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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7235
Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 4.13-4.39


τειχισαμένων δὲ ὥσπερ ἔθος τῶν ταγμάτων ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ στρατόπεδα χωμάτων ἤρχετο κατ' οὐράν, καὶ τὸ μὲν κατ' ἀνατολὰς αὐτῷ μέρος, ᾗπερ ὁ ἀνωτάτω τῆς πόλεως πύργος ἦν, ἐφ' οὗ τὸ πέμπτον καὶ δέκατον τάγμα, καὶ τὸ πέμπτον μὲν κατὰ μέσην ἐξειργάζετο τὴν πόλιν, τὰς δὲ διώρυγας ἀνεπλήρου καὶ τὰς φάραγγας τὸ δέκατον.And as the legions, according to their usual custom, were fortifying their camp upon that mountain, he began to cast up banks at the bottom, at the part towards the east, where the highest tower of the whole city was, and where the fifteenth legion pitched their camp; while the fifth legion did duty over against the midst of the city, and whilst the tenth legion filled up the ditches and the valleys.


ὁ μὲν γὰρ Τίτος ἀπὸ Γισχάλων εἰς Καισάρειαν, Οὐεσπασιανὸς δὲ ἀπὸ Καισαρείας εἰς ̓Ιάμνειαν καὶ ̓́Αζωτον ἀφικόμενος παρίσταταί τε αὐτὰς καὶ φρουροὺς ἐγκαταστήσας ὑπέστρεψε πολὺ πλῆθος ἐπαγόμενος τῶν ἐπὶ δεξιᾷ προσκεχωρηκότων.And as the legions, according to their usual custom, were fortifying their camp upon that mountain, he began to cast up banks at the bottom, at the part towards the east, where the highest tower of the whole city was, and where the fifteenth legion pitched their camp; while the fifth legion did duty over against the midst of the city, and whilst the tenth legion filled up the ditches and the valleys.


κἀν τούτῳ προσελθόντα τοῖς τείχεσιν ̓Αγρίππαν τὸν βασιλέα καὶ περὶ παραδόσεως τοῖς ἐφεστῶσι πειρώμενον διαλέγεσθαι βάλλει τις τῶν σφενδονητῶν κατὰ τὸν δεξιὸν ἀγκῶνα λίθῳ.Now at this time it was that as king Agrippa was come nigh the walls, and was endeavoring to speak to those that were on the walls about a surrender, he was hit with a stone on his right elbow by one of the slingers;


πρῶτον μὲν γὰρ ̓Αντίπαν, ἄνδρα τοῦ βασιλικοῦ γένους καὶ τῶν κατὰ τὴν πόλιν δυνατωτάτων, ὡς καὶ τοὺς δημοσίους θησαυροὺς πεπιστεῦσθαι, συλλαβόντες εἷρξαν:Now at this time it was that as king Agrippa was come nigh the walls, and was endeavoring to speak to those that were on the walls about a surrender, he was hit with a stone on his right elbow by one of the slingers;


καὶ ὁ μὲν ὑπὸ τῶν οἰκείων θᾶττον περιεσχέθη, ̔Ρωμαίους δὲ ἐπήγειρεν εἰς τὴν πολιορκίαν ὀργή τε περὶ τοῦ βασιλέως καὶ περὶ σφῶν αὐτῶν δέος:he was then immediately surrounded with his own men. But the Romans were excited to set about the siege, by their indignation on the king’s account, and by their fear on their own account


συνέκρουον δὲ καὶ τοὺς ἐν τέλει ποικίλαις ἐπινοίαις καὶ λογοποιίαις, καιρὸν ἑαυτοῖς ἐν ταῖς πρὸς ἀλλήλους τῶν κωλυόντων φιλονεικίαις ποιούμενοι, μέχρι τῶν εἰς ἀνθρώπους ὑπερεμπλησθέντες ἀδικημάτων ἐπὶ τὸ θεῖον μετήνεγκαν τὴν ὕβριν καὶ μεμιασμένοις τοῖς ποσὶ παρῄεσαν εἰς τὸ ἅγιον.he was then immediately surrounded with his own men. But the Romans were excited to set about the siege, by their indignation on the king’s account, and by their fear on their own account


οὐ γὰρ ἀπολείψειν ὠμότητος ὑπερβολὴν κατ' ἀλλοφύλων καὶ πολεμίων τοὺς πρὸς ὁμόφυλον καὶ τῶν συμφερόντων αὐτοῖς σύμβουλον οὕτως ἀγριωθέντας.as concluding that those men would omit no kinds of barbarity against foreigners and enemies, who were so enraged against one of their own nation, and one that advised them to nothing but what was for their own advantage.


οἵ τε δοκιμώτατοι τῶν ἀρχιερέων, Γαμάλα μὲν υἱὸς ̓Ιησοῦς ̓Ανάνου δὲ ̓́Ανανος, πολλὰ τὸν δῆμον εἰς νωθείαν κατονειδίζοντες ἐν ταῖς συνόδοις ἐπήγειρον τοῖς ζηλωταῖς:as concluding that those men would omit no kinds of barbarity against foreigners and enemies, who were so enraged against one of their own nation, and one that advised them to nothing but what was for their own advantage.


Συντελεσθέντων οὖν τῶν χωμάτων θᾶττον πλήθει χειρῶν καὶ τῶν πραττομένων ἔθει προσῆγον τὰς μηχανάς.4. Now when the banks were finished, which was done on the sudden, both by the multitude of hands, and by their being accustomed to such work, they brought the machines;


ἀκόλουθον ἦν ἐπιδεῖν τοὺς αὐτοὺς φονευομένους. ἐπείδομεν καὶ τοῦτο καθάπερ ἐξ ἀγέλης ζῴων ἀλόγων ἑλκομένου τοῦ κρατιστεύοντος ἀεὶ θύματος, οὐδὲ φωνήν τις ἀφῆκεν οὐχ ὅπως ἐκίνησε τὴν δεξιάν.4. Now when the banks were finished, which was done on the sudden, both by the multitude of hands, and by their being accustomed to such work, they brought the machines;


οἱ δὲ περὶ τὸν Χάρητα καὶ ̓Ιώσηπον, οὗτοι γὰρ ἦσαν τῶν κατὰ τὴν πόλιν δυνατώτατοι, καίπερ καταπεπληγότας τοὺς ὁπλίτας τάττουσιν, ἐπειδὴ μέχρι πολλοῦ πρὸς τὴν πολιορκίαν ἀνθέξειν οὐχ ὑπελάμβανον ὕδατι καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις ἐπιτηδείοις μὴ διαρκούμενοι.but Chares and Joseph, who were the most potent men in the city, set their armed men in order, though already in a fright, because they did not suppose that the city could hold out long, since they had not a sufficient quantity either of water, or of other necessaries.


ἐπειδὴ δὲ ἅπαξ ἐμνήσθην ̔Ρωμαίων, οὐκ ἀποκρύψομαι πρὸς ὑμᾶς εἰπεῖν ὃ μεταξὺ τῶν λόγων ἐμπεσὸν ἐπέστρεψε τὴν διάνοιαν, ὅτι κἂν ἁλῶμεν ὑπ' ἐκείνοις, ἀπείη δὲ ἡ πεῖρα τοῦ λόγου, χαλεπώτερον οὐδὲν παθεῖν ἔχομεν ὧν ἡμᾶς διατεθείκασιν οὗτοι.but Chares and Joseph, who were the most potent men in the city, set their armed men in order, though already in a fright, because they did not suppose that the city could hold out long, since they had not a sufficient quantity either of water, or of other necessaries.


παρακροτήσαντες δ' ὅμως ἐξήγαγον ἐπὶ τὸ τεῖχος, καὶ πρὸς ὀλίγον μὲν ἀπημύναντο τοὺς προσάγοντας τὰς μηχανάς, βαλλόμενοι δὲ τοῖς καταπελτικοῖς καὶ τοῖς πετροβόλοις ἀνεχώρουν εἰς τὴν πόλιν.However, these their leaders encouraged them, and brought them out upon the wall, and for a while indeed they drove away those that were bringing the machines; but when those machines threw darts and stones at them, they retired into the city;


τάχα τὸ θεῖον ὑβρισμένον ἀναστρέψει κατ' αὐτῶν τὰ βαλλόμενα, καὶ τοῖς σφετέροις διαφθαρήσονται βέλεσιν οἱ δυσσεβεῖς. μόνον ὀφθῶμεν αὐτοῖς, καὶ καταλέλυνται.However, these their leaders encouraged them, and brought them out upon the wall, and for a while indeed they drove away those that were bringing the machines; but when those machines threw darts and stones at them, they retired into the city;


nanthen did the Romans bring battering rams to three several places, and made the wall shake [and fall]. They then poured in over the parts of the wall that were thrown down, with a mighty sound of trumpets and noise of armor, and with a shout of the soldiers, and brake in by force upon those that were in the city;


οἱ δὲ τέως μὲν κατὰ τὰς πρώτας εἰσόδους ἐνιστάμενοι προσωτέρω χωρεῖν ἐκώλυον καὶ καρτερῶς τοὺς ̔Ρωμαίους ἀνεῖργον:but these men fell upon the Romans for some time, at their first entrance, and prevented their going any further, and with great courage beat them back;


μηχανώμενος δὲ τὸ μὴ δι' ὑποψίας ἐλθεῖν ἀμέτροις ἐχρῆτο ταῖς θεραπείαις εἰς τόν τε ̓́Ανανον καὶ τοὺς τοῦ δήμου προεστῶτας.but these men fell upon the Romans for some time, at their first entrance, and prevented their going any further, and with great courage beat them back;


βιαζόμενοι δὲ ὑπὸ πολλῶν καὶ πάντοθεν τρέπονται πρὸς τὰ ὑψηλὰ τῆς πόλεως καὶ προσκειμένοις τοῖς πολεμίοις ἐξ ὑποστροφῆς ἐπιπεσόντες συνώθουν εἰς τὸ κάταντες καὶ τῇ στενότητι καὶ δυσχωρίᾳ θλιβομένους ἀνῄρουν.and the Romans were so overpowered by the greater multitude of the people, who beat them on every side, that they were obliged to run into the upper parts of the city. Whereupon the people turned about, and fell upon their enemies, who had attacked them, and thrust them down to the lower parts, and as they were distressed by the narrowness and difficulty of the place, slew them;


δεῖν οὖν ἢ τῷ λόγῳ τοῦ ζῆν τοὺς φρουροῦντας ἱκετεύειν ἢ πορίζεσθαί τινα παρὰ τῶν ἔξωθεν ἐπικουρίαν:and the Romans were so overpowered by the greater multitude of the people, who beat them on every side, that they were obliged to run into the upper parts of the city. Whereupon the people turned about, and fell upon their enemies, who had attacked them, and thrust them down to the lower parts, and as they were distressed by the narrowness and difficulty of the place, slew them;


οἱ δὲ μήτε τοὺς κατὰ κορυφὴν ἀμύνασθαι δυνάμενοι μήτε διεκπαίειν τῶν σφετέρων πρόσω βιαζομένων ἐπὶ τὰς οἰκίας τῶν πολεμίων, πρόσγειοι γὰρ ἦσαν, ἀνέφευγον.and as these Romans could neither beat those back that were above them, nor escape the force of their own men that were forcing their way forward, they were compelled to fly into their enemies’ houses, which were low;


προεβλήθησαν δὲ ἐπὶ τὴν ἀγγελίαν δύο τῶν δραστηρίων ἀνδρῶν εἰπεῖν τε ἱκανοὶ καὶ πεῖσαι περὶ πραγμάτων, τὸ δὲ τούτων χρησιμώτερον, ὠκύτητι ποδῶν διαφέροντες:and as these Romans could neither beat those back that were above them, nor escape the force of their own men that were forcing their way forward, they were compelled to fly into their enemies’ houses, which were low;


αἱ δὲ ταχέως κατηρείποντο πληρούμεναι καὶ τὸ βάρος μὴ στέγουσαι, κατέσειε δὲ πολλὰς μία τῶν ὑπ' αὐτῆς πεσοῦσα καὶ πάλιν ἐκεῖναι τὰς ὑπ' αὐτάς.but these houses being thus full, of soldiers, whose weight they could not bear, fell down suddenly; and when one house fell, it shook down a great many of those that were under it, as did those do to such as were under them.


καὶ εἰ μὲν ἑώρων τὴν σύνταξιν ὑμῶν ἐξ ὁμοίων τοῖς καλέσασιν ἀνδρῶν, οὐκ ἂν ἄλογον τὴν ὁρμὴν ὑπελάμβανον: οὐδὲν γὰρ οὕτως συνίστησι τὰς εὐνοίας ὡς τρόπων συγγένεια: νῦν δ', εἰ μέν τις αὐτοὺς ἐξετάζοι καθ' ἕνα, μυρίων ἕκαστος εὑρεθήσεται θανάτων ἄξιος.but these houses being thus full, of soldiers, whose weight they could not bear, fell down suddenly; and when one house fell, it shook down a great many of those that were under it, as did those do to such as were under them.


τοῦτο πλείστους διέφθειρε τῶν ̔Ρωμαίων: ὑπὸ γὰρ ἀμηχανίας καίτοι συνιζανούσας ὁρῶντες ἐπεπήδων ταῖς στέγαις, καὶ πολλοὶ μὲν κατεχώννυντο τοῖς ἐρειπίοις, πολλοὶ δ' ὑποφεύγοντες μέρη τοῦ σώματος κατελαμβάνοντο, πλείστους δὲ ὁ κονιορτὸς ἄγχων ἀνῄρει.By this means a vast number of the Romans perished; for they were so terribly distressed, that although they saw the houses subsiding, they were compelled to leap upon the tops of them; so that a great many were ground to powder by these ruins, and a great many of those that got from under them lost some of their limbs, but still a greater number were suffocated by the dust that arose from those ruins.


καὶ ἐγὼ καθ' ἑαυτὸν μὲν ἂν εἰρήνην προτιμήσαιμι θανάτου, πολεμούμενος δ' ἅπαξ καὶ συμβαλὼν θάνατον εὐκλεᾶ τοῦ ζῆν αἰχμάλωτος.By this means a vast number of the Romans perished; for they were so terribly distressed, that although they saw the houses subsiding, they were compelled to leap upon the tops of them; so that a great many were ground to powder by these ruins, and a great many of those that got from under them lost some of their limbs, but still a greater number were suffocated by the dust that arose from those ruins.


συνεργίαν θεοῦ τοῦτο Γαμαλεῖς ὑπελάμβανον καὶ τῆς κατὰ σφᾶς ἀμελοῦντες βλάβης ἐπέκειντο, πρός τε τὰ στέγη τοὺς πολεμίους ἀνωθοῦντες καί τοι κατολισθάνοντας ἐν ὀξέσι τοῖς στενωποῖς καὶ ἀεὶ τοὺς πίπτοντας ὕπερθεν βάλλοντες ἔκτεινον.The people of Gamala supposed this to be an assistance afforded them by God, and without regarding what damage they suffered themselves, they pressed forward, and thrust the enemy upon the tops of their houses; and when they stumbled in the sharp and narrow streets, and were perpetually falling down, they threw their stones or darts at them, and slew them.


ἔξεστιν δ' ὑμῖν παρελθοῦσιν εἴσω μὴ πολέμου νόμῳ θεάσασθαι τὰ τεκμήρια τῶν λεγομένων, οἴκους ἠρημωμένους ταῖς ἐκείνων ἁρπαγαῖς καὶ γύναια καὶ γενεὰς τῶν ἀπεσφαγμένων μελανειμονούσας, κωκυτὸν δὲ καὶ θρῆνον ἀνὰ τὴν πόλιν ὅλην: οὐδεὶς γάρ ἐστιν, ὃς οὐ γέγευται τῆς τῶν ἀνοσίων καταδρομῆς:The people of Gamala supposed this to be an assistance afforded them by God, and without regarding what damage they suffered themselves, they pressed forward, and thrust the enemy upon the tops of their houses; and when they stumbled in the sharp and narrow streets, and were perpetually falling down, they threw their stones or darts at them, and slew them.


καὶ τὰ μὲν ἐρείπια χερμάδων πλέα ἦν αὐτοῖς, σίδηρον δὲ παρεῖχον οἱ τῶν πολεμίων νεκροί: παρασπῶντες γὰρ τὰ τῶν πεσόντων ξίφη κατὰ τῶν δυσθανατούντων ἐχρῶντο.Now the very ruins afforded them stones enough; and for iron weapons, the dead men of the enemies’ side afforded them what they wanted; for drawing the swords of those that were dead, they made use of them to dispatch such as were only half dead;


Τοιαῦτα μὲν ὁ ̓Ιησοῦς ἔλεγε: τῶν δὲ ̓Ιδουμαίων οὔτε τὸ πλῆθος προσεῖχεν, ἀλλὰ τεθύμωτο μὴ τυχὸν ἑτοίμης τῆς εἰσόδου, καὶ διηγανάκτουν οἱ στρατηγοὶ πρὸς ἀπόθεσιν τῶν ὅπλων αἰχμαλωσίαν ἡγούμενοι τὸ κελευόντων τινῶν αὐτὰ ῥῖψαι.Now the very ruins afforded them stones enough; and for iron weapons, the dead men of the enemies’ side afforded them what they wanted; for drawing the swords of those that were dead, they made use of them to dispatch such as were only half dead;


πολλοὶ δ' ἀπὸ πιπτόντων ἤδη τῶν δωμάτων σφᾶς αὐτοὺς βάλλοντες ἔθνησκον.nay, there were a great number who, upon their falling down from the tops of the houses, stabbed themselves, and died after that manner;


μέμψαιτ' ἂν εἰκότως τις τοὺς ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ πολιορκουμένους, ὅτι θαρσήσαντες τοὺς προδότας κολάζειν, οὓς ὑμεῖς ἄνδρας ἐπισήμους καὶ ἀκαταιτιάτους λέγετε διὰ τὴν κοινωνίαν, οὐκ ἀφ' ὑμῶν ἤρξαντο καὶ τὰ καιριώτατα τῆς προδοσίας μέρη προαπέκοψαν.nay, there were a great number who, upon their falling down from the tops of the houses, stabbed themselves, and died after that manner;


ἦν δ' οὐδὲ τραπέντων ἡ φυγὴ ῥᾴδιος: κατὰ γὰρ ἄγνοιαν τῶν ὁδῶν καὶ παχύτητα τοῦ κονιορτοῦ μηδὲ ἀλλήλους ἐπιγινώσκοντες ἀνειλοῦντο καὶ περὶ σφᾶς ἔπιπτον.nor indeed was it easy for those that were beaten back to fly away; for they were so unacquainted with the ways, and the dust was so thick, that they wandered about without knowing one another, and fell down dead among the crowd.


οἱ μὲν γὰρ ̓Ιδουμαῖοι συσπειραθέντες τοῖς σώμασιν ἀλλήλους ἀντέθαλπον καὶ τοὺς θυρεοὺς ὑπὲρ κεφαλῆς συμφράξαντες ἧττον ἐκακοῦντο τοῖς ὑετοῖςnor indeed was it easy for those that were beaten back to fly away; for they were so unacquainted with the ways, and the dust was so thick, that they wandered about without knowing one another, and fell down dead among the crowd.


nan5. Those therefore that were able to find the ways out of the city retired.


Οὐεσπασιανὸς δ' ἀεὶ προσμένων τοῖς πονουμένοις, δεινὸν γάρ τι πάθος αὐτὸν εἰσῄει κατερειπομένην ὁρῶντα περὶ τῷ στρατῷ τὴν πόλιν, ἐν λήθῃ τοῦ κατ' αὐτὸν ἀσφαλοῦς γενόμενος λανθάνει κατὰ μικρὸν ἀνωτάτω τῆς πόλεως προελθών, ἔνθα μέσοις ἐγκαταλείπεται τοῖς κινδύνοις μετ' ὀλίγων παντελῶς:But now Vespasian always staid among those that were hard set; for he was deeply affected with seeing the ruins of the city falling upon his army, and forgot to take care of his own preservation. He went up gradually towards the highest parts of the city before he was aware, and was left in the midst of dangers, having only a very few with him;


οἱ δὲ ζηλωταὶ τοῖς ̓Ιδουμαίοις συνεπηλάλαζον καὶ τὴν ἐκ πάντων βοὴν ὁ χειμὼν ἐποίει φοβερωτέραν. ἐφείδοντό τε οὐδενὸς ̓Ιδουμαῖοι φύσει τε ὠμότατοι φονεύειν ὄντες καὶ τῷ χειμῶνι κεκακωμένοι κατὰ τῶν ἀποκλεισάντων ἐχρῶντο τοῖς θυμοῖς:But now Vespasian always staid among those that were hard set; for he was deeply affected with seeing the ruins of the city falling upon his army, and forgot to take care of his own preservation. He went up gradually towards the highest parts of the city before he was aware, and was left in the midst of dangers, having only a very few with him;


οὐδὲ γὰρ ὁ παῖς αὐτῷ Τίτος τότε συμπαρῆν τηνικαῦτα πρὸς Μουκιανὸν εἰς Συρίαν ἀπεσταλμένος.for even his son Titus was not with him at that time, having been then sent into Syria to Mucianus.


πρό τε τῶν ἰδίων λυσιτελῶν τὸ κοινῇ συμφέρον ἀεὶ τιθέμενος καὶ περὶ παντὸς ποιούμενος τὴν εἰρήνην: ἄμαχα γὰρ ᾔδει τὰ ̔Ρωμαίων: προσκοπούμενος δ' ὑπ' ἀνάγκης καὶ τὰ κατὰ τὸν πόλεμον, ὅπως, εἰ μὴ διαλύσαιντο ̓Ιουδαῖοι, δεξιῶς διαφέροιντο.for even his son Titus was not with him at that time, having been then sent into Syria to Mucianus.


τραπῆναι μὲν οὖν οὔτε ἀσφαλὲς οὔτε πρέπον ἡγήσατο, μνησθεὶς δὲ τῶν ἀπὸ νεότητος αὐτῷ πεπονημένων καὶ τῆς ἰδίας ἀρετῆς, ὥσπερ ἔνθους γενόμενος, συνασπίζει μὲν τοὺς ἅμ' αὐτῷ τά τε σώματα καὶ τὰς πανοπλίαςHowever, he thought it not safe to fly, nor did he esteem it a fit thing for him to do; but calling to mind the actions he had done from his youth, and recollecting his courage, as if he had been excited by a divine fury, he covered himself and those that were with him with their shields, and formed a testudo over both their bodies and their armor


οἱ συλληφθέντες δὲ μεθ' ἡμέραν ἀνῃροῦντο νύκτωρ, καὶ τοὺς νεκροὺς ἐκφοροῦντες ἔρριπτον, ὡς ἑτέροις εἴη δεσμώταις τόπος.However, he thought it not safe to fly, nor did he esteem it a fit thing for him to do; but calling to mind the actions he had done from his youth, and recollecting his courage, as if he had been excited by a divine fury, he covered himself and those that were with him with their shields, and formed a testudo over both their bodies and their armor


ὑφίσταται δὲ κατὰ κορυφὴν ἐπιρρέοντα τὸν πόλεμον καὶ οὔτε ἀνδρῶν πλῆθος οὔτε βελῶν ὑποπτήξας ἐπέμενε, μέχρι δαιμόνιον τὸ παράστημα τῆς ψυχῆς συννοήσαντες οἱ πολέμιοι ταῖς ὁρμαῖς ἐνέδοσαν.and bore up against the enemy’s attacks, who came running down from the top of the city; and without showing any dread at the multitude of the men or of their darts, he endured all, until the enemy took notice of that divine courage that was within him, and remitted of their attacks;


οἱ ζηλωταὶ δ' ἐθορύβουν καὶ μόλις τῶν ξιφῶν ἀπεκράτουν, τὸ σχῆμα καὶ τὴν εἰρωνείαν τοῦ δικαστηρίου μέχρι τέλους παῖξαι προαιρούμενοι, καὶ ἄλλως πειράσαι θέλοντες τοὺς δικαστάς, εἰ παρὰ τὸν αὐτῶν κίνδυνον μνησθήσονται τοῦ δικαίου.and bore up against the enemy’s attacks, who came running down from the top of the city; and without showing any dread at the multitude of the men or of their darts, he endured all, until the enemy took notice of that divine courage that was within him, and remitted of their attacks;


ἀτονώτερον δὲ προσκειμένων αὐτὸς ὑπὸ πόδα ἀνεχώρει νῶτα μὴ δεικνὺς ἕως ἔξω τοῦ τείχους ἐγένετο.and when they pressed less zealously upon him, he retired, though without showing his back to them till he was gotten out of the walls of the city.


ἐφ' οἷς τῶν μὲν οἰκείων πολλοὺς αἰσθάνεσθαι μετανοοῦντας, τῶν ἐπικαλεσαμένων δὲ ὁρᾶν ἄμετρον τὴν ὠμότητα μηδὲ δι' οὓς ἐσώθησαν αἰδουμένων:and when they pressed less zealously upon him, he retired, though without showing his back to them till he was gotten out of the walls of the city.


πλεῖστοι μὲν οὖν ̔Ρωμαίων κατὰ ταύτην ἔπεσον τὴν μάχην, ἐν οἷς ὁ δεκαδάρχης Αἰβούτιος, ἀνὴρ οὐ μόνον ἐφ' ἧς ἔπεσε παρατάξεως, ἀλλὰ πανταχοῦ καὶ πρότερον γενναιότατος φανεὶς καὶ πλεῖστα κακὰ ̓Ιουδαίους ἐργασάμενος.Now a great number of the Romans fell in this battle, among whom was Ebutius, the decurion, a man who appeared not only in this engagement, wherein he fell, but everywhere, and in former engagements, to be of the truest courage, and one that had done very great mischief to the Jews.


ἐπεὶ δὲ ἔξω τῶν πυλῶν ἦκτο, τὴν σωτηρίαν ἀπογνοὺς περὶ ταφῆς ἱκέτευεν: οἱ δὲ προαπειλήσαντες ἧς ἐπεθύμει μάλιστα γῆς μὴ μεταδώσειν αὐτῷ, τὸν φόνον ἐνήργουν.Now a great number of the Romans fell in this battle, among whom was Ebutius, the decurion, a man who appeared not only in this engagement, wherein he fell, but everywhere, and in former engagements, to be of the truest courage, and one that had done very great mischief to the Jews.


ἑκατοντάρχης δέ τις, Γάλλος ὀνόματι, μετὰ στρατιωτῶν δέκα περισχεθεὶς ἐν τῇ ταραχῇ κατέδυ μὲν εἴς τινος οἰκίανBut there was a centurion whose name was Gallus, who, during this disorder, being encompassed about, he and ten other soldiers privately crept into the house of a certain person


στρατηγεῖν μὲν γὰρ ἄμεινον αὐτοῦ τὸν θεὸν ἀπονητὶ ̔Ρωμαίοις παραδιδόντα ̓Ιουδαίους καὶ τὴν νίκην ἀκινδύνως τῇ στρατιᾷ χαριζόμενον:But there was a centurion whose name was Gallus, who, during this disorder, being encompassed about, he and ten other soldiers privately crept into the house of a certain person


τῶν δ' ἐν αὐτῇ διαλαλούντων παρὰ δεῖπνον ὅσα κατὰ τῶν ̔Ρωμαίων ἢ περὶ σφῶν ὁ δῆμος ἐβουλεύετο κατακροασάμενος, ἦν δὲ αὐτός τε καὶ οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ Σύροι, νύκτωρ ἐπανίσταται καὶ πάντας ἀποσφάξας μετὰ τῶν στρατιωτῶν εἰς τοὺς ̔Ρωμαίους διασώζεται.where he heard them talking at supper, what the people intended to do against the Romans, or about themselves (for both the man himself and those with him were Syrians). So he got up in the nighttime, and cut all their throats, and escaped, together with his soldiers, to the Romans.


νεκροὶ δὲ κατὰ τὰς λεωφόρους πάσας ἐσωρεύοντο παμπληθεῖς, καὶ πολλοὶ τῶν ὁρμωμένων αὐτομολεῖν πάλιν τὴν ἔνδον ἀπώλειαν ᾑροῦντο: τὸν γὰρ ἐπὶ τῆς πατρίδος θάνατον ἐλπὶς ταφῆς ἐποίει δοκεῖν μετριώτερον.where he heard them talking at supper, what the people intended to do against the Romans, or about themselves (for both the man himself and those with him were Syrians). So he got up in the nighttime, and cut all their throats, and escaped, together with his soldiers, to the Romans.


Οὐεσπασιανὸς δ' ἀθυμοῦσαν τὴν στρατιὰν ἀνοίᾳ πταισμάτων καὶ διότι τέως οὐδαμοῦ τηλικαύτῃ συμφορᾷ κέχρηντο, τό γε μὴν πλέον αἰδουμένους ἐπὶ τῷ τὸν στρατηγὸν μόνον τοῖς κινδύνοις ἐγκαταλιπεῖν παρεμυθεῖτο6. And now Vespasian comforted his army, which was much dejected by reflecting on their ill success, and because they had never before fallen into such a calamity, and besides this, because they were greatly ashamed that they had left their general alone in great dangers.


ἀεὶ δὲ τοῖς μὲν τῶν ἄλλων δόγμασιν ἀπειθῶν, τὰ δὲ αὑτοῦ προστάσσων δεσποτικώτερον, δῆλος ἦν μοναρχίας ἀντιποιούμενος.6. And now Vespasian comforted his army, which was much dejected by reflecting on their ill success, and because they had never before fallen into such a calamity, and besides this, because they were greatly ashamed that they had left their general alone in great dangers.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

8 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 4.12 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.12. Beware, my son, of all immorality. First of all take a wife from among the descendants of your fathers and do not marry a foreign woman, who is not of your fathers tribe; for we are the sons of the prophets. Remember, my son, that Noah, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, our fathers of old, all took wives from among their brethren. They were blessed in their children, and their posterity will inherit the land.
2. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 18.28 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

18.28. וַיִּקְרְאוּ בְּקוֹל גָּדוֹל וַיִּתְגֹּדְדוּ כְּמִשְׁפָּטָם בַּחֲרָבוֹת וּבָרְמָחִים עַד־שְׁפָךְ־דָּם עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 18.28. And they cried aloud, and cut themselves after their manner with swords and lances, till the blood gushed out upon them."
3. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 23.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

23.6. וַחֲזַקְתֶּם מְאֹד לִשְׁמֹר וְלַעֲשׂוֹת אֵת כָּל־הַכָּתוּב בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה לְבִלְתִּי סוּר־מִמֶּנּוּ יָמִין וּשְׂמֹאול׃ 23.6. Therefore be ye very courageous to keep and to do all that is written in the book of the law of Moses, that ye turn not aside therefrom to the right hand or to the left;"
4. Septuagint, Tobit, 4.12 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.12. Beware, my son, of all immorality. First of all take a wife from among the descendants of your fathers and do not marry a foreign woman, who is not of your fathers tribe; for we are the sons of the prophets. Remember, my son, that Noah, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, our fathers of old, all took wives from among their brethren. They were blessed in their children, and their posterity will inherit the land.
5. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 10.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10.2. Like the magistrate of the people, so are his officials;and like the ruler of the city, so are all its inhabitants. 10.2. Among brothers their leader is worthy of honor,and those who fear the Lord are worthy of honor in his eyes. 10.2. Do not praise a man for his good looks,nor loathe a man because of his appearance. 10.2. Stand by your covet and attend to it,and grow old in your work.
6. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 10.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

10.2. and gave him strength to rule all things.
7. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.214, 2.213, 15.268 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.214. o that this son was born to them both in the last year of each of those decimal numbers. And they circumcised him upon the eighth day and from that time the Jews continue the custom of circumcising their sons within that number of days. But as for the Arabians, they circumcise after the thirteenth year, because Ismael, the founder of their nation, who was born to Abraham of the concubine, was circumcised at that age; concerning whom I will presently give a particular account, with great exactness. 2.213. He put him in mind, that when Abraham was come alone out of Mesopotamia into Canaan, he had been made happy, not only in other respects, but that when his wife was at first barren, she was afterwards by him enabled to conceive seed, and bare him sons. That he left to Ismael and to his posterity the country of Arabia; as also to his sons by Ketura, Troglodytis; and to Isaac, Canaan. 15.268. for, in the first place, he appointed solemn games to be celebrated every fifth year, in honor of Caesar, and built a theater at Jerusalem, as also a very great amphitheater in the plain. Both of them were indeed costly works, but opposite to the Jewish customs; for we have had no such shows delivered down to us as fit to be used or exhibited by us;
8. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 4.1, 4.4, 4.10, 4.14-4.39, 4.48-4.83, 5.350 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.1. 1. Now all those Galileans who, after the taking of Jotapata, had revolted from the Romans, did, upon the conquest of Taricheae, deliver themselves up to them again. And the Romans received all the fortresses and the cities, excepting Gischala and those that had seized upon Mount Tabor; 4.1. The people that were in it were made more bold by the nature of the place than the people of Jotapata had been, but it had much fewer fighting men in it; and they had such a confidence in the situation of the place, that they thought the enemy could not be too many for them; for the city had been filled with those that had fled to it for safety, on account of its strength; on which account they had been able to resist those whom Agrippa sent to besiege it for seven months together. 4.1. and that even the Romans were not ignorant how the period of the seventh day was among them a cessation from all labors; and that he who should compel them to transgress the law about that day would be equally guilty with those that were compelled to transgress it: 4.4. Now Agrippa had united Sogana and Seleucia by leagues to himself, at the very beginning of the revolt from the Romans; yet did not Gamala accede to them, but relied upon the difficulty of the place, which was greater than that of Jotapata 4.4. As to what concerned himself, he avoided to say anything, that he might by no means seem to complain of it; but he said that “we ought to bear manfully what usually falls out in war, and this, by considering what the nature of war is, and how it can never be that we must conquer without bloodshed on our own side; for there stands about us that fortune which is of its own nature mutable; 4.4. Those that were called Sicarii had taken possession of it formerly, but at this time they overran the neighboring countries, aiming only to procure to themselves necessaries; for the fear they were then in prevented their further ravages. 4.14. Now at this time it was that as king Agrippa was come nigh the walls, and was endeavoring to speak to those that were on the walls about a surrender, he was hit with a stone on his right elbow by one of the slingers; 4.14. for the first man they meddled with was Antipas, one of the royal lineage, and the most potent man in the whole city, insomuch that the public treasures were committed to his care; 4.15. he was then immediately surrounded with his own men. But the Romans were excited to set about the siege, by their indignation on the king’s account, and by their fear on their own account 4.15. They also set the principal men at variance one with another, by several sorts of contrivances and tricks, and gained the opportunity of doing what they pleased, by the mutual quarrels of those who might have obstructed their measures; till at length, when they were satiated with the unjust actions they had done towards men, they transferred their contumelious behavior to God himself, and came into the sanctuary with polluted feet. 4.16. as concluding that those men would omit no kinds of barbarity against foreigners and enemies, who were so enraged against one of their own nation, and one that advised them to nothing but what was for their own advantage. 4.16. The best esteemed also of the high priests, Jesus the son of Gamala, and Aus the son of Aus when they were at their assemblies, bitterly reproached the people for their sloth, and excited them against the zealots; 4.17. 4. Now when the banks were finished, which was done on the sudden, both by the multitude of hands, and by their being accustomed to such work, they brought the machines; 4.17. the consequence was, that you saw the same persons slain. We have seen this also; so that still the best of the herd of brute animals, as it were, have been still led to be sacrificed, when yet nobody said one word, or moved his right hand for their preservation. 4.18. but Chares and Joseph, who were the most potent men in the city, set their armed men in order, though already in a fright, because they did not suppose that the city could hold out long, since they had not a sufficient quantity either of water, or of other necessaries. 4.18. However, since I have had occasion to mention the Romans, I will not conceal a thing that, as I am speaking, comes into my mind, and affects me considerably;—it is this, that though we should be taken by them (God forbid the event should be so!) yet can we undergo nothing that will be harder to be borne than what these men have already brought upon us. 4.19. However, these their leaders encouraged them, and brought them out upon the wall, and for a while indeed they drove away those that were bringing the machines; but when those machines threw darts and stones at them, they retired into the city; 4.19. perhaps also God himself, who hath been affronted by them, will make what they throw at us return against themselves, and these impious wretches will be killed by their own darts: let us but make our appearance before them, and they will come to nothing. 4.21. but these men fell upon the Romans for some time, at their first entrance, and prevented their going any further, and with great courage beat them back; 4.21. And by way of contrivancehow he might not be brought into suspicion, he cultivated the greatest friendship possible with Aus, and with the chief of the people; 4.22. and the Romans were so overpowered by the greater multitude of the people, who beat them on every side, that they were obliged to run into the upper parts of the city. Whereupon the people turned about, and fell upon their enemies, who had attacked them, and thrust them down to the lower parts, and as they were distressed by the narrowness and difficulty of the place, slew them; 4.22. that they ought to choose one of these two methods: either to intercede with those that guarded them, to save their lives, or to provide some foreign assistance for themselves; 4.23. and as these Romans could neither beat those back that were above them, nor escape the force of their own men that were forcing their way forward, they were compelled to fly into their enemies’ houses, which were low; 4.23. Now, there were two active men proposed for the carrying this message, and such as were able to speak, and to persuade them that things were in this posture, and, what was a qualification still more necessary than the former, they were very swift of foot; 4.24. but these houses being thus full, of soldiers, whose weight they could not bear, fell down suddenly; and when one house fell, it shook down a great many of those that were under it, as did those do to such as were under them. 4.24. And if I had perceived that your army was composed of men like unto those who invited them, I had not deemed your attempt so absurd; for nothing does so much cement the minds of men together as the alliance there is between their manners. But now for these men who have invited you, if you were to examine them one by one, every one of them would be found to have deserved ten thousand deaths; 4.25. By this means a vast number of the Romans perished; for they were so terribly distressed, that although they saw the houses subsiding, they were compelled to leap upon the tops of them; so that a great many were ground to powder by these ruins, and a great many of those that got from under them lost some of their limbs, but still a greater number were suffocated by the dust that arose from those ruins. 4.25. As for myself, indeed, I should have preferred peace with them before death; but now we have once made war upon them, and fought with them, I prefer death, with reputation, before living in captivity under them. 4.26. The people of Gamala supposed this to be an assistance afforded them by God, and without regarding what damage they suffered themselves, they pressed forward, and thrust the enemy upon the tops of their houses; and when they stumbled in the sharp and narrow streets, and were perpetually falling down, they threw their stones or darts at them, and slew them. 4.26. You may, if you please, come into the city, though not in the way of war, and take a view of the marks still remaining of what I now say, and may see the houses that have been depopulated by their rapacious hands, with those wives and families that are in black, mourning for their slaughtered relations; as also you may hear their groans and lamentations all the city over; for there is nobody but hath tasted of the incursions of these profane wretches 4.27. Now the very ruins afforded them stones enough; and for iron weapons, the dead men of the enemies’ side afforded them what they wanted; for drawing the swords of those that were dead, they made use of them to dispatch such as were only half dead; 4.27. 4. Thus spake Jesus; yet did not the multitude of the Idumeans give any attention to what he said, but were in a rage, because they did not meet with a ready entrance into the city. The generals also had indignation at the offer of laying down their arms, and looked upon it as equal to a captivity, to throw them away at any man’s injunction whomsoever. 4.28. nay, there were a great number who, upon their falling down from the tops of the houses, stabbed themselves, and died after that manner; 4.28. One may indeed justly complain of those that are besieged in the temple, that when they had courage enough to punish those tyrants, whom you call eminent men, and free from any accusations, because of their being your companions in wickedness, they did not begin with you, and thereby cut off beforehand the most dangerous parts of this treason. 4.29. nor indeed was it easy for those that were beaten back to fly away; for they were so unacquainted with the ways, and the dust was so thick, that they wandered about without knowing one another, and fell down dead among the crowd. 4.29. for the Idumeans fenced one another by uniting their bodies into one band, and thereby kept themselves warm, and connecting their shields over their heads, were not so much hurt by the rain. 4.31. But now Vespasian always staid among those that were hard set; for he was deeply affected with seeing the ruins of the city falling upon his army, and forgot to take care of his own preservation. He went up gradually towards the highest parts of the city before he was aware, and was left in the midst of dangers, having only a very few with him; 4.31. The zealots also joined in the shouts raised by the Idumeans; and the storm itself rendered the cry more terrible; nor did the Idumeans spare anybody; for as they are naturally a most barbarous and bloody nation, and had been distressed by the tempest, they made use of their weapons against those that had shut the gates against them 4.32. for even his son Titus was not with him at that time, having been then sent into Syria to Mucianus. 4.32. he was a prodigious lover of liberty, and an admirer of a democracy in government; and did ever prefer the public welfare before his own advantage, and preferred peace above all things; for he was thoroughly sensible that the Romans were not to be conquered. He also foresaw that of necessity a war would follow, and that unless the Jews made up matters with them very dexterously, they would be destroyed; 4.33. However, he thought it not safe to fly, nor did he esteem it a fit thing for him to do; but calling to mind the actions he had done from his youth, and recollecting his courage, as if he had been excited by a divine fury, he covered himself and those that were with him with their shields, and formed a testudo over both their bodies and their armor 4.33. Those whom they caught in the day time were slain in the night, and then their bodies were carried out and thrown away, that there might be room for other prisoners; 4.34. and bore up against the enemy’s attacks, who came running down from the top of the city; and without showing any dread at the multitude of the men or of their darts, he endured all, until the enemy took notice of that divine courage that was within him, and remitted of their attacks; 4.34. in the meantime, the zealots grew tumultuous, and had much ado to abstain from drawing their swords, although they designed to preserve the appearance and show of judicature to the end. They were also desirous, on other accounts, to try the judges, whether they would be mindful of what was just at their own peril. 4.35. and when they pressed less zealously upon him, he retired, though without showing his back to them till he was gotten out of the walls of the city. 4.35. That one may perceive many of themselves now repenting for what they had done, and might see the horrid barbarity of those that had invited them, and that they had no regard to such as had saved them; 4.36. Now a great number of the Romans fell in this battle, among whom was Ebutius, the decurion, a man who appeared not only in this engagement, wherein he fell, but everywhere, and in former engagements, to be of the truest courage, and one that had done very great mischief to the Jews. 4.36. and, as he went, he frequently cried out, and showed the scars of his wounds; and when he was drawn out of the gates, and despaired of his preservation, he besought them to grant him a burial; but as they had threatened him beforehand not to grant him any spot of earth for a grave, which he chiefly desired of them, so did they slay him [without permitting him to be buried]. 4.37. But there was a centurion whose name was Gallus, who, during this disorder, being encompassed about, he and ten other soldiers privately crept into the house of a certain person 4.37. that God acts as a general of the Romans better than he can do, and is giving the Jews up to them without any pains of their own, and granting their army a victory without any danger; 4.38. where he heard them talking at supper, what the people intended to do against the Romans, or about themselves (for both the man himself and those with him were Syrians). So he got up in the nighttime, and cut all their throats, and escaped, together with his soldiers, to the Romans. 4.38. Along all the roads also vast numbers of dead bodies lay in heaps, and even many of those that were so zealous in deserting at length chose rather to perish within the city; for the hopes of burial made death in their own city appear of the two less terrible to them. 4.39. 6. And now Vespasian comforted his army, which was much dejected by reflecting on their ill success, and because they had never before fallen into such a calamity, and besides this, because they were greatly ashamed that they had left their general alone in great dangers. 4.39. This was brought about by his still disagreeing with the opinions of others, and giving out injunctions of his own, in a very imperious manner; so that it was evident he was setting up a monarchical power. 4.48. For myself, I will endeavor, as I have now done, to go first before you against your enemies in every engagement, and to be the last that retires from it.” 4.48. and when the laborers that belong to the lake come to it, and catch hold of it as it hangs together, they draw it into their ships; but when the ship is full, it is not easy to cut off the rest, for it is so tenacious as to make the ship hang upon its clods till they set it loose with the menstrual blood of women, and with urine, to which alone it yields. 4.49. 7. So Vespasian encouraged his army by this speech; but for the people of Gamala, it happened that they took courage for a little while, upon such great and unaccountable success as they had had. 4.49. And now the war having gone through all the mountainous country, and all the plain country also, those that were at Jerusalem were deprived of the liberty of going out of the city; for as to such as had a mind to desert, they were watched by the zealots; and as to such as were not yet on the side of the Romans, their army kept them in, by encompassing the city round about on all sides. 4.51. yet did they not neglect what might be for their preservation, so far as they were able, but the most courageous among them guarded those parts of the wall that were beaten down, while the more infirm did the same to the rest of the wall that still remained round the city. 4.51. and since he was now become formidable to the cities, many of the men of power were corrupted by him; so that his army was no longer composed of slaves and robbers, but a great many of the populace were obedient to him as to their king. 4.52. And as the Romans raised their banks, and attempted to get into the city a second time, a great many of them fled out of the city through impracticable valleys, where no guards were placed, as also through subterraneous caverns; 4.52. o he died immediately: but the Idumeans, who were already much afraid of Simon’s power, thought fit to take a view of the enemy’s army before they hazarded a battle with them. 4.53. while those that were afraid of being caught, and for that reason staid in the city, perished for want of food; for what food they had was brought together from all quarters, and reserved for the fighting men. 4.53. Now the people of the country say that it is an ancienter city, not only than any in that country, but than Memphis in Egypt, and accordingly its age is reckoned at two thousand and three hundred years. 4.54. 8. And these were the hard circumstances that the people of Gamala were in. But now Vespasian went about other work by the by, during this siege, and that was to subdue those that had seized upon Mount Tabor, a place that lies in the middle between the great plain and Scythopolis 4.54. but instead of indulging any merciful affection, he grew very angry at them for seizing his beloved wife; so he came to the wall of Jerusalem, and, like wild beasts when they are wounded, and cannot overtake those that wounded them, he vented his spleen upon all persons that he met with. 4.55. whose top is elevated as high as thirty furlongs and is hardly to be ascended on its north side; its top is a plain of twenty-six furlongs, and all encompassed with a wall. 4.55. But in the meantime Vespasian removed from Caesarea, on the fifth day of the month Daesius, [Sivan,] and marched against those places of Judea which were not yet overthrown. 4.56. Now, Josephus erected this so long a wall in forty days’ time, and furnished it with other materials, and with water from below, for the inhabitants only made use of rain water. 4.56. while their inclination to plunder was insatiable, as was their zeal in searching the houses of the rich; and for the murdering of the men, and abusing of the women, it was sport to them. 4.57. As therefore there was a great multitude of people gotten together upon this mountain, Vespasian sent Placidus with six hundred horsemen thither. 4.57. In the meantime, the multitude of those zealots that were dispersed over the city ran together to the temple unto those that had fled thither, and John prepared to bring them down against the people and the Idumeans 4.58. Now, as it was impossible for him to ascend the mountain, he invited many of them to peace, by the offer of his right hand for their security, and of his intercession for them. 4.58. but having the advantage of situation, and having withal erected four very large towers aforehand, that their darts might come from higher places 4.59. Accordingly they came down, but with a treacherous design, as well as he had the like treacherous design upon them on the other side; for Placidus spoke mildly to them, as aiming to take them, when he got them into the plain; they also came down, as complying with his proposals, but it was in order to fall upon him when he was not aware of it: 4.59. And as this sorrow of his was violent, he was not able to support the torments he was under, nor to apply himself further in other wars, when his native country was laid waste; 4.61. So they left Tabor, and fled to Jerusalem, while the people of the country came to terms with him, for their water failed them, and so they delivered up the mountain and themselves to Placidus. 4.61. And thus is Egypt walled about on every side. Its length between Pelusium and Syene is two thousand furlongs, and the passage by sea from Plinthine to Pelusium is three thousand six hundred furlongs. 4.62. 9. But of the people of Gamala, those that were of the bolder sort fled away and hid themselves, while the more infirm perished by famine; 4.62. Vespasian then removed from Caesarea to Berytus, where many embassages came to him from Syria, and many from other provinces, bringing with them from every city crowns, and the congratulations of the people. 4.63. but the men of war sustained the siege till the twoandtwentieth day of the month Hyperberetaeus [Tisri,] when three soldiers of the fifteenth legion, about the morning watch, got under a high tower that was near them, and undermined it, without making any noise; 4.63. 1. And now, when Vespasian had given answers to the embassages, and had disposed of the places of power justly, and according to everyone’s deserts, he came to Antioch 4.64. nor when they either came to it, which was in the nighttime, nor when they were under it, did those that guarded it perceive them. These soldiers then upon their coming avoided making a noise, and when they had rolled away five of its strongest stones, they went away hastily; 4.64. but still the very same night the soldiers repented of what they had done, and a fear seized on them, lest perhaps Vitellius who sent them should get the better; and drawing their swords, they assaulted Cecinna, in order to kill him; and the thing had been done by them, if the tribunes had not fallen upon their knees, and besought them not to do it; 4.65. whereupon the tower fell down on a sudden, with a very great noise, and its guard fell headlong with it; so that those that kept guard at other places were under such disturbance, that they ran away; 4.65. But now within a day’s time came Antonius, with his army, and were met by Vitellius and his army; and having had a battle in three several places, the last were all destroyed. 4.66. the Romans also slew many of those that ventured to oppose them, among whom was Joseph, who was slain by a dart, as he was running away over that part of the wall that was broken down: 4.66. there he got out of the ships, and walked on foot, and lodged all night at a small city called Tanis. His second station was Heracleopolis, and his third Pelusium; 4.67. but as those that were in the city were greatly affrighted at the noise, they ran hither and thither, and a great consternation fell upon them, as though all the enemy had fallen in at once upon them. 4.68. Then it was that Chares, who was ill, and under the physician’s hands, gave up the ghost, the fear he was in greatly contributing to make his distemper fatal to him. 4.69. But the Romans so well remembered their former ill success, that they did not enter the city till the three and twentieth day of the forementioned month. 4.71. Now, as the watch perceived that he was coming, they made a noise, and betook themselves to their arms; and as that his entrance was presently known to those that were in the city, some of them caught hold of their children and their wives, and drew them after them, and fled away to the citadel, with lamentations and cries, while others of them went to meet Titus, and were killed perpetually; 4.72. but so many of them as were hindered from running up to the citadel, not knowing what in the world to do, fell among the Roman guards, while the groans of those that were killed were prodigiously great everywhere, and blood ran down over all the lower parts of the city, from the upper. 4.73. But then Vespasian himself came to his assistance against those that had fled to the citadel, and brought his whole army with him; 4.74. now this upper part of the city was every way rocky, and difficult of ascent, and elevated to a vast altitude, and very full of people on all sides, and encompassed with precipices 4.75. whereby the Jews cut off those that came up to them, and did much mischief to others by their darts, and the large stones which they rolled down upon them, while they were themselves so high that the enemy’s darts could hardly reach them. 4.76. However, there arose such a Divine storm against them as was instrumental to their destruction; this carried the Roman darts upon them, and made those which they threw return back, and drove them obliquely away from them; 4.77. nor could the Jews indeed stand upon their precipices, by reason of the violence of the wind, having nothing that was stable to stand upon, nor could they see those that were ascending up to them; 4.78. o the Romans got up and surrounded them, and some they slew before they could defend themselves, and others as they were delivering up themselves; and the remembrance of those that were slain at their former entrance into the city increased their rage against them now; 4.79. a great number also of those that were surrounded on every side, and despaired of escaping, threw their children and their wives, and themselves also, down the precipices, into the valley beneath, which, near the citadel, had been dug hollow to a vast depth; 4.81. nor did anyone escape except two women, who were the daughters of Philip, and Philip himself was the son of a certain eminent man called Jacimus, who had been general of king Agrippa’s army; 4.82. and these did therefore escape, because they lay concealed from the sight of the Romans when the city was taken; for otherwise they spared not so much as the infants, of which many were flung down by them from the citadel. 4.83. And thus was Galama taken on the three and twentieth day of the month Hyperberetaeus [Tieri], whereas the city had first revolted on the four and twentieth day of the month Gorpiaeus [Elul].


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
antiochus iv epiphanes Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 36
collective suicide in antiquity, examples of Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 135
collective suicide in antiquity Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 135
first jewish war Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 201
gamla Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 201
jerusalem, theater and amphitheater Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 36
josephus, on jewish custom Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 36
josephus Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 36
purpose-built communal structures Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 201
shabbat Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 36
suicide in face of attack from thessalians' Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 135
torah, in josephus Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 36
vespasian Brodd and Reed, Rome and Religion: A Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue on the Imperial Cult (2011) 116