Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7234
Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.101-3.189


γενήσεται δὲ ἡ σκηνὴ μέτροις τε καὶ κατασκευῇ οἷς αὐτὸς ὑπέδειξεν ὑμῶν ἀόκνως ἐχόντων πρὸς τὸ ἔργον. ταῦτ' εἰπὼν δύο πλάκας αὐτοῖς ἐπιδείκνυσιν ἐγγεγραμμένους ἐχούσας τοὺς δέκα λόγους, ἐν ἑκατέρᾳ πέντε. καὶ χεὶρ ἦν ἐπὶ τῇ γραφῇ τοῦ θεοῦ.as also, that the tabernacle should be of such measures and construction as he had shown him, and that you are to fall to the work, and prosecute it diligently. When he had said this, he showed them the two tables, with the ten commandments engraven upon them, five upon each table; and the writing was by the hand of God.


Οἱ δὲ χαίροντες οἷς τε ἑώρων καὶ οἷς ἤκουον τοῦ στρατηγοῦ τῆς κατὰ δύναμιν αὐτῶν σπουδῆς οὐκ ἀπελείποντο, ἀλλ' εἰσέφερον ἄργυρόν τε καὶ χρυσὸν καὶ χαλκὸν ξύλα τε τῆς καλλίστης ὕλης καὶ μηδὲν ὑπὸ τῆς σήψεως παθεῖν δυνάμενα, αἰγείους τε τρίχας καὶ δορὰς προβάτων τὰς μὲν ὑακίνθῳ βεβαμμένας τὰς δὲ φοίνικι: αἱ δὲ πορφύρας ἄνθος, ἕτεραι δὲ λευκὴν παρεῖχον τὴν χρόαν:1. Hereupon the Israelites rejoiced at what they had seen and heard of their conductor, and were not wanting in diligence according to their ability; for they brought silver, and gold, and brass, and of the best sorts of wood, and such as would not at all decay by putrefaction; camels’ hair also, and sheep-skins, some of them dyed of a blue color, and some of a scarlet; some brought the flower for the purple color, and others for white


ἔριά τε τοῖς προειρημένοις ἄνθεσι μεμολυσμένα καὶ λίνου βύσσον λίθους τε τούτοις ἐνδεδεμένους, οὓς χρυσίῳ καθειργνύντες ἄνθρωποι κόσμῳ χρῶνται πολυτελεῖ, θυμιαμάτων τε πλῆθος συνέφερον: ἐκ γὰρ τοιαύτης ὕλης κατεσκεύασε τὴν σκηνήν. ἡ δ' οὐδὲν μεταφερομένου καὶ συμπερινοστοῦντος ναοῦ διέφερε.with wool dyed by the flowers aforementioned; and fine linen and precious stones, which those that use costly ornaments set in ouches of gold; they brought also a great quantity of spices; for of these materials did Moses build the tabernacle, which did not at all differ from a movable and ambulatory temple.


τούτων οὖν κατὰ σπουδὴν συγκομισθέντων ἑκάστου καὶ παρὰ δύναμιν φιλοτιμησαμένου, ἀρχιτέκτονας τοῖς ἔργοις ἐφίστησι κατ' ἐντολὴν τοῦ θεοῦ οὓς καὶ τὸ πλῆθος ἂν ἐπελέξατο τῆς ἐξουσίας ἐπ' αὐτῷ γενομένης.Now when these things were brought together with great diligence, (for every one was ambitious to further the work even beyond their ability,) he set architects over the works, and this by the command of God; and indeed the very same which the people themselves would have chosen, had the election been allowed to them.


τὰ δὲ ὀνόματα αὐτῶν, καὶ γὰρ ἐν ταῖς ἱεραῖς βίβλοις ἀναγέγραπται, ταῦτ' ἦν: Βασάηλος μὲν Οὐρὶ παῖς τῆς ̓Ιούδα φυλῆς, υἱὸς δὲ Μαριάμης τῆς ἀδελφῆς τοῦ στρατηγοῦ, ̓Ελίβαζος δὲ ̓Ισαμάχου Δανίδος φυλῆς.Now their names are set down in writing in the sacred books; and they were these: Besaleel, the son of Uri, of the tribe of Judah, the grandson of Miriam, the sister of their conductor and Aholiab, file son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan.


τὸ δὲ πλῆθος οὕτως ὑπὸ προθυμίας τοῖς ἐγχειρουμένοις ἐπῆλθεν, ὥστε Μωυσῆς ἀνεῖρξεν αὐτοὺς ὑποκηρυξάμενος ἀρκεῖν τοὺς ὄντας: τοῦτο γὰρ οἱ δημιουργοὶ προειρήκεσαν: ἐχώρουν οὖν ἐπὶ τὴν τῆς σκηνῆς κατασκευήνNow the people went on with what they had undertaken with so great alacrity, that Moses was obliged to restrain them, by making proclamation, that what had been brought was sufficient, as the artificers had informed him; so they fell to work upon the building of the tabernacle.


καὶ Μωυσῆς αὐτοὺς ἕκαστα περὶ τῶν μέτρων κατὰ τὴν ὑποθήκην τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τοῦ μεγέθους ὅσα τε δεῖ σκεύη χωρεῖν αὐτὴν ἀνεδίδασκε πρὸς τὰς θυσίας ὑπηρετήσοντα. ἐφιλοτιμοῦντο δὲ καὶ γυναῖκες περί τε στολὰς ἱερατικὰς καὶ περὶ τὰ ἄλλα ὅσων ἔχρῃζε τὸ ἔργον κόσμου τε καὶ λειτουργίας ἕνεκα τοῦ θεοῦ.Moses also informed them, according to the direction of God, both what the measures were to be, and its largeness; and how many vessels it ought to contain for the use of the sacrifices. The women also were ambitious to do their parts, about the garments of the priests, and about other things that would be wanted in this work, both for ornament and for the divine service itself.


Πάντων δ' ἐν ἑτοίμῳ γεγενημένων χρυσίου τε καὶ χαλκοῦ καὶ τῶν ὑφαντῶν, προειπὼν ἑορτὴν Μωυσῆς καὶ θυσίας κατὰ τὴν ἑκάστου δύναμιν ἵστη τὴν σκηνήν, πρῶτον μὲν αἴθριον διαμετρησάμενος τὸ μὲν εὖρος πεντήκοντα πηχῶν ἑκατὸν δὲ τὸ μῆκος.2. Now when all things were prepared, the gold, and the silver, and the brass, and what was woven, Moses, when he had appointed beforehand that there should be a festival, and that sacrifices should be offered according to every one’s ability, reared up the tabernacle and when he had measured the open court, fifty cubits broad and a hundred long


κάμακας δὲ ἔστησε χαλκέας πενταπήχεις τὸ ὕψος καθ' ἑκατέραν πλευρὰν εἴκοσι τῶν ἐπιμηκεστέρων, δέκα δὲ τῶν ἐν πλάτει κειμένων τῆς κατόπιν, κρίκοι δὲ τῶν καμάκων ἑκάστῃ προσῆσαν: * κιονόκρανα μὲν ἀργύρεα, βάσεις δὲ χρυσαῖ σαυρωτῆρσιν ἐμφερεῖς, χαλκαῖ δὲ ἦσαν, ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἐρηρεισμέναι.he set up brazen pillars, five cubits high, twenty on each of the longer sides, and ten pillars for the breadth behind; every one of the pillars also had a ring. Their chapiters were of silver, but their bases were of brass: they resembled the sharp ends of spears, and were of brass, fixed into the ground.


nanCords were also put through the rings, and were tied at their farther ends to brass nails of a cubit long, which, at every pillar, were driven into the floor, and would keep the tabernacle from being shaken by the violence of winds; but a curtain of fine soft linen went round all the pillars, and hung down in a flowing and loose manner from their chapiters, and enclosed the whole space, and seemed not at all unlike to a wall about it.


καὶ οὕτως μὲν εἶχον αἱ τρεῖς πλευραὶ τοῦ περιβόλου: τῆς δὲ τετάρτης πλευρᾶς, πεντήκοντα γὰρ οὖσα πήχεων ἡ ἑτέρα μέτωπον τοῦ παντὸς ἦν, εἴκοσι μὲν πήχεις ἀνεῴγεσαν κατὰ πύλας, ἐν αἷς ἀνὰ δύο κάμακες εἱστήκεσαν κατὰ μίμησιν πυλώνων.And this was the structure of three of the sides of this enclosure; but as for the fourth side, which was fifty cubits in extent, and was the front of the whole, twenty cubits of it were for the opening of the gates, wherein stood two pillars on each side, after the resemblance of open gates.


ὅλαις δ' αὐταῖς ἄργυρος ἦν ἐπικεχαλκωμένος πάρεξ τῶν βάσεων: χαλκαῖ γὰρ ἦσαν. ἑκατέρωθεν δὲ τοῦ πυλῶνος τρεῖς κάμακες ἦσαν ἑστῶσαι, αἳ τοῖς πυλούχοις ἐμβεβήκεσαν ἐρηρεισμέναι, καὶ κατ' αὐτῶν δὲ βύσσινον ὕφος σινδόνος ἦν περιηγμένον.These were made wholly of silver, and polished, and that all over, excepting the bases, which were of brass. Now on each side of the gates there stood three pillars, which were inserted into the concave bases of the gates, and were suited to them; and round them was drawn a curtain of fine linen;


τὸ δὲ κατὰ τὰς πύλας μήκους μὲν ὄντος πήχεων εἴκοσι πέντε δὲ βάθους ὕφος ἦν πορφύρας φοίνικος σὺν ὑακίνθῳ καὶ βύσσῳ πεποιημένον πολλῶν αὐτῷ συνανθούντων καὶ ποικίλων, ὁπόσα μὴ ζῴων ἐξετυποῦτο μορφάς.but to the gates themselves, which were twenty cubits in extent, and five in height, the curtain was composed of purple, and scarlet, and blue, and fine linen, and embroidered with many and divers sorts of figures, excepting the figures of animals.


ἐντὸς δὲ τῶν πυλῶν περιρραντήριον ἦν χάλκεον ὁμοίαν αὐτῷ καὶ τὴν κρηπῖδα παρεχόμενον, ἐξ οὗ τοῖς ἱερεῦσι τὰς χεῖρας ἀποπλύνειν καὶ τῶν ποδῶν καταχεῖν παρῆν. καὶ ὁ μὲν τοῦ αἰθρίου περίβολος τοῦτον τὸν τρόπον ἦν διακεκοσμημένος.Within these gates was the brazen laver for purification, having a basin beneath of the like matter, whence the priests might wash their hands and sprinkle their feet; and this was the ornamental construction of the enclosure about the court of the tabernacle, which was exposed to the open air.


Τὴν δὲ σκηνὴν ἵστησιν αὐτοῦ κατὰ μέσον τετραμμένην πρὸς τὰς ἀνατολάς, ἵνα πρῶτον ὁ ἥλιος ἐπ' αὐτὴν ἀνιὼν ἀφίῃ τὰς ἀκτῖνας. καὶ τὸ μὲν μῆκος αὐτῆς ἐπὶ πήχεις ἐγήγερτο τριάκοντα τὸ δὲ εὖρος ἐπὶ δέκα διειστήκει, καὶ ὁ μὲν ἕτερος τῶν τοίχων νότιος ἦν, ὁ δὲ ἕτερος κατὰ βορέαν ἐτέτραπτο, κατόπιν δ' αὐτῆς ἡ δύσις κατελείπετο.3. As to the tabernacle itself, Moses placed it in the middle of that court, with its front to the east, that, when the sun arose, it might send its first rays upon it. Its length, when it was set up, was thirty cubits, and its breadth was twelve [ten] cubits. The one of its walls was on the south, and the other was exposed to the north, and on the back part of it remained the west.


ἀνίστασθαι δ' αὐτὴν ἐχρῆν ἐφ' ὅσον προβαίνοι τὸ εὖρος. κίονες δ' ἦσαν ξύλου πεποιημένοι κατὰ πλευρὰν ἑκατέραν εἴκοσι τετράγωνοι μὲν τὸ σχῆμα εἰργασμένοι, εἰς δὲ πλάτος διεστῶτες πήχεώς τε καὶ ἡμίσους, τὸ δὲ βάθος δακτύλων τεσσάρων.It was necessary that its height should be equal to its breadth [ten cubits]. There were also pillars made of wood, twenty on each side; they were wrought into a quadrangular figure, in breadth a cubit and a half, but the thickness was four fingers:


λεπίδες δ' αὐτοῖς ἦσαν ἐπικεχαλκευμέναι πανταχόθεν χρυσαῖ διά τε τῶν ἔνδοθεν καὶ τῶν ἐκτὸς μερῶν. δύο δ' αὐτῶν ἑκάστῳ προσῆσαν στρόφιγγες ἐλαυνόμενοι κατὰ δύο βάσεων: αὗται δ' ἀργυραῖ μὲν ἦσαν, πυλὶς δ' ἑκατέρᾳ τούτων προσῆν δεχομένη τὴν στρόφιγγα.they had thin plates of gold affixed to them on both sides, inwardly and outwardly: they had each of them two tenons belonging to them, inserted into their bases, and these were of silver, in each of which bases there was a socket to receive the tenon;


τοῦ δὲ κατὰ δύσιν τοίχου κίονες μὲν ἓξ ἦσαν, συνῄεσαν δ' ἀλλήλοις ἀκριβῶς ἅπαντες, ὥστε μεμυκότων τῶν ἁρμῶν ὡς ἕνα δοκεῖν εἶναι τοῖχον αὐτῶν τὴν συνέλευσιν χρύσειον τά τε ἔνδοθεν καὶ τὰ ἐκτός:but the pillars on the west wall were six. Now all these tenons and sockets accurately fitted one another, insomuch that the joints were invisible, and both seemed to be one entire and united wall. It was also covered with gold, both within and without. The number of pillars was equal on the opposite sides


ἀνηλόγει γὰρ ὁ τῶν κιόνων ἀριθμός: εἴκοσι γὰρ ἦσαν καὶ παρεῖχε πλάτος * τρίτον σπιθαμῆς ἕκαστος αὐτῶν, ὥστε συμπληροῦσθαι τοὺς τριάκοντα πήχεις ὑπ' αὐτῶν: κατὰ δὲ τὸν ὄπισθεν τοῖχον, ἐννέα γὰρ πήχεις οἱ ἓξ κίονες παρέχονται συνελθόντες, δύ' ἑτέρους ποιοῦνται κίονας ἐκ πήχεως τετμημένους, οὓς ἐγγωνίους ἔθεσαν ἐπ' ἴσης τοῖς μείζοσιν ἠσκημένους.and there were on each part twenty, and every one of them had the third part of a span in thickness; so that the number of thirty cubits were fully made up between them; but as to the wall behind, where the six pillars made up together only nine cubits, they made two other pillars, and cut them out of one cubit, which they placed in the corners, and made them equally fine with the other.


nanNow every one of the pillars had rings of gold affixed to their fronts outward, as if they had taken root in the pillars, and stood one row over against another round about, through which were inserted bars gilt over with gold, each of them five cubits long, and these bound together the pillars, the head of one bar running into another, after the nature of one tenon inserted into another;


κατὰ δὲ τὸν ὄπισθεν τοῖχον μία φάλαγξ ἦν διὰ πάντων ἰοῦσα τῶν κιόνων, εἰς ἣν ἐνέβαινον πλάγιαι αἱ τελευταῖαι τῶν σκυταλίδων ἐξ ἑκατέρου τοίχου τῶν ἐπιμηκεστέρων καὶ κρατεῖσθαι συνέβαινεν αὐταῖς γιγλύμοις τῷ θήλει τοῦ ἄρρενος συνελθόντος. τοῦτο μέντοι πρὸς τὸ μήθ' ὑπὸ ἀνέμων κραδαίνεσθαι μήτ' ἄλλης αἰτίας τὴν σκηνὴν συνεῖχεν, ἀλλ' ἀκίνητον αὐτὴν ἐν ἠρεμίᾳ πολλῇ διαφυλάξειν ἔμελλεν.but for the wall behind, there was but one row of bars that went through all the pillars, into which row ran the ends of the bars on each side of the longer walls; the male with its female being so fastened in their joints, that they held the whole firmly together; and for this reason was all this joined so fast together, that the tabernacle might not be shaken, either by the winds, or by any other means, but that it might preserve itself quiet and immovable continually.


̓Εντὸς δὲ διελὼν τὸ μῆκος αὐτῆς εἰς τρία μέρη μετὰ δέκα πήχεας ἡρμοσμένους ἐκ τοῦ μυχοῦ τέσσαρας ἵστησι κίονας ὁμοίως τοῖς ἄλλοις εἰργασμένους καὶ βάσεσιν ὁμοίαις ἐπικειμένους διαλείποντας ἀλλήλων κατ' ὀλίγον. τὸ δ' ἐνδοτέρω αὐτῶν ἄδυτον ἦν, τὸ δὲ λοιπὸν ἡ σκηνὴ τοῖς ἱερεῦσιν ἀνεῖτο.4. As for the inside, Moses parted its length into three partitions. At the distance of ten cubits from the most secret end, Moses placed four pillars, the workmanship of which was the very same with that of the rest; and they stood upon the like bases with them, each a small matter distant from his fellow. Now the room within those pillars was the most holy place; but the rest of the room was the tabernacle, which was open for the priests.


τὴν μέντοι διαμέτρησιν τὴν τοιαύτην τῆς σκηνῆς καὶ μίμησιν τῆς τῶν ὅλων φύσεως συνέβαινεν εἶναι: τὸ μὲν γὰρ τρίτον αὐτῆς μέρος τὸ ἐντὸς τῶν τεσσάρων κιόνων, ὃ τοῖς ἱερεῦσιν ἦν ἄβατον, ὡς οὐρανὸς ἀνεῖτο τῷ θεῷ, οἱ δ' εἴκοσι πήχεις, ὥσπερ γῆ καὶ θάλασσα βάσιμος ἀνθρώποις, οὕτως τοῖς ἱερεῦσι μόνοις ἐπετέτραπτο.However, this proportion of the measures of the tabernacle proved to be an imitation of the system of the world; for that third part thereof which was within the four pillars, to which the priests were not admitted, is, as it were, a heaven peculiar to God. But the space of the twenty cubits, is, as it were, sea and land, on which men live, and so this part is peculiar to the priests only.


κατὰ μέτωπον δέ, ἐξ οὗ τὴν εἴσοδον ἦσαν πεποιημένοι, κίονες ἕστασαν χρύσεοι χαλκείαις βάσεσιν ἐφεστῶτες τὸν ἀριθμὸν πέντε. κατεπετάννυσαν δὲ τὴν σκηνὴν ὕφεσι βύσσου καὶ πορφύρας ὑακίνθου καὶ φοίνικος βαφῆς συγκεκραμένης.But at the front, where the entrance was made, they placed pillars of gold, that stood on bases of brass, in number seven; but then they spread over the tabernacle veils of fine linen and purple, and blue, and scarlet colors, embroidered.


καὶ πρῶτον μὲν ἦν πήχεων δέκα πανταχόθεν, ᾧ κατεπετάννυσαν τοὺς κίονας, οἳ διαιροῦντες τὸν νεὼν τὸ ἄδυτον ἔνδον αὑτῶν ἀπελάμβανον: καὶ τοῦτο ἦν τὸ ποιοῦν αὐτὸ μηδενὶ κάτοπτον. καὶ ὁ μὲν πᾶς ναὸς ἅγιον ἐκαλεῖτο, τὸ δ' ἄβατον τὸ ἐντὸς τῶν τεσσάρων κιόνων τοῦ ἁγίου τὸ ἅγιον.The first veil was ten cubits every way, and this they spread over the pillars which parted the temple, and kept the most holy place concealed within; and this veil was that which made this part not visible to any. Now the whole temple was called The Holy Place: but that part which was within the four pillars, and to which none were admitted, was called The Holy of Holies.


ὡραῖον δὲ τὸ φάρσος ἄνθεσι παντοίοις, ὅσα γῆθεν ἀνέρχεται, διαπεποικιλμένον τοῖς τε ἄλλοις ἅπασιν ἐνυφασμένον, ὅσα κόσμον οἴσειν ἔμελλε, πλὴν ζῴων μορφῆς.This veil was very ornamental, and embroidered with all sorts of flowers which the earth produces; and there were interwoven into it all sorts of variety that might be an ornament, excepting the forms of animals.


ἕτερον δὲ τούτῳ καὶ τῷ μεγέθει καὶ τῇ ὑφῇ καὶ τῇ χρόᾳ παραπλήσιον τοὺς ἐπὶ ταῖς εἰσόδοις πέντε κίονας περιέβαλλε κατὰ γωνίαν ἑκάστου κίονος κρίκου κατέχοντος αὐτὸ ἀπὸ κορυφῆς ἄχρι ἡμίσους τοῦ κίονος. τὸ δὲ λοιπὸν εἴσοδος ἀνεῖτο τοῖς ἱερεῦσιν ὑποδυομένοις.Another veil there was which covered the five pillars that were at the entrance. It was like the former in its magnitude, and texture, and color; and at the corner of every pillar a ring retained it from the top downwards half the depth of the pillars, the other half affording an entrance for the priests, who crept under it.


ὑπὲρ δὲ τούτου λίνεον ἦν ἰσομέγεθες φάρσος ἐφελκόμενον ἀπὸ κάλων ἐπὶ θάτερα, τῶν κρίκων τῷ τε ὕφει καὶ τῷ κάλῳ διακονούντων πρός τε τὸ ἐκπετάννυσθαι καὶ συνελκόμενον ἵστασθαι κατὰ γωνίαν ἐμποδὼν οὐκ ἐσόμενον πρὸς τὸ κατοπτεύεσθαι καὶ μάλιστα ἐν ταῖς ἐπισήμοις ἡμέραις.Over this there was a veil of linen, of the same largeness with the former: it was to be drawn this way or that way by cords, the rings of which, fixed to the texture of the veil, and to the cords also, were subservient to the drawing and undrawing of the veil, and to the fastening it at the corner, that then it might be no hinderance to the view of the sanctuary, especially on solemn days;


κατὰ δὲ τὰς λοιπὰς καὶ μάλισθ' ὅταν ᾖ νιφετώδης προπεταννύμενον στεγανὸν ἐποίει τὸ ἐκ τῶν βαμμάτων ὕφος: ὅθεν δὴ παρέμεινε τὸ ἔθος καὶ τὸν ναὸν οἰκοδομησαμένων ἡμῶν, ὥστε τὴν σινδόνα τοιουτότροπον περικεῖσθαι ταῖς εἰσόδοις.but that on other days, and especially when the weather was inclined to snow, it might be expanded, and afford a covering to the veil of divers colors. Whence that custom of ours is derived, of having a fine linen veil, after the temple has been built, to be drawn over the entrances.


nanBut the ten other curtains were four cubits in breadth, and twenty-eight in length; and had golden clasps, in order to join the one curtain to the other, which was done so exactly that they seemed to be one entire curtain. These were spread over the temple, and covered all the top and parts of the walls, on the sides and behind, so far as within one cubit of the ground.


ἴσαι δὲ τῷ πλάτει καὶ ἄλλαι σινδόνες μιᾷ πλείους τὸν ἀριθμὸν τὸ δὲ μῆκος ὑπερβάλλουσαι, τριακονταπήχεις γὰρ ἦσαν, ὑφασμέναι δ' ἐκ τριχῶν ὁμοίως κατὰ λεπτουργίαν ταῖς ἐκ τῶν ἐρίων πεποιημέναι ἐτέταντο μέχρι τῆς γῆς κεχυμέναι * κατὰ θύρας ἀετώματι παραπλήσιον καὶ παστάδι παρεῖχον, τοῦ ἑνδεκάτου φάρσους εἰς τοῦτο παρειλημμένου.There were other curtains of the same breadth with these, but one more in number, and longer, for they were thirty cubits long; but these were woven of hair, with the like subtilty as those of wool were made, and were extended loosely down to the ground, appearing like a triangular front and elevation at the gates, the eleventh curtain being used for this very purpose.


ἄλλαι δ' ἐπάνω τούτων ἐκ διφθερῶν κατεσκευασμέναι ὑπερῄεσαν σκέπη καὶ βοήθεια ταῖς ὑφανταῖς ἔν τε τοῖς καύμασι καὶ ὁπότε ὑετὸς εἴη γεγενημέναι. πολλὴ δ' ἔκπληξις ἐλάμβανε τοὺς πόρρωθεν θεωμένους: τὴν γὰρ χρόαν τοῖς κατὰ τὸν οὐρανὸν συμβαίνουσιν οὐδὲν ἐδόκουν διαφέρειν.There were also other curtains made of skins above these, which afforded covering and protection to those that were woven both in hot weather and when it rained. And great was the surprise of those who viewed these curtains at a distance, for they seemed not at all to differ from the color of the sky.


αἱ δ' ἐκ τῆς τριχὸς καὶ τῶν διφθερῶν πεποιημέναι κατῄεσαν ὁμοίως τῷ περὶ τὰς πύλας ὑφάσματι τό τε καῦμα καὶ τὴν ἀπὸ τῶν ὄμβρων ὕβριν ἀπομαχόμεναι. καὶ ἡ μὲν σκηνὴ τοῦτον πήγνυται τὸν τρόπον.But those that were made of hair and of skins, reached down in the same manner as did the veil at the gates, and kept off the heat of the sun, and what injury the rains might do. And after this manner was the tabernacle reared.


Γίνεται δὲ καὶ κιβωτὸς τῷ θεῷ ξύλων ἰσχυρῶν τὴν φύσιν καὶ σῆψιν παθεῖν οὐ δυναμένων: ἡ δ' ἐρὼν μὲν καλεῖται κατὰ τὴν ἡμετέραν γλῶτταν, ἡ δὲ κατασκευὴ τοιαύτη τις ἦν:5. There was also an ark made, sacred to God, of wood that was naturally strong, and could not be corrupted. This was called Eron in our own language.


μῆκος μὲν ἦν αὐτῇ πέντε σπιθαμῶν, τὸ δ' εὖρος καὶ τὸ βάθος τριῶν σπιθαμῶν εἰς ἑκάτερον: χρυσῷ δὲ τά τ' ἐντὸς καὶ τὰ ἔξωθεν περιελήλατο πᾶσα, ὡς ἀποκεκρύφθαι τὴν ξύλωσιν, στρόφιγξί τε χρυσοῖς τὸ ἐπίθεμα προσηνωμένον εἶχε θαυμαστῶς, ὃ πανταχόθεν ἴσον ἦν κατ' οὐδέτερον μέρος ἐξοχαῖς τὴν εὐαρμοστίαν λυμαινόμενον.Its construction was thus: its length was five spans, but its breadth and height was each of them three spans. It was covered all over with gold, both within and without, so that the wooden part was not seen. It had also a cover united to it, by golden hinges, after a wonderful manner; which cover was every way evenly fitted to it, and had no eminences to hinder its exact conjunction.


καὶ καθ' ἑκάτερον δὲ τοῖχον τῶν ἐπιμηκεστέρων κρίκοι προσῆσαν χρυσοῖ δύο τοῦ παντὸς διήκοντες ξύλου, καὶ δι' αὐτῶν ἔνετοι σκυταλίδες ἐπίχρυσοι καθ' ἑκάτερον τοῖχον, ὡς ἂν ὑπ' αὐτῶν ὁπότε δεήσειεν ἄγοιτο κινουμένη: οὐ γὰρ ἐπὶ ζεύγους ἐκομίζετο, ἀλλ' ὑπὸ τῶν ἱερέων ἐφέρετο.There were also two golden rings belonging to each of the longer boards, and passing through the entire wood, and through them gilt bars passed along each board, that it might thereby be moved and carried about, as occasion should require; for it was not drawn in a cart by beasts of burden, but borne on the shoulders of the priests.


τῷ δὲ ἐπιθέματι αὐτῆς ἦσαν πρόστυποι δύο, Χερουβεῖς μὲν αὐτοὺς ̔Εβραῖοι καλοῦσι, ζῷα δέ ἐστι πετεινὰ μορφὴν δ' οὐδενὶ τῶν ὑπ' ἀνθρώπων ἑωραμένων παραπλήσια, Μωυσῆς δέ φησι τῷ θρόνῳ τοῦ θεοῦ προστυπεῖς ἑωρακέναι.Upon this its cover were two images, which the Hebrews call Cherubims; they are flying creatures, but their form is not like to that of any of the creatures which men have seen, though Moses said he had seen such beings near the throne of God.


ταύτῃ τὰς δύο πλάκας, ἐν αἷς τοὺς δέκα λόγους συγγεγράφθαι συμβεβήκει ἀνὰ πέντε μὲν εἰς ἑκατέραν ἀνὰ δύο δὲ καὶ ἥμισυ κατὰ μέτωπον, ἐγκατέθετο. καὶ ταύτην ἐν τῷ ἀδύτῳ κατατίθησιν.In this ark he put the two tables whereon the ten commandments were written, five upon each table, and two and a half upon each side of them; and this ark he placed in the most holy place.


̓Εν δὲ τῷ ναῷ τράπεζαν ἱδρύεται Δελφικαῖς παραπλησίαν τὸ μῆκος μὲν δύο πηχῶν, τὸ δὲ πλάτος ἑνὸς πήχεως καὶ σπιθαμῶν τριῶν τὸ ὕψος. ἦσαν δ' αὐτῇ πόδες τὰ μὲν ἐξ ἡμίσους ἕως τῶν κάτω τελέως ἐξηρτισμένοι οἷς Δωριεῖς προστιθέασι ταῖς κλίναις ἐμφερεῖς, τὸ δὲ πρὸς αὐτὴν ἀνατεῖνον τετράγωνοι τῇ ἐργασίᾳ.6. But in the holy place he placed a table, like those at Delphi. Its length was two cubits, and its breadth one cubit, and its height three spans. It had feet also, the lower half of which were complete feet, resembling those which the Dorians put to their bedsteads; but the upper parts towards the table were wrought into a square form.


nanThe table had a hollow towards every side, having a ledge of four fingers’ depth, that went round about like a spiral, both on the upper and lower part of the body of the work. Upon every one of the feet was there also inserted a ring, not far from the cover, through which went bars of wood beneath, but gilded, to be taken out upon occasion


κοῖλον γὰρ εἶχεν ἐπ' αὐτοῖς τὸ κατὰ τοὺς κρίκους κοινωθέντας: οὐδὲ γάρ εἰσι διηνεκεῖς, ἀλλὰ πρὶν συνελθεῖν εἰς τὸ ἄπειρον εἰς περονίδας τὴν ἀρχὴν τελευτῶντες, ὧν ἡ μὲν εἰς τὸ προανέχον ἐμβαίνει τῆς τραπέζης, ἡ δὲ εἰς τὸν πόδα: καὶ τούτοις κατὰ τὰς ὁδοὺς ἐκομίζετο.there being a cavity where it was joined to the rings; for they were not entire rings; but before they came quite round they ended in acute points, the one of which was inserted into the prominent part of the table, and the other into the foot; and by these it was carried when they journeyed:


ἐπὶ ταύτης, ἐτίθετο γὰρ ἐν τῷ ναῷ τετραμμένη πρὸς ἄρκτον οὐ πόρρω τοῦ μυχοῦ, διετίθεσαν ἄρτους τε δώδεκα ἀζύμους κατὰ ἓξ ἐπαλλήλους καθαροῦ πάνυ τοῦ ἀλεύρου ἐκ δύο ἀσσάρων, ὃ μέτρον ̔Εβραίων ἑπτὰ κοτύλας ̓Αττικὰς ἔχει.Upon this table, which was placed on the north side of the temple, not far from the most holy place, were laid twelve unleavened loaves of bread, six upon each heap, one above another: they were made of two tenth-deals of the purest flour, which tenth-deal [an omer] is a measure of the Hebrews, containing seven Athenian cotyloe;


ὑπὲρ δὲ τῶν ἄρτων ἐτίθεντο φιάλαι δύο χρύσεαι λιβάνου πλήρεις, μετὰ δὲ ἡμέρας ἑπτὰ πάλιν ἄλλοι ἐκομίζοντο ἄρτοι ἐν τῷ καλουμένῳ ὑφ' ἡμῶν Σαββάτῳ: τὴν γὰρ ἑβδόμην ἡμέραν Σάββατα καλοῦμεν: τὴν δ' αἰτίαν ἐξ ἧς ταῦτα ἐπενοήθησαν ἐν ἑτέροις ἐροῦμεν.and above those loaves were put two vials full of frankincense. Now after seven days other loaves were brought in their stead, on the day which is by us called the Sabbath; for we call the seventh day the Sabbath. But for the occasion of this intention of placing loaves here, we will speak to it in another place.


Κατὰ πρόσωπον δὲ τῆς τραπέζης τῷ πρὸς μεσημβρίαν τετραμμένῳ τοίχῳ πλησίον ἵσταται λυχνία ἐκ χρυσοῦ κεχωνευμένη διάκενος σταθμὸν ἔχουσα μνᾶς ἑκατόν: ̔Εβραῖοι μὲν καλοῦσι κίγχαρες, εἰς δὲ τὴν ̔Ελληνικὴν μεταβαλλόμενον γλῶτταν σημαίνει τάλαντον.7. Over against this table, near the southern wall, was set a candlestick of cast gold, hollow within, being of the weight of one hundred pounds, which the Hebrews call Chinchares, if it be turned into the Greek language, it denotes a talent.


πεποίηται δὲ σφαιρία καὶ κρίνα σὺν ῥοί̈σκοις καὶ κρατηριδίοις, ἑβδομήκοντα δ' ἦν τὰ πάντα, ἐξ ὧν ἀπὸ μιᾶς βάσεως συνετέθη πρὸς ὕψος, ποιήσαντος αὐτὴν συγκειμένην εἰς μοίρας εἰς ὅσας τοὺς πλανήτας καὶ τὸν ἥλιον κατανέμουσιν.It was made with its knops, and lilies, and pomegranates, and bowls (which ornaments amounted to seventy in all); by which means the shaft elevated itself on high from a single base, and spread itself into as many branches as there are planets, including the sun among them.


ἀπαρτίζεται δὲ εἰς ἑπτὰ κεφαλὰς καταλλήλας ἐν στίχῳ διακειμένας. λύχνοι δ' ἐπιφέρονται αὐταῖς ἑπτὰ κατὰ μίαν τῶν πλανητῶν τὸν ἀριθμὸν μεμιμημένοι, ὁρῶσι δὲ εἴς τε τὴν ἀνατολὴν καὶ τὴν μεσημβρίαν λοξῶς αὐτῆς κειμένης.It terminated in seven heads, in one row, all standing parallel to one another; and these branches carried seven lamps, one by one, in imitation of the number of the planets. These lamps looked to the east and to the south, the candlestick being situate obliquely.


Μεταξὺ δὲ αὐτῆς καὶ τῆς τραπέζης ἔνδον, ὡς προεῖπον, θυμιατήριον ξύλινον μέν, ἐξ οὗ καὶ τὰ πρότερα ἦν σκεύη μὴ σηπόμενα, στερεὰ δὲ περιελήλατ' αὐτῷ λεπίς, πηχυαῖον μὲν κατὰ πλευρὰν ἑκάστην τὸ πλάτος ὕψος δὲ διπλάσιον.8. Now between this candlestick and the table, which, as we said, were within the sanctuary, was the altar of incense, made of wood indeed, but of the same wood of which the foregoing vessels were made, such as was not liable to corruption; it was entirely crusted over with a golden plate. Its breadth on each side was a cubit, but the altitude double.


ἐπῆν τε ἐσχάρα χρυσεία ὑπερανεστῶσα ἔχουσα κατὰ γωνίαν ἑκάστην στέφανον καὶ τοῦτον δ' ἐκπεριοδεύοντα χρύσεον, ᾗ καὶ κρίκοι καὶ σκυταλίδες προσῆσαν, αἷς κατὰ τὰς ὁδοὺς ὑπὸ τῶν ἱερέων ἐφέρετο.Upon it was a grate of gold, that was extant above the altar, which had a golden crown encompassing it round about, whereto belonged rings and bars, by which the priests carried it when they journeyed.


ἵδρυτο δὲ καὶ πρὸ τῆς σκηνῆς βωμὸς χάλκεος ὑπόξυλος καὶ αὐτὸς ἑκάστην πλευρὰν πέντε πήχεσιν ἐκμεμετρημένος, τὸ δὲ ὕψος τρίπηχυς, ὁμοίως τῷ χρυσῷ κεκοσμημένος, χαλκείαις λεπίσιν ἐξησκημένος, δικτύῳ τὴν ἐσχάραν ἐμφερής: ἐξεδέχετο γὰρ ἡ γῆ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ἐσχάρας πῦρ καταφερόμενον τῆς βάσεως διὰ παντὸς οὐχ ὑποκειμένης.Before this tabernacle there was reared a brazen altar, but it was within made of wood, five cubits by measure on each side, but its height was but three, in like manner adorned with brass plates as bright as gold. It had also a brazen hearth of network; for the ground underneath received the fire from the hearth, because it had no basis to receive it.


nanHard by this altar lay the basins, and the vials, and the censers, and the caldrons, made of gold; but the other vessels, made for the use of the sacrifices, were all of brass. And such was the construction of the tabernacle; and these were the vessels thereto belonging.


Γίνονται δὲ καὶ τοῖς ἱερεῦσι στολαὶ πᾶσί τε τοῖς ἄλλοις, οὓς χαναναίας καλοῦσι, καὶ δὴ καὶ τῷ ἀρχιερεῖ, ὃν ἀραβάχην προσαγορεύουσι: σημαίνει δὲ ἀρχιερέα. * τὴν μὲν οὖν τῶν ἄλλων στολὴν τοιαύτην εἶναι συμβέβηκεν.1. There were peculiar garments appointed for the priests, and for all the rest, which they call Cahanaeae [priestly] garments, as also for the high priests, which they call Cahanaeae Rabbae, and denote the high priest’s garments. Such was therefore the habit of the rest.


ὅταν δὲ προσίῃ ταῖς ἱερουργίαις ὁ ἱερεὺς ἡγνευκὼς ἣν ὁ νόμος ἁγνείαν προαγορεύει, πρῶτον μὲν περιτίθεται τὸν μαναχάσην λεγόμενον: βούλεται δὲ τοῦτο συνακτῆρα μὲν δηλοῦν, διάζωμα δ' ἐστὶ περὶ τὰ αἰδοῖα ῥαπτὸν ἐκ βύσσου κλωστῆς εἰργασμένον ἐμβαινόντων εἰς αὐτὸ τῶν ποδῶν ὥσπερ εἰς ἀναξυρίδας, ἀποτέμνεται δὲ ὑπὲρ ἥμισυ καὶ τελευτῆσαν ἄχρι τῆς λαγόνος περὶ αὐτὴν ἀποσφίγγεται.But when the priest approaches the sacrifices, he purifies himself with the purification which the law prescribes; and, in the first place, he puts on that which is called Machanase, which means somewhat that is fast tied. It is a girdle, composed of fine twined linen, and is put about the privy parts, the feet being to be inserted into them in the nature of breeches, but above half of it is cut off, and it ends at the thighs, and is there tied fast.


̓Επὶ δὲ τούτῳ λίνεον ἔνδυμα διπλῆς φορεῖ σινδόνος βυσσίνης, χεθομένη μὲν καλεῖται, λίνεον δὲ τοῦτο σημαίνει: χέθον γὰρ τὸ λίνον ἡμεῖς καλοῦμεν. ἔστι δὲ τοῦτο τὸ ἔνδυμα ποδήρης χιτὼν περιγεγραμμένος τῷ σώματι καὶ τὰς χειρῖδας περὶ τοῖς βραχίοσιν κατεσφιγμένος2. Over this he wore a linen vestment, made of fine flax doubled: it is called Chethone, and denotes linen, for we call linen by the name of Chethone. This vestment reaches down to the feet, and sits close to the body; and has sleeves that are tied fast to the arms:


ὃν ἐπιζώννυνται κατὰ στῆθος ὀλίγον τῆς μασχάλης ὑπεράνω τὴν ζώνην περιάγοντες πλατεῖαν μὲν ὡς εἰς τέσσαρας δακτύλους, διακένως δ' ὑφασμένην ὥστε λεβηρίδα δοκεῖν ὄφεως: ἄνθη δ' εἰς αὐτὴν ἐνύφανται φοίνικι καὶ πορφύρᾳ μετὰ ὑακίνθου καὶ βύσσου πεποικιλμένα, στήμων δ' ἐστὶ μόνη βύσσος.it is girded to the breast a little above the elbows, by a girdle often going round, four fingers broad, but so loosely woven, that you would think it were the skin of a serpent. It is embroidered with flowers of scarlet, and purple, and blue, and fine twined linen, but the warp was nothing but fine linen.


καὶ λαβοῦσα τὴν ἀρχὴν τῆς ἑλίξεως κατὰ στέρνον καὶ περιελθοῦσα πάλιν δεῖται, καὶ κέχυται μὲν πολλὴ μέχρι καὶ τῶν σφυρῶν ἕως οὗ μηδὲν ὁ ἱερεὺς ἐνεργεῖ, πρὸς γὰρ εὐπρέπειαν οὕτως ἔχει τοῖς ὁρῶσι καλῶς, ὅταν δὲ σπουδάζειν περὶ τὰς θυσίας δέῃ καὶ διακονεῖν, ὅπως μὴ κινουμένης ἐμποδίζηται πρὸς τὸ ἔργον, ἀναβαλόμενος ἐπὶ τὸν λαιὸν ὦμον φέρει.The beginning of its circumvolution is at the breast; and when it has gone often round, it is there tied, and hangs loosely there down to the ankles: I mean this, all the time the priest is not about any laborious service, for in this position it appears in the most agreeable manner to the spectators; but when he is obliged to assist at the offering sacrifices, and to do the appointed service, that he may not be hindered in his operations by its motion, he throws it to the left, and bears it on his shoulder.


Μωυσῆς μὲν οὖν ἀβαί̈θ αὐτὴν ἐκάλεσεν, ἡμεῖς δὲ παρὰ Βαβυλωνίων μεμαθηκότες ἐμίαν αὐτὴν καλοῦμεν: οὕτως γὰρ προσαγορεύεται παρ' αὐτοῖς. οὗτος ὁ χιτὼν κολποῦται μὲν οὐδαμόθεν, λαγαρὸν δὲ παρέχων τὸν βροχωτῆρα τοῦ αὐχένος ἁρπεδόσιν ἐκ τῆς ὤας καὶ τῶν κατὰ στέρνον καὶ μετάφρενον ἠρτημέναις ἀναδεῖται ὑπὲρ ἑκατέραν κατακλεῖδα: μασσαβάνης καλεῖται.Moses indeed calls this belt Albaneth; but we have learned from the Babylonians to call it Emia, for so it is by them called. This vestment has no loose or hollow parts any where in it, but only a narrow aperture about the neck; and it is tied with certain strings hanging down from the edge over the breast and back, and is fastened above each shoulder: it is called Massabazanes.


̔Υπὲρ δὲ τῆς κεφαλῆς φορεῖ πῖλον ἄκωνον οὐ διικνούμενον εἰς πᾶσαν αὐτὴν ἀλλ' ἐπ' ὀλίγον ὑπερβεβηκότα μέσης: καλεῖται μὲν μασναεφθῆς, τῇ δὲ κατασκευῇ τοιοῦτός ἐστιν ὡς στεφάνη δοκεῖν ἐξ ὑφάσματος λινέου ταινία πεποιημένη παχεῖα: καὶ γὰρ ἐπιπτυσσόμενον ῥάπτεται πολλάκις.3. Upon his head he wears a cap, not brought to a conic form nor encircling the whole head, but still covering more than the half of it, which is called Masnaemphthes; and its make is such that it seems to be a crown, being made of thick swathes, but the contexture is of linen; and it is doubled round many times, and sewed together;


ἔπειτα σινδὼν ἄνωθεν αὐτὸν ἐκπεριέρχεται διήκουσα μέχρι μετώπου τήν τε ῥαφὴν τῆς ταινίας καὶ τὸ ἀπ' αὐτῆς ἀπρεπὲς καλύπτουσα καὶ ὅλη δὲ τῷ κρανίῳ γιγνομένη ἐπίπεδον: ἥρμοσται δὲ ἀκριβῶς, ὡς ἂν μὴ περιρρυείη πονοῦντος περὶ τὴν ἱερουργίαν. καὶ ὁποία μέν ἐστιν ἡ τῶν πολλῶν ἱερέων στολὴ δεδηλώκαμεν.besides which, a piece of fine linen covers the whole cap from the upper part, and reaches down to the forehead, and hides the seams of the swathes, which would otherwise appear indecently: this adheres closely upon the solid part of the head, and is thereto so firmly fixed, that it may not fall off during the sacred service about the sacrifices. So we have now shown you what is the habit of the generality of the priests.


̔Ο δὲ ἀρχιερεὺς κοσμεῖται μὲν καὶ ταύτῃ παραλιπὼν οὐδὲν τῶν προειρημένων, ἐπενδυσάμενος δ' ἐξ ὑακίνθου πεποιημένον χιτῶνα, ποδήρης δ' ἐστὶ καὶ οὗτος, μεεὶρ καλεῖται κατὰ τὴν ἡμετέραν γλῶσσαν, ζώνῃ περισφίγγεται βάμμασιν οἷς ἡ πρότερον ἤνθει διαπεποικιλμένῃ χρυσοῦ συνυφασμένου:4. The high priest is indeed adorned with the same garments that we have described, without abating one; only over these he puts on a vestment of a blue color. This also is a long robe, reaching to his feet, [in our language it is called Meeir,] and is tied round with a girdle, embroidered with the same colors and flowers as the former, with a mixture of gold interwoven.


nanTo the bottom of which garment are hung fringes, in color like pomegranates, with golden bells by a curious and beautiful contrivance; so that between two bells hangs a pomegranate, and between two pomegranates a bell.


ἔστι δ' ὁ χιτὼν οὗτος οὐκ ἐκ δυοῖν περιτμημάτων, ὥστε ῥαπτὸς ἐπὶ τῶν ὤμων εἶναι καὶ τῶν παρὰ πλευράν, φάρσος δ' ἓν ἐπίμηκες ὑφασμένον σχιστὸν ἔχει βροχωτῆρα πλάγιον, ἀλλὰ κατὰ μῆκος ἐρρωγότα πρός τε τὸ στέρνον καὶ μέσον τὸ μετάφρενον: πέζα δ' αὐτῷ προσέρραπται ὑπὲρ τοῦ μὴ διελέγχεσθαι τῆς τομῆς τὴν δυσπρέπειαν: ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ ὅθεν αἱ χεῖρες διείργονται σχιστός ἐστιν.Now this vesture was not composed of two pieces, nor was it sewed together upon the shoulders and the sides, but it was one long vestment so woven as to have an aperture for the neck; not an oblique one, but parted all along the breast and the back. A border also was sewed to it, lest the aperture should look too indecently: it was also parted where the hands were to come out.


̓Επὶ δὲ τούτοις τρίτον ἐνδύεται τὸν λεγόμενον μὲν ἐφώδην, ̔Ελληνικῇ δ' ἐπωμίδι προσεοικότα: γίνεται γὰρ τοῦτον τὸν τρόπον. ὑφανθεὶς ἐπὶ βάθος πηχυαῖον ἔκ τε χρωμάτων παντοίων καὶ χρυσοῦ συμπεποικιλμένος ἀπερίπτυκτον τοῦ στέρνου τὸ μέσον καταλιμπάνει χειρῖσι τε ἠσκημένος καὶ τῷ παντὶ σχήματι χιτὼν εἶναι πεποιημένος.5. Besides these, the high priest put on a third garment, which was called the Ephod, which resembles the Epomis of the Greeks. Its make was after this manner: it was woven to the depth of a cubit, of several colors, with gold intermixed, and embroidered, but it left the middle of the breast uncovered: it was made with sleeves also; nor did it appear to be at all differently made from a short coat.


τῷ δὲ διακένῳ τοῦ ἐνδύματος σύνεισι περίτμημα σπιθαμῆς τὸ μέγεθος χρυσῷ τε καὶ τοῖς αὐτοῖς τῷ ἐφώδῃ βάμμασι διηνθισμένον: ἐσσὴν μὲν καλεῖται, σημαίνει δὲ τοῦτο κατὰ τὴν ̔Ελλήνων γλῶτταν λόγιον:But in the void place of this garment there was inserted a piece of the bigness of a span, embroidered with gold, and the other colors of the ephod, and was called Essen, [the breastplate,] which in the Greek language signifies the Oracle.


πληροῖ δὲ ἀκριβῶς τοῦ ἐφώδου ὅπερ ὑφαίνοντες κατὰ στῆθος ἐξέλιπον, ἑνοῦται δ' ὑπὸ κρίκων χρυσέων αὐτῷ τε κατὰ γωνίαν ἑκάστην κἀκείνῳ τῶν ἴσων προσκεκοινωμένων, ῥάμματος ὑακίνθου παραληφθέντος εἰς τὴν πρὸς ἀλλήλους κατάδεσιν τοῖς κρίκοις.This piece exactly filled up the void space in the ephod. It was united to it by golden rings at every corner, the like rings being annexed to the ephod, and a blue riband was made use of to tie them together by those rings;


πρὸς δὲ τὸ μὴ χαλαρὸν εἶναι τὸ ἐν μέσῳ τῶν κρίκων καταλιμπανόμενον ῥαφὴν αὐτοῦ νήμασιν ὑακινθίνοις ἐπενόησαν. πορποῦσι δὲ τὴν ἐπωμίδα σαρδόνυχες δύο κατὰ τῶν ὤμων ἑκάτερον τέλος ἐπ' αὐτοὺς ἐπιθέον χρύσεον ἔχοντες πρὸς τὸ ταῖς περονίσιν ἐπιτήδειον εἶναι.and that the space between the rings might not appear empty, they contrived to fill it up with stitches of blue ribands. There were also two sardonyxes upon the ephod, at the shoulders, to fasten it in the nature of buttons, having each end running to the sardonyxes of gold, that they might be buttoned by them.


ἐγγέγραπται δὲ τούτοις τῶν ̓Ιακώβου παίδων τὰ ὀνόματα γράμμασιν ἐπιχωρίοις γλώσσῃ τῇ ἡμετέρᾳ κατὰ ἓξ τῶν λίθων ἑκατέρῳ, οἱ πρεσβύτεροι δ' εἰσὶ κατὰ ὦμον τὸν δεξιόν. ἐπίασι δὲ καὶ τὸν ἐσσήνην λίθοι δώδεκα μεγέθει καὶ κάλλει διαφέροντες οὐ κτητὸς ἀνθρώποις κόσμος διὰ τιμῆς ὑπερβολὴν ὄντες:On these were engraven the names of the sons of Jacob, in our own country letters, and in our own tongue, six on each of the stones, on either side; and the elder sons’ names were on the right shoulder. Twelve stones also there were upon the breast-plate, extraordinary in largeness and beauty; and they were an ornament not to be purchased by men, because of their immense value.


οὗτοι μέντοι κατὰ στίχον τρεῖς ἐπὶ τεσσάρων διακείμενοι γραμμῶν ἐνήσκηνται τῷ ὕφει, χρυσὸς δ' αὐτοὺς ἐκπεριέρχεται τὰς ἕλικας ἐντιθεὶς τῷ ὕφει πρὸς τὸ μὴ διαρρεῖν οὕτως πεποιημένος.These stones, however, stood in three rows, by four in a row, and were inserted into the breastplate itself, and they were set in ouches of gold, that were themselves inserted in the breastplate, and were so made that they might not fall out.


καὶ ἡ μὲν πρώτη τριάς ἐστι σαρδόνυξ τόπαζος σμάραγδος, ἡ δευτέρα δὲ ἄνθρακα παρέχεται καὶ ἴασπιν καὶ σάπφειρον, τῆς δὲ τρίτης λίγυρος μὲν ἄρχει εἶτα ἀμέθυσος ἀχάτης δὲ τρίτος ἔνατος ὢν τοῖς πᾶσι, τετάρτου δὲ στίχου χρυσόλιθος μὲν πρόκειται, μετὰ δὲ αὐτὸν ὄνυξ, εἶτα βήρυλλος, τελευταῖος οὗτος.Now the first three stones were a sardonyx, a topaz, and an emerald. The second row contained a carbuncle, a jasper, and a sapphire. The first of the third row was a ligure, then an amethyst, and the third an agate, being the ninth of the whole number. The first of the fourth row was a chrysolite, the next was an onyx, and then a beryl, which was the last of all.


γράμματα δὲ ἐπετέτμητο πᾶσι τῶν ̓Ιακώβου υἱῶν, οὓς καὶ φυλάρχους νομίζομεν, ἑκάστου τῶν λίθων ὀνόματι τετιμημένου κατὰ τάξιν ἣν ἕκαστον αὐτῶν γενέσθαι συμβέβηκε.Now the names of all those sons of Jacob were engraven in these stones, whom we esteem the heads of our tribes, each stone having the honor of a name, in the order according to which they were born.


nanAnd whereas the rings were too weak of themselves to bear the weight of the stones, they made two other rings of a larger size, at the edge of that part of the breastplate which reached to the neck, and inserted into the very texture of the breastplate, to receive chains finely wrought, which connected them with golden bands to the tops of the shoulders, whose extremity turned backwards, and went into the ring, on the prominent back part of the ephod;


καὶ τοῦτο ἦν ἀσφάλεια τῷ ἐσσήνῃ πρὸς τὸ μὴ περιρρεῖν, ζώνη δὲ τῷ ἐσσήνῃ προσέρραπτο βάμμασιν οἷς προεῖπον μετὰ χρυσίου προσφερής, ἣ περιοδεύσασα δεῖται πάλιν ἐπὶ τῇ ῥαφῇ καὶ κατακρεμνᾶται: τοὺς δὲ θυσάνους χρύσεαι σύριγγες καθ' ἑκατέραν ἄκραν ἐκλαβοῦσαι πάντας ἐμπεριέχουσιν αὗται.and this was for the security of the breastplate, that it might not fall out of its place. There was also a girdle sewed to the breastplate, which was of the forementioned colors, with gold intermixed, which, when it had gone once round, was tied again upon the seam, and hung down. There were also golden loops that admitted its fringes at each extremity of the girdle, and included them entirely.


Πῖλον δὲ ἦν ὁ καὶ πρότερον αὐτῷ παραπλησίως εἰργασμένος τοῖς πᾶσιν ἱερεῦσιν, ὑπ' αὐτὸν δὲ συνερραμμένος ἕτερος ἐξ ὑακίνθου πεποικιλμένος περιέρχεται στέφανος χρύσεος ἐπὶ τριστιχίαν κεχαλκευμένος. θάλλει δ' ἐπ' αὐτῷ κάλυξ χρύσεος τῇ σακχάρῳ βοτάνῃ παρ' ἡμῖν λεγομένῃ ἀπομεμιμημένος, ὑὸς δὲ κύαμον ̔Ελλήνων οἱ περὶ τομὰς ῥιζῶν ἐμπείρως ἔχοντες προσαγορεύουσιν.6. The high priest’s mitre was the same that we described before, and was wrought like that of all the other priests; above which there was another, with swathes of blue embroidered, and round it was a golden crown polished, of three rows, one above another; out of which arose a cup of gold, which resembled the herb which we call Saccharus; but those Greeks that are skillful in botany call it Hyoscyamus.


εἰ δέ τις ἢ θεασάμενος τὴν βοτάνην ἀμαθίᾳ τούτου ἀγνοεῖ τὴν φύσιν αὐτῆς ἢ τὴν κλῆσιν ἐπιστάμενος οὐκ ἰδὼν δ' ἀναγνωρίσειε, τοῖς οὕτω δὴ ἔχουσι σημανῶ τὸν τρόπον:Now, lest any one that has seen this herb, but has not been taught its name, and is unacquainted with its nature, or, having known its name, knows not the herb when he sees it, I shall give such as these are a description of it.


βοτάνη μέν ἐστιν ὑπὲρ τρεῖς σπιθαμὰς πολλάκις αὐξανομένη τὸ ὕψος, τὴν δὲ ῥίζαν ἐμφερὴς βουνιάδι, ταύτῃ γὰρ οὐκ ἂν ἁμάρτοι τις εἰκάζων αὐτήν, τὰ δὲ φύλλα τοῖς εὐζώμων: ἐκ μέντοι τῶν κλάδων ἀνίησι κάλυκα προσεχῆ τῷ κλωνί, περίεισι δ' αὐτὴν ἔλυτρον, ὅπερ ἀποκρίνεται κατ' αὐτὸ πρὸς τὸν καρπὸν μεταβαλεῖν ἠργμένης: ὁ δὲ κάλυξ μεγέθους ἐστὶ σκυταλίδος τοῦ μικροῦ δακτύλου, κρατῆρι δ' ἐμφερὴς τὴν περιγραφήν. σημανῶ δὲ καὶ τοῦτο τοῖς οὐ μεμαθηκόσι:This herb is oftentimes in tallness above three spans, but its root is like that of a turnip (for he that should compare it thereto would not be mistaken); but its leaves are like the leaves of mint. Out of its branches it sends out a calyx, cleaving to the branch; and a coat encompasses it, which it naturally puts off when it is changing, in order to produce its fruit. This calyx is of the bigness of the bone of the little finger, but in the compass of its aperture is like a cup. This I will further describe, for the use of those that are unacquainted with it.


σφαιρίδος εἰς δύο τετμημένης περὶ τῷ πυθμένι τὴν ἑτέραν τομὴν ἔχει φυόμενος ἀπὸ ῥίζης περιφερής: εἶτα συνιὼν κατ' ὀλίγον ὑποκοιλαινούσης εὐπρεπῶς τῆς ὑποχωρήσεως ἀνευρύνεται πάλιν ἠρέμα κατὰ χεῖλος, ὁμοίως ὀμφαλῷ ῥοιᾶς τετμημένος.Suppose a sphere be divided into two parts, round at the bottom, but having another segment that grows up to a circumference from that bottom; suppose it become narrower by degrees, and that the cavity of that part grow decently smaller, and then gradually grow wider again at the brim, such as we see in the navel of a pomegranate, with its notches.


ἐπίθεμα δ' αὐτῷ ἡμισφαίριον προσπέφυκεν ἀκριβῶς ἂν εἴποι τις τετορνευμένον, ὑπερανεστώσας ἔχον τὰς ἐντομάς, ἃς εἶπον τῇ ῥοᾷ παραπλησίως βλαστάνειν, ἀκανθώδεις καὶ εἰς ὀξὺ παντελῶς ἀποληγούσας τὸ ἄκρον.And indeed such a coat grows over this plant as renders it a hemisphere, and that, as one may say, turned accurately in a lathe, and having its notches extant above it, which, as I said, grow like a pomegranate, only that they are sharp, and end in nothing but prickles.


φυλάττει δ' ἐπὶ τῷ ἐπιθέματι τὸν καρπὸν διὰ παντὸς τοῦ κάλυκος ὄντα βοτάνης σπέρματι τῆς σιδηρίτιδος ὅμοιον, ἀφίησι δ' ἄνθος τῷ τῆς μήκωνος πλαταγωνίῳ δυνάμενον δοκεῖν ἐμφερὲς εἶναι.Now the fruit is preserved by this coat of the calyx, which fruit is like the seed of the herb Sideritis: it sends out a flower that may seem to resemble that of poppy.


ἐκ τούτου μὲν στέφανος ἐκκεχάλκευται ὅσον ἀπὸ τοῦ ἰνίου πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν κροτάφων. τὸ δὲ μέτωπον ἡ μὲν ἐφιελὶς οὐκ ἔπεισι, λεγέσθω γὰρ οὕτως ὁ κάλυξ, τελαμὼν δ' ἐστὶ χρύσεος, ὃς ἱεροῖς γράμμασι τοῦ θεοῦ τὴν προσηγορίαν ἐπιτετμημένος ἐστί. καὶ τοιοῦτος μὲν ὁ τοῦ ἀρχιερέως κόσμος ἐστί.Of this was a crown made, as far from the hinder part of the head to each of the temples; but this Ephielis, for so this calyx may be called, did not cover the forehead, but it was covered with a golden plate, which had inscribed upon it the name of God in sacred characters. And such were the ornaments of the high priest.


Θαυμάσειε δ' ἄν τις τῶν ἀνθρώπων τὴν πρὸς ἡμᾶς ἀπέχθειαν, ἣν ὡς ἐκφαυλιζόντων ἡμῶν τὸ θεῖον ὅπερ αὐτοὶ σέβειν προῄρηνται διατετελέκασιν ἐσχηκότες:7. Now here one may wonder at the ill-will which men bear to us, and which they profess to bear on account of our despising that Deity which they pretend to honor;


nanfor if any one do but consider the fabric of the tabernacle, and take a view of the garments of the high priest, and of those vessels which we make use of in our sacred ministration, he will find that our legislator was a divine man, and that we are unjustly reproached by others; for if any one do without prejudice, and with judgment, look upon these things, he will find they were every one made in way of imitation and representation of the universe.


τήν τε γὰρ σκηνὴν τριάκοντα πηχῶν οὖσαν νείμας εἰς τρία καὶ δύο μέρη πᾶσιν ἀνεὶς τοῖς ἱερεῦσιν ὥσπερ βέβηλόν τινα καὶ κοινὸν τόπον, τὴν γῆν καὶ τὴν θάλασσαν ἀποσημαίνει: καὶ γὰρ ταῦτα πᾶσίν ἐστιν ἐπιβατά. τὴν δὲ τρίτην μοῖραν μόνῳ περιέγραψε τῷ θεῷ διὰ τὸ καὶ τὸν οὐρανὸν ἀνεπίβατον εἶναι ἀνθρώποις.When Moses distinguished the tabernacle into three parts, and allowed two of them to the priests, as a place accessible and common, he denoted the land and the sea, these being of general access to all; but he set apart the third division for God, because heaven is inaccessible to men.


ἐπί τε τῇ τραπέζῃ τοὺς δώδεκα τιθεὶς ἄρτους ἀποσημαίνει τὸν ἐνιαυτὸν εἰς τοσούτους μῆνας διῃρημένον. τὴν δὲ λυχνίαν ἐξ ἑβδομήκοντα μορίων ποιήσας συγκειμένην τὰς τῶν πλανητῶν δεκαμοιρίας ᾐνίξατο: καὶ λύχνους ὑπὲρ αὐτῆς ἑπτά, τῶν πλανητῶν τὴν φοράν: τοσοῦτοι γάρ εἰσι τὸν ἀριθμόν.And when he ordered twelve loaves to be set on the table, he denoted the year, as distinguished into so many months. By branching out the candlestick into seventy parts, he secretly intimated the Decani, or seventy divisions of the planets; and as to the seven lamps upon the candlesticks, they referred to the course of the planets, of which that is the number.


τά τε φάρση ἐκ τεσσάρων ὑφανθέντα τὴν τῶν στοιχείων φύσιν δηλοῖ: ἥ τε γὰρ βύσσος τὴν γῆν ἀποσημαίνειν ἔοικε διὰ τὸ ἐξ αὐτῆς ἀνεῖσθαι τὸ λίνον, ἥ τε πορφύρα τὴν θάλασσαν τῷ πεφοινῖχθαι τῶν ἰχθύων τῷ αἵματι, τὸν δὲ ἀέρα βούλεται δηλοῦν ὁ ὑάκινθος, καὶ ὁ φοῖνιξ δ' ἂν εἴη τεκμήριον τοῦ πυρός.The veils, too, which were composed of four things, they declared the four elements; for the fine linen was proper to signify the earth, because the flax grows out of the earth; the purple signified the sea, because that color is dyed by the blood of a sea shell-fish; the blue is fit to signify the air; and the scarlet will naturally be an indication of fire.


ἀποσημαίνει δὲ καὶ ὁ τοῦ ἀρχιερέως χιτὼν τὴν γῆν λίνεος ὤν, ὁ δὲ ὑάκινθος τὸν πόλον, ἀστραπαῖς μὲν κατὰ τοὺς ῥοί̈σκους ἀπεικασμένος βρονταῖς δὲ κατὰ τὸν τῶν κωδώνων ψόφον. καὶ τὴν ἐφαπτίδα τοῦ παντὸς τὴν φύσιν ἐκ τεσσάρων δοχθεῖσαν γενέσθαι τῷ θεῷ χρυσῷ συνυφασμένην κατ' ἐπίνοιαν οἶμαι τῆς προσούσης ἅπασιν αὐγῆς.Now the vestment of the high priest being made of linen, signified the earth; the blue denoted the sky, being like lightning in its pomegranates, and in the noise of the bells resembling thunder. And for the ephod, it showed that God had made the universe of four elements; and as for the gold interwoven, I suppose it related to the splendor by which all things are enlightened.


καὶ τὸν ἐσσῆνα μέσον ὄντα τῆς ἐφαπτίδος ἐν τρόπῳ γῆς ἔταξε: καὶ γὰρ αὕτη τὸν μεσαίτατον τόπον ἔχει: ζώνῃ τε περιοδεύσας τὸν ὠκεανὸν ἀποσημαίνει: καὶ γὰρ οὗτος ἐμπεριείληφε τὰ πάντα. δηλοῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν ἥλιον καὶ τὴν σελήνην τῶν σαρδονύχων ἑκάτερος, οἷς ἐνεπόρπωσε τὸν ἀρχιερέα.He also appointed the breastplate to be placed in the middle of the ephod, to resemble the earth, for that has the very middle place of the world. And the girdle which encompassed the high priest round, signified the ocean, for that goes round about and includes the universe. Each of the sardonyxes declares to us the sun and the moon; those, I mean, that were in the nature of buttons on the high priest’s shoulders.


τήν τε δωδεκάδα τῶν λίθων εἴτε τοὺς μῆνάς τις θέλοι νοεῖν, εἴτε τὸν οὕτως ἀριθμὸν τῶν ἀστέρων, ὃν ζωδιακὸν κύκλον ̔́Ελληνες καλοῦσι, τῆς κατ' ἐκεῖνο γνώμης οὐκ ἂν ἁμάρτοι: καὶ ὁ πῖλος δέ μοι δοκεῖ τὸν οὐρανὸν τεκμηριοῦν ὑακίνθινος πεποιημένοςAnd for the twelve stones, whether we understand by them the months, or whether we understand the like number of the signs of that circle which the Greeks call the Zodiac, we shall not be mistaken in their meaning. And for the mitre, which was of a blue color, it seems to me to mean heaven;


οὐ γὰρ ἂν ἄλλως ὑπερανετίθετο αὐτῷ τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ θεοῦ τῇ στεφάνῃ ἠγλαϊσμένον καὶ ταύτῃ χρυσέᾳ, διὰ τὴν αὐγήν, ᾗ μάλιστα χαίρει τὸ θεῖον. καὶ ταῦτα μὲν ἐπὶ τοσοῦτόν μοι δεδηλώσθω πολλάκις τε καὶ ἐν πολλοῖς τὴν ἀρετὴν τοῦ νομοθέτου παρεξόντων ἡμῖν διελθεῖν τῶν πραγμάτων.for how otherwise could the name of God be inscribed upon it? That it was also illustrated with a crown, and that of gold also, is because of that splendor with which God is pleased. Let this explication suffice at present, since the course of my narration will often, and on many occasions, afford me the opportunity of enlarging upon the virtue of our legislator.


̔Ως δὲ τὸ προειρημένον πέρας εἶχε, τῶν ἀναθημάτων μήπω καθιερωμένων ἐπιστὰς ὁ θεὸς Μωυσεῖ τὴν ἱερωσύνην ̓Ααρῶνι τἀδελφῷ προσέταξε δοῦναι ὡς ἁπάντων δι' ἀρετὴν τῆς τιμῆς δικαιοτέρῳ τυχεῖν. καὶ συναγαγὼν εἰς ἐκκλησίαν τὸ πλῆθος τήν τε ἀρετὴν αὐτοῦ καὶ τὴν εὔνοιαν διεξῄει καὶ τοὺς κινδύνους οὓς ὑπομείνειεν ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν.1. When what has been described was brought to a conclusion, gifts not being yet presented, God appeared to Moses, and enjoined him to bestow the high priesthood upon Aaron his brother, as upon him that best of them all deserved to obtain that honor, on account of his virtue. And when he had gathered the multitude together, he gave them an account of Aaron’s virtue, and of his good-will to them, and of the dangers he had undergone for their sakes.


μαρτυρούντων δ' ἐφ' ἅπασιν αὐτῷ καὶ τὸ περὶ αὐτὸν πρόθυμον ἐνδεικνυμένων, “ἄνδρες, εἶπεν, ̓Ισραηλῖται, τὸ μὲν ἔργον ἤδη τέλος ἔχει οἷον αὐτῷ τε τῷ θεῷ ἥδιστον ἦν καὶ δυνατὸν ἡμῖν, ἐπεὶ δὲ δεῖ τοῦτον τῇ σκηνῇ καταδέχεσθαι, δεῖ πρῶτον ἡμῖν τοῦ ἱερατευσομένου καὶ ὑπηρετήσοντος ταῖς θυσίαις καὶ ταῖς ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν εὐχαῖς.Upon which, when they had given testimony to him in all respects, and showed their readiness to receive him, Moses said to them, “O you Israelites, this work is already brought to a conclusion, in a manner most acceptable to God, and according to our abilities. And now since you see that he is received into this tabernacle, we shall first of all stand in need of one that may officiate for us, and may minister to the sacrifices, and to the prayers that are to be put up for us.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

6 results
1. Septuagint, Leviticus, 16.2 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 25.9, 26.1, 26.31-26.37, 29.1, 29.19-29.30, 29.38-29.42, 30.11-30.15, 30.17-30.21, 31.18, 32.15-32.16, 34.28, 37.3, 40.34-40.35 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25.9. כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מַרְאֶה אוֹתְךָ אֵת תַּבְנִית הַמִּשְׁכָּן וְאֵת תַּבְנִית כָּל־כֵּלָיו וְכֵן תַּעֲשׂוּ׃ 26.1. וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן תַּעֲשֶׂה עֶשֶׂר יְרִיעֹת שֵׁשׁ מָשְׁזָר וּתְכֵלֶת וְאַרְגָּמָן וְתֹלַעַת שָׁנִי כְּרֻבִים מַעֲשֵׂה חֹשֵׁב תַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם׃ 26.1. וְעָשִׂיתָ חֲמִשִּׁים לֻלָאֹת עַל שְׂפַת הַיְרִיעָה הָאֶחָת הַקִּיצֹנָה בַּחֹבָרֶת וַחֲמִשִּׁים לֻלָאֹת עַל שְׂפַת הַיְרִיעָה הַחֹבֶרֶת הַשֵּׁנִית׃ 26.31. וְעָשִׂיתָ פָרֹכֶת תְּכֵלֶת וְאַרְגָּמָן וְתוֹלַעַת שָׁנִי וְשֵׁשׁ מָשְׁזָר מַעֲשֵׂה חֹשֵׁב יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָהּ כְּרֻבִים׃ 26.32. וְנָתַתָּה אֹתָהּ עַל־אַרְבָּעָה עַמּוּדֵי שִׁטִּים מְצֻפִּים זָהָב וָוֵיהֶם זָהָב עַל־אַרְבָּעָה אַדְנֵי־כָסֶף׃ 26.33. וְנָתַתָּה אֶת־הַפָּרֹכֶת תַּחַת הַקְּרָסִים וְהֵבֵאתָ שָׁמָּה מִבֵּית לַפָּרֹכֶת אֵת אֲרוֹן הָעֵדוּת וְהִבְדִּילָה הַפָּרֹכֶת לָכֶם בֵּין הַקֹּדֶשׁ וּבֵין קֹדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים׃ 26.34. וְנָתַתָּ אֶת־הַכַּפֹּרֶת עַל אֲרוֹן הָעֵדֻת בְּקֹדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים׃ 26.35. וְשַׂמְתָּ אֶת־הַשֻּׁלְחָן מִחוּץ לַפָּרֹכֶת וְאֶת־הַמְּנֹרָה נֹכַח הַשֻּׁלְחָן עַל צֶלַע הַמִּשְׁכָּן תֵּימָנָה וְהַשֻּׁלְחָן תִּתֵּן עַל־צֶלַע צָפוֹן׃ 26.36. וְעָשִׂיתָ מָסָךְ לְפֶתַח הָאֹהֶל תְּכֵלֶת וְאַרְגָּמָן וְתוֹלַעַת שָׁנִי וְשֵׁשׁ מָשְׁזָר מַעֲשֵׂה רֹקֵם׃ 26.37. וְעָשִׂיתָ לַמָּסָךְ חֲמִשָּׁה עַמּוּדֵי שִׁטִּים וְצִפִּיתָ אֹתָם זָהָב וָוֵיהֶם זָהָב וְיָצַקְתָּ לָהֶם חֲמִשָּׁה אַדְנֵי נְחֹשֶׁת׃ 29.1. וְזֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־תַּעֲשֶׂה לָהֶם לְקַדֵּשׁ אֹתָם לְכַהֵן לִי לְקַח פַּר אֶחָד בֶּן־בָּקָר וְאֵילִם שְׁנַיִם תְּמִימִם׃ 29.1. וְהִקְרַבְתָּ אֶת־הַפָּר לִפְנֵי אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְסָמַךְ אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם עַל־רֹאשׁ הַפָּר׃ 29.19. וְלָקַחְתָּ אֵת הָאַיִל הַשֵּׁנִי וְסָמַךְ אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם עַל־רֹאשׁ הָאָיִל׃ 29.21. וְלָקַחְתָּ מִן־הַדָּם אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּמִשֶּׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה וְהִזֵּיתָ עַל־אַהֲרֹן וְעַל־בְּגָדָיו וְעַל־בָּנָיו וְעַל־בִּגְדֵי בָנָיו אִתּוֹ וְקָדַשׁ הוּא וּבְגָדָיו וּבָנָיו וּבִגְדֵי בָנָיו אִתּוֹ׃ 29.22. וְלָקַחְתָּ מִן־הָאַיִל הַחֵלֶב וְהָאַלְיָה וְאֶת־הַחֵלֶב הַמְכַסֶּה אֶת־הַקֶּרֶב וְאֵת יֹתֶרֶת הַכָּבֵד וְאֵת שְׁתֵּי הַכְּלָיֹת וְאֶת־הַחֵלֶב אֲשֶׁר עֲלֵהֶן וְאֵת שׁוֹק הַיָּמִין כִּי אֵיל מִלֻּאִים הוּא׃ 29.23. וְכִכַּר לֶחֶם אַחַת וַחַלַּת לֶחֶם שֶׁמֶן אַחַת וְרָקִיק אֶחָד מִסַּל הַמַּצּוֹת אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 29.24. וְשַׂמְתָּ הַכֹּל עַל כַּפֵּי אַהֲרֹן וְעַל כַּפֵּי בָנָיו וְהֵנַפְתָּ אֹתָם תְּנוּפָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 29.25. וְלָקַחְתָּ אֹתָם מִיָּדָם וְהִקְטַרְתָּ הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עַל־הָעֹלָה לְרֵיחַ נִיחוֹחַ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אִשֶּׁה הוּא לַיהוָה׃ 29.26. וְלָקַחְתָּ אֶת־הֶחָזֶה מֵאֵיל הַמִּלֻּאִים אֲשֶׁר לְאַהֲרֹן וְהֵנַפְתָּ אֹתוֹ תְּנוּפָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְהָיָה לְךָ לְמָנָה׃ 29.27. וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ אֵת חֲזֵה הַתְּנוּפָה וְאֵת שׁוֹק הַתְּרוּמָה אֲשֶׁר הוּנַף וַאֲשֶׁר הוּרָם מֵאֵיל הַמִּלֻּאִים מֵאֲשֶׁר לְאַהֲרֹן וּמֵאֲשֶׁר לְבָנָיו׃ 29.28. וְהָיָה לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו לְחָק־עוֹלָם מֵאֵת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי תְרוּמָה הוּא וּתְרוּמָה יִהְיֶה מֵאֵת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִזִּבְחֵי שַׁלְמֵיהֶם תְּרוּמָתָם לַיהוָה׃ 29.29. וּבִגְדֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר לְאַהֲרֹן יִהְיוּ לְבָנָיו אַחֲרָיו לְמָשְׁחָה בָהֶם וּלְמַלֵּא־בָם אֶת־יָדָם׃ 29.38. וְזֶה אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה שְׁנַיִם לַיּוֹם תָּמִיד׃ 29.39. אֶת־הַכֶּבֶשׂ הָאֶחָד תַּעֲשֶׂה בַבֹּקֶר וְאֵת הַכֶּבֶשׂ הַשֵּׁנִי תַּעֲשֶׂה בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם׃ 29.41. וְאֵת הַכֶּבֶשׂ הַשֵּׁנִי תַּעֲשֶׂה בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם כְּמִנְחַת הַבֹּקֶר וּכְנִסְכָּהּ תַּעֲשֶׂה־לָּהּ לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה׃ 29.42. עֹלַת תָּמִיד לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם פֶּתַח אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר אִוָּעֵד לָכֶם שָׁמָּה לְדַבֵּר אֵלֶיךָ שָׁם׃ 30.11. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 30.12. כִּי תִשָּׂא אֶת־רֹאשׁ בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לִפְקֻדֵיהֶם וְנָתְנוּ אִישׁ כֹּפֶר נַפְשׁוֹ לַיהוָה בִּפְקֹד אֹתָם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה בָהֶם נֶגֶף בִּפְקֹד אֹתָם׃ 30.13. זֶה יִתְּנוּ כָּל־הָעֹבֵר עַל־הַפְּקֻדִים מַחֲצִית הַשֶּׁקֶל בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ עֶשְׂרִים גֵּרָה הַשֶּׁקֶל מַחֲצִית הַשֶּׁקֶל תְּרוּמָה לַיהוָה׃ 30.14. כֹּל הָעֹבֵר עַל־הַפְּקֻדִים מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וָמָעְלָה יִתֵּן תְּרוּמַת יְהוָה׃ 30.15. הֶעָשִׁיר לֹא־יַרְבֶּה וְהַדַּל לֹא יַמְעִיט מִמַּחֲצִית הַשָּׁקֶל לָתֵת אֶת־תְּרוּמַת יְהוָה לְכַפֵּר עַל־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם׃ 30.17. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 30.18. וְעָשִׂיתָ כִּיּוֹר נְחֹשֶׁת וְכַנּוֹ נְחֹשֶׁת לְרָחְצָה וְנָתַתָּ אֹתוֹ בֵּין־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וּבֵין הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְנָתַתָּ שָׁמָּה מָיִם׃ 30.19. וְרָחֲצוּ אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו מִמֶּנּוּ אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם וְאֶת־רַגְלֵיהֶם׃ 30.21. וְרָחֲצוּ יְדֵיהֶם וְרַגְלֵיהֶם וְלֹא יָמֻתוּ וְהָיְתָה לָהֶם חָק־עוֹלָם לוֹ וּלְזַרְעוֹ לְדֹרֹתָם׃ 31.18. וַיִּתֵּן אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כְּכַלֹּתוֹ לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ בְּהַר סִינַי שְׁנֵי לֻחֹת הָעֵדֻת לֻחֹת אֶבֶן כְּתֻבִים בְּאֶצְבַּע אֱלֹהִים׃ 32.15. וַיִּפֶן וַיֵּרֶד מֹשֶׁה מִן־הָהָר וּשְׁנֵי לֻחֹת הָעֵדֻת בְּיָדוֹ לֻחֹת כְּתֻבִים מִשְּׁנֵי עֶבְרֵיהֶם מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה הֵם כְּתֻבִים׃ 32.16. וְהַלֻּחֹת מַעֲשֵׂה אֱלֹהִים הֵמָּה וְהַמִּכְתָּב מִכְתַּב אֱלֹהִים הוּא חָרוּת עַל־הַלֻּחֹת׃ 34.28. וַיְהִי־שָׁם עִם־יְהוָה אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לַיְלָה לֶחֶם לֹא אָכַל וּמַיִם לֹא שָׁתָה וַיִּכְתֹּב עַל־הַלֻּחֹת אֵת דִּבְרֵי הַבְּרִית עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדְּבָרִים׃ 37.3. וַיִּצֹק לוֹ אַרְבַּע טַבְּעֹת זָהָב עַל אַרְבַּע פַּעֲמֹתָיו וּשְׁתֵּי טַבָּעֹת עַל־צַלְעוֹ הָאֶחָת וּשְׁתֵּי טַבָּעוֹת עַל־צַלְעוֹ הַשֵּׁנִית׃ 40.34. וַיְכַס הֶעָנָן אֶת־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה מָלֵא אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן׃ 40.35. וְלֹא־יָכֹל מֹשֶׁה לָבוֹא אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד כִּי־שָׁכַן עָלָיו הֶעָנָן וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה מָלֵא אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן׃ 25.9. According to all that I show thee, the pattern of the tabernacle, and the pattern of all the furniture thereof, even so shall ye make it." 26.1. Moreover thou shalt make the tabernacle with ten curtains: of fine twined linen, and blue, and purple, and scarlet, with cherubim the work of the skilful workman shalt thou make them." 26.31. And thou shalt make a veil of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen; with cherubim the work of the skilful workman shall it be made." 26.32. And thou shalt hang it upon four pillars of acacia overlaid with gold, their hooks being of gold, upon four sockets of silver." 26.33. And thou shalt hang up the veil under the clasps, and shalt bring in thither within the veil the ark of the testimony; and the veil shall divide unto you between the holy place and the most holy." 26.34. And thou shalt put the ark-cover upon the ark of the testimony in the most holy place." 26.35. And thou shalt set the table without the veil, and the candlestick over against the table on the side of the tabernacle toward the south; and thou shalt put the table on the north side." 26.36. And thou shalt make a screen for the door of the Tent, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, the work of the weaver in colours." 26.37. And thou shalt make for the screen five pillars of acacia, and overlay them with gold; their hooks shall be of gold; and thou shalt cast five sockets of brass for them." 29.1. And this is the thing that thou shalt do unto them to hallow them, to minister unto Me in the priest’s office: take one young bullock and two rams without blemish," 29.19. And thou shalt take the other ram; and Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands upon the head of the ram." 29.20. Then shalt thou kill the ram, and take of its blood, and put it upon the tip of the right ear of Aaron, and upon the tip of the right ear of his sons, and upon the thumb of their right hand, and upon the great toe of their right foot, and dash the blood against the altar round about." 29.21. And thou shalt take of the blood that is upon the altar, and of the anointing oil, and sprinkle it upon Aaron, and upon his garments, and upon his sons, and upon the garments of his sons with him; and he and his garments shall be hallowed, and his sons and his sons’garments with him." 29.22. Also thou shalt take of the ram the fat, and the fat tail, and the fat that covereth the inwards, and the lobe of the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, and the right thigh; for it is a ram of consecration;" 29.23. and one loaf of bread, and one cake of oiled bread, and one wafer, out of the basket of unleavened bread that is before the LORD." 29.24. And thou shalt put the whole upon the hands of Aaron, and upon the hands of his sons; and shalt wave them for a wave-offering before the LORD." 29.25. And thou shalt take them from their hands, and make them smoke on the altar upon the burnt-offering, for a sweet savour before the LORD; it is an offering made by fire unto the LORD." 29.26. And thou shalt take the breast of Aaron’s ram of consecration, and wave it for a wave-offering before the LORD; and it shall be thy portion." 29.27. And thou shalt sanctify the breast of the wave-offering, and the thigh of the heave-offering, which is waved, and which is heaved up, of the ram of consecration, even of that which is Aaron’s, and of that which is his sons’." 29.28. And it shall be for Aaron and his sons as a due for ever from the children of Israel; for it is a heave-offering; and it shall be a heave-offering from the children of Israel of their sacrifices of peace-offerings, even their heave-offering unto the LORD." 29.29. And the holy garments of Aaron shall be for his sons after him, to be anointed in them, and to be consecrated in them." 29.30. Seven days shall the son that is priest in his stead put them on, even he who cometh into the tent of meeting to minister in the holy place." 29.38. Now this is that which thou shalt offer upon the altar: two lambs of the first year day by day continually." 29.39. The one lamb thou shalt offer in the morning; and the other lamb thou shalt offer at dusk." 29.40. And with the one lamb a tenth part of an ephah of fine flour mingled with the fourth part of a hin of beaten oil; and the fourth part of a hin of wine for a drink-offering." 29.41. And the other lamb thou shalt offer at dusk, and shalt do thereto according to the meal-offering of the morning, and according to the drink-offering thereof, for a sweet savour, an offering made by fire unto the LORD." 29.42. It shall be a continual burnt-offering throughout your generations at the door of the tent of meeting before the LORD, where I will meet with you, to speak there unto thee." 30.11. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 30.12. ’When thou takest the sum of the children of Israel, according to their number, then shall they give every man a ransom for his soul unto the LORD, when thou numberest them; that there be no plague among them, when thou numberest them." 30.13. This they shall give, every one that passeth among them that are numbered, half a shekel after the shekel of the sanctuary—the shekel is twenty gerahs—half a shekel for an offering to the LORD." 30.14. Every one that passeth among them that are numbered, from twenty years old and upward, shall give the offering of the LORD." 30.15. The rich shall not give more, and the poor shall not give less, than the half shekel, when they give the offering of the LORD, to make atonement for your souls." 30.17. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 30.18. ’Thou shalt also make a laver of brass, and the base thereof of brass, whereat to wash; and thou shalt put it between the tent of meeting and the altar, and thou shalt put water therein." 30.19. And Aaron and his sons shall wash their hands and their feet thereat;" 30.20. when they go into the tent of meeting, they shall wash with water, that they die not; or when they come near to the altar to minister, to cause an offering made by fire to smoke unto the LORD;" 30.21. so they shall wash their hands and their feet, that they die not; and it shall be a statute for ever to them, even to him and to his seed throughout their generations.’" 31.18. And He gave unto Moses, when He had made an end of speaking with him upon mount Sinai, the two tables of the testimony, tables of stone, written with the finger of God." 32.15. And Moses turned, and went down from the mount, with the two tables of the testimony in his hand; tables that were written on both their sides; on the one side and on the other were they written." 32.16. And the tables were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God, graven upon the tables." 34.28. And he was there with the LORD forty days and forty nights; he did neither eat bread, nor drink water. And he wrote upon the tables the words of the covet, the ten words." 37.3. And he cast for it four rings of gold, in the four feet thereof: even two rings on the one side of it, and two rings on the other side of it." 40.34. Then the cloud covered the tent of meeting, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle." 40.35. And Moses was not able to enter into the tent of meeting, because the cloud abode thereon, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle.—"
3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 10.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.1. וּלֲהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַקֹּדֶשׁ וּבֵין הַחֹל וּבֵין הַטָּמֵא וּבֵין הַטָּהוֹר׃ 10.1. וַיִּקְחוּ בְנֵי־אַהֲרֹן נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא אִישׁ מַחְתָּתוֹ וַיִּתְּנוּ בָהֵן אֵשׁ וַיָּשִׂימוּ עָלֶיהָ קְטֹרֶת וַיַּקְרִבוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֵשׁ זָרָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא צִוָּה אֹתָם׃ 10.1. And Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron, took each of them his censer, and put fire therein, and laid incense thereon, and offered strange fire before the LORD, which He had not commanded them."
4. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.79, 3.82, 3.93, 3.100, 3.103, 3.106, 3.108, 3.110, 3.114-3.115, 3.121-3.124, 3.133, 3.149-3.150, 3.180-3.181, 3.189, 3.193-3.198, 3.201, 3.203-3.204, 3.206, 3.212, 3.214, 3.219-3.220, 3.222, 3.224-3.254, 3.258, 3.289, 3.293, 3.310, 3.312, 8.90 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.79. 2. So they passed two days in this way of feasting; but on the third day, before the sun was up, a cloud spread itself over the whole camp of the Hebrews, such a one as none had before seen, and encompassed the place where they had pitched their tents; 3.82. for they were not such as they were accustomed to; and then the rumor that was spread abroad, how God frequented that mountain, greatly astonished their minds, so they sorrowfully contained themselves within their tents, as both supposing Moses to be destroyed by the divine wrath, and expecting the like destruction for themselves. 3.93. 6. Now when the multitude had heard God himself giving those precepts which Moses had discoursed of, they rejoiced at what was said; and the congregation was dissolved: but on the following days they came to his tent, and desired him to bring them, besides, other laws from God. 3.103. with wool dyed by the flowers aforementioned; and fine linen and precious stones, which those that use costly ornaments set in ouches of gold; they brought also a great quantity of spices; for of these materials did Moses build the tabernacle, which did not at all differ from a movable and ambulatory temple. 3.106. Now the people went on with what they had undertaken with so great alacrity, that Moses was obliged to restrain them, by making proclamation, that what had been brought was sufficient, as the artificers had informed him; so they fell to work upon the building of the tabernacle. 3.108. 2. Now when all things were prepared, the gold, and the silver, and the brass, and what was woven, Moses, when he had appointed beforehand that there should be a festival, and that sacrifices should be offered according to every one’s ability, reared up the tabernacle and when he had measured the open court, fifty cubits broad and a hundred long 3.114. Within these gates was the brazen laver for purification, having a basin beneath of the like matter, whence the priests might wash their hands and sprinkle their feet; and this was the ornamental construction of the enclosure about the court of the tabernacle, which was exposed to the open air. 3.115. 3. As to the tabernacle itself, Moses placed it in the middle of that court, with its front to the east, that, when the sun arose, it might send its first rays upon it. Its length, when it was set up, was thirty cubits, and its breadth was twelve [ten] cubits. The one of its walls was on the south, and the other was exposed to the north, and on the back part of it remained the west. 3.121. but for the wall behind, there was but one row of bars that went through all the pillars, into which row ran the ends of the bars on each side of the longer walls; the male with its female being so fastened in their joints, that they held the whole firmly together; and for this reason was all this joined so fast together, that the tabernacle might not be shaken, either by the winds, or by any other means, but that it might preserve itself quiet and immovable continually. 3.122. 4. As for the inside, Moses parted its length into three partitions. At the distance of ten cubits from the most secret end, Moses placed four pillars, the workmanship of which was the very same with that of the rest; and they stood upon the like bases with them, each a small matter distant from his fellow. Now the room within those pillars was the most holy place; but the rest of the room was the tabernacle, which was open for the priests. 3.123. However, this proportion of the measures of the tabernacle proved to be an imitation of the system of the world; for that third part thereof which was within the four pillars, to which the priests were not admitted, is, as it were, a heaven peculiar to God. But the space of the twenty cubits, is, as it were, sea and land, on which men live, and so this part is peculiar to the priests only. 3.124. But at the front, where the entrance was made, they placed pillars of gold, that stood on bases of brass, in number seven; but then they spread over the tabernacle veils of fine linen and purple, and blue, and scarlet colors, embroidered. 3.133. But those that were made of hair and of skins, reached down in the same manner as did the veil at the gates, and kept off the heat of the sun, and what injury the rains might do. And after this manner was the tabernacle reared. 3.149. Before this tabernacle there was reared a brazen altar, but it was within made of wood, five cubits by measure on each side, but its height was but three, in like manner adorned with brass plates as bright as gold. It had also a brazen hearth of network; for the ground underneath received the fire from the hearth, because it had no basis to receive it. 3.181. When Moses distinguished the tabernacle into three parts, and allowed two of them to the priests, as a place accessible and common, he denoted the land and the sea, these being of general access to all; but he set apart the third division for God, because heaven is inaccessible to men. 3.189. Upon which, when they had given testimony to him in all respects, and showed their readiness to receive him, Moses said to them, “O you Israelites, this work is already brought to a conclusion, in a manner most acceptable to God, and according to our abilities. And now since you see that he is received into this tabernacle, we shall first of all stand in need of one that may officiate for us, and may minister to the sacrifices, and to the prayers that are to be put up for us. 3.193. 2. Now Moses commanded them to make use of all the utensils which were more than were necessary to the structure of the tabernacle, for covering the tabernacle itself, the candlestick, and altar of incense, and the other vessels, that they might not be at all hurt when they journeyed, either by the rain, or by the rising of the dust. 3.194. And when he had gathered the multitude together again, he ordained that they should offer half a shekel for every man, as an oblation to God; 3.195. which shekel is a piece among the Hebrews, and is equal to four Athenian drachmae. 3.196. Whereupon they readily obeyed what Moses had commanded; and the number of the offerers was six hundred and five thousand five hundred and fifty. Now this money that was brought by the men that were free, was given by such as were about twenty years old, but under fifty; and what was collected was spent in the uses of the tabernacle. 3.197. 3. Moses now purified the tabernacle and the priests; which purification was performed after the following manner:—He commanded them to take five hundred shekels of choice myrrh, an equal quantity of cassia, and half the foregoing weight of cinnamon and calamus (this last is a sort of sweet spice); to beat them small, and wet them with an hin of oil of olives (an hin is our own country measure, and contains two Athenian choas, or congiuses); then mix them together, and boil them, and prepare them after the art of the apothecary, and make them into a very sweet ointment; 3.198. and afterward to take it to anoint and to purify the priests themselves, and all the tabernacle, as also the sacrifices. There were also many, and those of various kinds, of sweet spices, that belonged to the tabernacle, and such as were of very great price, and were brought to the golden altar of incense; the nature of which I do not now describe, lest it should be troublesome to my readers; 3.201. Now the whole time they were about this work was the interval of seven months; and after this it was that was ended the first year since their departure out of Egypt. But at the beginning of the second year, on the month Xanthicus, as the Macedonians call it, but on the month Nisan, as the Hebrews call it, on the new moon, they consecrated the tabernacle, and all its vessels, which I have already described. 3.203. The sky was clear, but there was a mist over the tabernacle only, encompassing it, but not with such a very deep and thick cloud as is seen in the winter season, nor yet in so thin a one as men might be able to discern any thing through it, but from it there dropped a sweet dew, and such a one as showed the presence of God to those that desired and believed it. 3.204. 6. Now when Moses had bestowed such honorary presents on the workmen, as it was fit they should receive, who had wrought so well, he offered sacrifices in the open court of the tabernacle, as God commanded him; a bull, a ram, and a kid of the goats, for a sin-offering. 3.206. After this manner did he consecrate them and their garments for seven days together. The same he did to the tabernacle, and the vessels thereto belonging, both with oil first incensed, as I said, and with the blood of bulls and of rams, slain day by day one, according to its kind. But on the eighth day he appointed a feast for the people, and commanded them to offer sacrifice according to their ability. 3.212. 8. But Moses refused all that honor which he saw the multitude ready to bestow upon him, and attended to nothing else but the service of God. He went no more up to Mount Sinai; but he went into the tabernacle, and brought back answers from God for what he prayed for. His habit was also that of a private man, and in all other circumstances he behaved himself like one of the common people, and was desirous to appear without distinguishing himself from the multitude, but would have it known that he did nothing else but take care of them. 3.214. 9. I will now treat of what I before omitted, the garment of the high priest: for he [Moses] left no room for the evil practices of [false] prophets; but if some of that sort should attempt to abuse the divine authority, he left it to God to be present at his sacrifices when he pleased, and when he pleased to be absent. And he was willing this should be known, not to the Hebrews only, but to those foreigners also who were there. 3.219. 10. The tabernacle being now consecrated, and a regular order being settled for the priests, the multitude judged that God now dwelt among them, and betook themselves to sacrifices and praises to God as being now delivered from all expectation of evils and as entertaining a hopeful prospect of better times hereafter. They offered also gifts to God some as common to the whole nation, and others as peculiar to themselves, and these tribe by tribe; 3.222. Every one of the heads of the tribes brought also other sacrifices, called peace-offerings, for every day two bulls, and five rams, with lambs of a year old, and kids of the goats. These heads of tribes were twelve days in sacrificing, one sacrificing every day. Now Moses went no longer up to Mount Sinai, but went into the tabernacle, and learned of God what they were to do, and what laws should be made; 3.224. 1. I will now, however, make mention of a few of our laws which belong to purifications, and the like sacred offices, since I am accidentally come to this matter of sacrifices. These sacrifices were of two sorts; of those sorts one was offered for private persons, and the other for the people in general; and they are done in two different ways. 3.225. In the one case, what is slain is burnt, as a whole burnt-offering, whence that name is given to it; but the other is a thank-offering, and is designed for feasting those that sacrifice. I will speak of the former. 3.226. Suppose a private man offer a burnt-offering, he must slay either a bull, a lamb, or a kid of the goats, and the two latter of the first year, though of bulls he is permitted to sacrifice those of a greater age; but all burnt-offerings are to be of males. When they are slain, the priests sprinkle the blood round about the altar; 3.227. they then cleanse the bodies, and divide them into parts, and salt them with salt, and lay them upon the altar, while the pieces of wood are piled one upon another, and the fire is burning; they next cleanse the feet of the sacrifices, and the inwards, in an accurate manner and so lay them to the rest to be purged by the fire, while the priests receive the hides. This is the way of offering a burnt-offering. 3.228. 2. But those that offer thank-offerings do indeed sacrifice the same creatures, but such as are unblemished, and above a year old; however, they may take either males or females. They also sprinkle the altar with their blood; but they lay upon the altar the kidneys and the caul, and all the fat, and the lobe of the liver, together with the rump of the lamb; 3.229. then, giving the breast and the right shoulder to the priests, the offerers feast upon the remainder of the flesh for two days; and what remains they burn. 3.231. But if a person fall into sin by ignorance, he offers an ewe lamb, or a female kid of the goats, of the same age; and the priests sprinkle the blood at the altar, not after the former manner, but at the corners of it. They also bring the kidneys and the rest of the fat, together with the lobe of the liver, to the altar, while the priests bear away the hides and the flesh, and spend it in the holy place, on the same day; for the law does not permit them to leave of it until the morning. 3.232. But if any one sin, and is conscious of it himself, but hath nobody that can prove it upon him, he offers a ram, the law enjoining him so to do; the flesh of which the priests eat, as before, in the holy place, on the same day. And if the rulers offer sacrifices for their sins, they bring the same oblations that private men do; only they so far differ, that they are to bring for sacrifices a bull or a kid of the goats, both males. 3.233. 4. Now the law requires, both in private and public sacrifices, that the finest flour be also brought; for a lamb the measure of one tenth deal,—for a ram two,—and for a bull three. This they consecrate upon the altar, when it is mingled with oil; 3.234. for oil is also brought by those that sacrifice; for a bull the half of an hin, and for a ram the third part of the same measure, and one quarter of it for a lamb. This hin is an ancient Hebrew measure, and is equivalent to two Athenian choas (or congiuses). They bring the same quantity of oil which they do of wine, and they pour the wine about the altar; 3.235. but if any one does not offer a complete sacrifice of animals, but brings fine flour only for a vow, he throws a handful upon the altar as its first-fruits, while the priests take the rest for their food, either boiled or mingled with oil, but made into cakes of bread. But whatsoever it be that a priest himself offers, it must of necessity be all burnt. 3.236. Now the law forbids us to sacrifice any animal at the same time with its dam; and, in other cases, not till the eighth day after its birth. Other sacrifices there are also appointed for escaping distempers, or for other occasions, in which meat-offerings are consumed, together with the animals that are sacrificed; of which it is not lawful to leave any part till the next day, only the priests are to take their own share. 3.237. 1. The law requires, that out of the public expenses a lamb of the first year be killed every day, at the beginning and at the ending of the day; but on the seventh day, which is called the Sabbath, they kill two, and sacrifice them in the same manner. 3.238. At the new moon, they both perform the daily sacrifices, and slay two bulls, with seven lambs of the first year, and a kid of the goats also, for the expiation of sins; that is, if they have sinned through ignorance. 3.239. 2. But on the seventh month, which the Macedonians call Hyperberetaeus, they make an addition to those already mentioned, and sacrifice a bull, a ram, and seven lambs, and a kid of the goats, for sins. 3.241. And, besides these, they bring two kids of the goats; the one of which is sent alive out of the limits of the camp into the wilderness for the scapegoat, and to be an expiation for the sins of the whole multitude; but the other is brought into a place of great cleanness, within the limits of the camp, and is there burnt, with its skin, without any sort of cleansing. 3.242. With this goat was burnt a bull, not brought by the people, but by the high priest, at his own charges; which, when it was slain, he brought of the blood into the holy place, together with the blood of the kid of the goats, and sprinkled the ceiling with his finger seven times 3.243. as also its pavement, and again as often toward the most holy place, and about the golden altar: he also at last brings it into the open court, and sprinkles it about the great altar. Besides this, they set the extremities, and the kidneys, and the fat, with the lobe of the liver, upon the altar. The high priest likewise presents a ram to God as a burnt-offering. 3.244. 4. Upon the fifteenth day of the same month, when the season of the year is changing for winter, the law enjoins us to pitch tabernacles in every one of our houses, so that we preserve ourselves from the cold of that time of the year; 3.245. as also that when we should arrive at our own country, and come to that city which we should have then for our metropolis, because of the temple therein to be built, and keep a festival for eight days, and offer burnt-offerings, and sacrifice thank-offerings, that we should then carry in our hands a branch of myrtle, and willow, and a bough of the palm-tree, with the addition of the pome citron: 3.246. That the burnt-offering on the first of those days was to be a sacrifice of thirteen bulls, and fourteen lambs, and fifteen rams, with the addition of a kid of the goats, as an expiation for sins; and on the following days the same number of lambs, and of rams, with the kids of the goats; but abating one of the bulls every day till they amounted to seven only. 3.247. On the eighth day all work was laid aside, and then, as we said before, they sacrificed to God a bullock, a ram, and seven lambs, with a kid of the goats, for an expiation of sins. And this is the accustomed solemnity of the Hebrews, when they pitch their tabernacles. 3.248. 5. In the month of Xanthicus, which is by us called Nisan, and is the beginning of our year, on the fourteenth day of the lunar month, when the sun is in Aries, (for in this month it was that we were delivered from bondage under the Egyptians,) the law ordained that we should every year slay that sacrifice which I before told you we slew when we came out of Egypt, and which was called the Passover; and so we do celebrate this passover in companies, leaving nothing of what we sacrifice till the day following. 3.249. The feast of unleavened bread succeeds that of the passover, and falls on the fifteenth day of the month, and continues seven days, wherein they feed on unleavened bread; on every one of which days two bulls are killed, and one ram, and seven lambs. Now these lambs are entirely burnt, besides the kid of the goats which is added to all the rest, for sins; for it is intended as a feast for the priest on every one of those days. 3.251. They take a handful of the ears, and dry them, then beat them small, and purge the barley from the bran; they then bring one tenth deal to the altar, to God; and, casting one handful of it upon the fire, they leave the rest for the use of the priest. And after this it is that they may publicly or privately reap their harvest. They also at this participation of the first-fruits of the earth, sacrifice a lamb, as a burnt-offering to God. 3.252. 6. When a week of weeks has passed over after this sacrifice, (which weeks contain forty and nine days,) on the fiftieth day, which is Pentecost, but is called by the Hebrews Asartha, which signifies Pentecost, they bring to God a loaf, made of wheat flour, of two tenth deals, with leaven; and for sacrifices they bring two lambs; 3.253. and when they have only presented them to God, they are made ready for supper for the priests; nor is it permitted to leave any thing of them till the day following. They also slay three bullocks for a burnt-offering, and two rams; and fourteen lambs, with two kids of the goats, for sins; 3.254. nor is there anyone of the festivals but in it they offer burnt-offerings; they also allow themselves to rest on every one of them. Accordingly, the law prescribes in them all what kinds they are to sacrifice, and how they are to rest entirely, and must slay sacrifices, in order to feast upon them. 3.258. 1. Moses took out the tribe of Levi from communicating with the rest of the people, and set them apart to be a holy tribe; and purified them by water taken from perpetual springs, and with such sacrifices as were usually offered to God on the like occasions. He delivered to them also the tabernacle, and the sacred vessels, and the other curtains, which were made for covering the tabernacle, that they might minister under the conduct of the priests, who had been already consecrated to God. 3.289. 5. When they set up the tabernacle, they received it into the midst of their camp, three of the tribes pitching their tents on each side of it; and roads were cut through the midst of these tents. It was like a well-appointed market; and every thing was there ready for sale in due order; and all sorts of artificers were in the shops; and it resembled nothing so much as a city that sometimes was movable, and sometimes fixed. 3.293. Whenever the tabernacle was removed, it was done in this solemn order:—At the first alarm of the trumpet, those whose tents were on the east quarter prepared to remove; when the second signal was given, those that were on the south quarter did the like; in the next place, the tabernacle was taken to pieces, and was carried in the midst of six tribes that went before, and of six that followed, all the Levites assisting about the tabernacle; 3.312. For, he said, that when he was in the tabernacle, and was bewailing with tears that destruction which was coming upon them God put him in mind what things he had done for them, and what benefits they had received from him, and yet how ungrateful they had been to him that just now they had been induced, through the timorousness of the spies, to think that their words were truer than his own promise to them;
5. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 5.212-5.214, 5.219 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.212. but before these doors there was a veil of equal largeness with the doors. It was a Babylonian curtain, embroidered with blue, and fine linen, and scarlet, and purple, and of a contexture that was truly wonderful. Nor was this mixture of colors without its mystical interpretation, but was a kind of image of the universe; 5.213. for by the scarlet there seemed to be enigmatically signified fire, by the fine flax the earth, by the blue the air, and by the purple the sea; two of them having their colors the foundation of this resemblance; but the fine flax and the purple have their own origin for that foundation, the earth producing the one, and the sea the other. 5.214. This curtain had also embroidered upon it all that was mystical in the heavens, excepting that of the [twelve] signs, representing living creatures. 5.219. But the inmost part of the temple of all was of twenty cubits. This was also separated from the outer part by a veil. In this there was nothing at all. It was inaccessible and inviolable, and not to be seen by any; and was called the Holy of Holies.
6. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 86

86. the stability of the lintel. The style of the curtain too was thoroughly in proportion to that of the entrance. Its fabric owing to the draught of wind was in perpetual motion, and as this motion was communicated from the bottom and the curtain bulged out to its highest extent, it afforded a pleasant


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
altar Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 217
apollo Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 214, 217
aristeas Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 217
barrier Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 214, 217
boundary Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 214, 217
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 386
cosmos Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 217
curtain Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 217
decalogue Westwood, Moses among the Greek Lawgivers: Reading Josephus’ Antiquities through Plutarch’s Lives (2023) 149
didyma Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 214, 217
dionysius harlicarnassus Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 214
entrance Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 217
faith Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 214
flavius josephus Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 214, 217
gate Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 214
gentiles Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 214
gods hand Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 139
gods power Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 139
high priest Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 214, 217
holy of holies Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 217
inner room Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 214
jerusalem Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 217
jew Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 217
joshua Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 139
levites Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 217
maceria Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 214
mercy' Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 139
moses Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 139
paries Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 214
priests Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 214, 217
purity Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 217
sacrifice Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 214, 217
samuel Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 139
sanctuary Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 214, 217
septuagint Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 217
sinai Westwood, Moses among the Greek Lawgivers: Reading Josephus’ Antiquities through Plutarch’s Lives (2023) 149
space v Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 214, 217
tabernacle Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 217
temple, herodian Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 214, 217
temple v Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 214, 217
topography Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 214
translation Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 214
wall, dividing Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 217
wall, middle Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 217
wall Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 214, 217