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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7234
Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 8.191-8.193


εἰς δὲ γυναῖκας ἐκμανεὶς καὶ τὴν τῶν ἀφροδισίων ἀκρασίαν οὐ ταῖς ἐπιχωρίαις μόνον ἠρέσκετο, πολλὰς δὲ καὶ ἐκ τῶν ἀλλοτρίων ἐθνῶν γήμας Σιδωνίας καὶ Τυρίας καὶ ̓Αμμανίτιδας καὶ ̓Ιδουμαίας παρέβη μὲν τοὺς Μωσήους νόμους, ὃς ἀπηγόρευσε συνοικεῖν ταῖς οὐχ ὁμοφύλοιςHe grew mad in his love of women, and laid no restraint on himself in his lusts; nor was he satisfied with the women of his country alone, but he married many wives out of foreign nations; Sidontans, and Tyrians, and Ammonites, and Edomites; and he transgressed the laws of Moses, which forbade Jews to marry any but those that were of their own people.


τοὺς δ' ἐκείνων ἤρξατο θρησκεύειν θεοὺς ταῖς γυναιξὶ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτὰς ἔρωτι χαριζόμενος, τοῦτ' αὐτὸ ὑπιδομένου τοῦ νομοθέτου προειπόντος μὴ γαμεῖν τὰς ἀλλοτριοχώρους, ἵνα μὴ τοῖς ξένοις ἐπιπλακέντες ἔθεσι τῶν πατρίων ἀποστῶσι, μηδὲ τοὺς ἐκείνων σέβωνται θεοὺς παρέντες τιμᾶν τὸν ἴδιον.He also began to worship their gods, which he did in order to the gratification of his wives, and out of his affection for them. This very thing our legislator suspected, and so admonished us beforehand, that we should not marry women of other countries, lest we should be entangled with foreign customs, and apostatize from our own; lest we should leave off to honor our own God, and should worship their gods.


ἀλλὰ τούτων μὲν κατημέλησεν ὑπενεχθεὶς εἰς ἡδονὴν ἀλόγιστον Σολόμων, ἀγαγόμενος δὲ γυναῖκας ἀρχόντων καὶ διασήμων θυγατέρας ἑπτακοσίας τὸν ἀριθμὸν καὶ παλλακὰς τριακοσίας, πρὸς δὲ ταύταις καὶ τὴν τοῦ βασιλέως τῶν Αἰγυπτίων θυγατέρα, εὐθὺς μὲν ἐκρατεῖτο πρὸς αὐτῶν, ὥστε μιμεῖσθαι τὰ παρ' ἐκείναις, καὶ τῆς εὐνοίας καὶ φιλοστοργίας ἠναγκάζετο παρέχειν αὐταῖς δεῖγμα τὸ βιοῦν ὡς αὐταῖς πάτριον ἦν:But Solomon was Gllen headlong into unreasonable pleasures, and regarded not those admonitions; for when he had married seven hundred wives, the daughters of princes and of eminent persons, and three hundred concubines, and those besides the king of Egypt’s daughter, he soon was governed by them, till he came to imitate their practices. He was forced to give them this demonstration of his kindness and affection to them, to live according to the laws of their countries.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

23 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.9, 4.12, 6.11-6.12 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.9. When I became a man I married Anna, a member of our family, and by her I became the father of Tobias. 4.12. Beware, my son, of all immorality. First of all take a wife from among the descendants of your fathers and do not marry a foreign woman, who is not of your fathers tribe; for we are the sons of the prophets. Remember, my son, that Noah, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, our fathers of old, all took wives from among their brethren. They were blessed in their children, and their posterity will inherit the land. 6.11. because you are entitled to her and to her inheritance, for you are her only eligible kinsman. 6.12. The girl is also beautiful and sensible. Now listen to my plan. I will speak to her father, and as soon as we return from Rages we will celebrate the marriage. For I know that Raguel, according to the law of Moses, cannot give her to another man without incurring the penalty of death, because you rather than any other man are entitled to the inheritance.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 7.3, 21.10-21.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.3. וְלֹא תִתְחַתֵּן בָּם בִּתְּךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן לִבְנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ לֹא־תִקַּח לִבְנֶךָ׃ 21.11. וְרָאִיתָ בַּשִּׁבְיָה אֵשֶׁת יְפַת־תֹּאַר וְחָשַׁקְתָּ בָהּ וְלָקַחְתָּ לְךָ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 21.12. וַהֲבֵאתָהּ אֶל־תּוֹךְ בֵּיתֶךָ וְגִלְּחָה אֶת־רֹאשָׁהּ וְעָשְׂתָה אֶת־צִפָּרְנֶיהָ׃ 21.13. וְהֵסִירָה אֶת־שִׂמְלַת שִׁבְיָהּ מֵעָלֶיהָ וְיָשְׁבָה בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבָכְתָה אֶת־אָבִיהָ וְאֶת־אִמָּהּ יֶרַח יָמִים וְאַחַר כֵּן תָּבוֹא אֵלֶיהָ וּבְעַלְתָּהּ וְהָיְתָה לְךָ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 21.14. וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא חָפַצְתָּ בָּהּ וְשִׁלַּחְתָּהּ לְנַפְשָׁהּ וּמָכֹר לֹא־תִמְכְּרֶנָּה בַּכָּסֶף לֹא־תִתְעַמֵּר בָּהּ תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר עִנִּיתָהּ׃ 7.3. neither shalt thou make marriages with them: thy daughter thou shalt not give unto his son, nor his daughter shalt thou take unto thy son." 21.10. When thou goest forth to battle against thine enemies, and the LORD thy God delivereth them into thy hands, and thou carriest them away captive," 21.11. and seest among the captives a woman of goodly form, and thou hast a desire unto her, and wouldest take her to thee to wife;" 21.12. then thou shalt bring her home to thy house; and she shall shave her head, and pare her nails;" 21.13. and she shall put the raiment of her captivity from off her, and shall remain in thy house, and bewail her father and her mother a full month; and after that thou mayest go in unto her, and be her husband, and she shall be thy wife." 21.14. And it shall be, if thou have no delight in her, then thou shalt let her go whither she will; but thou shalt not sell her at all for money, thou shalt not deal with her as a slave, because thou hast humbled her."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 34.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

34.16. וְלָקַחְתָּ מִבְּנֹתָיו לְבָנֶיךָ וְזָנוּ בְנֹתָיו אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶן וְהִזְנוּ אֶת־בָּנֶיךָ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶן׃ 34.16. and thou take of their daughters unto thy sons, and their daughters go astray after their gods, and make thy sons go astray after their gods."
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 20.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.26. וִהְיִיתֶם לִי קְדֹשִׁים כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אֲנִי יְהוָה וָאַבְדִּל אֶתְכֶם מִן־הָעַמִּים לִהְיוֹת לִי׃ 20.26. And ye shall be holy unto Me; for I the LORD am holy, and have set you apart from the peoples, that ye should be Mine."
5. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 3.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.1. וַיִּיטַב הַדָּבָר בְּעֵינֵי אֲדֹנָי כִּי שָׁאַל שְׁלֹמֹה אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה׃ 3.1. וַיִּתְחַתֵּן שְׁלֹמֹה אֶת־פַּרְעֹה מֶלֶךְ מִצְרָיִם וַיִּקַּח אֶת־בַּת־פַּרְעֹה וַיְבִיאֶהָ אֶל־עִיר דָּוִד עַד כַּלֹּתוֹ לִבְנוֹת אֶת־בֵּיתוֹ וְאֶת־בֵּית יְהוָה וְאֶת־חוֹמַת יְרוּשָׁלִַם סָבִיב׃ 3.1. And Solomon became allied to Pharaoh king of Egypt by marriage, and took Pharaoh’s daughter, and brought her into the city of David, until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of the LORD, and the wall of Jerusalem round about."
6. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 10.11 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

10.11. וְעַתָּה תְּנוּ תוֹדָה לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵי־אֲבֹתֵיכֶם וַעֲשׂוּ רְצוֹנוֹ וְהִבָּדְלוּ מֵעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ וּמִן־הַנָּשִׁים הַנָּכְרִיּוֹת׃ 10.11. Now therefore make confession unto the LORD, the God of your fathers, and do His pleasure; and separate yourselves from the peoples of the land, and from the foreign women.’"
7. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 9.2, 10.28-10.31, 13.1-13.3, 13.23-13.27 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.2. וַיִּבָּדְלוּ זֶרַע יִשְׂרָאֵל מִכֹּל בְּנֵי נֵכָר וַיַּעַמְדוּ וַיִּתְוַדּוּ עַל־חַטֹּאתֵיהֶם וַעֲוֺנוֹת אֲבֹתֵיהֶם׃ 9.2. וְרוּחֲךָ הַטּוֹבָה נָתַתָּ לְהַשְׂכִּילָם וּמַנְךָ לֹא־מָנַעְתָּ מִפִּיהֶם וּמַיִם נָתַתָּה לָהֶם לִצְמָאָם׃ 10.28. מַלּוּךְ חָרִם בַּעֲנָה׃ 10.29. וּשְׁאָר הָעָם הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם הַשּׁוֹעֲרִים הַמְשֹׁרְרִים הַנְּתִינִים וְכָל־הַנִּבְדָּל מֵעַמֵּי הָאֲרָצוֹת אֶל־תּוֹרַת הָאֱלֹהִים נְשֵׁיהֶם בְּנֵיהֶם וּבְנֹתֵיהֶם כֹּל יוֹדֵעַ מֵבִין׃ 10.31. וַאֲשֶׁר לֹא־נִתֵּן בְּנֹתֵינוּ לְעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ וְאֶת־בְּנֹתֵיהֶם לֹא נִקַּח לְבָנֵינוּ׃ 13.1. וָאֵדְעָה כִּי־מְנָיוֹת הַלְוִיִּם לֹא נִתָּנָה וַיִּבְרְחוּ אִישׁ־לְשָׂדֵהוּ הַלְוִיִּם וְהַמְשֹׁרְרִים עֹשֵׂי הַמְּלָאכָה׃ 13.1. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא נִקְרָא בְּסֵפֶר מֹשֶׁה בְּאָזְנֵי הָעָם וְנִמְצָא כָּתוּב בּוֹ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָבוֹא עַמֹּנִי וּמֹאָבִי בִּקְהַל הָאֱלֹהִים עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 13.2. וַיָּלִינוּ הָרֹכְלִים וּמֹכְרֵי כָל־מִמְכָּר מִחוּץ לִירוּשָׁלִָם פַּעַם וּשְׁתָּיִם׃ 13.2. כִּי לֹא קִדְּמוּ אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּלֶּחֶם וּבַמָּיִם וַיִּשְׂכֹּר עָלָיו אֶת־בִּלְעָם לְקַלְלוֹ וַיַּהֲפֹךְ אֱלֹהֵינוּ הַקְּלָלָה לִבְרָכָה׃ 13.3. וְטִהַרְתִּים מִכָּל־נֵכָר וָאַעֲמִידָה מִשְׁמָרוֹת לַכֹּהֲנִים וְלַלְוִיִּם אִישׁ בִּמְלַאכְתּוֹ׃ 13.3. וַיְהִי כְּשָׁמְעָם אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה וַיַּבְדִּילוּ כָל־עֵרֶב מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃ 13.23. גַּם בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם רָאִיתִי אֶת־הַיְּהוּדִים הֹשִׁיבוּ נָשִׁים אשדודיות [אַשְׁדֳּדִיּוֹת] עמוניות [עַמֳּנִיּוֹת] מוֹאֲבִיּוֹת׃ 13.24. וּבְנֵיהֶם חֲצִי מְדַבֵּר אַשְׁדּוֹדִית וְאֵינָם מַכִּירִים לְדַבֵּר יְהוּדִית וְכִלְשׁוֹן עַם וָעָם׃ 13.25. וָאָרִיב עִמָּם וָאֲקַלְלֵם וָאַכֶּה מֵהֶם אֲנָשִׁים וָאֶמְרְטֵם וָאַשְׁבִּיעֵם בֵּאלֹהִים אִם־תִּתְּנוּ בְנֹתֵיכֶם לִבְנֵיהֶם וְאִם־תִּשְׂאוּ מִבְּנֹתֵיהֶם לִבְנֵיכֶם וְלָכֶם׃ 13.26. הֲלוֹא עַל־אֵלֶּה חָטָא־שְׁלֹמֹה מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבַגּוֹיִם הָרַבִּים לֹא־הָיָה מֶלֶךְ כָּמֹהוּ וְאָהוּב לֵאלֹהָיו הָיָה וַיִּתְּנֵהוּ אֱלֹהִים מֶלֶךְ עַל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל גַּם־אוֹתוֹ הֶחֱטִיאוּ הַנָּשִׁים הַנָּכְרִיּוֹת׃ 13.27. וְלָכֶם הֲנִשְׁמַע לַעֲשֹׂת אֵת כָּל־הָרָעָה הַגְּדוֹלָה הַזֹּאת לִמְעֹל בֵּאלֹהֵינוּ לְהֹשִׁיב נָשִׁים נָכְרִיּוֹת׃ 9.2. And the seed of Israel separated themselves from all foreigners, and stood and confessed their sins, and the iniquities of their fathers." 10.28. Malluch, Harim, Baanah." 10.29. And the rest of the people, the priests, the Levites, the porters, the singers, the Nethinim, and all they that had separated themselves from the peoples of the lands unto the law of God, their wives, their sons, and their daughters, every one that had knowledge and understanding;" 10.30. they cleaved to their brethren, their nobles, and entered into a curse, and into an oath, to walk in God’s law, which was given by Moses the servant of God, and to observe and do all the commandments of the LORD our Lord, and His ordices and His statutes;" 10.31. and that we would not give our daughters unto the peoples of the land, nor take their daughters for our sons;" 13.1. On that day they read in the book of Moses in the hearing of the people; and therein was found written, that an Ammonite and a Moabite should not enter into the assembly of God for ever;" 13.2. because they met not the children of Israel with bread and with water, but hired Balaam against them, to curse them; howbeit our God turned the curse into a blessing." 13.3. And it came to pass, when they had heard the law, that they separated from Israel all the alien mixture." 13.23. In those days also saw I the Jews that had married women of Ashdod, of Ammon, and of Moab;" 13.24. and their children spoke half in the speech of Ashdod, and could not speak in the Jews’language, but according to the language of each people." 13.25. And I contended with them, and cursed them, and smote certain of them, and plucked off their hair, and made them swear by God: ‘Ye shall not give your daughters unto their sons, nor take their daughters for your sons, or for yourselves." 13.26. Did not Solomon king of Israel sin by these things? yet among many nations was there no king like him, and he was beloved of his God, and God made him king over all Israel; nevertheless even him did the foreign women cause to sin." 13.27. Shall we then hearken unto you to do all this great evil, to break faith with our God in marrying foreign women?’"
8. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.9, 4.12, 6.11-6.12 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.9. When I became a man I married Anna, a member of our family, and by her I became the father of Tobias. 4.12. Beware, my son, of all immorality. First of all take a wife from among the descendants of your fathers and do not marry a foreign woman, who is not of your fathers tribe; for we are the sons of the prophets. Remember, my son, that Noah, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, our fathers of old, all took wives from among their brethren. They were blessed in their children, and their posterity will inherit the land. 6.11. because you are entitled to her and to her inheritance, for you are her only eligible kinsman. 6.12. The girl is also beautiful and sensible. Now listen to my plan. I will speak to her father, and as soon as we return from Rages we will celebrate the marriage. For I know that Raguel, according to the law of Moses, cannot give her to another man without incurring the penalty of death, because you rather than any other man are entitled to the inheritance.
9. Anon., 1 Enoch, 11, 6-10 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10. Then said the Most High, the Holy and Great One spake, and sent Uriel to the son of Lamech,,and said to him: 'Go to Noah and tell him in my name 'Hide thyself!' and reveal to him the end that is approaching: that the whole earth will be destroyed, and a deluge is about to come,upon the whole earth, and will destroy all that is on it. And now instruct him that he may escape,and his seed may be preserved for all the generations of the world.' And again the Lord said to Raphael: 'Bind Azazel hand and foot, and cast him into the darkness: and make an opening,in the desert, which is in Dudael, and cast him therein. And place upon him rough and jagged rocks, and cover him with darkness, and let him abide there for ever, and cover his face that he may,not see light. And on the day of the great judgement he shall be cast into the fire. And heal the earth which the angels have corrupted, and proclaim the healing of the earth, that they may heal the plague, and that all the children of men may not perish through all the secret things that the,Watchers have disclosed and have taught their sons. And the whole earth has been corrupted",through the works that were taught by Azazel: to him ascribe all sin.' And to Gabriel said the Lord: 'Proceed against the bastards and the reprobates, and against the children of fornication: and destroy [the children of fornication and] the children of the Watchers from amongst men [and cause them to go forth]: send them one against the other that they may destroy each other in,battle: for length of days shall they not have. And no request that they (i.e. their fathers) make of thee shall be granted unto their fathers on their behalf; for they hope to live an eternal life, and,that each one of them will live five hundred years.' And the Lord said unto Michael: 'Go, bind Semjaza and his associates who have united themselves with women so as to have defiled themselves,with them in all their uncleanness. And when their sons have slain one another, and they have seen the destruction of their beloved ones, bind them fast for seventy generations in the valleys of the earth, till the day of their judgement and of their consummation, till the judgement that is,for ever and ever is consummated. In those days they shall be led off to the abyss of fire: and",to the torment and the prison in which they shall be confined for ever. And whosoever shall be condemned and destroyed will from thenceforth be bound together with them to the end of all",generations. And destroy all the spirits of the reprobate and the children of the Watchers, because,they have wronged mankind. Destroy all wrong from the face of the earth and let every evil work come to an end: and let the plant of righteousness and truth appear: and it shall prove a blessing; the works of righteousness and truth' shall be planted in truth and joy for evermore.",And then shall all the righteous escape, And shall live till they beget thousands of children, And all the days of their youth and their old age Shall they complete in peace.,And then shall the whole earth be tilled in righteousness, and shall all be planted with trees and,be full of blessing. And all desirable trees shall be planted on it, and they shall plant vines on it: and the vine which they plant thereon shall yield wine in abundance, and as for all the seed which is sown thereon each measure (of it) shall bear a thousand, and each measure of olives shall yield,ten presses of oil. And cleanse thou the earth from all oppression, and from all unrighteousness, and from all sin, and from all godlessness: and all the uncleanness that is wrought upon the earth,destroy from off the earth. And all the children of men shall become righteous, and all nations,shall offer adoration and shall praise Me, and all shall worship Me. And the earth shall be cleansed from all defilement, and from all sin, and from all punishment, and from all torment, and I will never again send (them) upon it from generation to generation and for ever.
10. Anon., Jubilees, 16.17-16.18, 20.4, 22.16-22.20, 25.1-25.10, 27.10, 30.7-30.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

16.17. And she bare a son in the third month, and in the middle of the month, at the time of which the Lord had spoken to Abraham 16.18. on the festival of the first-fruits of the harvest, Isaac was born. brAnd Abraham circumcised his son on the eighth day: 20.4. And if any woman or maid commit fornication amongst you, burn her with fire, and let them not commit fornication with her after their eyes and their heart; 22.16. May nations serve thee, And all the nations bow themselves before thy seed. 22.17. Be strong in the presence of men, And exercise authority over all the seed of Seth. Then thy ways and the ways of thy sons will be justified, So that they shall become a holy nation. 22.18. May the Most High God give thee all the blessings Wherewith he hath blessed me And wherewith He blessed Noah and Adam; May they rest on the sacred head of thy seed from generation to generation for ever. 22.19. And may He cleanse thee from all unrighteousness and impurity, That thou mayest be forgiven all (thy) transgressions; (and) thy sins of ignorance. 22.20. And may He strengthen thee, And bless thee. And mayest thou inherit the whole earth, brAnd may He renew His covet with thee, That thou mayest be to Him a nation for His inheritance for all the ages 25.1. And in the second year of this week in this jubilee, Rebecca called Jacob her son, and spake unto him, saying: 25.2. My son, do not take thee a wife of the daughters of Canaan, as Esau, thy brother, who took him two wives of the daughters of Canaan 25.3. and they have embittered my soul with all their unclean deeds: for all their deeds are fornication and lust, and there is no righteousness with them, for (their deeds) are evil. 25.4. And I, my son, love thee exceedingly, and my heart and my affection bless thee every hour of the day and watch of the night. 25.5. And now, my son, hearken to my voice, and do the will of thy mother, and do not take thee a wife of the daughters of this land, but only of the house of my father 25.6. and of my father's kindred. Thou wilt take thee a wife of the house of my father, and the Most High God will bless thee, and thy children will be a righteous generation and a holy seed. 25.7. And then spake Jacob to Rebecca, his mother, and said unto her: "Behold, mother, I am nine weeks of years old 25.8. and I neither know nor have I touched any woman, nor have I betrothed myself to any, nor even think of taking me a wife of the daughters of Canaan. 25.9. For I remember, mother, the words of Abraham, our father, for he commanded me not to take a wife of the daughters of Canaan 25.10. but to take me a wife from the seed of my father's house and from my kindred. 27.10. And Rebecca went in and said to Isaac: "I loathe my life because of the two daughters of Heth, whom Esau hath taken him as wives; and if Jacob take a wife from among the daughters of the land such as these, for what purpose do I further live; for the daughters of Canaan are evil. 30.7. And thus let it not again be done from henceforth that a daughter of Israel be defiled; 30.8. for judgment is ordained in heaven against them that they should destroy with the sword all the men of the Shechemites because they had wrought shame in Israel. 30.9. And the Lord delivered them into the hands of the sons of Jacob that they might exterminate them with the sword and execute judgment upon them,... 30.10. and that it might not thus again be done in Israel that a virgin of Israel should be defiled. 30.11. And if there is any man who wisheth in Israel to give his daughter or his sister to any man who is of the seed of the Gentiles he shall surely die, and they shall stone him with stones; for he hath wrought shame in Israel; 30.12. and they shall burn the woman with fire, because she hath dishonoured the name of the house of her father, and she shall be rooted out of Israel. 30.13. And let not an adulteress and no uncleanness be found in Israel throughout all the days of the generations of the earth; for Israel is holy unto the Lord 30.14. and every man who hath defiled (it) shall surely die: they shall stone him with stones. 30.15. For thus hath it been ordained and written in the heavenly tables regarding all the seed of Israel: he who defileth (it) shall surely die, and he shall be stoned with stones. 30.16. And to this law there is no limit of days, and no remission, nor any atonement: but the man who hath defiled his daughter shall be rooted out in the midst of all Israel, because he hath given of his seed to Moloch, and wrought impiously so as to defile it. 30.17. And do thou, Moses, command the children of Israel and exhort them not to give their daughters to the Gentiles, and not to take for their sons any of the daughters of the Gentiles, for this is abominable before the Lord.
11. Anon., Testament of Job, 45.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. Anon., Testament of Levi, 9.10, 14.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

14.6. And out of covetousness ye shall teach the commandments of the Lord, wedded women shall ye pollute, and the virgins of Jerusalem shall ye defile: and with harlots and adulteresses shall ye be joined, and the daughters of the Gentiles shall ye take to wife, purifying them with an unlawful purification; and your union shall be like unto Sodom and Gomorrah.
13. Anon., Testament of Judah, 14.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

14. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Qmmt, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 25.16-25.26, 26.5-26.18, 47.19-47.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

25.16. I would rather dwell with a lion and a dragon than dwell with an evil wife. 25.17. The wickedness of a wife changes her appearance,and darkens her face like that of a bear. 25.18. Her husband takes his meals among the neighbors,and he cannot help sighing bitterly. 25.19. Any iniquity is insignificant compared to a wifes iniquity;may a sinners lot befall her! 25.21. Do not be ensnared by a womans beauty,and do not desire a woman for her possessions. 25.22. There is wrath and impudence and great disgrace when a wife supports her husband. 25.23. A dejected mind, a gloomy face,and a wounded heart are caused by an evil wife. Drooping hands and weak knees are caused by the wife who does not make her husband happy. 25.24. From a woman sin had its beginning,and because of her we all die. 25.25. Allow no outlet to water,and no boldness of speech in an evil wife. 25.26. If she does not go as you direct,separate her from yourself. 26.5. of three things my heart is afraid,and of a fourth I am frightened:The slander of a city, the gathering of a mob,and false accusation -- all these are worse than death. 26.6. There is grief of heart and sorrow when a wife is envious of a rival, and a tongue-lashing makes it known to all. 26.7. An evil wife is an ox yoke which chafes;taking hold of her is like grasping a scorpion. 26.8. There is great anger when a wife is drunken;she will not hide her shame. 26.9. A wifes harlotry shows in her lustful eyes,and she is known by her eyelids. 26.11. Be on guard against her impudent eye,and do not wonder if she sins against you. 26.12. As a thirsty wayfarer opens his mouth and drinks from any water near him,so will she sit in front of every post and open her quiver to the arrow. 26.13. A wifes charm delights her husband,and her skill puts fat on his bones. 26.14. A silent wife is a gift of the Lord,and there is nothing so precious as a disciplined soul. 26.15. A modest wife adds charm to charm,and no balance can weigh the value of a chaste soul. 26.16. Like the sun rising in the heights of the Lord,so is the beauty of a good wife in her well-ordered home. 26.17. Like the shining lamp on the holy lampstand,so is a beautiful face on a stately figure. 26.18. Like pillars of gold on a base of silver,so are beautiful feet with a steadfast heart. 47.19. But you laid your loins beside women,and through your body you were brought into subjection.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 3.29 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

3.29. Again. Moses commands, do not either form a connection of marriage with one of another nation, and do not be seduced into complying with customs inconsistent with your own, and do not stray from the right way and forget the path which leads to piety, turning into a road which is no road. And, perhaps, you will yourself resist, if you have been from your earliest youth trained in the best possible instruction, which your parents have instilled into you, continually filling your mind with the sacred laws. And the anxiety and fear which parents feel for their sons and daughters is not slight; for, perchance, they may be allured by mischievous customs instead of genuine good ones, and so they may be in danger of learning to forget the honour belonging to the one God, which is the beginning and end of extreme unhappiness.
17. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 2.252-2.253, 6.343, 8.192-8.194, 9.288, 10.184, 11.186, 14.74, 16.38, 17.198, 19.328 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.252. Tharbis was the daughter of the king of the Ethiopians: she happened to see Moses as he led the army near the walls, and fought with great courage; and admiring the subtilty of his undertakings, and believing him to be the author of the Egyptians’ success, when they had before despaired of recovering their liberty, and to be the occasion of the great danger the Ethiopians were in, when they had before boasted of their great achievements, she fell deeply in love with him; and upon the prevalancy of that passion, sent to him the most faithful of all her servants to discourse with him about their marriage. 2.253. He thereupon accepted the offer, on condition she would procure the delivering up of the city; and gave her the assurance of an oath to take her to his wife; and that when he had once taken possession of the city, he would not break his oath to her. No sooner was the agreement made, but it took effect immediately; and when Moses had cut off the Ethiopians, he gave thanks to God, and consummated his marriage, and led the Egyptians back to their own land. 6.343. But I shall speak further upon another subject, which will afford me an opportunity of discoursing on what is for the advantage of cities, and people, and nations, and suited to the taste of good men, and will encourage them all in the prosecution of virtue; and is capable of showing them the method of acquiring glory, and an everlasting fame; and of imprinting in the kings of nations, and the rulers of cities, great inclination and diligence of doing well; as also of encouraging them to undergo dangers, and to die for their countries, and of instructing them how to despise all the most terrible adversities: 8.192. He also began to worship their gods, which he did in order to the gratification of his wives, and out of his affection for them. This very thing our legislator suspected, and so admonished us beforehand, that we should not marry women of other countries, lest we should be entangled with foreign customs, and apostatize from our own; lest we should leave off to honor our own God, and should worship their gods. 8.193. But Solomon was Gllen headlong into unreasonable pleasures, and regarded not those admonitions; for when he had married seven hundred wives, the daughters of princes and of eminent persons, and three hundred concubines, and those besides the king of Egypt’s daughter, he soon was governed by them, till he came to imitate their practices. He was forced to give them this demonstration of his kindness and affection to them, to live according to the laws of their countries. 8.194. And as he grew into years, and his reason became weaker by length of time, it was not sufficient to recall to his mind the institutions of his own country; so he still more and more condemned his own God, and continued to regard the gods that his marriages had introduced; 9.288. 3. But now the Cutheans, who removed into Samaria, (for that is the name they have been called by to this time, because they were brought out of the country called Cuthah, which is a country of Persia, and there is a river of the same name in it,) each of them, according to their nations, which were in number five, brought their own gods into Samaria, and by worshipping them, as was the custom of their own countries, they provoked Almighty God to be angry and displeased at them 10.184. Now as to Shalmanezer, he removed the Israelites out of their country, and placed therein the nation of the Cutheans, who had formerly belonged to the inner parts of Persia and Media, but were then called Samaritans, by taking the name of the country to which they were removed; but the king of Babylon, who brought out the two tribes, placed no other nation in their country, by which means all Judea and Jerusalem, and the temple, continued to be a desert for seventy years; 11.186. for when Artaxerxes had taken the kingdom, and had set governors over the hundred twenty and seven provinces, from India even unto Ethiopia, in the third year of his reign, he made a costly feast for his friends, and for the nations of Persia, and for their governors, such a one as was proper for a king to make, when he had a mind to make a public demonstration of his riches, and this for a hundred and fourscore days; 14.74. and he made Jerusalem tributary to the Romans, and took away those cities of Celesyria which the inhabitants of Judea had subdued, and put them under the government of the Roman president, and confined the whole nation, which had elevated itself so high before, within its own bounds. 16.38. And let us now consider the one of these practices. Is there any people, or city, or community of men, to whom your government and the Roman power does not appear to be the greatest blessing ‘. Is there any one that can desire to make void the favors they have granted? 16.38. Whither is thy understanding gone, and left thy soul empty? Whither is that extraordinary sagacity of thine gone whereby thou hast performed so many and such glorious-actions? 17.198. About the bier were his sons and his numerous relations; next to these was the soldiery, distinguished according to their several countries and denominations; and they were put into the following order: First of all went his guards, then the band of Thracians, and after them the Germans; and next the band of Galatians, every one in their habiliments of war; and behind these marched the whole army in the same manner as they used to go out to war 19.328. 3. Now this king was by nature very beneficent and liberal in his gifts, and very ambitious to oblige people with such large donations; and he made himself very illustrious by the many chargeable presents he made them. He took delight in giving, and rejoiced in living with good reputation. He was not at all like that Herod who reigned before him;
18. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.155, 2.372, 2.379, 5.367, 7.244 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.155. 7. He also took away from the nation all those cities that they had formerly taken, and that belonged to Celesyria, and made them subject to him that was at that time appointed to be the Roman president there; and reduced Judea within its proper bounds. He also rebuilt Gadara, that had been demolished by the Jews, in order to gratify one Demetrius, who was of Gadara 2.372. Now, although these Gauls have such obstacles before them to prevent any attack upon them, and have no fewer than three hundred and five nations among them, nay have, as one may say, the fountains of domestic happiness within themselves, and send out plentiful streams of happiness over almost the whole world, these bear to be tributary to the Romans, and derive their prosperous condition from them; 2.379. And why should I speak much more about this matter, while the Parthians, that most warlike body of men, and lords of so many nations, and encompassed with such mighty forces, send hostages to the Romans? whereby you may see, if you please, even in Italy, the noblest nation of the East, under the notion of peace, submitting to serve them. 5.367. And evident it is that fortune is on all hands gone over to them; and that God, when he had gone round the nations with this dominion, is now settled in Italy. That, moreover, it is a strong and fixed law, even among brute beasts, as well as among men, to yield to those that are too strong for them; and to suffer those to have dominion who are too hard 7.244. 4. Now there was a nation of the Alans, which we have formerly mentioned somewhere as being Scythians and inhabiting at the lake Meotis.
19. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.137 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.137. But as he understood, in a little time, that his father Nabolassar was dead, he set the affairs of Egypt and the other countries in order, and committed the captives he had taken from the Jews, and Phoenicians, and Syrians, and of the nations belonging to Egypt, to some of his friends, that they might conduct that part of the forces that had on heavy armor, with the rest of his baggage, to Babylonia; while he went in haste, having but a few with him, over the desert to Babylon;
20. New Testament, Acts, 10.28 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10.28. He said to them, "You yourselves know how it is an unlawful thing for a man who is a Jew to join himself or come to one of another nation, but God has shown me that I shouldn't call any man unholy or unclean.
21. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 9.5, 21.1, 43.5, 44.7, 45.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 9.22.4-9.22.6 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

23. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 7.5, 8.5



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
2 baruch Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 289
abraham Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 289; Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 126
alien/foreigner, in philo Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 177
alien/foreigner, jewish attitudes toward Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 129
ammonites Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 177
amorites Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 129
angel Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 289
archangel, commands of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 289
babylon/babylonians Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 129
canaan/canaanites Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 177
customs/traditions/practices as identity markers, among jews Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 126
egypt Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 177
endogamy Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 126
ethnos/ethne, in josephus Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 177
ezra-nehemiah Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 129
gauls/celts Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 177
gentiles, as contrast with jews Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 177
germans/germany Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 177
hebrews/israelites, and mixed marriages Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 126
herod the great Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 177
idolatry, denounced in jewish texts Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 129
idumaeans Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 177
imperial expansionism Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 177
intermarriage, evolution of tradition about foreign wives, d) solomons intermarriage condemned Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 379
intermarriage, evolution of tradition about foreign wives, e)pharaohs daughter one of those who led solomon astray' Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 379
intermarriage, evolution of tradition about foreign wives Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 379
intermarriage, in post-biblical texts Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 126, 129
isaac Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 126
israel Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 129
jacob Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 126
jews/judeans/ioudaioi, and ethnic vocabulary in josephus Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 177
jews/judeans/ioudaioi, and intermarriage in post-biblical texts Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 126, 129, 177
josephus Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 126, 129, 177
letters/epistles Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 289
levi/levites Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 126
liber antiquitatum biblicarum Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 129
lineage and genealogy as identity marker, mocked in tobit Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 126
maccabees, books of Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 126
marriage Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 289
moses Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 126, 129
noah Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 126
parthia/parthians Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 177
persia/persians/iran Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 177
philo Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 126
scythians Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 177
solomon, evolution of condemnation about marriage to daughter of pharaoh, d) solomons intermarriage condemned Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 379
solomon, evolution of condemnation about marriage to daughter of pharaoh Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 379
solomon Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 129, 177
syria/syrians Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 177
territory as identity marker Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 177
thrace/thracians Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 177
tobias Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 126
tobit Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 126
worship/ritual/cult as identity markers, for jews Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 129