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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7234
Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 9.29-9.43


Παραλαβὼν δὲ τὴν βασιλείαν ̓Ιώραμος ἐπὶ τὸν Μωαβιτῶν ἔγνω στρατεύειν βασιλέα Μεισὰν ὄνομα: τοῦ γὰρ ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ, καθὼς προείπαμεν, ἔτυχεν ἀποστὰς φόρους τελῶν ̓Αχάβῳ τῷ πατρὶ αὐτοῦ μυριάδας εἴκοσι προβάτων σὺν τοῖς πόκοις.And when he thereupon sent them, and the people were by them taught the laws, and the holy worship of God, they worshipped him in a respectful manner, and the plague ceased immediately; and indeed they continue to make use of the very same customs to this very time, and are called in the Hebrew tongue Cutlans, but in the Greek tongue Samaritans.


Παραλαβὼν δὲ τὴν βασιλείαν ̓Ιώραμος ἐπὶ τὸν Μωαβιτῶν ἔγνω στρατεύειν βασιλέα Μεισὰν ὄνομα: τοῦ γὰρ ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ, καθὼς προείπαμεν, ἔτυχεν ἀποστὰς φόρους τελῶν ̓Αχάβῳ τῷ πατρὶ αὐτοῦ μυριάδας εἴκοσι προβάτων σὺν τοῖς πόκοις.1. When Joram had taken upon him the kingdom, he determined to make an expedition against the king of Moab, whose name was Mesha; for, as we told you before, he was departed from his obedience to his brother [Ahaziah], while he paid to his father Ahab two hundred thousand sheep, with their fleeces of wool.


πέμψαντός τε τὰ νόμιμα καὶ τὴν περὶ τὸν θεὸν τοῦτον ὁσίαν διδαχθέντες ἐθρήσκευον αὐτὸν φιλοτίμως καὶ τοῦ λοιμοῦ παραχρῆμα ἐπαύσαντο. χρώμενοί τε τοῖς αὐτοῖς ἔτι καὶ νῦν ἔθεσι διατελοῦσιν οἱ κατὰ μὲν τὴν ̔Εβραίων γλῶτταν Χουθαῖοι, κατὰ δὲ τὴν ̔Ελλήνων ΣαμαρεῖταιAnd when he thereupon sent them, and the people were by them taught the laws, and the holy worship of God, they worshipped him in a respectful manner, and the plague ceased immediately; and indeed they continue to make use of the very same customs to this very time, and are called in the Hebrew tongue Cutlans, but in the Greek tongue Samaritans.


πέμψαντός τε τὰ νόμιμα καὶ τὴν περὶ τὸν θεὸν τοῦτον ὁσίαν διδαχθέντες ἐθρήσκευον αὐτὸν φιλοτίμως καὶ τοῦ λοιμοῦ παραχρῆμα ἐπαύσαντο. χρώμενοί τε τοῖς αὐτοῖς ἔτι καὶ νῦν ἔθεσι διατελοῦσιν οἱ κατὰ μὲν τὴν ̔Εβραίων γλῶτταν Χουθαῖοι, κατὰ δὲ τὴν ̔Ελλήνων Σαμαρεῖται1. When Joram had taken upon him the kingdom, he determined to make an expedition against the king of Moab, whose name was Mesha; for, as we told you before, he was departed from his obedience to his brother [Ahaziah], while he paid to his father Ahab two hundred thousand sheep, with their fleeces of wool.


nanWhen therefore he had gathered his own army together, he sent also to Jehoshaphat, and entreated him, that since he had from the beginning been a friend to his father, he would assist him in the war that he was entering into against the Moabites, who had departed from their obedience, who not only himself promised to assist him, but would also oblige the king of Edom, who was under his authority, to make the same expedition also.


̓Ιώραμος δὲ τοιούτων αὐτῷ τῶν παρὰ ̓Ιωσαφάτου περὶ τῆς συμμαχίας κομισθέντων ἀναλαβὼν αὑτοῦ τὴν στρατιὰν ἧκεν εἰς ̔Ιεροσόλυμα, καὶ ξενισθεὶς λαμπρῶς ὑπὸ τοῦ βασιλέως τῶν ̔Ιεροσολυμιτῶν, δόξαν αὐτοὺς διὰ τῆς ἐρήμου τῆς ̓Ιδουμαίας ποιήσασθαι τὴν πορείαν ἐπὶ τοὺς πολεμίους, οὐ γὰρ προσδοκήσειν αὐτοὺς ταύτῃ ποιήσεσθαι τὴν ἔφοδον, ὥρμησαν οἱ τρεῖς βασιλεῖς ἐκ τῶν ̔Ιεροσολύμων, ὅ τε τούτων αὐτῶν καὶ ὁ τῶν ̓Ισραηλιτῶν καὶ ὁ τῆς ̓ΙδουμαίαςWhen Joram had received these assurances of assistance from Jehoshaphat, he took his army with him, and came to Jerusalem; and when he had been sumptuously entertained by the king of Jerusalem, it was resolved upon by them to take their march against their enemies through the wilderness of Edom.


καὶ κυκλεύσαντες ἑπτὰ ἡμερῶν ὁδὸν εἰς ἀπορίαν ὕδατος τοῖς τε κτήνεσι καὶ τῇ στρατιᾷ περιέστησαν πλανηθέντων τὰς ὁδοὺς αὐτοῖς τῶν ἡγουμένων, ὡς ἀγωνιᾶν μὲν ἅπαντας, μάλιστα δὲ τὸν ̓Ιώραμον καὶ ὑπὸ λύπης ἐκβοῆσαι πρὸς τὸν θεόν, τί κακὸν αἰτιασάμενος ἀγάγοι τοὺς τρεῖς βασιλεῖς ἀμαχητὶ παραδώσοντας ἑαυτοὺς τῷ Μωαβιτῶν βασιλεῖ;And when they had taken a compass of seven days’ journey, they were in distress for want of water for the cattle, and for the army, from the mistake of their roads by the guides that conducted them, insomuch that they were all in an agony, especially Joram; and cried to God, by reason of their sorrow, and [desired to know] what wickedness had been committed by them that induced him to deliver three kings together, without fighting, unto the king of Moab.


παρεθάρρυνε δ' αὐτὸν ὁ ̓Ιωσαφάτης δίκαιος ὢν καὶ πέμψαντα εἰς τὸ στρατόπεδον ἐκέλευσε γνῶναι, εἴ τις αὐτοῖς τοῦ θεοῦ προφήτης συνελήλυθεν, “ἵνα δι' αὐτοῦ μάθωμεν παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ, τί ποιητέον ἡμῖν.” οἰκέτου δέ τινος φήσαντος τῶν ̓Ιωράμου ἰδεῖν αὐτόθι τὸν ̓Ηλία μαθητὴν ̓Ελισσαῖον Σαφάτου παῖδα πρὸς αὐτὸν ἀπίασιν οἱ τρεῖς βασιλεῖς ̓Ιωσαφάτου παραινέσαντος.But Jehoshaphat, who was a righteous man, encouraged him, and bade him send to the camp, and know whether any prophet of God was come along with them, that we might by him learn from God what we should do. And when one of the servants of Joram said that he had seen there Elisha, the son of Shaphat, the disciple of Elijah, the three kings went to him, at the entreaty of Jehoshaphat;


ἐλθόντες δ' ἐπὶ τὴν σκηνὴν τοῦ προφήτου, ἔτυχε δ' ἔξω τῆς παρεμβολῆς κατεσκηνωκώς, ἐπηρώτων τὸ μέλλον ἐπὶ τῆς στρατιᾶς, μάλιστα δὲ ὁ ̓Ιώραμος. τοῦ δὲ μὴ διοχλεῖν αὐτῷ φράσαντος ἀλλὰ πρὸς τοὺς τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ καὶ τῆς μητρὸς βαδίζειν προφήτας, εἶναι γὰρ ἐκείνους ἀληθεῖς, ἐδεῖτο προφητεύειν καὶ σώζειν αὐτούς.and when they were come at the prophet’s tent, which tent was pitched out of the camp, they asked him what would become of the army? and Joram was particularly very pressing with him about it. And when he replied to him, that he should not trouble him, but go to his father’s and mother’s prophets, for they [to be sure] were true prophets, he still desired him to prophesy, and to save them.


ὁ δὲ ὀμόσας τὸν θεὸν οὐκ ἂν ἀποκριθῆναι αὐτῷ, εἰ μὴ διὰ ̓Ιωσαφάτην ὅσιον ὄντα καὶ δίκαιον, ἀχθέντος ἀνθρώπου τινὸς ψάλλειν εἰδότος, ἐπεζήτησε γὰρ αὐτός, πρὸς τὸν ψαλμὸν ἔνθεος γενόμενος προσέταξε τοῖς βασιλεῦσιν ἐν τῷ χειμάρρῳ πολλοὺς ὀρύξαι βόθρους:So he swore by God that he would not answer him, unless it were on account of Jehoshaphat, who was a holy and righteous man; and when, at his desire, they brought him a man that could play on the psaltery, the Divine Spirit came upon him as the music played, and he commanded them to dig many trenches in the valley;


“οὔτε γὰρ νέφους οὔτε πνεύματος γενομένου οὔτε ὑετοῦ καταρραγέντος ὄψεσθε πλήρη τὸν ποταμὸν ὕδατος, ὡς ἂν καὶ τὸν στρατὸν καὶ τὰ ὑποζύγια διασωθῆναι ὑμῖν ἀπὸ τοῦ ποτοῦ. ἔσται δὲ ὑμῖν οὐ τοῦτο μόνον παρὰ θεοῦ, ἀλλὰ καὶ κρατήσετε τῶν ἐχθρῶν καὶ καλλίστας καὶ ὀχυρωτάτας πόλεις λήψεσθε τῶν Μωαβιτῶν, καὶ δένδρα μὲν αὐτῶν ἥμερα κόψετε, τὴν δὲ χώραν δῃώσετε, πηγὰς δὲ καὶ ποταμοὺς ἐμφράξετε.”for, said he, “though there appear neither cloud, nor wind, nor storm of rain, ye shall see this river full of water, till the army and the cattle be saved for you by drinking of it. Nor will this be all the favor that you shall receive from God, but you shall also overcome your enemies, and take the best and strongest cities of the Moabites, and you shall cut down their fruit trees, and lay waste their country, and stop up their fountains and rivers.”


Ταῦτα εἰπόντος τοῦ προφήτου τῇ ἐπιούσῃ πρὶν ἥλιον ἀνασχεῖν ὁ χειμάρρους πολὺς ἐρρύη, σφοδρῶς γὰρ ἀπὸ τριῶν ἡμερῶν ὁδοῦ ἐν τῇ ̓Ιδουμαίᾳ τὸν θεὸν ὗσαι συνέπεσεν, ὥστε εὑρεῖν τὴν στρατιὰν καὶ τὰ ὑποζύγια ποτὸν ἄφθονον.2. When the prophet had said this, the next day, before the sun-rising, a great torrent ran strongly; for God had caused it to rain very plentifully at the distance of three days’ journey into Edom, so that the army and the cattle found water to drink in abundance.


ὡς δὲ ἤκουσαν οἱ Μωαβῖται τοὺς τρεῖς βασιλέας ἐπ' αὐτοὺς βαδίζοντας καὶ διὰ τῆς ἐρήμου ποιουμένους τὴν ἔφοδον, ὁ βασιλεὺς αὐτῶν εὐθὺς συλλέξας στρατιὰν ἐκέλευσεν ἐπὶ τῶν ὅρων βάλλεσθαι τὸ στρατόπεδον, ἵνα αὐτοὺς μὴ λάθωσιν εἰς τὴν χώραν ἐμβαλόντες οἱ πολέμιοι.But when the Moabites heard that the three kings were coming upon them, and made their approach through the wilderness, the king of Moab gathered his army together presently, and commanded them to pitch their camp upon the mountains, that when the enemies should attempt to enter their country, they might not be concealed from them.


θεασάμενοι δὲ ὑπὸ τὴν ἀνατολὴν ἡλίου τὸ ἐν τῷ χειμάρρῳ ὕδωρ, καὶ γὰρ οὐδὲ μακρὰν ἦν τῆς Μωαβίτιδος, αἵματι τὴν χροὰν ὅμοιον, τότε γὰρ μάλιστα πρὸς τὴν αὐγὴν τὸ ὕδωρ ἐρυθραίνεται, ψευδῆ δόξαν περὶ τῶν πολεμίων ἐλάμβανον ὡς ἀπεκτονότων ἑαυτοὺς διὰ δίψος καὶ τοῦ ποταμοῦ αἷμα αὐτοῖς ῥέοντος.But when at the rising of the sun they saw the water in the torrent, for it was not far from the land of Moab, and that it was of the color of blood, for at such a time the water especially looks red, by the shining of the sun upon it, they formed a false notion of the state of their enemies, as if they had slain one another for thirst; and that the river ran with their blood.


nanHowever, supposing that this was the case, they desired their king would send them out to spoil their enemies; whereupon they all went in haste, as to an advantage already gained, and came to the enemy’s camp, as supposing them destroyed already. But their hope deceived them; for as their enemies stood round about them, some of them were cut to pieces, and others of them were dispersed, and fled to their own country.


ἐμβαλόντες δὲ εἰς τὴν Μωαβιτῶν οἱ βασιλεῖς τάς τε πόλεις κατεστρέψαντο τὰς ἐν αὐτῇ καὶ τοὺς ἀγροὺς αὐτῶν διήρπασαν καὶ ἠφάνισαν πληροῦντες τῶν ἐκ τῶν χειμάρρων λίθων, καὶ τὰ κάλλιστα τῶν δένδρων ἔκοψαν, καὶ τὰς πηγὰς ἐνέφραξαν τῶν ὑδάτων, καὶ τὰ τείχη καθεῖλον ἕως ἐδάφους.And when the kings fell into the land of Moab, they overthrew the cities that were in it, and spoiled their fields, and marred them, filling them with stones out of the brooks, and cut down the best of their trees, and stopped up their fountains of water, and overthrew their walls to their foundations.


ὁ δὲ βασιλεὺς τῶν Μωαβιτῶν συνδιωκόμενος τῇ πολιορκίᾳ καὶ τὴν πόλιν ὁρῶν κινδυνεύουσαν αἱρεθῆναι κατὰ κράτος ὥρμησε μεθ' ἑπτακοσίων ἐξελθὼν διὰ τοῦ τῶν πολεμίων ἐξιππάσασθαι στρατοπέδου, καθ' ὃ μέρος ἐνόμιζεν αὐτοὺς τὰς φυλακὰς ἀνεῖσθαι. καὶ πειραθεὶς οὐκ ἠδυνήθη φυγεῖν: ἐπιτυγχάνει γὰρ ἐπιμελῶς φρουρουμένῳ τῷ τόπῳ.But the king of Moab, when he was pursued, endured a siege; and seeing his city in danger of being overthrown by force, made a sally, and went out with seven hundred men, in order to break through the enemy’s camp with his horsemen, on that side where the watch seemed to be kept most negligently; and when, upon trial, he could not get away, for he lighted upon a place that was carefully watched, he returned into the city, and did a thing that showed despair and the utmost distress;


ὑποστρέψας δὲ εἰς τὴν πόλιν ἔργον ἀπογνώσεως καὶ δεινῆς ἀνάγκης διεπράξατο: τῶν υἱῶν τὸν πρεσβύτατον, ὃς μετ' αὐτὸν βασιλεύειν ἤμελλεν, ἀναγαγὼν ἐπὶ τὸ τεῖχος ὥστε ἅπασι φανερὸν γενέσθαι τοῖς πολεμίοις ἱερούργησεν εἰς ὁλοκαύτωσιν τῷ θεῷ. θεασάμενοι δ' αὐτὸν οἱ βασιλεῖς κατῴκτειραν τῆς ἀνάγκης καὶ παθόντες ἀνθρώπινόν τι καὶ ἐλεεινὸν διέλυσαν τὴν πολιορκίαν καὶ ἕκαστος εἰς τὴν οἰκείαν ἀνέστρεψαν.for he took his eldest son, who was to reign after him, and lifting him up upon the wall, that he might be visible to all the enemies, he offered him as a whole burnt-offering to God, whom, when the kings saw, they commiserated the distress that was the occasion of it, and were so affected, in way of humanity and pity, that they raised the siege, and every one returned to his own house.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

5 results
1. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 3.9, 3.11-3.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.9. וַיֵּלֶךְ מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמֶלֶך־יְהוּדָה וּמֶלֶךְ אֱדוֹם וַיָּסֹבּוּ דֶּרֶךְ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְלֹא־הָיָה מַיִם לַמַּחֲנֶה וְלַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר בְּרַגְלֵיהֶם׃ 3.11. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹשָׁפָט הַאֵין פֹּה נָבִיא לַיהוָה וְנִדְרְשָׁה אֶת־יְהוָה מֵאוֹתוֹ וַיַּעַן אֶחָד מֵעַבְדֵי מֶלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר פֹּה אֱלִישָׁע בֶּן־שָׁפָט אֲשֶׁר־יָצַק מַיִם עַל־יְדֵי אֵלִיָּהוּ׃ 3.12. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹשָׁפָט יֵשׁ אוֹתוֹ דְּבַר־יְהוָה וַיֵּרְדוּ אֵלָיו מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל וִיהוֹשָׁפָט וּמֶלֶךְ אֱדוֹם׃ 3.13. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלִישָׁע אֶל־מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל מַה־לִּי וָלָךְ לֵךְ אֶל־נְבִיאֵי אָבִיךָ וְאֶל־נְבִיאֵי אִמֶּךָ וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל אַל כִּי־קָרָא יְהוָה לִשְׁלֹשֶׁת הַמְּלָכִים הָאֵלֶּה לָתֵת אוֹתָם בְּיַד־מוֹאָב׃ 3.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלִישָׁע חַי־יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֲשֶׁר עָמַדְתִּי לְפָנָיו כִּי לוּלֵי פְּנֵי יְהוֹשָׁפָט מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה אֲנִי נֹשֵׂא אִם־אַבִּיט אֵלֶיךָ וְאִם־אֶרְאֶךָּ׃ 3.15. וְעַתָּה קְחוּ־לִי מְנַגֵּן וְהָיָה כְּנַגֵּן הַמְנַגֵּן וַתְּהִי עָלָיו יַד־יְהוָה׃ 3.16. וַיֹּאמֶר כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה עָשֹׂה הַנַּחַל הַזֶּה גֵּבִים גֵּבִים׃ 3.17. כִּי־כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה לֹא־תִרְאוּ רוּחַ וְלֹא־תִרְאוּ גֶשֶׁם וְהַנַּחַל הַהוּא יִמָּלֵא מָיִם וּשְׁתִיתֶם אַתֶּם וּמִקְנֵיכֶם וּבְהֶמְתְּכֶם׃ 3.18. וְנָקַל זֹאת בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה וְנָתַן אֶת־מוֹאָב בְּיֶדְכֶם׃ 3.19. וְהִכִּיתֶם כָּל־עִיר מִבְצָר וְכָל־עִיר מִבְחוֹר וְכָל־עֵץ טוֹב תַּפִּילוּ וְכָל־מַעְיְנֵי־מַיִם תִּסְתֹּמוּ וְכֹל הַחֶלְקָה הַטּוֹבָה תַּכְאִבוּ בָּאֲבָנִים׃ 3.9. So the king of Israel went, and the king of Judah, and the king of Edom; and they made a circuit of seven days’journey; and there was no water for the host, nor for the beasts that followed them." 3.11. But Jehoshaphat said: ‘Is there not here a prophet of the LORD, that we may inquire of the LORD by him?’ And one of the king of Israel’s servants answered and said: ‘Elisha the son of Shaphat is here, who poured water on the hands of Elijah.’" 3.12. And Jehoshaphat said: ‘The word of the LORD is with him.’ So the king of Israel and Jehoshaphat and the king of Edom went down to him." 3.13. And Elisha said unto the king of Israel: ‘What have I to do with thee? get thee to the prophets of thy father, and to the prophets of thy mother.’ And the king of Israel said unto him: ‘Nay; for the LORD hath called these three kings together to deliver them into the hand of Moab.’" 3.14. And Elisha said: ‘As the LORD of hosts liveth, before whom I stand, surely, were it not that I regard the presence of Jehoshaphat the king of Judah, I would not look toward thee, nor see thee." 3.15. But now bring me a minstrel.’ And it came to pass, when the minstrel played, that the hand of the LORD came upon him." 3.16. And he said: ‘Thus saith the LORD: Make this valley full of trenches." 3.17. For thus saith the LORD: Ye shall not see wind, neither shall ye see rain, yet that valley shall be filled with water; and ye shall drink, both ye and your cattle and your beasts." 3.18. And this is but a light thing in the sight of the LORD; He will also deliver the Moabites into your hand." 3.19. And ye shall smite every fortified city, and every choice city, and shall fell every good tree, and stop all fountains of water, and mar every good piece of land with stones.’"
3. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 9.30-9.43, 9.53, 9.60-9.87 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.31. When Joram had received these assurances of assistance from Jehoshaphat, he took his army with him, and came to Jerusalem; and when he had been sumptuously entertained by the king of Jerusalem, it was resolved upon by them to take their march against their enemies through the wilderness of Edom. 9.32. And when they had taken a compass of seven days’ journey, they were in distress for want of water for the cattle, and for the army, from the mistake of their roads by the guides that conducted them, insomuch that they were all in an agony, especially Joram; and cried to God, by reason of their sorrow, and [desired to know] what wickedness had been committed by them that induced him to deliver three kings together, without fighting, unto the king of Moab. 9.33. But Jehoshaphat, who was a righteous man, encouraged him, and bade him send to the camp, and know whether any prophet of God was come along with them, that we might by him learn from God what we should do. And when one of the servants of Joram said that he had seen there Elisha, the son of Shaphat, the disciple of Elijah, the three kings went to him, at the entreaty of Jehoshaphat; 9.34. and when they were come at the prophet’s tent, which tent was pitched out of the camp, they asked him what would become of the army? and Joram was particularly very pressing with him about it. And when he replied to him, that he should not trouble him, but go to his father’s and mother’s prophets, for they [to be sure] were true prophets, he still desired him to prophesy, and to save them. 9.35. So he swore by God that he would not answer him, unless it were on account of Jehoshaphat, who was a holy and righteous man; and when, at his desire, they brought him a man that could play on the psaltery, the Divine Spirit came upon him as the music played, and he commanded them to dig many trenches in the valley; 9.36. for, said he, “though there appear neither cloud, nor wind, nor storm of rain, ye shall see this river full of water, till the army and the cattle be saved for you by drinking of it. Nor will this be all the favor that you shall receive from God, but you shall also overcome your enemies, and take the best and strongest cities of the Moabites, and you shall cut down their fruit trees, and lay waste their country, and stop up their fountains and rivers.” 9.37. 2. When the prophet had said this, the next day, before the sun-rising, a great torrent ran strongly; for God had caused it to rain very plentifully at the distance of three days’ journey into Edom, so that the army and the cattle found water to drink in abundance. 9.38. But when the Moabites heard that the three kings were coming upon them, and made their approach through the wilderness, the king of Moab gathered his army together presently, and commanded them to pitch their camp upon the mountains, that when the enemies should attempt to enter their country, they might not be concealed from them. 9.39. But when at the rising of the sun they saw the water in the torrent, for it was not far from the land of Moab, and that it was of the color of blood, for at such a time the water especially looks red, by the shining of the sun upon it, they formed a false notion of the state of their enemies, as if they had slain one another for thirst; and that the river ran with their blood. 9.41. And when the kings fell into the land of Moab, they overthrew the cities that were in it, and spoiled their fields, and marred them, filling them with stones out of the brooks, and cut down the best of their trees, and stopped up their fountains of water, and overthrew their walls to their foundations. 9.42. But the king of Moab, when he was pursued, endured a siege; and seeing his city in danger of being overthrown by force, made a sally, and went out with seven hundred men, in order to break through the enemy’s camp with his horsemen, on that side where the watch seemed to be kept most negligently; and when, upon trial, he could not get away, for he lighted upon a place that was carefully watched, he returned into the city, and did a thing that showed despair and the utmost distress; 9.43. for he took his eldest son, who was to reign after him, and lifting him up upon the wall, that he might be visible to all the enemies, he offered him as a whole burnt-offering to God, whom, when the kings saw, they commiserated the distress that was the occasion of it, and were so affected, in way of humanity and pity, that they raised the siege, and every one returned to his own house. 9.53. And one that was present said that he should not mistake himself, nor suspect that they had discovered to his enemy his sending men to kill him, but that he ought to know that it was Elisha the prophet who discovered all to him, and laid open all his counsels. So he gave order that they should send some to learn in what city Elisha dwelt. 9.61. So he made an expedition with a great army against Joram, who, not thinking himself a match for him, shut himself up in Samaria, and depended on the strength of its walls; but Benhadad supposed he should take the city, if not by his engines of war, yet that he should overcome the Samaritans by famine, and the want of necessaries, and brought his army upon them, and besieged the city; 9.62. and the plenty of necessaries was brought so low with Joram, that from the extremity of want an ass’s head was sold in Samaria for fourscore pieces of silver, and the Hebrews bought a sextary of dore’s dung, instead of salt, for five pieces of silver. 9.63. Now Joram was in fear lest somebody should betray the city to the enemy, by reason of the famine, and went every day round the walls and the guards to see whether any such were concealed among them; and by being thus seen, and taking such care, he deprived them of the opportunity of contriving any such thing; and if they had a mind to do it, he, by this means, prevented them: 9.64. but upon a certain woman’s crying out, “Have pity on me, my lord,” while he thought that she was about to ask for somewhat to eat, he imprecated God’s curse upon her, and said he had neither thrashing-floor nor wine-press, whence he might give her any thing at her petition. 9.65. Upon which she said she did not desire his aid in any such thing, nor trouble him about food, but desired that he would do her justice as to another woman. And when he bade her say on, and let him know what she desired, she said she had made an agreement with the other woman who was her neighbor and her friend, that because the famine and want was intolerable, they should kill their children, each of them having a son of their own, “and we will live upon them ourselves for two days, the one day upon one son, and the other day upon the other; and,” said she 9.66. “I have killed my son the first day, and we lived upon my son yesterday; but this other woman will not do the same thing, but hath broken her agreement, and hath hid her son.” 9.67. This story mightily grieved Joram when he heard it; so he rent his garment, and cried out with a loud voice, and conceived great wrath against Elisha the prophet, and set himself eagerly to have him slain, because he did not pray to God to provide them some exit and way of escape out of the miseries with which they were surrounded; and sent one away immediately to cut off his head 9.68. who made haste to kill the prophet. But Elisha was not unacquainted with the wrath of the king against him; for as he sat in his house by himself, with none but his disciples about him, he told them that Joram, who was the son of a murderer, had sent one to take away his head; 9.69. “but,” said he, “when he that is commanded to do this comes, take care that you do not let him come in, but press the door against him, and hold him fast there, for the king himself will follow him, and come to me, having altered his mind.” Accordingly, they did as they were bidden, when he that was sent by the king to kill Elisha came. 9.71. Hereupon Elisha promised, that the very next day, at the very same hour in which the king came to him, they should have great plenty of food, and that two seahs of barley should be sold in the market for a shekel, and a seah of fine flour should be sold for a shekel. 9.72. This prediction made Joram, and those that were present, very joyful, for they did not scruple believing what the prophet said, on account of the experience they had of the truth of his former predictions; and the expectation of plenty made the want they were in that day, with the uneasiness that accompanied it, appear a light thing to them: 9.73. but the captain of the third band, who was a friend of the king, and on whose hand the king leaned, said, “Thou talkest of incredible things, O prophet! for as it is impossible for God to pour down torrents of barley, or fine flour, out of heaven, so is it impossible that what thou sayest should come to pass.” To which the prophet made this reply,” Thou shalt see these things come to pass, but thou shalt not be in the least a partaker of them.” 9.74. 5. Now what Elisha had thus foretold came to pass in the manner following: There was a law at Samaria that those that had the leprosy, and whose bodies were not cleansed from it, should abide without the city: and there were four men that on this account abode before the gates, while nobody gave them any food, by reason of the extremity of the famine; 9.75. and as they were prohibited from entering into the city by the law, and they considered that if they were permitted to enter, they should miserably perish by the famine; as also, that if they staid where they were, they should suffer in the same manner,—they resolved to deliver themselves up to the enemy, that in case they should spare them, they should live; but if they should be killed, that would be an easy death. 9.76. So when they had confirmed this their resolution, they came by night to the enemy’s camp. Now God had begun to affright and disturb the Syrians, and to bring the noise of chariots and armor to their ears, as though an army were coming upon them, and had made them suspect that it was coming nearer and nearer to them. 9.77. In short, they were in such a dread of this army, that they left their tents, and ran together to Benhadad, and said that Joram the king of Israel had hired for auxiliaries both the king of Egypt and the king of the Islands, and led them against them for they heard the noise of them as they were coming. 9.78. And Benhadad believed what they said (for there came the same noise to his ears as well as it did to theirs); so they fell into a mighty disorder and tumult, and left their horses and beasts in their camp, with immense riches also, and betook themselves to flight. 9.79. And those lepers who had departed from Samaria, and were gone to the camp of the Syrians, of whom we made mention a little before, when they were in the camp, saw nothing but great quietness and silence: accordingly they entered into it, and went hastily into one of their tents; and when they saw nobody there, they eat and drank, and carried garments, and a great quantity of gold, and hid it out of the camp; 9.81. So they came to the walls of Samaria, and called aloud to the watchmen, and told them in what state the enemies were, as did these tell the king’s guards, by whose means Joram came to know of it; who then sent for his friends, and the captains of his host 9.82. and said to them, that he suspected that this departure of the king of Syria was by way of ambush and treachery, and that, “out of despair of ruining you by famine, when you imagine them to be fled away, you may come out of the city to spoil their camp, and he may then fall upon you on a sudden, and may both kill you, and take the city without fighting; whence it is that I exhort you to guard the city carefully, and by no means to go out of it, or proudly to despise your enemies, as though they were really gone away.” 9.83. And when a certain person said that he did very well and wisely to admit such a suspicion, but that he still advised him to send a couple of horsemen to search all the country as far as Jordan, that “if they were seized by an ambush of the enemy, they might be a security to your army, that they may not go out as if they suspected nothing, nor undergo the like misfortune; and,” said he, “those horsemen may be numbered among those that have died by the famine, supposing they be caught and destroyed by the enemy.” 9.84. So the king was pleased with this opinion, and sent such as might search out the truth, who performed their journey over a road that was without any enemies, but found it full of provisions, and of weapons, that they had therefore thrown away, and left behind them, in order to their being light and expeditious in their flight. When the king heard this, he sent out the multitude to take the spoils of the camp; 9.85. which gains of theirs were not of things of small value, but they took a great quantity of gold, and a great quantity of silver, and flocks of all kinds of cattle. They also possessed themselves of [so many] ten thousand measures of wheat and barley, as they never in the least dreamed of; and were not only freed from their former miseries, but had such plenty, that two seahs of barley were bought for a shekel, and a seah of fine flour for a shekel, according to the prophecy of Elisha. Now a seah is equal to an Italian modius and a half. 9.86. The captain of the third band was the only man that received no benefit by this plenty; for as he was appointed by the king to oversee the gate, that lm might prevent the too great crowd of the multitude, and they might not endanger one another to perish, by treading on one another in the press, he suffered himself in that very way, and died in that very manner, as Elisha had foretold such his death, when he alone of them all disbelieved what he said concerning that plenty of provisions which they should soon have. 9.87. 6. Hereupon, when Benhadad, the king of Syria, had escaped to Damascus, and understood that it was God himself that cast all his army into this fear and disorder, and that it did not arise from the invasion of enemies, he was mightily cast down at his having God so greatly for his enemy, and fell into a distemper.
4. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 3.354, 3.361, 3.400, 4.462-4.464, 4.626 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.354. and said, “Since it pleaseth thee, who hast created the Jewish nation, to depress the same, and since all their good fortune is gone over to the Romans, and since thou hast made choice of this soul of mine to foretell what is to come to pass hereafter, I willingly give them my hands, and am content to live. And I protest openly that I do not go over to the Romans as a deserter of the Jews, but as a minister from thee.” 3.361. 5. Upon this Josephus was afraid of their attacking him, and yet thought he should be a betrayer of the commands of God, if he died before they were delivered. So he began to talk like a philosopher to them in the distress he was then in 4.462. for he went out of the city to this fountain, and threw into the current an earthen vessel full of salt; after which he stretched out his righteous hand unto heaven, and, pouring out a mild drink-offering, he made this supplication,—That the current might be mollified, and that the veins of fresh water might be opened; 4.463. that God also would bring into the place a more temperate and fertile air for the current, and would bestow upon the people of that country plenty of the fruits of the earth, and a succession of children; and that this prolific water might never fail them, while they continued to be righteous. 4.464. To these prayers Elisha joined proper operations of his hands, after a skillful manner, and changed the fountain; and that water, which had been the occasion of barrenness and famine before, from that time did supply a numerous posterity, and afforded great abundance to the country. 4.626. “It is a shameful thing (said he) that this man, who hath foretold my coming to the empire beforehand, and been the minister of a Divine message to me, should still be retained in the condition of a captive or prisoner.” So he called for Josephus, and commanded that he should be set at liberty;
5. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

30b. כל יומא דשבתא הוה יתיב וגריס כולי יומא ההוא יומא דבעי למינח נפשיה קם מלאך המות קמיה ולא יכיל ליה דלא הוה פסק פומיה מגירסא אמר מאי אעביד ליה הוה ליה בוסתנא אחורי ביתיה אתא מלאך המות סליק ובחיש באילני נפק למיחזי הוה סליק בדרגא איפחית דרגא מתותיה אישתיק ונח נפשיה,שלח שלמה לבי מדרשא אבא מת ומוטל בחמה וכלבים של בית אבא רעבים מה אעשה שלחו ליה חתוך נבלה והנח לפני הכלבים ואביך הנח עליו ככר או תינוק וטלטלו ולא יפה אמר שלמה (קהלת ט, ד) כי לכלב חי הוא טוב מן האריה המת ולענין שאילה דשאילנא קדמיכון נר קרויה נר ונשמתו של אדם קרויה נר מוטב תכבה נר של בשר ודם מפני נרו של הקב"ה:,אמר רב יהודה בריה דרב שמואל בר שילת משמיה דרב בקשו חכמים לגנוז ספר קהלת מפני שדבריו סותרין זה את זה ומפני מה לא גנזוהו מפני שתחילתו דברי תורה וסופו דברי תורה תחילתו דברי תורה דכתיב (קהלת א, ג) מה יתרון לאדם בכל עמלו שיעמול תחת השמש ואמרי דבי ר' ינאי תחת השמש הוא דאין לו קודם שמש יש לו סופו דברי תורה דכתיב (קהלת יב, יג) סוף דבר הכל נשמע את האלהים ירא ואת מצותיו שמור כי זה כל האדם מאי כי זה כל האדם אמר רבי (אליעזר) כל העולם כולו לא נברא אלא בשביל זה ר' אבא בר כהנא אמר שקול זה כנגד כל העולם כולו שמעון בן עזאי אומר ואמרי לה שמעון בן זומא אומר לא נברא כל העולם כולו אלא לצוות לזה,ומאי דבריו סותרין זה את זה כתיב (קהלת ז, ג) טוב כעס משחוק וכתיב (קהלת ב, ב) לשחוק אמרתי מהלל כתיב (קהלת ח, טו) ושבחתי אני את השמחה וכתיב (קהלת ב, ב) ולשמחה מה זה עושה לא קשיא טוב כעס משחוק טוב כעס שכועס הקב"ה על הצדיקים בעוה"ז משחוק שמשחק הקב"ה על הרשעים בעולם הזה ולשחוק אמרתי מהלל זה שחוק שמשחק הקב"ה עם הצדיקים בעולם הבא,ושבחתי אני את השמחה שמחה של מצוה ולשמחה מה זה עושה זו שמחה שאינה של מצוה ללמדך שאין שכינה שורה לא מתוך עצבות ולא מתוך עצלות ולא מתוך שחוק ולא מתוך קלות ראש ולא מתוך שיחה ולא מתוך דברים בטלים אלא מתוך דבר שמחה של מצוה שנאמר (מלכים ב ג, טו) ועתה קחו לי מנגן והיה כנגן המנגן ותהי עליו יד ה' אמר רב יהודה וכן לדבר הלכה אמר רבא וכן לחלום טוב,איני והאמר רב גידל אמר רב כל תלמיד חכם שיושב לפני רבו ואין שפתותיו נוטפות מר תכוינה שנאמר (שיר השירים ה, יג) שפתותיו שושנים נוטפות מור עובר אל תקרי מור עובר אלא מר עובר אל תקרי שושנים אלא ששונים לא קשיא הא ברבה והא בתלמיד ואיבעית אימא הא והא ברבה ולא קשיא הא מקמי דלפתח הא לבתר דפתח כי הא דרבה מקמי דפתח להו לרבנן אמר מילתא דבדיחותא ובדחי רבנן לסוף יתיב באימתא ופתח בשמעתא,ואף ספר משלי בקשו לגנוז שהיו דבריו סותרין זה את זה ומפני מה לא גנזוהו אמרי ספר קהלת לאו עיינינן ואשכחינן טעמא הכא נמי ליעיינן ומאי דבריו סותרים זה את זה כתיב (משלי כו, ד) אל תען כסיל כאולתו וכתיב (משלי כו, ה) ענה כסיל כאולתו לא קשיא הא בדברי תורה הא במילי דעלמא,כי הא דההוא דאתא לקמיה דרבי אמר ליה אשתך אשתי ובניך בני אמר ליה רצונך שתשתה כוס של יין שתה ופקע ההוא דאתא לקמיה דרבי חייא אמר ליה אמך אשתי ואתה בני אמר ליה רצונך שתשתה כוס של יין שתה ופקע אמר רבי חייא אהניא ליה צלותיה לרבי דלא לשווייה בני ממזירי דרבי כי הוה מצלי אמר יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתצילני היום מעזי. פנים ומעזות פנים,בדברי תורה מאי היא כי הא דיתיב רבן גמליאל וקא דריש עתידה אשה שתלד בכל יום שנאמר (ירמיהו לא, ח) הרה ויולדת יחדיו ליגלג עליו אותו תלמיד אמר אין כל חדש תחת השמש א"ל בא ואראך דוגמתן בעוה"ז נפק אחוי ליה תרנגולת,ותו יתיב רבן גמליאל וקא דריש עתידים אילנות שמוציאין פירות בכל יום שנאמר (יחזקאל יז, כג) ונשא ענף ועשה פרי מה ענף בכל יום אף פרי בכל יום ליגלג עליו אותו תלמיד אמר והכתיב אין כל חדש תחת השמש א"ל בא ואראך דוגמתם בעולם הזה נפק אחוי ליה צלף,ותו יתיב רבן גמליאל וקא דריש עתידה ארץ ישראל שתוציא גלוסקאות וכלי מילת שנאמר (תהלים עב, טז) יהי פסת בר בארץ ליגלג עליו אותו תלמיד ואמר אין כל חדש תחת השמש אמר ליה בא ואראך דוגמתן בעולם הזה נפק אחוי ליה כמיהין ופטריות ואכלי מילת נברא בר קורא:,. ת"ר לעולם יהא אדם ענוותן כהלל ואל יהא קפדן כשמאי מעשה בשני בני אדם 30b. What did David do? bEvery Shabbat he would sit and learn all daylong to protect himself from the Angel of Death. On bthat day on whichthe Angel of Death bwas supposed to put his soul to rest,the day on which David was supposed to die, bthe Angel of Death stood before him and was unableto overcome him because bhis mouth did not pause from study.The Angel of Death bsaid: What shall I do to him? David had a garden [ ibustana /i] behind his house; the Angel of Death came, climbed, and shook the trees.David bwent out to see.As bhe climbed the stair, the stair broke beneath him.He was startled and bwas silent,interrupted his studies for a moment, band died. /b,Since David died in the garden, bSolomon sentthe following question bto the study hall: Father died and is lying in the sun, and the dogs of father’s house are hungry.There is room for concern lest the dogs come and harm his body. What shall I do? bThey sentan answer bto him: Cut up ananimal bcarcass and place it before the dogs.Since the dogs are hungry, handling the animal carcass to feed them is permitted. bAndwith regard to byour father,it is prohibited to move his body directly. bPlace a loafof bread bor an infant on top of him, andyou can bmove himinto the shade due to the bread or the infant. bAndis it bnot appropriatewhat bSolomon said: “ /bF bor a living dog is better than a dead lion.”The ultimate conclusion of this discussion is that life is preferable to death. bAndnow, bwith regard to the question that I asked before you;Rav Tanḥum spoke modestly, as, actually, they had asked him the question. bA lamp is called inerand a person’s soul isalso bcalled iner /i,as it is written: “The spirit of man is the lamp [ iner /i] of the Lord” (Proverbs 20:27). bIt is preferablethat bthe lamp ofa being of bflesh and blood,an actual lamp, bwill be extinguished in favor of the lamp of the Holy One, Blessed be He,a person’s soul. Therefore, one is permitted to extinguish a flame for the sake of a sick person.,Since contradictions in Ecclesiastes were mentioned, the Gemara cites additional relevant sources. bRav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Rav: The Sages sought to suppress the book of Ecclesiastesand declare it apocryphal bbecause its statements contradict each otherand it is liable to confuse its readers. bAnd why did they not suppress it? Because its beginningconsists of bmatters of Torah and its endconsists of bmatters of Torah.The ostensibly contradictory details are secondary to the essence of the book, which is Torah. The Gemara elaborates: bIts beginningconsists of bmatters of Torah, as it is written: “What profit has man of all his labor which he labors under the sun?”(Ecclesiastes 1:3), bandthe Sages of bthe schoolof bRabbi Yannai said:By inference: bUnder the sun is whereman bhas noprofit from his labor; however, bbefore the sun,i.e., when engaged in the study of Torah, which preceded the sun, bhe does haveprofit. bIts endingconsists of bmatters of Torah, as it is written: “The end of the matter, all having been heard: Fear God, and keep His mitzvot; for this is the whole man” ( /bEcclesiastes 12:13). With regard to this verse, the Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the phrase: bFor this is the whole man? Rabbi Eliezer said: The entire world was only created for thisperson. bRabbi Abba bar Kahana said: Thisperson bis equivalent to the entire world. Shimon ben Azzai says and some saythat bShimon ben Zoma says: The entire world was only created as companion to thisman, so that he will not be alone., bAndto the essence of the matter, the Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of: bIts statementsthat bcontradict each other? It is written: “Vexation is better than laughter”(Ecclesiastes 7:3), band it is written: “I said of laughter: It is praiseworthy”(Ecclesiastes 2:2), which is understood to mean that laughter is commendable. Likewise in one verse bit is written: “So I commended mirth”(Ecclesiastes 8:15), bandin another verse bit is written: “And of mirth: What does it accomplish?”(Ecclesiastes 2:2). The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult,as the contradiction can be resolved. bVexation is better than laughtermeans: The bvexationof bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, toward the righteous in this world is preferable to the laughter which the Holy One, Blessed be He, laughs with the wicked in this worldby showering them with goodness. bI said of laughter: It is praiseworthy, that isthe blaughter which the Holy One, Blessed be He, laughs with the righteous in the World-to-Come. /b,Similarly, “ bSo I commended mirth,”that is bthe joy of a mitzva. “And of mirth: What does it accomplish?” that is joy that is notthe joy bof a mitzva.The praise of joy mentioned here is bto teach you that the Divine Presence restsupon an individual bneither froman atmosphere of bsadness, nor froman atmosphere of blaziness, nor froman atmosphere of blaughter, nor froman atmosphere of bfrivolity, nor froman atmosphere of bidle conversation, nor froman atmosphere of bidle chatter, but rather froman atmosphere imbued with bthe joy ofa bmitzva. As it was statedwith regard to Elisha that after he became angry at the king of Israel, his prophetic spirit left him until he requested: b“But now bring me a minstrel; and it came to pass, when the minstrel played, that the hand of the Lord came upon him”(II Kings 3:15). bRav Yehuda said: And, sotoo, one should be joyful before stating ba matter of ihalakha /i. Rava said: And, so too,one should be joyful before going to sleep in order btohave a bgood dream. /b,The Gemara asks: Is bthat so,that one should introduce matters of ihalakhajoyfully? bDidn’t Rav Giddel saythat bRav said: Any Torah scholar who sits before his teacher and his lips are not dripping with myrrhdue to fear of his teacher, those lips bshall be burnt,as bit is stated: “His lips are as lilies, dripping with flowing myrrh [ ishoshanim notefot mor over /i]”(Song of Songs 5:13)? He interpreted homiletically: bDo not read imor over /i, flowing myrrh; rather,read imar over /i, flowing bitterness.Likewise, bdo not read ishoshanim /i, lilies; rather,read isheshonim /i, that are studying,meaning that lips that are studying Torah must be full of bitterness. The Gemara explains: This is bnot difficult,there is no contradiction here, as bthis,where it was taught that one should introduce matters of ihalakhajoyfully, is referring bto a rabbi, and that,where it was taught that one must be filled with bitterness, is referring bto a student,who must listen to his teacher with trepidation. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that bthis and thatare referring bto a rabbi, andit is bnot difficult. This,where it was taught that he must be joyful, is bbeforehe bbeginsteaching, whereas bthat,where it was taught that he must be filled with bitterness and trepidation, is bafterhe already bbeganteaching ihalakha /i. That explanation is blike that which Rabbadid. bBefore he beganteaching ihalakha bto the Sages, he would say something humorous and the Sages would be cheered. Ultimately, he sat in trepidation and beganteaching the ihalakha /i., bAnd,the Gemara continues, the Sages bsought to suppress the book of Proverbs as wellbecause bits statements contradict each other. And why did they not suppress it? They said:In the case of bthe book of Ecclesiastes, didn’t we analyze it and find an explanationthat its statements were not contradictory? bHere too, let us analyze it. And what isthe meaning of: bIts statements contradict each other?On the one hand, bit is written: “Answer not a fool according to his folly,lest you also be like him” (Proverbs 26:4), bandon the other hand, bit is written: “Answer a fool according to his folly,lest he be wise in his own eyes” (Proverbs 26:5). The Gemara resolves this apparent contradiction: This is bnot difficult,as bthis,where one should answer a fool, is referring to a case where the fool is making claims babout Torah matters;whereas bthat,where one should not answer him, is referring to a case where the fool is making claims babout mundane matters. /b,The Gemara relates how Sages conducted themselves in both of those circumstances. bAs inthe case bof thatman bwho came before RabbiYehuda HaNasi and bsaid to him: Your wifeis bmy wife and your childrenare bmy children,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him:Would byou like to drink a cup of wine? He drank and burstand died. Similarly, the Gemara relates: bThere was that man who came before Rabbi Ḥiyya and said to him: Your motheris bmy wife, and youare bmy son. He said to him:Would byou like to drink a cup of wine? He drank and burstand died. bRabbi Ḥiyya saidwith regard to the incident involving Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi’s bprayerthat bhis children will not be rendered imamzerim /i,children of illicit relations, bwas effective for him. As when RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwould pray, he saidafter his prayer: bMay it be Your will, O Lord, my God, that You will deliver me today from impudent people and from insolence.Insolence, in this case, refers to imamzerut /i. It was due to his prayer that that man burst and was unsuccessful in disparaging Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s children., bIn matters of Torah, what isthe case with regard to which the verse said that one should respond to a fool’s folly? bAs inthe case bwhere Rabban Gamliel was sitting and he interpreteda verse bhomiletically: In the future,in the World-to-Come, ba woman will give birth every day, as it says: “The woman with child and her that gives birth together”(Jeremiah 31:7), explaining that birth will occur on the same day as conception. bA certain student scoffed at himand bsaid:That cannot be, as it has already been stated: b“There is nothing new under the sun”(Ecclesiastes 1:9). Rabban Gamliel bsaid to him: Come and I will show you an exampleof this bin this world. He took him outside and showed him a chickenthat lays eggs every day., bAnd furthermore: Rabban Gamliel sat and interpreteda verse bhomiletically: In the future,in the World-to-Come, btrees will produce fruits every day, as it is stated: “And it shall bring forth branches and bear fruit”(Ezekiel 17:23); bjust as a branchgrows bevery day, so too, fruitwill be produced bevery day. A certain student scoffed at himand bsaid: Isn’t it written: There is nothing new under the sun? He said to him: Come and I will show you an exampleof this bin this world. He went outside and showed him a caper bush,part of which is edible during each season of the year., bAnd furthermore: Rabban Gamliel sat and interpreteda verse bhomiletically: In the future,the World-to-Come, bEretz Yisrael will produce cakes andfine bwool garmentsthat will grow in the ground, bas it is stated: “Let abundant grain be in the land /b.” bA certain student scoffed at him and said: There is nothing new under the sun. He said to him: Come and I will show you an example in this world. He went outsideand bshowed him truffles and mushrooms,which emerge from the earth over the course of a single night and are shaped like a loaf of bread. bAnd with regard to wool garments,he showed him bthe covering of a heart of palm,a young palm branch, which is wrapped in a thin net-like covering.,Since the Gemara discussed the forbearance of Sages, who remain silent in the face of nonsensical comments, it cites additional relevant examples. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA person should always be patient like Hillel and not impatient like Shammai.The Gemara related: There was ban incidentinvolving btwo people /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
ahab, king Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 228
elijah, prophet Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 228
elisha, prophet Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 228
elisha Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 213
faith Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 228
health & healing Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 228
josephus, as character Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 213
joshua Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 213
miracles Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 228
moab Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 228
music Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 228
officium Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 228
perfidia Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 228
prayer Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 228
priest' Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 213
rabbinic judaism Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 228
religion, cult Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 228
uictoria Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 228
vespasian Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 213
worship Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 228