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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7235
Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 3.79-3.83


Καὶ τὸ μὲν ἔνδον εἰς σκηνὰς διαλαμβάνουσιν, ἔξωθεν δ' ὁ κύκλος τείχους ὄψιν ἐπίχει πύργοις ἐξ ἴσου διαστήματος κεκοσμημένος.2. As for what is within the camp, it is set apart for tents, but the outward circumference hath the resemblance to a wall, and is adorned with towers at equal distances


nanwhere between the towers stand the engines for throwing arrows and darts, and for slinging stones, and where they lay all other engines that can annoy the enemy, all ready for their several operations.


πύλαι δὲ ἐνοικοδομοῦνται τέσσαρες καθ' ἕκαστον τοῦ περιβόλου κλίμα, πρός τε εἰσόδους τῶν ὑποζυγίων εὐμαρεῖς καὶ πρὸς τὰς ἐκδρομὰς αὐτῶν, εἰ κατεπείγοι, πλατεῖαι.They also erect four gates, one at every side of the circumference, and those large enough for the entrance of the beasts, and wide enough for making excursions, if occasion should require.


ῥυμοτομοῦσι δ' εὐδιαθέτως εἴσω τὸ στρατόπεδον, καὶ μέσας μὲν τὰς τῶν ἡγεμόνων σκηνὰς τίθενται, μεσαίτατον δὲ τούτων τὸ στρατήγιον ναῷ παραπλήσιον:They divide the camp within into streets, very conveniently, and place the tents of the commanders in the middle; but in the very midst of all is the general’s own tent, in the nature of a temple


ὥσπερ δὲ ἐν σχεδίῳ πόλις καὶ ἀγορά τις ἀποδείκνυται καὶ χειροτέχναις χωρίον θῶκοί τε λοχαγοῖς καὶ ταξιάρχοις, ὅπῃ δικάζοιεν, εἴ τινες διαφέροιντο.insomuch, that it appears to be a city built on the sudden, with its marketplace, and place for handicraft trades, and with seats for the officers superior and inferior, where, if any differences arise, their causes are heard and determined.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

4 results
1. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 11.187 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.187. after which he made a feast for other nations, and for their ambassadors, at Shushan, for seven days. Now this feast was ordered after the manner following: He caused a tent to be pitched, which was supported by pillars of gold and silver, with curtains of linen and purple spread over them, that it might afford room for many ten thousands to sit down.
2. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.576-2.583, 3.1-3.5, 3.34, 3.59, 3.62, 3.68, 3.80-3.83, 3.85, 3.93, 3.104 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.576. He also got together an army out of Galilee, of more than a hundred thousand young men, all of which he armed with the old weapons which he had collected together and prepared for them. 2.577. 7. And when he had considered that the Roman power became invincible, chiefly by their readiness in obeying orders, and the constant exercise of their arms, he despaired of teaching these his men the use of their arms, which was to be obtained by experience; but observing that their readiness in obeying orders was owing to the multitude of their officers, he made his partitions in his army more after the Roman manner, and appointed a great many subalterns. 2.578. He also distributed the soldiers into various classes, whom he put under captains of tens, and captains of hundreds, and then under captains of thousands; and besides these, he had commanders of larger bodies of men. 2.579. He also taught them to give the signals one to another, and to call and recall the soldiers by the trumpets, how to expand the wings of an army, and make them wheel about; and when one wing hath had success, to turn again and assist those that were hard set, and to join in the defense of what had most suffered. 2.581. He told them that he should make trial of the good order they would observe in war, even before it came to any battle, in case they would abstain from the crimes they used to indulge themselves in, such as theft, and robbery, and rapine, and from defrauding their own countrymen, and never to esteem the harm done to those that were so near of kin to them to be any advantage to themselves; 2.582. for that wars are then managed the best when the warriors preserve a good conscience; but that such as are ill men in private life will not only have those for enemies which attack them, but God himself also for their antagonist. 2.583. 8. And thus did he continue to admonish them. Now he chose for the war such an army as was sufficient, i.e. sixty thousand footmen, and two hundred and fifty horsemen; and besides these, on which he put the greatest trust, there were about four thousand five hundred mercenaries; he had also six hundred men as guards of his body. 3.1. 1. When Nero was informed of the Romans’ ill success in Judea, a concealed consternation and terror, as is usual in such cases, fell upon him; although he openly looked very big, and was very angry 3.1. They also esteem any errors they commit upon taking counsel beforehand to be better than such rash success as is owing to fortune only; because such a fortuitous advantage tempts them to be inconsiderate, while consultation, though it may sometimes fail of success, hath this good in it, that it makes men more careful hereafter; 3.1. This is an ancient city that is distant from Jerusalem five hundred and twenty furlongs, and was always an enemy to the Jews; on which account they determined to make their first effort against it, and to make their approaches to it as near as possible. 3.2. and said that what had happened was rather owing to the negligence of the commander, than to any valor of the enemy: and as he thought it fit for him, who bare the burden of the whole empire, to despise such misfortunes, he now pretended so to do, and to have a soul superior to all such sad accidents whatsoever. Yet did the disturbance that was in his soul plainly appear by the solicitude he was in [how to recover his affairs again]. 3.2. That he did not see what advantage he could bring to them now, by staying among them, but only provoke the Romans to besiege them more closely, as esteeming it a most valuable thing to take him; but that if they were once informed that he was fled out of the city, they would greatly remit of their eagerness against it. 3.2. and the greater part of the remainder were wounded, with Niger, their remaining general, who fled away together to a small city of Idumea, called Sallis. 3.3. 2. And as he was deliberating to whom he should commit the care of the East, now it was in so great a commotion, and who might be best able to punish the Jews for their rebellion, and might prevent the same distemper from seizing upon the neighboring nations also,— 3.3. So he came quickly to the city, and put his army in order, and set Trajan over the left wing, while he had the right himself, and led them to the siege: 3.3. At this city also the inhabitants of Sepphoris of Galilee met him, who were for peace with the Romans. 3.4. he found no one but Vespasian equal to the task, and able to undergo the great burden of so mighty a war, seeing he was growing an old man already in the camp, and from his youth had been exercised in warlike exploits: he was also a man that had long ago pacified the west, and made it subject to the Romans, when it had been put into disorder by the Germans; he had also recovered to them Britain by his arms 3.4. “Thou, O Vespasian, thinkest no more than that thou hast taken Josephus himself captive; but I come to thee as a messenger of greater tidings; for had not I been sent by God to thee, I knew what was the law of the Jews in this case? and how it becomes generals to die. 3.4. its length is also from Meloth to Thella, a village near to Jordan. 3.5. which had been little known before whereby he procured to his father Claudius to have a triumph bestowed on him without any sweat or labor of his own. 3.5. and for those rivers which they have, all their waters are exceedingly sweet: by reason also of the excellent grass they have, their cattle yield more milk than do those in other places; and, what is the greatest sign of excellency and of abundance, they each of them are very full of people. 3.5. There was also a great slaughter made in the city, while those foreigners that had not fled away already made opposition; but the natural inhabitants were killed without fighting: for in hopes of Titus’s giving them his right hand for their security, and out of a consciousness that they had not given any consent to the war, they avoided fighting 3.34. 1. And now the Romans searched for Josephus, both out of the hatred they bore him, and because their general was very desirous to have him taken; for he reckoned that if he were once taken, the greatest part of the war would be over. They then searched among the dead, and looked into the most concealed recesses of the city; 3.34. And indeed the danger of losing Sepphoris would be no small one, in this war that was now beginning, seeing it was the largest city of Galilee, and built in a place by nature very strong, and might be a security of the whole nation’s [fidelity to the Romans]. 3.59. 1. Now the auxiliaries which were sent to assist the people of Sepphoris, being a thousand horsemen, and six thousand footmen, under Placidus the tribune, pitched their camp in two bodies in the great plain. The footmen were put into the city to be a guard to it, but the horsemen lodged abroad in the camp. 3.62. By this means he provoked the Romans to treat the country according to the law of war; nor did the Romans, out of the anger they bore at this attempt, leave off, either by night or by day, burning the places in the plain, and stealing away the cattle that were in the country, and killing whatsoever appeared capable of fighting perpetually, and leading the weaker people as slaves into captivity; 3.68. There were also a considerable number of auxiliaries got together, that came from the kings Antiochus, and Agrippa, and Sohemus, each of them contributing one thousand footmen that were archers, and a thousand horsemen. Malchus also, the king of Arabia, sent a thousand horsemen, besides five thousand footmen, the greatest part of which were archers; 3.81. They also erect four gates, one at every side of the circumference, and those large enough for the entrance of the beasts, and wide enough for making excursions, if occasion should require. 3.82. They divide the camp within into streets, very conveniently, and place the tents of the commanders in the middle; but in the very midst of all is the general’s own tent, in the nature of a temple 3.83. insomuch, that it appears to be a city built on the sudden, with its marketplace, and place for handicraft trades, and with seats for the officers superior and inferior, where, if any differences arise, their causes are heard and determined. 3.85. 3. When they have thus secured themselves, they live together by companies, with quietness and decency, as are all their other affairs managed with good order and security. Each company hath also their wood, and their corn, and their water brought them, when they stand in need of them; 3.93. 5. When, after this, they are gone out of their camp, they all march without noise, and in a decent manner, and every one keeps his own rank, as if they were going to war. The footmen are armed with breastplates and headpieces, and have swords on each side; 3.104. and the readiness of obeying their commanders is so great, that it is very ornamental in peace; but when they come to a battle, the whole army is but one body
3. Suetonius, Vespasianus, 18, 21-23, 17 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4. Tacitus, Histories, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.5.  Vespasian was energetic in war. He used to march at the head of his troops, select a place for camp, oppose the enemy night and day with wise strategy and, if occasion demanded, with his own hands. His food was whatever chance offered; in his dress and bearing he hardly differed from the common soldier. He would have been quite equal to the generals of old if he had not been avaricious. Mucianus, on the other hand, was eminent for his magnificence and wealth and by the complete superiority of his scale of life to that of a private citizen. He was the readier speaker, experienced in civil administration and in statesmanship. It would have been a rare combination for an emperor if the faults of the two could have been done away with and their virtues only combined in one man. But Mucianus was governor of Syria, Vespasian of Judea. They had quarrelled through jealousy because they governed neighbouring provinces. Finally at Nero's death they had laid aside their hostilities and consulted together, at first through friends as go-betweens; and then Titus, the chief bond of their concord, had ended their dangerous feud by pointing out their common interests; both by his nature and skill he was well calculated to win over even a person of the character of Mucianus. Tribunes, centurions, and the common soldiers were secured for the cause by industry or by licence, by virtues or by pleasures, according to the individual's character.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
agrippa ii, king Augoustakis et al., Fides in Flavian Literature (2021) 59
aquila Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 188
awnings Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 188
burial places (memorials) Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 188
business, commerce Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 188
caesar Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 188
chrysantus Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 188
clement (author of 1 clement) Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 188
corbulo Augoustakis et al., Fides in Flavian Literature (2021) 50
disciplina militaris, excludes luxury Phang, The Marriage of Roman Soldiers (13 B.C. - A.D. 235) (2001) 355
disciplina militaris, political functions Phang, The Marriage of Roman Soldiers (13 B.C. - A.D. 235) (2001) 355
disciplina militaris Phang, The Marriage of Roman Soldiers (13 B.C. - A.D. 235) (2001) 355
domitian\n, in josephus Augoustakis et al., Fides in Flavian Literature (2021) 50, 59
epimachus (soldier), effeminacy, indiscipline and Phang, The Marriage of Roman Soldiers (13 B.C. - A.D. 235) (2001) 355
eutychus Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 188
forum romanum Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 188
galilee Augoustakis et al., Fides in Flavian Literature (2021) 50
gamala Augoustakis et al., Fides in Flavian Literature (2021) 59
gischala Augoustakis et al., Fides in Flavian Literature (2021) 59
imperial freedpersons Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 188
imperial slaves Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 188
josephus fides in Augoustakis et al., Fides in Flavian Literature (2021) 50, 59
laborers, manual Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 188
leather Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 188
marriage ban (soldiers), discipline Phang, The Marriage of Roman Soldiers (13 B.C. - A.D. 235) (2001) 355
mars field Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 188
masculinity, warfare Phang, The Marriage of Roman Soldiers (13 B.C. - A.D. 235) (2001) 355
nero Augoustakis et al., Fides in Flavian Literature (2021) 50; Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 188
paul Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 188
prices, costs Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 188
prisca/priscilla Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 188
private property Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 188
purple Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 188
scythopolis Augoustakis et al., Fides in Flavian Literature (2021) 59
spelt, barley (grain) Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 188
syria Augoustakis et al., Fides in Flavian Literature (2021) 50
taricheae Augoustakis et al., Fides in Flavian Literature (2021) 59
tentmakers Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 188
theater Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 188
titus and fides, in josephus Augoustakis et al., Fides in Flavian Literature (2021) 50, 59
trophimus' Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 188
vespasian, in josephus Augoustakis et al., Fides in Flavian Literature (2021) 50, 59