citadel, with lamentations and cries, while others of them went to meet Titus, and were killed perpetually;


ὅσοι δὲ ἀπεκωλύθησαν ἐπὶ τὴν κορυφὴν ἀναδραμεῖν ὑπ' ἀμηχανίας εἰς τὰς τῶν ̔Ρωμαίων φρουρὰς ἐξέπιπτον. ἄπειρος δ' ἦν πανταχοῦ φονευομένων ὁ στόνος, καὶ τὸ αἷμα πᾶσαν ἐπέκλυζε τὴν πόλιν κατὰ πρανοῦς χεόμενον.but so many of them as were hindered from running up to the citadel, not knowing what in the world to do, fell among the Roman guards, while the groans of those that were killed were prodigiously great everywhere, and blood ran down over all the lower parts of the city, from the upper.


πρὸς δὲ τοὺς ἀναφεύγοντας εἰς τὴν ἄκραν ἐπεβοήθει Οὐεσπασιανὸς πᾶσαν εἰσαγαγὼν τὴν δύναμιν.But then Vespasian himself came to his assistance against those that had fled to the citadel, and brought his whole army with him;


ἦν δ' ἥ τε κορυφὴ πάντοθεν πετρώδης καὶ δύσβατος, εἰς ἄπειρον ὕψος ἐπηρμένη, καὶ πανταχόθεν † τοῦ βάθους κατέγεμεν περιειλημμένη κρημνοῖς κατέτεμνόν τε.now this upper part of the city was every way rocky, and difficult of ascent, and elevated to a vast altitude, and very full of people on all sides, and encompassed with precipices


ἐνταῦθα τοὺς προσβαίνοντας οἱ ̓Ιουδαῖοι τοῖς τε ἄλλοις βέλεσι καὶ πέτρας κατακυλινδοῦντες ἐκάκουν: αὐτοὶ δὲ δι' ὕψος ἦσαν δυσέφικτοι βέλει.whereby the Jews cut off those that came up to them, and did much mischief to others by their darts, and the large stones which they rolled down upon them, while they were themselves so high that the enemy’s darts could hardly reach them.


γίνεται δὲ πρὸς ἀπώλειαν αὐτῶν ἄντικρυς θύελλα δαιμόνιος, ἣ τὰ μὲν ̔Ρωμαίων ἔφερεν εἰς αὐτοὺς βέλη, τὰ δὲ αὐτῶν ἀνέστρεφεν καὶ πλάγια παρέσυρεν.However, there arose such a Divine storm against them as was instrumental to their destruction; this carried the Roman darts upon them, and made those which they threw return back, and drove them obliquely away from them;


οὔτε δὲ τοῖς ὑποκρήμνοις ἐφίστασθαι διὰ τὴν βίαν ἐδύναντο τοῦ πνεύματος μηδὲν ἑδραῖον ἔχοντες, οὔτε τοὺς προσβαίνοντας καθορᾶν.nor could the Jews indeed stand upon their precipices, by reason of the violence of the wind, having nothing that was stable to stand upon, nor could they see those that were ascending up to them;


ἐπαναβαίνουσι δὲ ̔Ρωμαῖοι, καὶ περισχόντες οὓς μὲν ἀμυνομένους ἔφθανον, οὓς δὲ χεῖρας προί̈σχοντας: ἐτόνου δὲ τὸν θυμὸν αὐτοῖς ἐπὶ πάντας ἡ μνήμη τῶν ἐπὶ τῆς πρώτης εἰσβολῆς ἀπολωλότων.o the Romans got up and surrounded them, and some they slew before they could defend themselves, and others as they were delivering up themselves; and the remembrance of those that were slain at their former entrance into the city increased their rage against them now;


ἀπογινώσκοντες δὲ τὴν σωτηρίαν πανταχόθεν οἱ πολλοὶ περισχόμενοι τέκνα καὶ γυναῖκας αὑτούς τε κατεκρήμνιζον εἰς τὴν φάραγγα: βαθυτάτη δ' αὕτη κατὰ τὴν ἄκραν ὑπορώρυκτο.a great number also of those that were surrounded on every side, and despaired of escaping, threw their children and their wives, and themselves also, down the precipices, into the valley beneath, which, near the citadel, had been dug hollow to a vast depth;


nanbut so it happened, that the anger of the Romans appeared not to be so extravagant as was the madness of those that were now taken, while the Romans slew but four thousand, whereas the number of those that had thrown themselves down was found to be five thousand:


διεσώθη δὲ πλὴν δύο γυναικῶν οὐδείς: τῆς Φιλίππου δὲ ἦσαν ἀδελφῆς θυγατέρες αὗται, αὐτὸς δὲ ὁ Φίλιππος ̓Ιακίμου τινὸς ἀνδρὸς ἐπισήμου, τετραρχήσαντος ̓Αγρίππᾳ τῷ βασιλεῖ.nor did anyone escape except two women, who were the daughters of Philip, and Philip himself was the son of a certain eminent man called Jacimus, who had been general of king Agrippa’s army;


διεσώθησαν δὲ τὰς παρὰ τὴν ἅλωσιν ὀργὰς ̔Ρωμαίων λαθοῦσαι: τότε γὰρ οὐδὲ νηπίων ἐφείδοντο, πολλὰ δ' ἑκάστοτε ἁρπάζοντες ἐσφενδόνων ἀπὸ τῆς ἄκρας.and these did therefore escape, because they lay concealed from the sight of the Romans when the city was taken; for otherwise they spared not so much as the infants, of which many were flung down by them from the citadel.


Γάμαλα μὲν οὕτως ἑάλω τρίτῃ καὶ εἰκάδι μηνὸς ̔Υπερβερεταίου τῆς ἀποστάσεως ἀρξαμένης Γορπιαίου μηνὸς τετάρτῃ καὶ εἰκάδι.And thus was Galama taken on the three and twentieth day of the month Hyperberetaeus [Tieri], whereas the city had first revolted on the four and twentieth day of the month Gorpiaeus [Elul].


Μόνη δὲ Γίσχαλα πολίχνη τῆς Γαλιλαίας ἀχείρωτος κατελείπετο, τοῦ μὲν πλήθους εἰρηνικὰ φρονοῦντος, καὶ γὰρ ἦσαν τὸ πλέον γεωργοὶ καὶ ταῖς ἀπὸ τῶν καρπῶν ἐλπίσιν ἀεὶ προσανέχοντες, παρεισεφθαρμένου δ' αὐτοῖς οὐκ ὀλίγου λῃστρικοῦ τάγματος, ᾧ τινες καὶ τοῦ πολιτικοῦ συνενόσουν.1. Now, no place of Galilee remained to be taken but the small city of Gischala, whose multitude yet were desirous of peace; for they were generally husbandmen, and always applied themselves to cultivate the fruits of the earth. However, there were a great number that belonged to a band of robbers, that were already corrupted, and had crept in among them, and some of the governing part of the citizens were sick of the same distemper.


ἐνῆγε δὲ τούτους εἰς τὴν ἀπόστασιν καὶ συνεκρότει Ληί̈ου τινὸς υἱὸς ̓Ιωάννης, γόης ἀνὴρ καὶ ποικιλώτατος τὸ ἦθος, πρόχειρος μὲν ἐλπίσαι μεγάλα, δεινὸς δὲ τῶν ἐλπισθέντων περιγενέσθαι παντί τε ὢν δῆλος ἀγαπᾶν τὸν πόλεμον εἰς δυναστείας ἐπίθεσιν.It was John, the son of a certain man whose name was Levi, that drew them into this rebellion, and encouraged them in it. He was a cunning knave, and of a temper that could put on various shapes; very rash in expecting great things, and very sagacious in bringing about what he hoped for. It was known to everybody that he was fond of war, in order to thrust himself into authority;


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1. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.1-1.6, 1.10-1.12, 1.15, 1.17-1.19, 1.21-1.22, 1.30, 2.225, 2.235, 2.254-2.257, 2.267-2.269, 2.426-2.430, 2.432, 2.581, 2.587-2.593, 4.1, 4.4, 4.10, 4.13-4.39, 4.49-4.85 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. 1. Whereas the war which the Jews made with the Romans hath been the greatest of all those, not only that have been in our times, but, in a manner, of those that ever were heard of; both of those wherein cities have fought against cities, or nations against nations; while some men who were not concerned in the affairs themselves have gotten together vain and contradictory stories by hearsay, and have written them down after a sophistical manner; 1.1. For that it was a seditious temper of our own that destroyed it; and that they were the tyrants among the Jews who brought the Roman power upon us, who unwillingly attacked us, and occasioned the burning of our holy temple; Titus Caesar, who destroyed it, is himself a witness, who, during the entire war, pitied the people who were kept under by the seditious, and did often voluntarily delay the taking of the city, and allowed time to the siege, in order to let the authors have opportunity for repentance. 1.1. But still he was not able to exclude Antiochus, for he burnt the towers, and filled up the trenches, and marched on with his army. And as he looked upon taking his revenge on Alexander, for endeavoring to stop him, as a thing of less consequence, he marched directly against the Arabians 1.2. and while those that were there present have given false accounts of things, and this either out of a humor of flattery to the Romans, or of hatred towards the Jews; and while their writings contain sometimes accusations, and sometimes encomiums, but nowhere the accurate truth of the facts 1.2. as also how our people made a sedition upon Herod’s death, while Augustus was the Roman emperor, and Quintilius Varus was in that country; and how the war broke out in the twelfth year of Nero, with what happened to Cestius; and what places the Jews assaulted in a hostile manner in the first sallies of the war. 1.2. These honorary grants Caesar sent orders to have engraved in the Capitol, that they might stand there as indications of his own justice, and of the virtue of Antipater. 1.3. I have proposed to myself, for the sake of such as live under the government of the Romans, to translate those books into the Greek tongue, which I formerly composed in the language of our country, and sent to the Upper Barbarians; I, Joseph, the son of Matthias, by birth a Hebrew, a priest also, and one who at first fought against the Romans myself, and was forced to be present at what was done afterward [am the author of this work]. 1.3. 12. I have comprehended all these things in seven books, and have left no occasion for complaint or accusation to such as have been acquainted with this war; and I have written it down for the sake of those that love truth, but not for those that please themselves [with fictitious relations]. And I will begin my account of these things with what I call my First Chapter. 1.3. When Antigonus heard of this, he sent some of his party with orders to hinder, and lay ambushes for these collectors of corn. This command was obeyed, and a great multitude of armed men were gathered together about Jericho, and lay upon the mountains, to watch those that brought the provisions. 1.4. 2. Now at the time when this great concussion of affairs happened, the affairs of the Romans were themselves in great disorder. Those Jews also, who were for innovations, then arose when the times were disturbed; they were also in a flourishing condition for strength and riches, insomuch that the affairs of the East were then exceeding tumultuous, while some hoped for gain, and others were afraid of loss in such troubles; 1.4. and when the city had already received its sacred constitution again, Antiochus died; whose son Antiochus succeeded him in the kingdom, and in his hatred to the Jews also. 1.4. but when Zenodorus was dead, Caesar bestowed on him all that land which lay between Trachonitis and Galilee. Yet, what was still of more consequence to Herod, he was beloved by Caesar next after Agrippa, and by Agrippa next after Caesar; whence he arrived at a very great degree of felicity. Yet did the greatness of his soul exceed it, and the main part of his magimity was extended to the promotion of piety. 1.5. for the Jews hoped that all of their nation which were beyond Euphrates would have raised an insurrection together with them. The Gauls also, in the neighborhood of the Romans, were in motion, and the Celtae were not quiet; but all was in disorder after the death of Nero. And the opportunity now offered induced many to aim at the royal power; and the soldiery affected change, out of the hopes of getting money. 1.5. 2. However, Simeon managed the public affairs after a courageous manner, and took Gazara, and Joppa, and Jamnia, which were cities in the neighborhood. He also got the garrison under, and demolished the citadel. He was afterward an auxiliary to Antiochus, against Trypho, whom he besieged in Dora, before he went on his expedition against the Medes; 1.5. for when he was come to him, he cried out, “Where in the world is this wretched son-in-law of mine? Where shall I see the head of him which contrived to murder his father, which I will tear to pieces with my own hands? I will do the same also to my daughter, who hath such a fine husband; for although she be not a partner in the plot, yet, by being the wife of such a creature, she is polluted. 1.6. I thought it therefore an absurd thing to see the truth falsified in affairs of such great consequence, and to take no notice of it; but to suffer those Greeks and Romans that were not in the wars to be ignorant of these things, and to read either flatteries or fictions, while the Parthians, and the Babylonians, and the remotest Arabians, and those of our nation beyond Euphrates, with the Adiabeni, by my means, knew accurately both whence the war begun, what miseries it brought upon us, and after what manner it ended. 1.6. And as the siege was delayed by this means, the year of rest came on, upon which the Jews rest every seventh year as they do on every seventh day. On this year, therefore, Ptolemy was freed from being besieged, and slew the brethren of John, with their mother, and fled to Zeno, who was also called Cotylas, who was the tyrant of Philadelphia. 1.6. Whereupon the king avenged this insolent attempt of the mother upon her son, and blotted Herod, whom he had by her, out of his testament, who had been before named therein as successor to Antipater. 1.11. But if anyone makes an unjust accusation against us, when we speak so passionately about the tyrants, or the robbers, or sorely bewail the misfortunes of our country, let him indulge my affections herein, though it be contrary to the rules for writing history; because it had so come to pass, that our city Jerusalem had arrived at a higher degree of felicity than any other city under the Roman government, and yet at last fell into the sorest of calamities again. 1.11. 2. And now the Pharisees joined themselves to her, to assist her in the government. These are a certain sect of the Jews that appear more religious than others, and seem to interpret the laws more accurately. 1.12. Accordingly, it appears to me that the misfortunes of all men, from the beginning of the world, if they be compared to these of the Jews, are not so considerable as they were; while the authors of them were not foreigners neither. This makes it impossible for me to contain my lamentations. But, if anyone be inflexible in his censures of me, let him attribute the facts themselves to the historical part, and the lamentations to the writer himself only. 1.12. 1. Now Hyrcanus was heir to the kingdom, and to him did his mother commit it before she died; but Aristobulus was superior to him in power and magimity; and when there was a battle between them, to decide the dispute about the kingdom, near Jericho, the greatest part deserted Hyrcanus, and went over to Aristobulus; 1.15. But then, an undertaking to preserve the memory of what hath not been before recorded, and to represent the affairs of one’s own time to those that come afterward, is really worthy of praise and commendation. Now he is to be esteemed to have taken good pains in earnest, not who does no more than change the disposition and order of other men’s works, but he who not only relates what had not been related before, but composes an entire body of history of his own: 1.15. 5. And now did many of the priests, even when they saw their enemies assailing them with swords in their hands, without any disturbance, go on with their Divine worship, and were slain while they were offering their drink-offerings, and burning their incense, as preferring the duties about their worship to God before their own preservation. The greatest part of them were slain by their own countrymen, of the adverse faction, and an innumerable multitude threw themselves down precipices; nay, some there were who were so distracted among the insuperable difficulties they were under, that they set fire to the buildings that were near to the wall, and were burnt together with them. 1.17. 6. To write concerning the Antiquities of the Jews, who they were [originally], and how they revolted from the Egyptians, and what country they traveled over, and what countries they seized upon afterward, and how they were removed out of them, I think this not to be a fit opportunity, and, on other accounts, also superfluous; and this because many Jews before me have composed the histories of our ancestors very exactly; as have some of the Greeks done it also, and have translated our histories into their own tongue, and have not much mistaken the truth in their histories. 1.17. He also parted the whole nation into five conventions, assigning one portion to Jerusalem, another to Gadara, that another should belong to Amathus, a fourth to Jericho, and to the fifth division was allotted Sepphoris, a city of Galilee. So the people were glad to be thus freed from monarchical government, and were governed for the future by an aristocracy. 1.18. But then, where the writers of these affairs and our prophets leave off, thence shall I take my rise and begin my history. Now, as to what concerns that war which happened in my own time, I will go over it very largely, and with all the diligence I am able; but for what preceded mine own age, that I shall run over briefly. 1.18. 9. But now Cassius, after Crassus, put a stop to the Parthians, who were marching in order to enter Syria. Cassius had fled into that province, and when he had taken possession of the same, he made a hasty march into Judea; and, upon his taking Taricheae, he carried thirty thousand Jews into slavery. He also slew Pitholaus, who had supported the seditious followers of Aristobulus; and it was Antipater who advised him so to do. 1.19. 7. [For example, I shall relate] how Antiochus, who was named Epiphanes, took Jerusalem by force, and held it three years and three months, and was then ejected out of the country by the sons of Asamoneus: after that, how their posterity quarreled about the government, and brought upon their settlement the Romans and Pompey; how Herod also, the son of Antipater, dissolved their government, and brought Socius upon them; 1.19. 4. Thus was Pelusium taken. But still, as they were marching on, those Egyptian Jews that inhabited the country called the country of Onias stopped them. Then did Antipater not only persuade them not to stop them, but to afford provisions for their army; on which account even the people about Memphis would not fight against them, but of their own accord joined Mithridates. 1.21. 8. As also [I shall relate] how they built walls about the neighboring cities; and how Nero, upon Cestuis’s defeat, was in fear of the entire event of the war, and thereupon made Vespasian general in this war; and how this Vespasian, with the elder of his sons, made an expedition into the country of Judea; what was the number of the Roman army that he made use of; and how many of his auxiliaries were cut off in all Galilee; and how he took some of its cities entirely, and by force, and others of them by treaty, and on terms. 1.21. 7. Now Hyrcanus was, by degrees, inflamed with these discourses, and at length could bear no longer, but he summoned Herod to take his trial. Accordingly, by his father’s advice, and as soon as the affairs of Galilee would give him leave, he came up [to Jerusalem], when he had first placed garrisons in Galilee; however, he came with a sufficient body of soldiers, so many indeed that he might not appear to have with him an army able to overthrow Hyrcanus’s government, nor yet so few as to expose him to the insults of those that envied him. 1.22. Now, when I am come so far, I shall describe the good order of the Romans in war, and the discipline of their legions; the amplitude of both the Galilees, with its nature, and the limits of Judea. And, besides this, I shall particularly go over what is peculiar to the country, the lakes and fountains that are in them, and what miseries happened to every city as they were taken; and all this with accuracy, as I saw the things done, or suffered in them. For I shall not conceal any of the calamities I myself endured, since I shall relate them to such as know the truth of them. 1.22. 2. So he gave command that the Jews should bring in seven hundred talents; whereupon Antipater, out of his dread of Cassius’s threats, parted the raising of this sum among his sons, and among others of his acquaintance, and to be done immediately; and among them he required one Malichus, who was at enmity with him, to do his part also, which necessity forced him to do. 2.235. but they were managed by one Eleazar, the son of Dineus, and by Alexander, in these their thievish and seditious attempts. These men fell upon those that were in the neighborhood of the Acrabatene toparchy, and slew them, without sparing any age, and set the villages on fire. 2.254. 3. When the country was purged of these, there sprang up another sort of robbers in Jerusalem, which were called Sicarii, who slew men in the daytime, and in the midst of the city; 2.255. this they did chiefly at the festivals, when they mingled themselves among the multitude, and concealed daggers under their garments, with which they stabbed those that were their enemies; and when any fell down dead, the murderers became a part of those that had indignation against them; by which means they appeared persons of such reputation, that they could by no means be discovered. 2.256. The first man who was slain by them was Jonathan the high priest, after whose death many were slain every day, while the fear men were in of being so served was more afflicting than the calamity itself; 2.257. and while everybody expected death every hour, as men do in war, so men were obliged to look before them, and to take notice of their enemies at a great distance; nor, if their friends were coming to them, durst they trust them any longer; but, in the midst of their suspicions and guarding of themselves, they were slain. Such was the celerity of the plotters against them, and so cunning was their contrivance. 2.267. On which account both parties had a contest with one another; and this contest increased so much, that it came at last to arms, and the bolder sort of them marched out to fight; for the elders of the Jews were not able to put a stop to their own people that were disposed to be tumultuous, and the Greeks thought it a shame for them to be overcome by the Jews. 2.268. Now these Jews exceeded the others in riches and strength of body; but the Grecian part had the advantage of assistance from the soldiery; for the greatest part of the Roman garrison was raised out of Syria; and being thus related to the Syrian part, they were ready to assist it. 2.269. However, the governors of the city were concerned to keep all quiet, and whenever they caught those that were most for fighting on either side, they punished them with stripes and bonds. Yet did not the sufferings of those that were caught affright the remainder, or make them desist; but they were still more and more exasperated, and deeper engaged in the sedition. 2.426. insomuch that the king’s soldiers were overpowered by their multitude and boldness; and so they gave way, and were driven out of the upper city by force. The others then set fire to the house of Aias the high priest, and to the palaces of Agrippa and Bernice; 2.427. after which they carried the fire to the place where the archives were reposited, and made haste to burn the contracts belonging to their creditors, and thereby to dissolve their obligations for paying their debts; and this was done in order to gain the multitude of those who had been debtors, and that they might persuade the poorer sort to join in their insurrection with safety against the more wealthy; so the keepers of the records fled away, and the rest set fire to them. 2.428. And when they had thus burnt down the nerves of the city, they fell upon their enemies; at which time some of the men of power, and of the high priests, went into the vaults under ground, and concealed themselves 2.429. while others fled with the king’s soldiers to the upper palace, and shut the gates immediately; among whom were Aias the high priest, and the ambassadors that had been sent to Agrippa. And now the seditious were contented with the victory they had gotten, and the buildings they had burnt down, and proceeded no further. 2.432. nor did they cease to fight one with another either by night or by day, while the seditious supposed that those within would grow weary for want of food, and those without supposed the others would do the like by the tediousness of the siege. 2.581. He told them that he should make trial of the good order they would observe in war, even before it came to any battle, in case they would abstain from the crimes they used to indulge themselves in, such as theft, and robbery, and rapine, and from defrauding their own countrymen, and never to esteem the harm done to those that were so near of kin to them to be any advantage to themselves; 2.587. He was a hypocritical pretender to humanity, but where he had hopes of gain, he spared not the shedding of blood: his desires were ever carried to great things, and he encouraged his hopes from those mean wicked tricks which he was the author of. He had a peculiar knack at thieving; but in some time he got certain companions in his impudent practices; at first they were but few, but as he proceeded on in his evil course, they became still more and more numerous. 2.591. He after that contrived a very shrewd trick, and pretending that the Jews who dwelt in Syria were obliged to make use of oil that was made by others than those of their own nation, he desired leave of Josephus to send oil to their borders; 2.592. o he bought four amphorae with such Tyrian money as was of the value of four Attic drachmae, and sold every half-amphora at the same price. And as Galilee was very fruitful in oil, and was peculiarly so at that time, by sending away great quantities, and having the sole privilege so to do, he gathered an immense sum of money together, which money he immediately used to the disadvantage of him who gave him that privilege; 4.1. 1. Now all those Galileans who, after the taking of Jotapata, had revolted from the Romans, did, upon the conquest of Taricheae, deliver themselves up to them again. And the Romans received all the fortresses and the cities, excepting Gischala and those that had seized upon Mount Tabor; 4.1. The people that were in it were made more bold by the nature of the place than the people of Jotapata had been, but it had much fewer fighting men in it; and they had such a confidence in the situation of the place, that they thought the enemy could not be too many for them; for the city had been filled with those that had fled to it for safety, on account of its strength; on which account they had been able to resist those whom Agrippa sent to besiege it for seven months together. 4.1. and that even the Romans were not ignorant how the period of the seventh day was among them a cessation from all labors; and that he who should compel them to transgress the law about that day would be equally guilty with those that were compelled to transgress it: 4.4. Now Agrippa had united Sogana and Seleucia by leagues to himself, at the very beginning of the revolt from the Romans; yet did not Gamala accede to them, but relied upon the difficulty of the place, which was greater than that of Jotapata 4.4. As to what concerned himself, he avoided to say anything, that he might by no means seem to complain of it; but he said that “we ought to bear manfully what usually falls out in war, and this, by considering what the nature of war is, and how it can never be that we must conquer without bloodshed on our own side; for there stands about us that fortune which is of its own nature mutable; 4.4. Those that were called Sicarii had taken possession of it formerly, but at this time they overran the neighboring countries, aiming only to procure to themselves necessaries; for the fear they were then in prevented their further ravages. 4.13. And as the legions, according to their usual custom, were fortifying their camp upon that mountain, he began to cast up banks at the bottom, at the part towards the east, where the highest tower of the whole city was, and where the fifteenth legion pitched their camp; while the fifth legion did duty over against the midst of the city, and whilst the tenth legion filled up the ditches and the valleys. 4.13. for Titus went from Gischala to Caesarea, and Vespasian from Caesarea to Jamnia and Azotus, and took them both; and when he had put garrisons into them, he came back with a great number of the people, who were come over to him, upon his giving them his right hand for their preservation. 4.14. Now at this time it was that as king Agrippa was come nigh the walls, and was endeavoring to speak to those that were on the walls about a surrender, he was hit with a stone on his right elbow by one of the slingers; 4.14. for the first man they meddled with was Antipas, one of the royal lineage, and the most potent man in the whole city, insomuch that the public treasures were committed to his care; 4.15. he was then immediately surrounded with his own men. But the Romans were excited to set about the siege, by their indignation on the king’s account, and by their fear on their own account 4.15. They also set the principal men at variance one with another, by several sorts of contrivances and tricks, and gained the opportunity of doing what they pleased, by the mutual quarrels of those who might have obstructed their measures; till at length, when they were satiated with the unjust actions they had done towards men, they transferred their contumelious behavior to God himself, and came into the sanctuary with polluted feet. 4.16. as concluding that those men would omit no kinds of barbarity against foreigners and enemies, who were so enraged against one of their own nation, and one that advised them to nothing but what was for their own advantage. 4.16. The best esteemed also of the high priests, Jesus the son of Gamala, and Aus the son of Aus when they were at their assemblies, bitterly reproached the people for their sloth, and excited them against the zealots; 4.17. 4. Now when the banks were finished, which was done on the sudden, both by the multitude of hands, and by their being accustomed to such work, they brought the machines; 4.17. the consequence was, that you saw the same persons slain. We have seen this also; so that still the best of the herd of brute animals, as it were, have been still led to be sacrificed, when yet nobody said one word, or moved his right hand for their preservation. 4.18. but Chares and Joseph, who were the most potent men in the city, set their armed men in order, though already in a fright, because they did not suppose that the city could hold out long, since they had not a sufficient quantity either of water, or of other necessaries. 4.18. However, since I have had occasion to mention the Romans, I will not conceal a thing that, as I am speaking, comes into my mind, and affects me considerably;—it is this, that though we should be taken by them (God forbid the event should be so!) yet can we undergo nothing that will be harder to be borne than what these men have already brought upon us. 4.19. However, these their leaders encouraged them, and brought them out upon the wall, and for a while indeed they drove away those that were bringing the machines; but when those machines threw darts and stones at them, they retired into the city; 4.19. perhaps also God himself, who hath been affronted by them, will make what they throw at us return against themselves, and these impious wretches will be killed by their own darts: let us but make our appearance before them, and they will come to nothing. 4.21. but these men fell upon the Romans for some time, at their first entrance, and prevented their going any further, and with great courage beat them back; 4.21. And by way of contrivancehow he might not be brought into suspicion, he cultivated the greatest friendship possible with Aus, and with the chief of the people; 4.22. and the Romans were so overpowered by the greater multitude of the people, who beat them on every side, that they were obliged to run into the upper parts of the city. Whereupon the people turned about, and fell upon their enemies, who had attacked them, and thrust them down to the lower parts, and as they were distressed by the narrowness and difficulty of the place, slew them; 4.22. that they ought to choose one of these two methods: either to intercede with those that guarded them, to save their lives, or to provide some foreign assistance for themselves; 4.23. and as these Romans could neither beat those back that were above them, nor escape the force of their own men that were forcing their way forward, they were compelled to fly into their enemies’ houses, which were low; 4.23. Now, there were two active men proposed for the carrying this message, and such as were able to speak, and to persuade them that things were in this posture, and, what was a qualification still more necessary than the former, they were very swift of foot; 4.24. but these houses being thus full, of soldiers, whose weight they could not bear, fell down suddenly; and when one house fell, it shook down a great many of those that were under it, as did those do to such as were under them. 4.24. And if I had perceived that your army was composed of men like unto those who invited them, I had not deemed your attempt so absurd; for nothing does so much cement the minds of men together as the alliance there is between their manners. But now for these men who have invited you, if you were to examine them one by one, every one of them would be found to have deserved ten thousand deaths; 4.25. By this means a vast number of the Romans perished; for they were so terribly distressed, that although they saw the houses subsiding, they were compelled to leap upon the tops of them; so that a great many were ground to powder by these ruins, and a great many of those that got from under them lost some of their limbs, but still a greater number were suffocated by the dust that arose from those ruins. 4.25. As for myself, indeed, I should have preferred peace with them before death; but now we have once made war upon them, and fought with them, I prefer death, with reputation, before living in captivity under them. 4.26. The people of Gamala supposed this to be an assistance afforded them by God, and without regarding what damage they suffered themselves, they pressed forward, and thrust the enemy upon the tops of their houses; and when they stumbled in the sharp and narrow streets, and were perpetually falling down, they threw their stones or darts at them, and slew them. 4.26. You may, if you please, come into the city, though not in the way of war, and take a view of the marks still remaining of what I now say, and may see the houses that have been depopulated by their rapacious hands, with those wives and families that are in black, mourning for their slaughtered relations; as also you may hear their groans and lamentations all the city over; for there is nobody but hath tasted of the incursions of these profane wretches 4.27. Now the very ruins afforded them stones enough; and for iron weapons, the dead men of the enemies’ side afforded them what they wanted; for drawing the swords of those that were dead, they made use of them to dispatch such as were only half dead; 4.27. 4. Thus spake Jesus; yet did not the multitude of the Idumeans give any attention to what he said, but were in a rage, because they did not meet with a ready entrance into the city. The generals also had indignation at the offer of laying down their arms, and looked upon it as equal to a captivity, to throw them away at any man’s injunction whomsoever. 4.28. nay, there were a great number who, upon their falling down from the tops of the houses, stabbed themselves, and died after that manner; 4.28. One may indeed justly complain of those that are besieged in the temple, that when they had courage enough to punish those tyrants, whom you call eminent men, and free from any accusations, because of their being your companions in wickedness, they did not begin with you, and thereby cut off beforehand the most dangerous parts of this treason. 4.29. nor indeed was it easy for those that were beaten back to fly away; for they were so unacquainted with the ways, and the dust was so thick, that they wandered about without knowing one another, and fell down dead among the crowd. 4.29. for the Idumeans fenced one another by uniting their bodies into one band, and thereby kept themselves warm, and connecting their shields over their heads, were not so much hurt by the rain. 4.31. But now Vespasian always staid among those that were hard set; for he was deeply affected with seeing the ruins of the city falling upon his army, and forgot to take care of his own preservation. He went up gradually towards the highest parts of the city before he was aware, and was left in the midst of dangers, having only a very few with him; 4.31. The zealots also joined in the shouts raised by the Idumeans; and the storm itself rendered the cry more terrible; nor did the Idumeans spare anybody; for as they are naturally a most barbarous and bloody nation, and had been distressed by the tempest, they made use of their weapons against those that had shut the gates against them 4.32. for even his son Titus was not with him at that time, having been then sent into Syria to Mucianus. 4.32. he was a prodigious lover of liberty, and an admirer of a democracy in government; and did ever prefer the public welfare before his own advantage, and preferred peace above all things; for he was thoroughly sensible that the Romans were not to be conquered. He also foresaw that of necessity a war would follow, and that unless the Jews made up matters with them very dexterously, they would be destroyed; 4.33. However, he thought it not safe to fly, nor did he esteem it a fit thing for him to do; but calling to mind the actions he had done from his youth, and recollecting his courage, as if he had been excited by a divine fury, he covered himself and those that were with him with their shields, and formed a testudo over both their bodies and their armor 4.33. Those whom they caught in the day time were slain in the night, and then their bodies were carried out and thrown away, that there might be room for other prisoners; 4.34. and bore up against the enemy’s attacks, who came running down from the top of the city; and without showing any dread at the multitude of the men or of their darts, he endured all, until the enemy took notice of that divine courage that was within him, and remitted of their attacks; 4.34. in the meantime, the zealots grew tumultuous, and had much ado to abstain from drawing their swords, although they designed to preserve the appearance and show of judicature to the end. They were also desirous, on other accounts, to try the judges, whether they would be mindful of what was just at their own peril. 4.35. and when they pressed less zealously upon him, he retired, though without showing his back to them till he was gotten out of the walls of the city. 4.35. That one may perceive many of themselves now repenting for what they had done, and might see the horrid barbarity of those that had invited them, and that they had no regard to such as had saved them; 4.36. Now a great number of the Romans fell in this battle, among whom was Ebutius, the decurion, a man who appeared not only in this engagement, wherein he fell, but everywhere, and in former engagements, to be of the truest courage, and one that had done very great mischief to the Jews. 4.36. and, as he went, he frequently cried out, and showed the scars of his wounds; and when he was drawn out of the gates, and despaired of his preservation, he besought them to grant him a burial; but as they had threatened him beforehand not to grant him any spot of earth for a grave, which he chiefly desired of them, so did they slay him [without permitting him to be buried]. 4.37. But there was a centurion whose name was Gallus, who, during this disorder, being encompassed about, he and ten other soldiers privately crept into the house of a certain person 4.37. that God acts as a general of the Romans better than he can do, and is giving the Jews up to them without any pains of their own, and granting their army a victory without any danger; 4.38. where he heard them talking at supper, what the people intended to do against the Romans, or about themselves (for both the man himself and those with him were Syrians). So he got up in the nighttime, and cut all their throats, and escaped, together with his soldiers, to the Romans. 4.38. Along all the roads also vast numbers of dead bodies lay in heaps, and even many of those that were so zealous in deserting at length chose rather to perish within the city; for the hopes of burial made death in their own city appear of the two less terrible to them. 4.39. 6. And now Vespasian comforted his army, which was much dejected by reflecting on their ill success, and because they had never before fallen into such a calamity, and besides this, because they were greatly ashamed that they had left their general alone in great dangers. 4.39. This was brought about by his still disagreeing with the opinions of others, and giving out injunctions of his own, in a very imperious manner; so that it was evident he was setting up a monarchical power. 4.49. 7. So Vespasian encouraged his army by this speech; but for the people of Gamala, it happened that they took courage for a little while, upon such great and unaccountable success as they had had. 4.49. And now the war having gone through all the mountainous country, and all the plain country also, those that were at Jerusalem were deprived of the liberty of going out of the city; for as to such as had a mind to desert, they were watched by the zealots; and as to such as were not yet on the side of the Romans, their army kept them in, by encompassing the city round about on all sides. 4.51. yet did they not neglect what might be for their preservation, so far as they were able, but the most courageous among them guarded those parts of the wall that were beaten down, while the more infirm did the same to the rest of the wall that still remained round the city. 4.51. and since he was now become formidable to the cities, many of the men of power were corrupted by him; so that his army was no longer composed of slaves and robbers, but a great many of the populace were obedient to him as to their king. 4.52. And as the Romans raised their banks, and attempted to get into the city a second time, a great many of them fled out of the city through impracticable valleys, where no guards were placed, as also through subterraneous caverns; 4.52. o he died immediately: but the Idumeans, who were already much afraid of Simon’s power, thought fit to take a view of the enemy’s army before they hazarded a battle with them. 4.53. while those that were afraid of being caught, and for that reason staid in the city, perished for want of food; for what food they had was brought together from all quarters, and reserved for the fighting men. 4.53. Now the people of the country say that it is an ancienter city, not only than any in that country, but than Memphis in Egypt, and accordingly its age is reckoned at two thousand and three hundred years. 4.54. 8. And these were the hard circumstances that the people of Gamala were in. But now Vespasian went about other work by the by, during this siege, and that was to subdue those that had seized upon Mount Tabor, a place that lies in the middle between the great plain and Scythopolis 4.54. but instead of indulging any merciful affection, he grew very angry at them for seizing his beloved wife; so he came to the wall of Jerusalem, and, like wild beasts when they are wounded, and cannot overtake those that wounded them, he vented his spleen upon all persons that he met with. 4.55. whose top is elevated as high as thirty furlongs and is hardly to be ascended on its north side; its top is a plain of twenty-six furlongs, and all encompassed with a wall. 4.55. But in the meantime Vespasian removed from Caesarea, on the fifth day of the month Daesius, [Sivan,] and marched against those places of Judea which were not yet overthrown. 4.56. Now, Josephus erected this so long a wall in forty days’ time, and furnished it with other materials, and with water from below, for the inhabitants only made use of rain water. 4.56. while their inclination to plunder was insatiable, as was their zeal in searching the houses of the rich; and for the murdering of the men, and abusing of the women, it was sport to them. 4.57. As therefore there was a great multitude of people gotten together upon this mountain, Vespasian sent Placidus with six hundred horsemen thither. 4.57. In the meantime, the multitude of those zealots that were dispersed over the city ran together to the temple unto those that had fled thither, and John prepared to bring them down against the people and the Idumeans 4.58. Now, as it was impossible for him to ascend the mountain, he invited many of them to peace, by the offer of his right hand for their security, and of his intercession for them. 4.58. but having the advantage of situation, and having withal erected four very large towers aforehand, that their darts might come from higher places 4.59. Accordingly they came down, but with a treacherous design, as well as he had the like treacherous design upon them on the other side; for Placidus spoke mildly to them, as aiming to take them, when he got them into the plain; they also came down, as complying with his proposals, but it was in order to fall upon him when he was not aware of it: 4.59. And as this sorrow of his was violent, he was not able to support the torments he was under, nor to apply himself further in other wars, when his native country was laid waste; 4.61. So they left Tabor, and fled to Jerusalem, while the people of the country came to terms with him, for their water failed them, and so they delivered up the mountain and themselves to Placidus. 4.61. And thus is Egypt walled about on every side. Its length between Pelusium and Syene is two thousand furlongs, and the passage by sea from Plinthine to Pelusium is three thousand six hundred furlongs. 4.62. 9. But of the people of Gamala, those that were of the bolder sort fled away and hid themselves, while the more infirm perished by famine; 4.62. Vespasian then removed from Caesarea to Berytus, where many embassages came to him from Syria, and many from other provinces, bringing with them from every city crowns, and the congratulations of the people. 4.63. but the men of war sustained the siege till the twoandtwentieth day of the month Hyperberetaeus [Tisri,] when three soldiers of the fifteenth legion, about the morning watch, got under a high tower that was near them, and undermined it, without making any noise; 4.63. 1. And now, when Vespasian had given answers to the embassages, and had disposed of the places of power justly, and according to everyone’s deserts, he came to Antioch 4.64. nor when they either came to it, which was in the nighttime, nor when they were under it, did those that guarded it perceive them. These soldiers then upon their coming avoided making a noise, and when they had rolled away five of its strongest stones, they went away hastily; 4.64. but still the very same night the soldiers repented of what they had done, and a fear seized on them, lest perhaps Vitellius who sent them should get the better; and drawing their swords, they assaulted Cecinna, in order to kill him; and the thing had been done by them, if the tribunes had not fallen upon their knees, and besought them not to do it; 4.65. whereupon the tower fell down on a sudden, with a very great noise, and its guard fell headlong with it; so that those that kept guard at other places were under such disturbance, that they ran away; 4.65. But now within a day’s time came Antonius, with his army, and were met by Vitellius and his army; and having had a battle in three several places, the last were all destroyed. 4.66. the Romans also slew many of those that ventured to oppose them, among whom was Joseph, who was slain by a dart, as he was running away over that part of the wall that was broken down: 4.66. there he got out of the ships, and walked on foot, and lodged all night at a small city called Tanis. His second station was Heracleopolis, and his third Pelusium; 4.67. but as those that were in the city were greatly affrighted at the noise, they ran hither and thither, and a great consternation fell upon them, as though all the enemy had fallen in at once upon them. 4.68. Then it was that Chares, who was ill, and under the physician’s hands, gave up the ghost, the fear he was in greatly contributing to make his distemper fatal to him. 4.69. But the Romans so well remembered their former ill success, that they did not enter the city till the three and twentieth day of the forementioned month. 4.71. Now, as the watch perceived that he was coming, they made a noise, and betook themselves to their arms; and as that his entrance was presently known to those that were in the city, some of them caught hold of their children and their wives, and drew them after them, and fled away to the citadel, with lamentations and cries, while others of them went to meet Titus, and were killed perpetually; 4.72. but so many of them as were hindered from running up to the citadel, not knowing what in the world to do, fell among the Roman guards, while the groans of those that were killed were prodigiously great everywhere, and blood ran down over all the lower parts of the city, from the upper. 4.73. But then Vespasian himself came to his assistance against those that had fled to the citadel, and brought his whole army with him; 4.74. now this upper part of the city was every way rocky, and difficult of ascent, and elevated to a vast altitude, and very full of people on all sides, and encompassed with precipices 4.75. whereby the Jews cut off those that came up to them, and did much mischief to others by their darts, and the large stones which they rolled down upon them, while they were themselves so high that the enemy’s darts could hardly reach them. 4.76. However, there arose such a Divine storm against them as was instrumental to their destruction; this carried the Roman darts upon them, and made those which they threw return back, and drove them obliquely away from them; 4.77. nor could the Jews indeed stand upon their precipices, by reason of the violence of the wind, having nothing that was stable to stand upon, nor could they see those that were ascending up to them; 4.78. o the Romans got up and surrounded them, and some they slew before they could defend themselves, and others as they were delivering up themselves; and the remembrance of those that were slain at their former entrance into the city increased their rage against them now; 4.79. a great number also of those that were surrounded on every side, and despaired of escaping, threw their children and their wives, and themselves also, down the precipices, into the valley beneath, which, near the citadel, had been dug hollow to a vast depth; 4.81. nor did anyone escape except two women, who were the daughters of Philip, and Philip himself was the son of a certain eminent man called Jacimus, who had been general of king Agrippa’s army; 4.82. and these did therefore escape, because they lay concealed from the sight of the Romans when the city was taken; for otherwise they spared not so much as the infants, of which many were flung down by them from the citadel. 4.83. And thus was Galama taken on the three and twentieth day of the month Hyperberetaeus [Tieri], whereas the city had first revolted on the four and twentieth day of the month Gorpiaeus [Elul]. 4.84. 1. Now, no place of Galilee remained to be taken but the small city of Gischala, whose multitude yet were desirous of peace; for they were generally husbandmen, and always applied themselves to cultivate the fruits of the earth. However, there were a great number that belonged to a band of robbers, that were already corrupted, and had crept in among them, and some of the governing part of the citizens were sick of the same distemper. 4.85. It was John, the son of a certain man whose name was Levi, that drew them into this rebellion, and encouraged them in it. He was a cunning knave, and of a temper that could put on various shapes; very rash in expecting great things, and very sagacious in bringing about what he hoped for. It was known to everybody that he was fond of war, in order to thrust himself into authority;


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aristotle Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 189
babylonia Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 78
bandit, banditry (λῃστής), in war Brighton, Sicarii in Josephus's Judean War: Rhetorical Analysis and Historical Observations (2009) 62
caesarea Brighton, Sicarii in Josephus's Judean War: Rhetorical Analysis and Historical Observations (2009) 62
collective suicide in antiquity, examples of Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 135
collective suicide in antiquity Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 135
debt-slavery Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 78
first jewish war Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 201
gamla Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 201
gruen, eric Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 189
holiness legislation Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 78
josephus, titus flavius Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 189
landowners, tenants Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 78
levant Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 78
necessity (ἀνάγκη), proem of war Brighton, Sicarii in Josephus's Judean War: Rhetorical Analysis and Historical Observations (2009) 62
polybius Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 189
purpose-built communal structures Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 201
sickness (νόσος) Brighton, Sicarii in Josephus's Judean War: Rhetorical Analysis and Historical Observations (2009) 62
slaves' Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 78
stasis (στάσις) Brighton, Sicarii in Josephus's Judean War: Rhetorical Analysis and Historical Observations (2009) 62
suicide in face of attack from thessalians Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 135
trauma Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 189
vespasian Brodd and Reed, Rome and Religion: A Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue on the Imperial Cult (2011) 116