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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7234
Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 2.216


τραφεὶς δὲ παραδόξως τὸ μὲν ̔Εβραίων γένος τῆς παρ' Αἰγυπτίοις ἀνάγκης ἀπολύσει, μνήμης δὲ ἐφ' ὅσον μενεῖ χρόνον τὰ σύμπαντα τεύξεται παρ' ἀνθρώποις οὐχ ̔Εβραίοις μόνον ἀλλὰ καὶ παρὰ τοῖς ἀλλοφύλοις, ἐμοῦ τοῦτο χαριζομένου σοί τε καὶ τοῖς ἐκ σοῦ γενησομένοις. ἔσται δ' αὐτῷ καὶ ὁ ἀδελφὸς τοιοῦτος, ὥστε τὴν ἐμὴν ἕξειν ἱερωσύνην αὐτόν τε καὶ τοὺς ἐγγόνους αὐτοῦ διὰ παντὸς τοῦ χρόνου.”and when he is brought up in a surprising way, he shall deliver the Hebrew nation from the distress they are under from the Egyptians. His memory shall be famous while the world lasts; and this not only among the Hebrews, but foreigners also:—all which shall be the effect of my favor to thee, and to thy posterity. He shall also have such a brother, that he shall himself obtain my priesthood, and his posterity shall have it after him to the end of the world.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

14 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 2.10, 2.11, 3.1-4.17, 4.21, 4.22, 4.23, 6.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.10. And the child grew, and she brought him unto Pharaoh’s daughter, and he became her son. And she called his name Moses, and said: ‘Because I drew him out of the water.’"
2. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 9.5, 9.8, 10.4, 46.9, 102.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.5. כִּי־עָשִׂיתָ מִשְׁפָּטִי וְדִינִי יָשַׁבְתָּ לְכִסֵּא שׁוֹפֵט צֶדֶק׃ 9.8. וַיהוָה לְעוֹלָם יֵשֵׁב כּוֹנֵן לַמִּשְׁפָּט כִּסְאוֹ׃ 10.4. רָשָׁע כְּגֹבַהּ אַפּוֹ בַּל־יִדְרֹשׁ אֵין אֱלֹהִים כָּל־מְזִמּוֹתָיו׃ 46.9. לְכוּ־חֲזוּ מִפְעֲלוֹת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר־שָׂם שַׁמּוֹת בָּאָרֶץ׃ 102.19. תִּכָּתֶב זֹאת לְדוֹר אַחֲרוֹן וְעַם נִבְרָא יְהַלֶּל־יָהּ׃ 9.5. For Thou hast maintained my right and my cause; Thou sattest upon the throne as the righteous Judge." 9.8. But the LORD is enthroned for ever; He hath established His throne for judgment." 10.4. The wicked, in the pride of his countece [, saith]: 'He will not require'; All his thoughts are: 'There is no God.'" 46.9. Come, behold the works of the LORD, Who hath made desolations in the earth." 102.19. This shall be written for the generation to come; And a people which shall be created shall praise the LORD."
3. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.7, 2.2-2.3 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. And his father and mother were among the most excellent persons of their time, and though they were of the same time, still they were induced to unite themselves together more from an uimity of feeling than because they were related in blood; and Moses is the seventh generation in succession from the original settler in the country who was the founder of the whole race of the Jews. 2.2. For some persons say, and not without some reason and propriety, that this is the only way by which cities can be expected to advance in improvement, if either the kings cultivate philosophy, or if philosophers exercise the kingly power. But Moses will be seen not only to have displayed all these powers--I mean the genius of the philosopher and of the king--in an extraordinary degree at the same time, but three other powers likewise, one of which is conversant about legislation, the second about the way of discharging the duties of high priest, and the last about the prophetic office; 2.3. and it is on these subjects that I have now been constrained to choose to enlarge; for I conceive that all these things have fitly been united in him, inasmuch as in accordance with the providential will of God he was both a king and a lawgiver, and a high priest and a prophet, and because in each office he displayed the most eminent wisdom and virtue. We must now show how it is that every thing is fitly united in him.
4. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.9-1.11, 1.15, 1.75, 1.187, 2.78, 2.179, 2.181, 2.202-2.203, 2.205, 2.210-2.215, 2.217-2.220, 2.225, 2.230, 2.232-2.234, 2.236, 3.88, 3.188, 3.191-3.192, 3.313, 4.14, 4.19, 4.122, 4.127, 4.201, 5.56, 5.298, 7.380, 8.76, 9.211, 10.80, 10.122, 10.183, 10.237, 11.207, 11.209, 11.211, 11.277, 12.403, 13.131, 13.322, 14.78, 15.253, 15.257, 15.384, 17.141, 17.324, 17.330, 18.103, 18.167, 18.196, 18.314, 19.17, 20.18-20.19, 20.81, 20.100, 20.123, 20.142, 20.147, 20.163, 20.173, 20.214, 20.252 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. I yielded to this man’s persuasions, who always excites such as have abilities in what is useful and acceptable, to join their endeavors with his. I was also ashamed myself to permit any laziness of disposition to have a greater influence upon me than the delight of taking pains in such studies as were very useful: I thereupon stirred up myself, and went on with my work more cheerfully. Besides the foregoing motives, I had others which I greatly reflected on; and these were, that our forefathers were willing to communicate such things to others; and that some of the Greeks took considerable pains to know the affairs of our nation. 1.9. When the rain ceased, the water did but just begin to abate after one hundred and fifty days; that is, on the seventeenth day of the seventh month, it then ceasing to subside for a little while. After this, the ark rested on the top of a certain mountain in Armenia; which, when Noah understood, he opened it; and seeing a small piece of land about it, he continued quiet, and conceived some cheerful hopes of deliverance. 1.11. Now Eleazar, the high priest, one not inferior to any other of that dignity among us, did not envy the forenamed king the participation of that advantage, which otherwise he would for certain have denied him, but that he knew the custom of our nation was, to hinder nothing of what we esteemed ourselves from being communicated to others. 1.11. Now the plain in which they first dwelt was called Shinar. God also commanded them to send colonies abroad, for the thorough peopling of the earth, that they might not raise seditions among themselves, but might cultivate a great part of the earth, and enjoy its fruits after a plentiful manner. But they were so ill instructed that they did not obey God; for which reason they fell into calamities, and were made sensible, by experience, of what sin they had been guilty: 1.15. And now I exhort all those that peruse these books, to apply their minds to God; and to examine the mind of our legislator, whether he hath not understood his nature in a manner worthy of him; and hath not ever ascribed to him such operations as become his power, and hath not preserved his writings from those indecent fables which others have framed 1.15. Heber begat Phaleg in his hundred and thirty-fourth year; he himself being begotten by Sala when he was a hundred and thirty years old, whom Arphaxad had for his son at the hundred and thirty-fifth year of his age. Arphaxad was the son of Shem, and born twelve years after the deluge. 1.75. 2. Now God loved this man for his righteousness: yet he not only condemned those other men for their wickedness, but determined to destroy the whole race of mankind, and to make another race that should be pure from wickedness; and cutting short their lives, and making their years not so many as they formerly lived, but one hundred and twenty only, he turned the dry land into sea; 1.187. and God required of him to be of good courage, and said that he would add to all the rest of the benefits that he had bestowed upon him, ever since he led him out of Mesopotamia, the gift of children. Accordingly Sarai, at God’s command, brought to his bed one of her handmaidens, a woman of Egyptian descent, in order to obtain children by her; 2.78. That Joseph himself was laid in bonds by Potiphar, who was his head cook, as a slave; but, he said, he was one of the noblest of the stock of the Hebrews; and said further, his father lived in great splendor. “If, therefore, thou wilt send for him, and not despise him on the score of his misfortunes, thou wilt learn what thy dreams signify.” 2.179. Zabulon had with him three sons—Sarad, Helon, Jalel. So far is the posterity of Lea; with whom went her daughter Dinah. These are thirty-three. 2.181. And this was the legitimate posterity of Jacob. He had besides by Bilhah, the handmaid of Rachel, Dan and Nephtliali; which last had four sons that followed him—Jesel, Guni, Issari, and Sellim. Dan had an only begotten son, Usi. 2.202. for when they saw how the nation of the Israelites flourished, and were become eminent already in plenty of wealth, which they had acquired by their virtue and natural love of labor, they thought their increase was to their own detriment. And having, in length of time, forgotten the benefits they had received from Joseph, particularly the crown being now come into another family, they became very abusive to the Israelites, and contrived many ways of afflicting them; 2.203. for they enjoined them to cut a great number of channels for the river, and to build walls for their cities and ramparts, that they might restrain the river, and hinder its waters from stagnating, upon its running over its own banks: they set them also to build pyramids, and by all this wore them out; and forced them to learn all sorts of mechanical arts, and to accustom themselves to hard labor. 2.205. 2. While the affairs of the Hebrews were in this condition, there was this occasion offered itself to the Egyptians, which made them more solicitous for the extinction of our nation. One of those sacred scribes, who are very sagacious in foretelling future events truly, told the king, that about this time there would a child be born to the Israelites, who, if he were reared, would bring the Egyptian dominion low, and would raise the Israelites; that he would excel all men in virtue, and obtain a glory that would be remembered through all ages. 2.211. Hereupon he betook himself to prayer to God; and entreated him to have compassion on those men who had nowise transgressed the laws of his worship, and to afford them deliverance from the miseries they at that time endured, and to render abortive their enemies’ hopes of the destruction of their nation. 2.212. Accordingly God had mercy on him, and was moved by his supplication. He stood by him in his sleep, and exhorted him not to despair of his future favors. He said further, that he did not forget their piety towards him, and would always reward them for it, as he had formerly granted his favor to their forefathers, and made them increase from a few to so great a multitude. 2.213. He put him in mind, that when Abraham was come alone out of Mesopotamia into Canaan, he had been made happy, not only in other respects, but that when his wife was at first barren, she was afterwards by him enabled to conceive seed, and bare him sons. That he left to Ismael and to his posterity the country of Arabia; as also to his sons by Ketura, Troglodytis; and to Isaac, Canaan. 2.214. That by my assistance, said he, he did great exploits in war, which, unless you be yourselves impious, you must still remember. As for Jacob, he became well known to strangers also, by the greatness of that prosperity in which he lived, and left to his sons, who came into Egypt with no more than seventy souls, while you are now become above six hundred thousand. 2.215. Know therefore that I shall provide for you all in common what is for your good, and particularly for thyself what shall make thee famous; for that child, out of dread of whose nativity the Egyptians have doomed the Israelite children to destruction, shall be this child of thine, and shall be concealed from those who watch to destroy him: 2.217. 4. When the vision had informed him of these things, Amram awaked and told it to Jochebed who was his wife. And now the fear increased upon them on account of the prediction in Amram’s dream; for they were under concern, not only for the child, but on account of the great happiness that was to come to him also. 2.218. However, the mother’s labor was such as afforded a confirmation to what was foretold by God; for it was not known to those that watched her, by the easiness of her pains, and because the throes of her delivery did not fall upon her with violence. And now they nourished the child at home privately for three months; 2.219. but after that time Amram, fearing he should be discovered, and, by falling under the king’s displeasure, both he and his child should perish, and so he should make the promise of God of none effect, he determined rather to trust the safety and care of the child to God, than to depend on his own concealment of him, which he looked upon as a thing uncertain, and whereby both the child, so privately to be nourished, and himself should be in imminent danger; 2.225. for God had taken such great care in the formation of Moses, that he caused him to be thought worthy of bringing up, and providing for, by all those that had taken the most fatal resolutions, on account of the dread of his nativity, for the destruction of the rest of the Hebrew nation. Thermuthis bid them bring her a woman that might afford her breast to the child; 2.232. 7. Thermuthis therefore perceiving him to be so remarkable a child, adopted him for her son, having no child of her own. And when one time she had carried Moses to her father, she showed him to him, and said she thought to make him her father’s successor, if it should please God she should have no legitimate child of her own; and said to him, “I have brought up a child who is of a divine form, and of a generous mind; and as I have received him from the bounty of the river, in a wonderful manner, I thought proper to adopt him for my son, and the heir of thy kingdom.” 2.233. And when she had said this, she put the infant into her father’s hands: so he took him, and hugged him close to his breast; and on his daughter’s account, in a pleasant way, put his diadem upon his head; but Moses threw it down to the ground, and, in a puerile mood, he wreathed it round, and trod upon it with his feet 2.234. which seemed to bring along with it an evil presage concerning the kingdom of Egypt. But when the sacred scribe saw this, (he was the same person who foretold that his nativity would bring the dominion of that kingdom low,) he made a violent attempt to kill him; and crying out in a frightful manner, he said 3.88. And let them be to you venerable, and contended for more earnestly by you than your own children and your own wives; for if you will follow them, you will lead a happy life you will enjoy the land fruitful, the sea calm, and the fruit of the womb born complete, as nature requires; you will be also terrible to your enemies for I have been admitted into the presence of God and been made a hearer of his incorruptible voice so great is his concern for your nation, and its duration.” 3.188. 1. When what has been described was brought to a conclusion, gifts not being yet presented, God appeared to Moses, and enjoined him to bestow the high priesthood upon Aaron his brother, as upon him that best of them all deserved to obtain that honor, on account of his virtue. And when he had gathered the multitude together, he gave them an account of Aaron’s virtue, and of his good-will to them, and of the dangers he had undergone for their sakes. 3.191. So that he is to put on the vestments which are consecrated to God; he is to have the care of the altars, and to make provision for the sacrifices; and he it is that must put up prayers for you to God, who will readily hear them, not only because he is himself solicitous for your nation, but also because he will receive them as offered by one that he hath himself chosen to this office.” 3.192. The Hebrews were pleased with what was said, and they gave their approbation to him whom God had ordained; for Aaron was of them all the most deserving of this honor, on account of his own stock and gift of prophecy, and his brother’s virtue. He had at that time four sons, Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar. 3.313. and that on this account, though he would not indeed destroy them all, nor utterly exterminate their nation, which he had honored more than any other part of mankind, yet he would not permit them to take possession of the land of Canaan, nor enjoy its happiness; 4.14. o far indeed that this transgression was already gone through the whole army of the young men, and they fell into a sedition that was much worse than the former, and into danger of the entire abolition of their own institutions; for when once the youth had tasted of these strange customs, they went with insatiable inclinations into them; and even where some of the principal men were illustrious on account of the virtues of their fathers, they also were corrupted together with the rest. 4.14. 2. Corah, a Hebrew of principal account both by his family and by his wealth, one that was also able to speak well, and one that could easily persuade the people by his speeches, saw that Moses was in an exceeding great dignity, and was uneasy at it, and envied him on that account (he was of the same tribe with Moses, and of kin to him), was particularly grieved, because he thought he better deserved that honorable post on account of his great riches, and not inferior to him in his birth. 4.19. for if God had determined to bestow that honor on one of the tribe of Levi, I am more worthy of it than he is; I myself being equal to Moses by my family, and superior to him both in riches and in age: but if God had determined to bestow it on the eldest tribe, that of Reuben might have it most justly; and then Dathan, and Abiram, and [On, the son of] Peleth, would have it; for these are the oldest men of that tribe, and potent on account of their great wealth also.” 4.19. Since, when you shall have once proceeded so far by your wealth, as to a contempt and disregard of virtue, you will also forfeit the favor of God; and when you have made him your enemy, you will be beaten in war, and will have the land which you possess taken away again from you by your enemies, and this with great reproaches upon your conduct. You will be scattered over the whole world, and will, as slaves, entirely fill both sea and land; 4.122. I then did not intend to praise this army, nor to go over the several good things which God intended to do to their race; but since he was so favorable to them, and so ready to bestow upon them a happy life and eternal glory, he suggested the declaration of those things to me: 4.127. and spake thus to them:—“O Balak, and you Midianites that are here present, (for I am obliged even without the will of God to gratify you,) it is true no entire destruction can seize upon the nation of the Hebrews, neither by war, nor by plague, nor by scarcity of the fruits of the earth, nor can any other unexpected accident be their entire ruin; 4.201. Let the ascent to it be not by steps but by an acclivity of raised earth. And let there be neither an altar nor a temple in any other city; for God is but one, and the nation of the Hebrews is but one. 5.56. So these men, having obtained what they desired, by deceiving the Israelites, went home: but when Joshua led his army to the country at the bottom of the mountains of this part of Canaan, he understood that the Gibeonites dwelt not far from Jerusalem, and that they were of the stock of the Canaanites; so he sent for their governors, and reproached them with the cheat they had put upon him; 5.298. So they being desirous not to be blamed themselves, came to the rock with three thousand armed men, and complained to Samson of the bold insults he had made upon the Philistines, who were men able to bring calamity upon the whole nation of the Hebrews; and they told him they were come to take him, and to deliver him up to them, and put him into their power; so they desired him to bear this willingly. 8.76. 4. Now Solomon sent for an artificer out of Tyre, whose name was Hiram; he was by birth of the tribe of Naphtali, on the mother’s side, (for she was of that tribe,) but his father was Ur, of the stock of the Israelites. This man was skillful in all sorts of work; but his chief skill lay in working in gold, and silver, and brass; by whom were made all the mechanical works about the temple, according to the will of Solomon. 9.211. When they had cast lots, the lot fell upon the prophet; and when they asked him whence he came, and what he had done? he replied, that he was a Hebrew by nation, and a prophet of Almighty God; and he persuaded them to cast him into the sea, if they would escape the danger they were in, for that he was the occasion of the storm which was upon them. 10.122. but there was one of the king’s servants, who was in esteem with him, an Ethiopian by descent, who told the king what a state the prophet was in, and said that his friends and his rulers had done evil in putting the prophet into the mire, and by that means contriving against him that he should suffer a death more bitter than that by his bonds only. 10.183. And such was the end of the nation of the Hebrews, as it hath been delivered down to us, it having twice gone beyond Euphrates; for the people of the ten tribes were carried out of Samaria by the Assyrians, in the days of king Hoshea; after which the people of the two tribes that remained after Jerusalem was taken [were carried away] by Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylon and Chaldea. 10.237. Now when the king’s grandmother saw him cast down at this accident, she began to encourage him, and to say, that there was a certain captive who came from Judea, a Jew by birth, but brought away thence by Nebuchadnezzar when he had destroyed Jerusalem, whose name was Daniel, a wise man, and one of great sagacity in finding out what was impossible for others to discover, and what was known to God alone, who brought to light and answered such questions to Nebuchadnezzar as no one else was able to answer when they were consulted. 11.207. 4. Some time after this [two eunuchs], Bigthan and Teresh, plotted against the king; and Barnabazus, the servant of one of the eunuchs, being by birth a Jew, was acquainted with their conspiracy, and discovered it to the queen’s uncle; and Mordecai, by the means of Esther, made the conspirators known to the king. 11.209. 5. Now there was one Haman, the son of Amedatha, by birth an Amalekite, that used to go in to the king; and the foreigners and Persians worshipped him, as Artaxerxes had commanded that such honor should be paid to him; 11.211. And when he desired to punish Mordecai, he thought it too small a thing to request of the king that he alone might be punished; he rather determined to abolish the whole nation, for he was naturally an enemy to the Jews, because the nation of the Amalekites, of which he was; had been destroyed by them. 11.277. This hath been the case of Haman, the son of Ammedatha, by birth an Amalekite, and alien from the blood of the Persians, who, when he was hospitably entertained by us, and partook of that kindness which we bear to all men to so great a degree, as to be called my father, and to be all along worshipped, and to have honor paid him by all in the second rank after the royal honor due to ourselves, he could not bear his good fortune, nor govern the magnitude of his prosperity with sound reason; 12.403. When Nicanor was come to Jerusalem, he did not resolve to fight Judas immediately, but judged it better to get him into his power by treachery; so he sent him a message of peace, and said there was no manner of necessity for them to fight and hazard themselves; and that he would give him his oath that he would do him no harm, for that he only came with some friends, in order to let him know what king Demetrius’s intentions were, and what opinion he had of their nation. 13.131. 1. Now there was a certain commander of Alexander’s forces, an Apanemian by birth, whose name was Diodotus, and was also called Trypho, took notice of the ill-will of the soldiers bare to Demetrius, and went to Malchus the Arabian, who brought up Antiochus, the son of Alexander, and told him what ill-will the army bare Demetrius, and persuaded him to give him Antiochus, because he would make him king, and recover to him the kingdom of his father. 13.322. when Hyrcanus chiefly loved the two eldest of his sons, Antigonus and Aristobutus, God appeared to him in his sleep, of whom he inquired which of his sons should be his successor. Upon God’s representing to him the countece of Alexander, he was grieved that he was to be the heir of all his goods, and suffered him to be brought up in Galilee However, God did not deceive Hyrcanus; 14.78. Moreover, the Romans exacted of us, in a little time, above ten thousand talents; and the royal authority, which was a dignity formerly bestowed on those that were high priests, by the right of their family, became the property of private men. But of these matters we shall treat in their proper places. 15.253. 9. Costobarus was an Idumean by birth, and one of principal dignity among them, and one whose ancestors had been priests to the Koze, whom the Idumeans had [formerly] esteemed as a god; 15.257. and this he did, not because he was better pleased to be under Cleopatra’s government, but because he thought that, upon the diminution of Herod’s power, it would not be difficult for him to obtain himself the entire government over the Idumeans, and somewhat more also; for he raised his hopes still higher, as having no small pretenses, both by his birth and by these riches which he had gotten by his constant attention to filthy lucre; and accordingly it was not a small matter that he aimed at. 15.384. and for the particular edifices belonging to your own country, and your own cities, as also to those cities that we have lately acquired, which we have erected and greatly adorned, and thereby augmented the dignity of your nation, it seems to me a needless task to enumerate them to you, since you well know them yourselves; but as to that undertaking which I have a mind to set about at present, and which will be a work of the greatest piety and excellence that can possibly be undertaken by us, I will now declare it to you. 17.141. Now Acme was a Jew by birth, and a servant to Julia, Caesar’s wife; and did this out of her friendship for Antipater, as having been corrupted by him with a large present of money, to assist in his pernicious designs against his father and his aunt. 17.324. 1. When these affairs had been thus settled by Caesar, a certain young man, by birth a Jew, but brought up by a Roman freed-man in the city Sidon, ingrafted himself into the kindred of Herod, by the resemblance of his countece, which those that saw him attested to be that of Alexander, the son of Herod, whom he had slain; 18.103. Artabanus also, not long afterward, sent his son Darius as an hostage, with many presents, among which there was a man seven cubits tall, a Jew he was by birth, and his name was Eleazar, who, for his tallness, was called a giant. 18.167. Now there was one Thallus, a freed-man of Caesar, of whom he borrowed a million of drachmae, and thence repaid Antonia the debt he owed her; and by sending the overplus in paying his court to Caius, became a person of great authority with him. 18.196. and when he was informed that his name was Agrippa, and that he was by nation a Jew, and one of the principal men of that nation, he asked leave of the soldier to whom he was bound, to let him come nearer to him, to speak with him; for that he had a mind to inquire of him about some things relating to his country; 18.314. Now there were two men, Asineus and Anileus, of the city Neerda by birth, and brethren to one another. They were destitute of a father, and their mother put them to learn the art of weaving curtains, it not being esteemed a disgrace among them for men to be weavers of cloth. Now he that taught them that art, and was set over them, complained that they came too late to their work, and punished them with stripes; 19.17. 3. Now there were three several conspiracies made in order to take off Caius, and each of these three were conducted by excellent persons. Emilius Regulus, born at Corduba in Spain, got some men together, and was desirous to take Caius off, either by them or by himself. 19.17. and I heartily wish that this quiet enjoyment of it, which we have at present, might continue to all ages. However, this single day may suffice for our youth, as well as for us that are in years. It will seem an age to our old men, if they might die during its happy duration: it may also be for the instruction of the younger sort 20.18. And now arose a sedition between the high priests and the principal men of the multitude of Jerusalem; each of which got them a company of the boldest sort of men, and of those that loved innovations about them, and became leaders to them; and when they struggled together, they did it by casting reproachful words against one another, and by throwing stones also. And there was nobody to reprove them; but these disorders were done after a licentious manner in the city, as if it had no government over it. 20.18. Monobazus, the king of Adiabene, who had also the name of Bazeus, fell in love with his sister Helena, and took her to be his wife, and begat her with child. But as he was in bed with her one night, he laid his hand upon his wife’s belly, and fell asleep, and seemed to hear a voice, which bid him take his hand off his wife’s belly, and not hurt the infant that was therein, which, by God’s providence, would be safely born, and have a happy end. 20.19. Now this palace had been erected of old by the children of Asamoneus and was situate upon an elevation, and afforded a most delightful prospect to those that had a mind to take a view of the city, which prospect was desired by the king; and there he could lie down, and eat, and thence observe what was done in the temple; 20.19. This voice put him into disorder; so he awaked immediately, and told the story to his wife; and when his son was born, he called him Izates. 20.81. 2. But although the grandees of Adiabene had failed in their first attempt, as being delivered up by God into their king’s hands, yet would they not even then be quiet, but wrote again to Vologases, who was then king of Parthia, and desired that he would kill Izates, and set over them some other potentate, who should be of a Parthian family; for they said that they hated their own king for abrogating the laws of their forefathers, and embracing foreign customs. 20.123. whereupon those that were the most eminent persons at Jerusalem, and that both in regard to the respect that was paid them, and the families they were of, as soon as they saw to what a height things were gone, put on sackcloth, and heaped ashes upon their heads, and by all possible means besought the seditious, and persuaded them that they would set before their eyes the utter subversion of their country, the conflagration of their temple, and the slavery of themselves, their wives, and children, which would be the consequences of what they were doing; and would alter their minds, would cast away their weapons, and for the future be quiet, and return to their own homes. These persuasions of theirs prevailed upon them. 20.142. While Felix was procurator of Judea, he saw this Drusilla, and fell in love with her; for she did indeed exceed all other women in beauty; and he sent to her a person whose name was Simon one of his friends; a Jew he was, and by birth a Cypriot, and one who pretended to be a magician, and endeavored to persuade her to forsake her present husband, and marry him; and promised, that if she would not refuse him, he would make her a happy woman. 20.147. and, at the same time, Mariamne put away Archelaus, and was married to Demetrius, the principal man among the Alexandrian Jews, both for his family and his wealth; and indeed he was then their alabarch. So she named her son whom she had by him Agrippinus. But of all these particulars we shall hereafter treat more exactly. 20.163. Wherefore Felix persuaded one of Jonathan’s most faithful friends, a citizen of Jerusalem, whose name was Doras, to bring the robbers upon Jonathan, in order to kill him; and this he did by promising to give him a great deal of money for so doing. Doras complied with the proposal, and contrived matters so, that the robbers might murder him after the following manner: 20.173. 7. And now it was that a great sedition arose between the Jews that inhabited Caesarea, and the Syrians who dwelt there also, concerning their equal right to the privileges belonging to citizens; for the Jews claimed the pre-eminence, because Herod their king was the builder of Caesarea, and because he was by birth a Jew. Now the Syrians did not deny what was alleged about Herod; but they said that Caesarea was formerly called Strato’s Tower, and that then there was not one Jewish inhabitant. 20.214. Costobarus also, and Saulus, did themselves get together a multitude of wicked wretches, and this because they were of the royal family; and so they obtained favor among them, because of their kindred to Agrippa; but still they used violence with the people, and were very ready to plunder those that were weaker than themselves. And from that time it principally came to pass that our city was greatly disordered, and that all things grew worse and worse among us. 20.252. 1. Now Gessius Florus, who was sent as successor to Albinus by Nero, filled Judea with abundance of miseries. He was by birth of the city of Clazomenae, and brought along with him his wife Cleopatra, (by whose friendship with Poppea, Nero’s wife, he obtained this government,) who was no way different from him in wickedness.
5. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.432, 1.477, 1.513, 1.576, 2.119, 2.308, 2.482, 2.566, 3.351-3.354, 4.416, 4.503, 5.443, 5.532, 6.54, 7.199, 7.329, 7.375 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.432. For when he came to the government, he sent away her whom he had before married when he was a private person, and who was born at Jerusalem, whose name was Doris, and married Mariamne, the daughter of Alexander, the son of Aristobulus; on whose account disturbances arose in his family, and that in part very soon, but chiefly after his return from Rome. 1.477. She also frequently reproached Herod’s sister and wives with the ignobility of their descent; and that they were every one chosen by him for their beauty, but not for their family. Now those wives of his were not a few; it being of old permitted to the Jews to marry many wives,—and this king delighting in many; all which hated Alexander, on account of Glaphyra’s boasting and reproaches. 1.513. 1. Now a little afterward there came into Judea a man that was much superior to Archelaus’s stratagems, who did not only overturn that reconciliation that had been so wisely made with Alexander, but proved the occasion of his ruin. He was a Lacedemonian, and his name was Eurycles. He was so corrupt a man, that out of the desire of getting money, he chose to live under a king, for Greece could not suffice his luxury. 1.576. Phabatus was angry at him on that account, but was still in very great esteem with Herod, and discovered Sylleus’s grand secrets, and told the king that Sylleus had corrupted Corinthus, one of the guards of his body, by bribing him, and of whom he must therefore have a care. Accordingly, the king complied; for this Corinthus, though he was brought up in Herod’s kingdom, yet was by birth an Arabian; 2.119. 2. For there are three philosophical sects among the Jews. The followers of the first of which are the Pharisees; of the second, the Sadducees; and the third sect, which pretends to a severer discipline, are called Essenes. These last are Jews by birth, and seem to have a greater affection for one another than the other sects have. 2.308. And what made this calamity the heavier was this new method of Roman barbarity; for Florus ventured then to do what no one had done before, that is, to have men of the equestrian order whipped and nailed to the cross before his tribunal; who, although they were by birth Jews, yet were they of Roman dignity notwithstanding. 2.482. Now there came certain men seventy in number, out of Batanea, who were the most considerable for their families and prudence of the rest of the people; these desired to have an army put into their hands, that if any tumult should happen, they might have about them a guard sufficient to restrain such as might rise up against them. 2.566. 4. They also chose other generals for Idumea; Jesus, the son of Sapphias, one of the high priests; and Eleazar, the son of Aias, the high priest; they also enjoined Niger, the then governor of Idumea, who was of a family that belonged to Perea, beyond Jordan, and was thence called the Peraite, that he should be obedient to those forenamed commanders. 3.351. And now, as Nicanor lay hard at Josephus to comply, and he understood how the multitude of the enemies threatened him, he called to mind the dreams which he had dreamed in the nighttime, whereby God had signified to him beforehand both the future calamities of the Jews, and the events that concerned the Roman emperors. 3.352. Now Josephus was able to give shrewd conjectures about the interpretation of such dreams as have been ambiguously delivered by God. Moreover, he was not unacquainted with the prophecies contained in the sacred books, as being a priest himself, and of the posterity of priests: 3.353. and just then was he in an ecstasy; and setting before him the tremendous images of the dreams he had lately had, he put up a secret prayer to God 3.354. and said, “Since it pleaseth thee, who hast created the Jewish nation, to depress the same, and since all their good fortune is gone over to the Romans, and since thou hast made choice of this soul of mine to foretell what is to come to pass hereafter, I willingly give them my hands, and am content to live. And I protest openly that I do not go over to the Romans as a deserter of the Jews, but as a minister from thee.” 4.416. o they seized upon Dolesus (a person not only the first in rank and family in that city, but one that seemed the occasion of sending such an embassy) and slew him, and treated his dead body after a barbarous manner, so very violent was their anger at him, and then ran out of the city. 4.503. 3. And now there arose another war at Jerusalem. There was a son of Giora, one Simon, by birth of Gerasa, a young man, not so cunning indeed as John [of Gischala], who had already seized upon the city 5.443. Finally, they brought the Hebrew nation into contempt, that they might themselves appear comparatively less impious with regard to strangers. They confessed what was true, that they were the slaves, the scum, and the spurious and abortive offspring of our nation 5.532. After the slaughter of these, a certain priest, Aias, the son of Masambulus, a person of eminency, as also Aristeus, the scribe of the sanhedrin, and born at Emmaus, and with them fifteen men of figure among the people, were slain. 6.54. 6. Upon this speech of Titus, the rest of the multitude were affrighted at so great a danger. But there was one, whose name was Sabinus, a soldier that served among the cohorts, and a Syrian by birth, who appeared to be of very great fortitude, both in the actions he had done, and the courage of his soul he had shown; 7.199. Now a certain person belonging to the Roman camp, whose name was Rufus, by birth an Egyptian, ran upon him suddenly, when nobody expected such a thing, and carried him off, with his armor itself; while in the meantime, those that saw it from the wall were under such an amazement, that Rufus prevented their assistance, and carried Eleazar to the Roman camp. 7.329. To be sure we weakly hoped to have preserved ourselves, and ourselves alone, still in a state of freedom, as if we had been guilty of no sins ourselves against God, nor been partners with those of others; we also taught other men to preserve their liberty. 7.375. And where is now that great city, the metropolis of the Jewish nation, which was fortified by so many walls round about, which had so many fortresses and large towers to defend it, which could hardly contain the instruments prepared for the war, and which had so many ten thousands of men to fight for it?
6. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.59, 1.106, 1.129, 1.160, 1.164, 1.173, 1.250, 1.252, 1.265, 2.8, 2.28, 2.138, 2.202, 2.296 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.59. after which I shall produce testimonies for our antiquity out of the writings of foreigners: I shall also demonstrate that such as cast reproaches upon our nation do it very unjustly. /p 1.106. 17. I will now, therefore, pass from these records, and come to those who belong to the Phoenicians, and concern our nation, and shall produce attestations to what I have said out of them. 1.129. Berosus shall be witness to what I say: he was by birth a Chaldean, well known by the learned, on account of his publication of the Chaldean books of astronomy and philosophy among the Greeks. 1.164. Now this Hermippus, in his first book concerning Pythagoras, speaks thus:—“That Pythagoras, upon the death of one of his associates, whose name was Calliphon, a Crotoniate by birth, affirmed that this man’s soul conversed with him both night and day, and enjoined him not to pass over a place where an ass had fallen down; as also not to drink of such waters as caused thirst again; and to abstain from all sorts of reproaches.” 1.173. “At the last there passed over a people, wonderful to be beheld; for they spake the Phoenician tongue with their mouths: they dwelt in the Solymean mountains, near a broad lake: their heads were sooty; they had round rasures on them; their heads and faces were like nasty horseheads also, that had been hardened in the smoke.” 1.252. These and the like accounts are written by Manetho. But I will demonstrate that he trifles, and tells arrant lies, after I have made a distinction which will relate to what I am going to say about him; for this Manetho had granted and confessed that this nation was not originally Egyptian, but that they had come from another country, and subdued Egypt, and then went away again out of it. 1.265. and for that priest who settled their polity and their laws,” he says “he was by birth of Heliopolis; and his name was Osarsiph, from Osiris, the god of Heliopolis, but that he changed his name, and called himself Moses.” 2.8. 2. Now, although I cannot but think that I have already demonstrated, and that abundantly, more than was necessary, that our fathers were not originally Egyptians, nor were thence expelled, either on account of bodily diseases, or any other calamities of that sort 2.8. for Apion hath the impudence to pretend, that “the Jews placed an ass’s head in their holy place;” and he affirms that this was discovered when Antiochus Epiphanes spoiled our temple, and found that ass’s head there made of gold, and worth a great deal of money. 2.28. 3. This is that novel account which the Egyptian Apion gives us concerning the Jews’ departure out of Egypt, and is no better than a contrivance of his own. But why should we wonder at the lies he tells us about our forefathers, when he affirms them to be of Egyptian original, when he lies also about himself? 2.28. 40. We have already demonstrated that our laws have been such as have always inspired admiration and imitation into all other men; 2.138. Now, as for our slaughter of tame animals for sacrifices, it is common to us and to all other men; but this Apion, by making it a crime to sacrifice them, demonstrates himself to be an Egyptian; for had he been either a Grecian or a Macedonian [as he pretends to be], he had not shown any uneasiness at it; for those people glory in sacrificing whole hecatombs to the gods, and make use of those sacrifices for feasting; and yet is not the world thereby rendered destitute of cattle, as Apion was afraid would come to pass. 2.202. The law, moreover enjoins us to bring up all our offspring, and forbids women to cause abortion of what is begotten, or to destroy it afterward; and if any woman appears to have so done, she will be a murderer of her child, by destroying a living creature, and diminishing human kind: if any one, therefore, proceeds to such fornication or murder, he cannot be clean. 2.296. but let this and the foregoing book be dedicated to thee, Epaphroditus, who art so great a lover of truth, and by thy means to those that have been in like manner desirous to be acquainted with the affairs of our nation. /p p class="bottomselect artificial"« a href="/j ap/1/wst"J. Ap. 1 /a | a href="/j ap/2/wst"J. Ap. 2 /a (end) | a href="/j ap/0/wst"About This Work /a » /p
7. Josephus Flavius, Life, 16, 382, 427, 126 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 9.1-9.16 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 19.7 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

19.7. וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶת קוֹל ה' אֱלֹהִים מִתְהַלֵּךְ בַּגָּן לְרוּחַ הַיּוֹם (בראשית ג, ח), אָמַר רַבִּי חַלְּפוֹן שָׁמַעְנוּ שֶׁיֵּשׁ הִלּוּךְ לַקּוֹל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶת קוֹל ה' אֱלֹהִים מִתְהַלֵּךְ בַּגָּן, וְהִלּוּךְ לָאֵשׁ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות ט, כג): וַתִּהֲלַךְ אֵשׁ אָרְצָה, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא מְהַלֵּךְ אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא מִתְהַלֵּךְ, מְקַפֵּץ וְעוֹלֶה. עִקַּר שְׁכִינָה בַּתַּחְתּוֹנִים הָיְתָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁחָטָא אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן נִסְתַּלְּקָה שְׁכִינָה לָרָקִיעַ הָרִאשׁוֹן, חָטָא קַיִן נִסְתַּלְּקָה לָרָקִיעַ הַשֵּׁנִי, דּוֹר אֱנוֹשׁ לַשְׁלִישִׁי, דּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל לָרְבִיעִי, דּוֹר הַפְלָגָה לַחֲמִישִׁי, סְדוֹמִיִּים לַשִּׁשִּׁי, וּמִצְרִיִּים בִּימֵי אַבְרָהָם לַשְּׁבִיעִי. וּכְנֶגְדָן עָמְדוּ שִׁבְעָה צַדִּיקִים, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן, אַבְרָהָם יִצְחָק וְיַעֲקֹב לֵוִי קְהָת עַמְרָם משֶׁה, עָמַד אַבְרָהָם וְהוֹרִידָהּ לַשִּׁשִּׁי, עָמַד יִצְחָק וְהוֹרִידָהּ מִן שִׁשִּׁי לַחֲמִישִׁי, עָמַד יַעֲקֹב וְהוֹרִידָהּ מִן הַחֲמִישִׁי לָרְבִיעִי, עָמַד לֵוִי וְהוֹרִידָהּ מִן הָרְבִיעִי לַשְּׁלִישִׁי, עָמַד קְהָת וְהוֹרִידָהּ מִן הַשְּׁלִישִׁי לַשֵּׁנִי, עָמַד עַמְרָם וְהוֹרִידָהּ מִן הַשֵּׁנִי לָרִאשׁוֹן, עָמַד משֶׁה וְהוֹרִידָהּ מִלְּמַעְלָה לְמַטָּה. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק כְּתִיב (תהלים לז, כט): צַדִּיקִים יִירְשׁוּ אָרֶץ וגו', וּרְשָׁעִים מַה יַּעֲשׂוּ פוֹרְחִים בָּאֲוִיר, אֶלָּא הָרְשָׁעִים לֹא הִשְׁכִּינוּ שְׁכִינָה בָּאָרֶץ. 19.7. ... the root/essence of Shekhinah/God’s presence was in the lower ones / `iqar sh’khinah batachtonim haytah."
10. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 1.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.2. רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ פָּתַח (הושע יד, ח): יָשֻׁבוּ ישְׁבֵי בְצִלּוֹ, אֵלּוּ הַגֵּרִים שֶׁבָּאִין וְחוֹסִין בְּצִלּוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, (הושע יד, ח): יְחַיּוּ דָּגָן, נַעֲשׂוּ עִקָּר כְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, כְּמָה דְּתֵימַר (זכריה ט, יז): דְּגַן בַּחוּרִים וְתִירשׁ יְנוֹבֵב בְּתוּלוֹת. (הושע יד, ח): וְיִפְרְחוּ כַגָּפֶן, כְּמָה דְתֵימַר (תהלים פ, ט): גֶּפֶן מִמִּצְרַיִם תַּסִּיעַ תְּגָרֵשׁ גּוֹיִם וַתִּטָּעֶהָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר (הושע יד, ח): יְחַיּוּ דָּגָן, בַּתַּלְמוּד. (הושע יד, ח): וְיִפְרְחוּ כַגָּפֶן, בְּאַגָּדָה. (הושע יד, ח): זִכְרוֹ כְּיֵין לְבָנוֹן, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא חָבִיב עָלַי שְׁמוֹתָם שֶׁל גֵּרִים כְּיֵין נֶסֶךְ שֶׁקָּרֵב לְפָנַי עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ. וְלָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ לְבָנוֹן, עַל שֵׁם (דברים ג, כה): הָהָר הַטּוֹב הַזֶּה וְהַלְּבָנֹן. תָּנֵי רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי, לָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ לְבָנוֹן שֶׁמַּלְבִּין עֲוֹנוֹתֵיהֶם שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּשֶׁלֶג, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (ישעיה א, יח): אִם יִהְיוּ חֲטָאֵיכֶם כַּשָּׁנִים כַּשֶּׁלֶג יַלְבִּינוּ וְאִם יַאְדִּימוּ כַתּוֹלָע כַּצֶּמֶר יִהְיוּ, רַבִּי טַבְיוֹמֵי אָמַר עַל שֵׁם שֶׁכָּל לְבָבוֹת שְׂמֵחִים בּוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים מח, ג): יְפֵה נוֹף מְשׂוֹשׂ כָּל הָאָרֶץ וגו'. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי עַל שֵׁם (מלכים א ט, ג): וְהָיוּ עֵינַי וְלִבִּי שָׁם כָּל הַיָּמִים. 1.2. R’ Abahu opened and said ‘“Those who dwelt in its shade shall return…” (Hoshea 14:8) This refers to the converts who come and take shelter in the shade of the Holy One. “…they shall revive [like] corn…” (ibid.) They will become primary, just as Israel as it says “…Corn [will give strength to] young men, and new wine will cause maids to speak.” (Zechariah 9:17) “…and blossom like the vine…” (Hoshea 14:8) As it says “You uprooted a vine from Egypt; You drove out nations and planted it.” (Tehillim 80:9)’ Another explanation. “…they shall revive [like] corn…” (Hoshea 14:8) in their Talmudic learning, “…and blossom like the vine…” (ibid.) in their aggadic learning. “; it (fragrance) will recall the wine of Lebanon.” (ibid.) The Holy One said ‘the names of converts are beloved to Me like idolatrous wine which was offered before Me on the altar.’ And why is its name Lebanon? Because of the verse “…this good mountain and the Lebanon.” (Devarim 3:25) R’ Shimon bar Yochai taught: why is it called Lebanon, because it bleaches out (malbin) the sins of Israel like snow, as it says “…If your sins prove to be like crimson, they will become white as snow; if they prove to be as red as crimson dye, they shall become as wool.” (Yeshayahu 1:18) R’ Teviyumi said ‘because all hearts (levavot) rejoice in it, as it says “The fairest of branches, the joy of the entire earth- Mount Zion…” (Tehillim 48:3) The Rabbis say ‘because “…and My eyes and My heart (libi) shall be there at all times.” (Melachim I 9:3)"
11. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

12a. דיקא נמי דכתיב (יהושע יד, ו) הקניזי ש"מ,עזובה זו מרים ולמה נקרא שמה עזובה שהכל עזבוה מתחילתה הוליד והלא מינסב הוה נסיב לה א"ר יוחנן כל הנושא אשה לשם שמים מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו ילדה,יריעות שהיו פניה דומין ליריעות,ואלה בניה אל תקרי בניה אלא בוניה ישר שישר את עצמו שובב ששיבב את יצרו וארדון שרדה את יצרו ואיכא דאמרי על שהיו פניה דומין לורד,(דברי הימים א ד, ה) ולאשחור אבי תקוע היו שתי נשים חלאה ונערה אשחור זה כלב ולמה נקרא שמו אשחור שהושחרו פניו בתעניות אבי שנעשה לה כאב תקוע שתקע את לבו לאביו שבשמים,היו שתי נשים נעשה מרים כשתי נשים חלאה ונערה לא חלאה ונערה הואי אלא בתחילה חלאה ולבסוף נערה,(דברי הימים א ד, ז) ובני חלאה צרת וצהר ואתנן צרת שנעשית צרה לחברותיה צהר שהיו פניה דומין כצהרים אתנן שכל הרואה אותה מוליך אתנן לאשתו,(שמות א, כב) ויצו פרעה לכל עמו א"ר יוסי בר' חנינא אף על עמו גזר ואמר ר"י בר' חנינא שלש גזירות גזר בתחילה אם בן הוא והמתן אותו ולבסוף כל הבן הילוד היאורה תשליכוהו ולבסוף אף על עמו גזר,(שמות ב, א) וילך איש מבית לוי להיכן הלך אמר רב יהודה בר זבינא שהלך בעצת בתו,תנא עמרם גדול הדור היה כיון (שראה שאמר) פרעה הרשע כל הבן הילוד היאורה תשליכוהו אמר לשוא אנו עמלין עמד וגירש את אשתו עמדו כולן וגירשו את נשותיהן,אמרה לו בתו אבא קשה גזירתך יותר משל פרעה שפרעה לא גזר אלא על הזכרים ואתה גזרת על הזכרים ועל הנקיבות פרעה לא גזר אלא בעוה"ז ואתה בעוה"ז ולעוה"ב,פרעה הרשע ספק מתקיימת גזירתו ספק אינה מתקיימת אתה צדיק בודאי שגזירתך מתקיימת שנאמר (איוב כב, כח) ותגזר אומר ויקם לך עמד והחזיר את אשתו עמדו כולן והחזירו את נשותיהן,ויקח ויחזור מיבעי ליה א"ר יהודה בר זבינא שעשה לו מעשה ליקוחין הושיבה באפריון ואהרן ומרים מרקדין לפניה ומלאכי השרת אמרו (תהלים קיג, ט) אם הבנים שמחה,את בת לוי אפשר בת מאה ושלשים שנה הויא וקרי לה בת דא"ר חמא בר' חנינא זו יוכבד שהורתה בדרך ולידתה בין החומות שנאמר (במדבר כו, נט) אשר ילדה אותה ללוי במצרים,לידתה במצרים ואין הורתה במצרים א"ר יהודה שנולדו בה סימני נערות,(שמות ב, ב) ותהר האשה ותלד בן והא הות מיעברא ביה תלתא ירחי מעיקרא א"ר יהודה בר זבינא מקיש לידתה להורתה מה הורתה שלא בצער אף לידתה שלא בצער מכאן לנשים צדקניות שלא היו בפיתקה של חוה,(שמות ב, ב) ותרא אותו כי טוב הוא תניא ר"מ אומר טוב שמו ר' יהודה אומר טוביה שמו רבי נחמיה אומר הגון לנביאות אחרים אומרים נולד כשהוא מהול וחכמים אומרים בשעה שנולד משה נתמלא הבית כולו אור כתיב הכא ותרא אותו כי טוב הוא וכתיב התם (בראשית א, ד) וירא אלהים את האור כי טוב,(שמות ב, ב) ותצפנהו שלשה ירחים דלא מנו מצרים אלא משעה דאהדרה והיא הות מיעברא ביה תלתא ירחי מעיקרא,(שמות ב, ג) ולא יכלה עוד הצפינו אמאי תצפניה ותיזיל אלא כל היכא דהוו שמעי מצראי דמתיליד ינוקא ממטו ינוקא התם כי היכי דלישמעינהו ומעוי (בהדיהו) דכתיב (שיר השירים ב, טו) אחזו לנו שועלים שועלים קטנים וגו',(שמות ב, ג) ותקח לו תבת גמא מאי שנא גומא א"ר אלעזר מיכן לצדיקים שממונם חביב עליהן יותר מגופן וכל כך למה לפי שאין פושטין ידיהן בגזל,רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר דבר רך שיכול לעמוד בפני דבר רך ובפני דבר קשה,ותחמרה בחמר ובזפת תנא חמר מבפנים וזפת מבחוץ כדי שלא יריח אותו צדיק ריח רע,ותשם בה את הילד ותשם בסוף רבי אלעזר אומר ים סוף רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר 12a. The Gemara comments: The language of another verse bis also precisebased on this explanation, bas it is written:“And Caleb the son of Jephunneh bthe Kenizzitesaid unto him” (Joshua 14:6). Although his father was Jephunneh, he is known as “the Kenizzite,” although he was not actually a son of Kenaz. The Gemara accepts this proof and states: bConclude from itthat Rava’s explanation is correct.,The verse states: “And Caleb, the son of Hezron, begot children of Azubah his wife, and of Jerioth, and these were her sons: Jesher, and Shobab, and Ardon” (I Chronicles 2:18). The Gemara analyzes the verse: The verse refers to the wife of Caleb by the name bAzubah.The Sages teach that bthisis bMiriam. And why is she called Azubah? As everyone initially abandoned her [ iazavuha /i]and did not want to marry her because she was sickly and unattractive. The verse additionally states: “And Caleb, the son of Hezron, bbegot children [ iholid /i]of Azubah his wife” (I Chronicles 2:18). The Gemara asks: Why use the term “ iholid /i,” begot children? bButdoesn’t this verse state that bhe married her? Rabbi Yoḥa says:This teaches us that with regard to banyone who marries a woman for the sake of Heaven,as he married her due to her righteousness without concern for her appearance, bthe verse ascribes himcredit bas if he gave birth to her. /b,The same verse refers to Miriam additionally as bJerioth,which the Gemara explains was appropriate, bfor her face was likeextremely pallid bcurtains [ iyeriot /i]. /b,The verse continues: b“And these were her sons [ ivaneha /i].”The Gemara explains: bDo not readit as ivaneha /i, her sons; rather,read it as iboneha /i, her builders.In other words, the rest of the names in the verse are not the names of her children, but rather appellations for her husband, whose marriage to her built her, as it were. The first appellation for Caleb, b“Jesher,”is referring to his actions, bas he set himself straight [ iyisher /i]and did not join in the counsel of the spies. The second appellation, b“Shobab,”is referring to the fact bthat he broke [ isibbev /i] hisevil binclinationby rebelling against the other spies. The third appellation, b“and Ardon [ iveArdon /i],”is referring to the fact bthat he ruled [ irada /i]over bhisevil binclination. And some say: Because the faceof his wife Miriam became beautiful blike a rose [ ivered /i]after they were married, she was also called Vardon, due to her rose-like complexion.,The Gemara interprets an additional verse as referring to Caleb. It is stated: b“And Ashhur the father of Tekoa had two wives, Helah and Naarah”(I Chronicles 4:5). bAshhur is Caleb. And why was he called Ashhur? Because his face became blackened [ ihusheḥaru /i] fromthe extensive bfaststhat he accepted upon himself so that he would not be entrapped by the counsel of the spies. b“The father of”is also referring to Caleb, bas he became like a father tohis wife. The next word in the verse, b“Tekoa,”is an additional reference to Caleb, bas he attached [ itaka /i] his heart to his Father in Heaven. /b,The phrase in the verse b“had two wives”actually means it is as if bMiriam became like two wives,because she changed over the course of time. And therefore the two names written in the verse: b“Helah and Naarah,” were nottwo separate women, bHelah and Naarah. Rather, initiallyMiriam was bsickly [ iḥela /i]and forlorn, band ultimatelyshe was healthy and beautiful like ba young woman [ ina’ara /i]. /b,The Gemara expounds the following verse as referring to Miriam: b“And the children of Helah were Zereth [ iTzeret /i] and Zohar and Eth”(I Chronicles 4:7). She was now called b“ iTzeret /i,” for she becameso beautiful that she was like ba rival [ itzara /i] to otherwomen, as they were jealous of her beauty. She is called b“Zohar,” as her faceshined blikethe sun does at bnoon [ itzohorayim /i].She is called b“Eth,” as anyman bthat saw herwould be aroused so much that he bwould bring a gift [ iet /i] to his wifeto entice her.,§ The Gemara returns to the discussion of the bondage in Egypt. b“And Pharaoh charged all his people,saying: Every son that is born you shall cast into the river, and every daughter you shall save alive” (Exodus 1:22). bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says:The use of the phrase “every son that is born” indicates that bhe decreed even on his own nationthat all their male babies must be killed. bAnd Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, saysfurther: bHe decreed three decrees. Initially,he commanded the midwives only with regard to Jewish infants: “You shall look upon the stones. bIf it be a son, then you shall kill him;but if it be a daughter, then she shall live” (Exodus 1:16). bAnd afterward,he decreed with regard to the Jewish infants: b“Every son that is born you shall cast into the river”(Exodus 1:22). bAnd ultimately, he decreed even on his own nationthat Egyptian infant boys should be cast into the river as well.,The verse states: b“And there went a man of the house of Levi,and took for a wife a daughter of Levi” (Exodus 2:1). The Gemara asks: bTo where did he go? Rav Yehuda bar Zevina says: He went according to the advice of his daughterMiriam, as the Gemara will proceed to explain.,A Sage bteaches: Amram,the father of Moses, bwas the great man of his generation. Once he saw that the wicked Pharaoh said: “Every son that is born you shall cast into the river,and every daughter you shall save alive” (Exodus 1:22), bhe said: We are laboring for nothingby bringing children into the world to be killed. Therefore, bhe arose and divorced his wife. Allothers who saw this followed his example and barose and divorced their wives. /b, bHis daughter,Miriam, bsaid to him: Father, your decree is more harshfor the Jewish people bthan that of Pharaoh, as Pharaoh decreed only with regard to the males, but you decreedboth bon the males and on the females.And now no children will be born. Additionally, bPharaoh decreedto kill them bonly in this world, but youdecreed bin this world and in the World-to-Come,as those not born will not enter the World-to-Come.,Miriam continued: Additionally, concerning bPharaoh the wicked,it is buncertainwhether bhis decreewill be bfulfilled,and it is buncertainif his decree will bnotbe bfulfilled. You are a righteous person,and as such, byour decreeswill bcertainlybe bfulfilled, as it is statedwith regard to the righteous: b“You shall also decree a thing, and it shall be established unto you”(Job 22:28). Amram accepted his daughter’s words and barose and brought back,i.e., remarried, bhis wife,and ballothers who saw this followed his example and barose and brought back their wives. /b,The Gemara asks: If Amram remarried Jochebed, rather than say: b“And tookfor a wife a daughter of Levi” (Exodus 2:1), bit should havestated: b“And returnedfor a wife the daughter of Levi.” bRav Yehuda bar Zevina says: He performed an act of marriagejust as one would do for a first marriage. bHe sat her on a palanquin [ iappiryon /i], and Aaron and Miriam danced before her, and the ministering angels said: “A joyful mother of children”(Psalms 113:9).,The verse is referring to Jochebed as b“a daughter of Levi”(Exodus 2:1). The Gemara asks: Is it bpossiblethat this is Jochebed? Jochebed bwasthen b130 years old andthe verse still bcalls her a daughter?Jochebed’s age is established based on a tradition concerning the number of the descendants of Jacob who came to Egypt, as follows: While the verse states that Leah had thirty-three descendants (Genesis 46:15), only thirty-two were enumerated. This was explained bas Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says:The “daughter of Levi” bis Jochebed, whose conception was on the road,as the family of Jacob descended to Egypt, band she was born between the walls,i.e., in Egypt, bas it is stated:“And the name of Amram’s wife was Jochebed, the daughter of Levi, bwho was born to Levi in Egypt”(Numbers 26:59).,This interpolation concerning her birth is interpreted: bHer birthwas bin Egypt, but her conception was not in Egypt.Since the Jewish people were in Egypt for two hundred ten years and Moses was eighty years old at the time of the exodus, Jochebed was one hundred thirty years old when Moses was born. In light of this, the Gemara is asking how the verse can refer to her as a daughter. bRabbi Yehuda says: The signs of a young woman were born in herwhen her husband remarried her, and she became like a young girl again.,§ The verse states concerning Moses: b“And the woman conceived, and bore a son;and when she saw him that he was a goodly child, she hid him three months” (Exodus 2:2). The Gemara asks: bButJochebed bwas pregt withMoses bfor three months at the outset,before Amram remarried her, as will be explained further. bRav Yehuda bar Zevina said:The intention of the verse is to bjuxtapose hergiving bbirth to her becoming pregt. Just as her becoming pregt was without pain, so too, hergiving bbirth was without pain. From hereit is derived bconcerning righteous women that they were not included in the verdict [ ipitkah /i] of Evethat a woman will suffer pain during childbirth (see Genesis 3:16).,The verse states with regard to the birth of Moses: “And the woman conceived, and bore a son; band when she saw him that he was a goodly [ itov /i] child,she hid him three months” (Exodus 2:2). It bis taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Meir says: “Tov” is his,Moses’, real bname,as it was given to him by his parents when he was born. bRabbi Yehuda says: His name was Toviya. Rabbi Neḥemya says:They said he was good because they saw that he was bfit for prophecy. Others say:They said he was good because he was bborn when he wasalready bcircumcised. And the Rabbis say: At the time when Moses was born, the entire house was filled with light,as bit is written here: “And when she saw him that he was a goodly [ itov /i] child,” and it is written there: “And God saw the light, that it was good [ itov /i]”(Genesis 1:4).,The verse continues: b“And she hid him three months”(Exodus 2:2). The Gemara explains that she was able to hide him for three months bbecause the Egyptians countedthe nine months of her pregcy bonly from the timeher husband btook her back, but she was pregt withMoses bfor three months from the outsetof her remarriage.,The next verse states: b“And when she could no longer hide him”(Exodus 2:3). The Gemara asks: bWhycouldn’t she hide him any longer? bLet her continue to hide him. Rather, anywhere that the Egyptians heard that a baby was bornand they wanted to locate the baby, bthey would bringanother bbaby there in order that it could be heardcrying, bandthe two babies bwould cry together, as it is written: “Take us the foxes, the little foxes,that spoil the vineyards; for our vineyards are in blossom” (Song of Songs 2:15). The infants who were used to uncover the hidden babies are referred to as little foxes.,The verse states: “And when she could no longer hide him, bshe took for him an ark of bulrushes,and daubed it with bitumen and with pitch; and she put the child therein, and laid it in the willows by the river’s bank” (Exodus 2:3). The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentabout bbulrushesthat she decided to use them? bRabbi Elazar says: From hereit is derived bconcerning righteous people that their money is more precious to them than their bodies,as she took an inexpensive material to build the ark. bAnd whydo they care bso muchabout their money? bBecause they do not stretch out their hands topartake of bstolen property.Therefore, their own property is very precious to them., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysan alternative reason for her taking bulrushes for the ark: She took ba soft materiallike bulrush, bwhich is able to withstandan impact both bbefore a soft item and before a hard item.She feared that if she would have made the box from a hard material like wood, if it were to collide with a hard item in the water it might break.,The verse continues: b“And daubed it with bitumen and with pitch”(Exodus 2:3). A Sage bteaches:She daubed bbitumen on the interior and pitch on the exterior, so that righteous person,i.e., Moses, bwould not smell a foul odor,such as that of pitch.,The verse continues: b“And she put the child therein, and laid it in the willows [ ibassuf]”(Exodus 2:3). bRabbi Elazar says:This means she placed him bin the Suf Sea,i.e., the Red Sea. bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says: /b
12. Anon., Exodus Rabbah, 1.13 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

1.13. כְּשֶׁרָאָה שֶׁהֵם פָּרִים וְרָבִים, גָּזַר עַל הַזְּכָרִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שמות א, טו): וַיֹּאמֶר מֶלֶךְ מִצְרַיִם לַמְיַלְּדֹת וגו'. מִי הָיוּ הַמְיַלְּדוֹת, רַב אָמַר כַּלָּה וַחֲמוֹתָהּ, יוֹכֶבֶד וֶאֱלִישֶׁבַע בַּת עֲמִינָדָב. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר, אִשָּׁה וּבִתָּהּ, יוֹכֶבֶד וּמִרְיָם. וְלֹא הָיוּ לְמִרְיָם אֶלָּא חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים, שֶׁאַהֲרֹן גָּדוֹל מִמּשֶׁה שָׁלשׁ שָׁנִים. אָמְרוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ זִכְרוֹנָם לִבְרָכָה הוֹלֶכֶת הָיְתָה עִם יוֹכֶבֶד אִמָּהּ וְעוֹשָׂה צְרָכֶיהָ, וְהָיְתָה זְרִיזָה, שֶׁעַד שֶׁהַתִּינוֹק קָטָן הוּא נִכָּר. הוּא שֶׁאָמַר שְׁלֹמֹה (משלי כ, יא): גַּם בְּמַעֲלָלָיו יִתְנַכֶּר נָעַר וגו'. אֲשֶׁר שֵׁם הָאַחַת שִׁפְרָה, שֶׁהָיְתָה מְשַׁפֶּרֶת אֶת הַתִּינוֹק, כְּשֶׁהוּא יוֹצֵא מָלֵא דָּם, פּוּעָה שֶׁהָיְתָה נוֹפַעַת יַיִן בַּתִּינוֹק אַחַר אִמָּהּ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שִׁפְרָה, שֶׁפָּרוּ וְרָבוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל עָלֶיהָ. פּוּעָה, שֶׁהָיְתָה מַפִּיעָה אֶת הַתִּינוֹק כְּשֶׁהָיוּ אוֹמְרִים מֵת. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שִׁפְרָה, שֶׁשִּׁפְּרָה מַעֲשֶׂיהָ לִפְנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר, פּוּעָה, שֶׁהוֹפִיעָה אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאלֹהִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר, פּוּעָה, שֶׁהוֹפִיעָה פָּנִים כְּנֶגֶד פַּרְעֹה, וְזָקְפָה חָטְמָהּ בּוֹ, וְאָמְרָה לוֹ, אוֹי לוֹ לְאוֹתוֹ הָאִישׁ כְּשֶׁיָּבוֹא הָאֱלֹהִים לִפָּרַע מִמֶּנּוּ. נִתְמַלֵּא עָלֶיהָ חֵמָה לְהָרְגָהּ. שִׁפְרָה, שֶׁהָיְתָה מְשַׁפֶּרֶת עַל דִּבְרֵי בִתָּהּ וּמְפַיֶּסֶת עָלֶיהָ. אָמְרָה לוֹ, אַתָּה מַשְׁגִּיחַ עָלֶיהָ, תִּינֹקֶת הִיא וְאֵינָהּ יוֹדַעַת כְּלוּם. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר רַב יִצְחָק אָמַר, שִׁפְרָה, שֶׁהֶעֱמִידָה יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאלֹהִים, שֶׁבִּשְׁבִילָם נִבְרְאוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם, שֶׁכָּתוּב בָּהֶם (איוב כו, יג): בְּרוּחוֹ שָׁמַיִם שִׁפְרָה. פּוּעָה, שֶׁהוֹפִיעָה פָּנִים כְּנֶגֶד אָבִיהָ, שֶׁהָיָה עַמְרָם רֹאשׁ סַנְהֶדְּרִין בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁגָּזַר פַּרְעֹה וְאָמַר (שמות א, כב): כָּל הַבֵּן הַיִּלּוֹד, אָמַר עַמְרָם וְלָרִיק יִשְׂרָאֵל מוֹלִידִים, מִיָּד הוֹצִיא אֶת יוֹכֶבֶד וּפֵרַשׁ עַצְמוֹ מִתַּשְׁמִישׁ הַמִּטָּה, וְגֵרַשׁ אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ כְּשֶׁהִיא מְעֻבֶּרֶת מִשְׁלשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים, עָמְדוּ כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְגֵרְשׁוּ אֶת נְשׁוֹתֵיהֶן. אָמְרָה לוֹ בִּתּוֹ גְּזֵרָתְךָ קָשָׁה מִשֶּׁל פַּרְעֹה, שֶׁפַּרְעֹה לֹא גָזַר אֶלָּא עַל הַזְּכָרִים, וְאַתָּה עַל הַזְּכָרִים וּנְקֵבוֹת. פַּרְעֹה רָשָׁע הוּא וּגְזֵרָתוֹ סָפֵק מִתְקַיֶּמֶת סָפֵק אֵינָהּ מִתְקַיֶּמֶת, אֲבָל אַתָּה צַדִּיק וּגְזֵרָתְךָ מִתְקַיֶּמֶת. עָמַד הוּא וְהֶחֱזִיר אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ, עָמְדוּ כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהֶחֱזִירוּ נְשׁוֹתֵיהֶם. הֱוֵי פּוּעָה, שֶׁהוֹפִיעָה פָּנִים כְּנֶגֶד אָבִיהָ. 1.13. And the king of Egypt said to the midwives, etc. Who are the midwives. Rav says a woman and her daughter in law - Yocheved and Elisheva bat Aminadav. And Rabi Shmuel bar Nachman says a woman and her daughter Yocheved and Miriam. That one of their names was Shifra - she beautified the baby when it would come out full of blood. Puah - that she squirted wine into the babies mouth after it came out of its mother. Another thing, Shifra: that B\"Y were fruitful and multiplied under her. Puah: that she would cause the newborn to cry out when it was thought to be stillborn. Another thing, Shifra that she beautified her actions before Hashem Another thing, Puah - that she appeared to B\"Y for Hashem - she taught B\"Y. Puah - she was insolent (hofi’ah panim) toward Pharaoh and looked down her nose at him. She told him: “Woe to you on the day of judgment, when God will come to demand punishment of you.” Pharaoh immediately became enraged and wanted to kill her. Shifra, that she beautified her daughters words to Paraoh and mollified him and said to him: “Do you take notice of her? She is a baby, and knows nothing” (Ex. Rabbah, loc. cit.). Rav Chanina the son of Rav Yitzchak said: Shifra: that she supported Yisrael for Hashem that for them the world was created that it says, By His breath He made the heavens. In another midrashic account, she was called Puah because of her insolence which, in this depiction, was directed against her father Amram. When Pharaoh ordered the Israelite boys to be cast into the Nile, Amram said: “Shall an Israelite lie with his wife for nothing?” He immediately separated from Jochebed and divorced her. When the Israelites saw this action by Amram, who was the head of the Sanhedrin at the time, they also divorced their wives. Puah told her father: “Father, your decree is harsher than that of Pharaoh! He only decreed against the males, but you have decreed against both the males and the females. It is doubtful whether the decree of the wicked Pharaoh will come to pass, but you are righteous, and so your decree will be fulfilled.” Amram immediately took back his wife, and following his lead, all the other Israelite men did the same. Miriam was accordingly given the name of Puah, since she was insolent (hofi’ah panim) to her father."
13. Anon., Numbers Rabba, 13.2 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

13.2. וַיְהִי הַמַּקְרִיב וגו', הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שיר השירים ד, טז): עוּרִי צָפוֹן וּבוֹאִי תֵימָן וגו', הָיָה רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר אֵימָתַי הִתְחִילוּ מִלּוּאִים, בְּעֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁלשָׁה בַּאֲדָר, וּבְאֶחָד בְּנִיסָן שָׁלְמוּ יְמֵי הַמִּלּוּאִים, וְכָל שִׁבְעַת יְמֵי הַמִּלּוּאִים הָיָה משֶׁה מַעֲמִיד אֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן, וְכָל בֹּקֶר וָבֹקֶר מַקְרִיב קָרְבְּנוֹתָיו עָלָיו וּפֵרְקוֹ, בַּשְּׁמִינִי הֶעֱמִידוֹ וְלֹא פֵּרְקוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות מ, יז): וַיְהִי בַּחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן בַּשָּׁנָה הַשֵּׁנִית בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הוּקַם הַמִּשְׁכָּן, וְאוֹתוֹ יוֹם שְׁמִינִי אֶחָד בְּשַׁבָּת הָיָה וְרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ שֶׁל נִיסָן הָיָה, בּוֹ בַיּוֹם עָמַד אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו וְרָחֲצוּ יְדֵיהֶם וְרַגְלֵיהֶם מִן הַכִּיּוֹר, עָבְדוּ אֶת עֲבוֹדָתָם וּסְדָרוּם עַל הַסֵּדֶר, בּוֹ בַיּוֹם הִקְרִיבוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל תְּמִידִים, נְדָרִים וּנְדָבוֹת, חַטָּאוֹת וַאֲשָׁמוֹת, בְּכוֹרוֹת וּמַעְשְׂרוֹת, עַל אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם הוּא אוֹמֵר: עוּרִי צָפוֹן וּבוֹאִי תֵימָן וגו'. עוּרִי צָפוֹן, זוֹ עוֹלָה שֶׁנִּשְׁחֶטֶת בַּצָּפוֹן. וּבוֹאִי תֵימָן, אֵלּוּ שְׁלָמִים שֶׁנִּשְׁחָטִים בַּדָּרוֹם. (שיר השירים ד, טז): הָפִיחִי גַנִי, זֶה אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד. יִזְלוּ בְשָׂמָיו, זֶה קְטֹרֶת הַסַּמִּים. (שיר השירים ד, טז): יָבֹא דוֹדִי לְגַנּוֹ, זֶה הַשְּׁכִינָה. וְיֹאכַל פְּרִי מְגָדָיו, אֵלּוּ הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת. (שיר השירים ה, א): בָּאתִי לְגַנִּי אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה, זֶה יוֹם שְׁמִינִי. אָרִיתִי מוֹרִי עִם בְּשָׂמִי, זֶה לְבוֹנַת הַקְּטֹרֶת וּלְבוֹנַת הַמִּנְחָה. אָכַלְתִּי יַעֲרִי עִם דִּבְשִׁי, זֶה אֵבְרֵי הָעוֹלָה וְאֵמוּרֵי קָדְשֵׁי קֳדָשִׁים. שָׁתִיתִי יֵינִי עִם חֲלָבִי, אֵלּוּ הַנְּסָּכִים וְאֵמוּרֵי קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים. אִכְלוּ רֵעִים, זֶה משֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן. שְׁתוּ וְשִׁכְרוּ דוֹדִים, זֶה כְּנֶסֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר וְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא, רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר שְׁלָמִים הִקְרִיבוּ בְּנֵי נֹחַ. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא אָמַר עוֹלוֹת הִקְרִיבוּ בְּנֵי נֹחַ. מְתִיב רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר לְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא וְהָא כְתִיב (בראשית ד, ד): וְהֶבֶל הֵבִיא גַּם הוּא מִבְּכֹרוֹת צֹאנוֹ וּמֵחֶלְבֵהֶן, דָּבָר שֶׁחֶלְבּוֹ קָרֵב, מָה עָבֵד לָהּ רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא, מִן שַׁמְנֵיהוֹן. מְתִיב רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר לְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא (שמות כד, ה): וַיִּשְׁלַח אֶת נַעֲרֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲלוּ עֹלֹת וַיִּזְבְּחוּ זְבָחִים שְׁלָמִים לַה' פָּרִים, מָה עָבֵד לָהּ רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא, שְׁלֵמִים בְּעוֹרָן בְּלֹא הֶפְשֵׁט וּבְלֹא נִתּוּחַ. מְתִיב רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר לְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר חֲנִינָא הָא כְתִיב (שמות יח, יב): וַיִּקַּח יִתְרוֹ חֹתֵן משֶׁה עֹלָה וּזְבָחִים, עוֹלָה, זוֹ עוֹלָה, זְבָחִים, אֵלּוּ זִבְחֵי שְׁלָמִים, מָה עָבֵד לָהּ רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא, כְּמַאן דְּאָמַר לְאַחַר מַתַּן תּוֹרָה בָּא יִתְרוֹ. רַב אָמַר אִתְפַּלְגוּן רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר וְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר חֲנִינָא, חַד אָמַר קֹדֶם מַתַּן תּוֹרָה בָּא יִתְרוֹ, וְאַחֲרִינָא אָמַר לְאַחַר מַתַּן תּוֹרָה בָּא יִתְרוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי חָמָא אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא מַאן דְּאָמַר קֹדֶם מַתַּן תּוֹרָה בָּא יִתְרוֹ, כְּמַאן דְּאָמַר שְׁלָמִים הִקְרִיבוּ, וּמַאן דְּאָמַר לְאַחַר מַתַּן תּוֹרָה בָּא יִתְרוֹ כְּמַאן דְּאָמַר עוֹלוֹת הִקְרִיבוּ. הָדָא מְסַיְּעָא לְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא, עוּרִי צָפוֹן, זוֹ עוֹלָה שֶׁנִּשְׁחֲטָה בַּצָּפוֹן, מַהוּ עוּרִי, דָּבָר שֶׁהָיָה יָשֵׁן וְנִתְעוֹרֵר. וּבוֹאִי תֵימָן, אֵלּוּ שְׁלָמִים שֶׁהֵם נִשְׁחָטִים בַּדָּרוֹם. מַהוּ וּבוֹאִי, דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא בָּא לְחַדֵּשׁ. רַבִּי אַבָּא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי פַּפֵּי וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר, אַף הָדֵין קְרָיָה מְסַיַּע לֵיהּ לְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא (ויקרא ו, ב): זֹאת תּוֹרַת הָעֹלָה הִוא הָעֹלָה, שֶׁהִקְרִיבוּ בְּנֵי נֹחַ כִּדְאָתֵי לַשְּׁלָמִים. (ויקרא ז, יא): זֹאת תּוֹרַת זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים, אֲשֶׁר הִקְרִיבוּ, אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא אֲשֶׁר יַקְרִיבוּ, מִכָּאן וּלְהַבָּא. בַּמֶּה מְקַיֵּם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר קְרָיָה דְּרַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא עוּרִי צָפוֹן וּבוֹאִי תֵימָן, פָּתַר לֵיהּ בַּגָּלֻיּוֹת, עוּרִי צָפוֹן, לִכְשֶׁיִּתְעוֹרְרוּ הַגָּלֻיּוֹת שֶׁהֵן נְתוּנוֹת בַּצָּפוֹן, יָבֹאוּ וְיַחֲנוּ בַּדָּרוֹם. לִכְשֶׁיִּתְעוֹרֵר גּוֹג שֶׁהוּא נָתוּן בַּצָּפוֹן יָבוֹא וְיִפֹּל בַּדָּרוֹם, (יחזקאל לט, ב): וְשֹׁבַבְתִּיךָ וְשִׁשֵּׁאתִיךָ וְהַעֲלִיתִיךָ מִיַּרְכְּתֵי צָפוֹן, לִכְשֶׁיִּתְעוֹרֵר מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ שֶׁהוּא נָתוּן בַּצָּפוֹן, יָבוֹא וְיִבְנֶה אֶת בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ שֶׁהוּא נָתוּן בַּדָּרוֹם, כְּמָא דְאַתְּ אָמַר (ישעיה מא, כה): הַעִירוֹתִי מִצָּפוֹן וַיַּאת וגו'. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עוּרִי צָפוֹן, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָרוּחוֹת עֲתִידוֹת לְהַכְנִיס קִנְאָה זוֹ עִם זוֹ, רוּחַ הַדָּרוֹם אוֹמֶרֶת אֲנִי מְבִיאָה גָּלוּת תֵּימָן וְגָלוּת הַגְרָה וְכָל הַדָּרוֹם, וְרוּחַ צָפוֹן אוֹמֶרֶת אֲנִי מְבִיאָה גָּלוּת צָפוֹן, וְהַמָּקוֹם נוֹתֵן שָׁלוֹם בֵּינֵיהֶם וְהֵם נִכְנָסוֹת בְּפֶתַח אֶחָד, לְקַיֵּם מַה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה מג, ו): אֹמַר לַצָּפוֹן תֵּנִי וּלְתֵימָן אַל תִּכְלָאִי הָבִיאִי בָנַי מֵרָחוֹק וגו'. רַבִּי חוֹנְיָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי בִּנְיָמִין בַּר לֵוִי אָמַר, לְפִי שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה כְּשֶׁרוּחַ צְפוֹנִית מְנַשֶּׁבֶת אֵין רוּחַ דְּרוֹמִית מְנַשֶּׁבֶת, אֲבָל לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֲנִי מֵבִיא רוּחַ אָגְרֶסְטֵים לָעוֹלָם וּשְׁתֵּי הָרוּחוֹת מְשַׁמְשׁוֹת בּוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: אֹמַר לַצָּפוֹן תֵּנִי וגו'. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עוּרִי צָפוֹן וגו', לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא עָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַעֲשׂוֹת סְעוּדָה לַצַּדִּיקִים בַּגַּן עֵדֶן וְאֵין צְרִיכִין לֹא בְּפַלְסָמוֹן וְלֹא רָאשֵׁי בְּשָׂמִים אֶלָּא רוּחַ צָפוֹן וְרוּחַ דָּרוֹם מְכַבְּדוֹת וְזוֹחֲלוֹת כָּל בֻּסְמָנֵי גַּן עֵדֶן וְנוֹתְנִים רֵיחָם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שיר השירים ד, טז): הָפִיחִי גַנִי, זֶה כִּבּוּד הַגַּן, יִזְלוּ בְשָׂמָיו, זֶה זִלּוּף. יָבֹא דוֹדִי לְגַנּוֹ, אוֹמְרִים יִשְׂרָאֵל לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וְכִי יֵשׁ בַּעַל הַבַּיִת שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה סְעוּדָה לָאוֹרְחִים וְלֹא יִהְיֶה מֵיסֵב עִמָּהֶם, יֵשׁ חָתָן עוֹשֶׂה סְעוּדָה לַמְּקֹרָאִים וְלֹא יֵשֵׁב עִמָּהֶם, אִם רְצוֹנְךָ יָבֹא דוֹדִי לְגַנּוֹ וְיֹאכַל פְּרִי מְגָדָיו. אָמַר לָהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵינִי עוֹשֶׂה כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאַתֶּם מְבַקְּשִׁים, בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בָּא לְגַן עֵדֶן, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שיר השירים ה, א): בָּאתִי לְגַנִּי אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה וגו', אֲחֹתִי שֶׁנִּתְאֲחוּ לִי בַּגָּלוּת, כַּלָּה שֶׁנִּתְכַּלּוּ בַּגָּלוּת, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (תהלים מד, כג): כִּי עָלֶיךָ הֹרַגְנוּ כָל הַיּוֹם וגו', לְפִיכָךְ עָתִיד לִקְרוֹתָם אֲחֹתִי, שֶׁיִּהְיוּ אֲחוּיִים אֶצְלוֹ, כַּלָּה, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (איכה ב, טו): כְּלִילַת יֹפִי, וְאוֹמֵר (ישעיה סא, טו): וְכַכַּלָּה תַּעְדֶּה כֵלֶיהָ, וְאוֹמֵר (ישעיה מט, יח): וּתְקַשְׁרִים כַּכַּלָּה. (שיר השירים ה, א): אָרִיתִי מוֹרִי עִם בְּשָׂמִי, שֶׁנִּתְמָרְרוּ בַּגָּלוּת וְהָיוּ מְבַשְֹּׂמִים עַצְמָם בְּקִדּוּשׁ שֵׁם שָׁמַיִם, לְכָךְ עָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְעַנְגָם בְּגַן עֵדֶן וּלְקַטֵּר לִפְנֵיהֶם מִכָּל הַבְּשָׂמִים. (שיר השירים ה, א): אָכַלְתִּי יַעְרִי עִם דִּבְשִׁי, לְפִי שֶׁהֶעֱרוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל נַפְשָׁם לְמִיתָה בַּגָּלוּת, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (ישעיה נג, יב): תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱרָה לַמָּוֶת נַפְשׁוֹ, וְהָיוּ עוֹסְקִים בַּתּוֹרָה הַמְתוּקָה מִדְּבָשׁ, לְפִיכָךְ עָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהַשְׁקוֹתָם יַיִן הַמְשֻׁמָּר בַּעֲנָבָיו מִשֵּׁשֶׁת יְמֵי בְרֵאשִׁית, וּלְהַרְחִיצָם בְּנַחֲלֵי חָלָב. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל שֵׁם (יואל ד, יח): וְהָיָה בַיּוֹם הַהוּא יִטְּפוּ הֶהָרִים עָסִיס וְהַגְּבָעוֹת תֵּלַכְנָה חָלָב וגו'. (שיר השירים ה, א): אִכְלוּ רֵעִים, אֵלּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁעָשׂוּ רְצוֹנוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בַּגָּלוּת וְלֹא רָצוּ לְהִתְעָרֵב בָּאֻמּוֹת, אֶלָּא שָׁמְרוּ בְּרִיתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אִכְלוּ רֵעִים, אֵלּוּ בַּעֲלֵי מִצְווֹת. שְׁתוּ וְשִׁכְרוּ דוֹדִים, אֵלוּ חַכְמֵי תוֹרָה. וְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר חָמָא דָּרִישׁ לֵיהּ לְהַאי קְרָיָה כֻּלּוֹ עוּרִי צָפוֹן, בַּמִּשְׁכָּן. עוּרִי צָפוֹן וּבוֹאִי תֵימָן, אֵלּוּ עוֹלוֹת וּשְׁלָמִים, שֶׁהָעוֹלוֹת נִשְׁחָטוֹת בַּצָּפוֹן, וְהַשְּׁלָמִים בַּדָּרוֹם. הָפִיחִי גַנִּי, זֶה הַמִּשְׁכָּן, מַהוּ גַנִּי, גְּנוּנִי. מָה הַכִּילָה הַזֹּאת מְצֻיֶּרֶת בְּמִינֵי צִבְעוֹנִים, כָּךְ הָיָה הַמִּשְׁכָּן מְצֻיָּר בְּמִינֵי צִבְעוֹנִין, (שמות כו, לא לו): תְּכֵלֶת וְאַרְגָּמָן וְתוֹלַעַת שָׁנִי וְשֵׁשׁ מָשְׁזָר. יִזְלוּ בְשָׂמָיו, זֶה הַקְּטֹרֶת. יָבֹא דוֹדִי לְגַנּוֹ, אָמַר רַבִּי חוֹנְיָא לִמְדָתְךָ הַתּוֹרָה דֶּרֶךְ אֶרֶץ, שֶׁלֹא יְהֵא הֶחָתָן נִכְנַס לַחֻפָּה עַד שֶׁהַכַּלָּה נוֹתֶנֶת לוֹ רְשׁוּת, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב יָבֹא דוֹדִי לְגַנּוֹ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ בָּאתִי לְגַנִּי. רַבִּי עֲזַרְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן רַבִּי סִימוֹן מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁכָּעַס עַל מַטְרוֹנָה וּטְרָדָהּ וְהוֹצִיאָהּ מִתּוֹךְ פַּלְטֵרִין שֶׁלּוֹ, לְאַחַר זְמָן בִּקֵּשׁ לְהַחֲזִירָהּ, אָמְרָה יְחַדֵּשׁ לִי דָבָר וְאַחַר כָּךְ הוּא מַחֲזִירֵנִי. כָּךְ לְשֶׁעָבַר הָיָה אָדָם שָׁרוּי בְּגַן עֵדֶן בְּמַחֲנֵה הַשְּׁכִינָה, כָּעַס עָלָיו הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וְגֵרְשׁוֹ מִמְּחִצָּתוֹ, כְּשֶׁיָּצְאוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּצְרַיִם בִּקֵּשׁ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהַחֲזִיר יִשְׂרָאֵל לִמְחִצָּתוֹ, וְאָמַר לָהֶם שֶׁיַּעֲשׂוּ לוֹ מִשְׁכָּן וְיִשְׁכֹּן בְּתוֹכָם, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (שמות כה, ח): וְעָשׂוּ לִי מִקְדָּשׁ וגו', אָמְרוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל יְחַדֵּשׁ לָנוּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא דָּבָר אֶחָד שֶׁהוּא חָפֵץ לְהַחֲזִירֵנוּ אֶצְלוֹ, מַה הוּא הַחִדּוּשׁ, לְשֶׁעָבַר הָיָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְקַבֵּל קָרְבָּנוֹת מִלְּמַעְלָן (בראשית ח, כא): וַיָּרַח ה' אֶת רֵיחַ הַנִּיחֹחַ, וְעַכְשָׁו יִהְיֶה מְקַבֵּל קָרְבָּנוֹת מִלְּמַטָּן, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: יָבֹא דוֹדִי לְגַנּוֹ, זוֹ הַשְּׁכִינָה. וְיֹאכַל פְּרִי מְגָדָיו, אֵלּוּ הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת. בָּאתִי לְגַנִּי אֲחוֹתִי כַלָּה, לְמָה הַדָּבָר דּוֹמֶה לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁאָמַר לִבְנֵי הַמְדִינָה שֶׁיִּבְנוּ פַּלְטָר, וּבָנוּ אוֹתוֹ, וְהָיוּ בְּנֵי הַמְדִינָה עוֹמְדִים עַל פֶּתַח פַּלְטָר וּמְצַעֲקִים וְאוֹמְרִים, יִכָּנֵס הַמֶּלֶךְ לַפַּלְטָר, מֶה עָשָׂה נִכְנַס בַּפִּשְׁפֵּשׁ וְשָׁלַח לָהֶם הַכָּרוֹז אַל תִּצְעֲקוּ שֶׁכְּבָר בָּאתִי לַפַּלְטָר. כָּךְ כְּשֶׁעָמַד הַמִּשְׁכָּן הָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹמְרִים, יָבֹא דוֹדִי לְגַנּוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁמְלֶאכֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן נִגְמְרָה בְּעֶשְׂרִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה בְּכִסְלֵו, וְעָמַד הַמִּשְׁכָּן מְקֻפָּל עַד רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ נִיסָן, וְהָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹמְרִים הֲרֵי עָשִׂינוּ הַמִּשְׁכָּן מָתַי תָּבוֹא הַשְּׁכִינָה וְתִשְׁרֶה בְּתוֹךְ מַעֲשֵׂה יָדֵינוּ. כְּשֶׁהִגִּיעַ רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ נִיסָן וְצִוָּה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהָקִים אֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן, שָׁלַח לָהֶם עַל יְדֵי משֶׁה מָה אַתֶּם יְרֵאִים, כְּבָר בָּאתִי לְגַנִּי אֲחוֹתִי כַלָּה. אָמַר רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בְּרַבִּי יוֹסֵי, בָּאתִי לַגַּן, אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא בָּאתִי לְגַנִּי, לִגְנוּנִי, לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁהוּא עִקָּרִי מִתְּחִלָּה, וְכִי עִקַּר שְׁכִינָה אֵינָהּ בַּתַּחְתּוֹנִים הָיְתָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ג, ח): וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶת קוֹל ה' אֱלֹהִים מִתְהַלֵּךְ בַּגָּן לְרוּחַ הַיּוֹם, אָמַר רַבִּי חָמָא בַּר כַּהֲנָא, מְהַלֵּךְ, אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא מִתְהַלֵּךְ בַּגָּן, מְקַפֵּץ וְעוֹלֶה. מַהוּ (בראשית ג, ח): וַיִּתְחַבֵּא הָאָדָם וְאִשְׁתּוֹ, אָמַר רַבִּי אַיְּבוּ בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה גָּרְעָה קוֹמָתוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן וְנַעֲשֵׂית שֶׁל מֵאָה אַמָּה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁחָטָא אָדָם נִסְתַּלְּקָה הַשְּׁכִינָה לָרָקִיעַ הָרִאשׁוֹן, חָטָא קַיִן נִסְתַּלְּקָה לָרָקִיעַ הַשֵּׁנִי, חָטְאוּ דּוֹר אֱנוֹשׁ נִסְתַּלְּקָה לָרָקִיעַ הַשְּׁלִישִׁי, חָטְאוּ דּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל נִסְתַּלְּקָה לָרָקִיעַ הָרְבִיעִי, חָטְאוּ דּוֹר הַפְלָגָה נִסְתַּלְּקָה לָרָקִיעַ הַחֲמִישִׁי, חָטְאוּ הַסְּדוֹמִיִּים נִסְתַּלְּקָה לָרָקִיעַ הַשִּׁשִּׁי, חָטְאוּ הַמִּצְרִיִּים נִסְתַּלְּקָה לָרָקִיעַ הַשְּׁבִיעִי. וּכְנֶגְדָן עָמְדוּ שִׁבְעָה צַדִּיקִים וְהוֹרִידוּ אֶת הַשְּׁכִינָה מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים לַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן: אַבְרָהָם הוֹרִידָהּ מִן הַשְּׁבִיעִי לַשִּׁשִּׁי, יִצְחָק הוֹרִידָהּ מִן הַשִּׁשִּׁי לַחֲמִישִׁי, יַעֲקֹב הוֹרִידָהּ מִן הַחֲמִישִׁי לָרְבִיעִי, לֵוִי הוֹרִידָהּ מִן הָרְבִיעִי לַשְּׁלִישִׁי, קְהָת הוֹרִידָהּ מִן הַשְּׁלִישִׁי לַשֵּׁנִי, עַמְרָם הוֹרִידָהּ מִן הַשֵּׁנִי לָרִאשׁוֹן, משֶׁה הוֹרִידָהּ מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים לַתַּחְתּוֹנִים. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק כְּתִיב (תהלים לז, כט): צַדִּיקִים יִרְשׁוּ אָרֶץ וְיִשְׁכְּנוּ לָעַד עָלֶיהָ, הָרְשָׁעִים בַּמֶּה יִשְׁכְּנוּ, בָּאֲוִיר אֶלָּא, הָרְשָׁעִים סִלְּקוּ הַשְּׁכִינָה מִן הָאָרֶץ, אֲבָל הַצַּדִּיקִים הִשְׁכִּינוּ הַשְּׁכִינָה בָּאָרֶץ, אֵימָתַי שָׁרְתָה הַשְּׁכִינָה בָּאָרֶץ, בַּיּוֹם שֶׁהוּקַם הַמִּשְׁכָּן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות מ, לד): וַיְכַס הֶעָנָן אֶת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וּכְבוֹד ה' מָלֵא אֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן. (שיר השירים ה, א): אָרִיתִי מוֹרִי עִם בְּשָׂמִי, זוֹ הַלְּבוֹנָה וְהַקְּטֹרֶת. אָכַלְתִּי יַעְרִי עִם דִּבְשִׁי, אֵלּוּ אֵבְרֵי עוֹלָה וְאֵמוּרֵי קָדְשֵׁי הַקֳּדָשִׁים. שָׁתִיתִי יֵינִי עִם חֲלָבִי, אֵלּוּ הַמְנָחוֹת וְהַנְּסָכִים. אִכְלוּ רֵעִים, זֶה משֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן. שְׁתוּ וְשִׁכְרוּ דוֹדִים, זֶה נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּכְּרוּ בְּצָרָתָן. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אִכְלוּ רֵעִים, אֵלּוּ הַנְּשִׂיאִים, אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹסָנְיָה לָמָּה קָרָא לַנְּשִׂיאִים רֵעִים, שֶׁמִּכֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיָה אֶחָד מֵהֶם מַקְרִיב קָרְבָּן וְקָרְבָּנוֹ מִתְקַבֵּל, הָיָה עוֹשֶׂה יוֹם טוֹב לְאוֹהֲבָיו לְרֵעָיו וְלִקְרוֹבָיו. שְׁתוּ וְשִׁכְרוּ דּוֹדִים, אֵלּוּ הַנְּשִׂיאִים. לָמָּה קָרֵי לְהוּ דּוֹדִים, שֶׁהָיוּ דּוֹדִים אֵלּוּ לָאֵלּוּ. לָמָּה אָמַר לָהֶם אִכְלוּ רֵעִים שְׁתוּ וְשִׁכְרוּ דּוֹדִים, אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁעָשָׂה סְעוּדָה וְהִזְמִין אוֹרְחִים כֵּיוָן שֶׁאָכְלוּ וְשָׁתוּ אָמַר לָהֶם תְּנוּ אֶת הַמָּנָה הַזֹּאת לְבַעַל הַבַּיִת, אַף הָכָא בָּאתִי לְגַנִּי אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה, וְאַף אַתֶּם אִכְלוּ רֵעִים שְׁתוּ וְשִׁכְרוּ דּוֹדִים. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁעָשָׂה סְעוּדָה וְהִזְמִין אוֹרְחִים וְנָח הַשֶּׁרֶץ לְתוֹךְ הַתַּמְחוּי וּפָשַׁט הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת יָדוֹ וּפָשְׁטוּ הַכֹּל אֶת יְדֵיהֶם, שֶׁאִלּוּ מָשַׁךְ הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת יָדוֹ מָשְׁכוּ הַכֹּל אֶת יְדֵיהֶם. אָמַר רַבִּי יַנַּאי מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁעָשָׂה סְעוּדָה וְהִזְמִין אוֹרְחִים וְהָיְתָה עֵינוֹ יָפָה בָּאוֹרְחִים וְהָיָה מְחַזֵּר עֲלֵיהֶם וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶם יֶעֱרַב לָכֶם יִבְסַם לָכֶם. דָּבָר אַחֵר אָרִיתִי מוֹרִי וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹסָנְיָה שְׁלשָׁה דְבָרִים כָּתוּב כָּאן: אָרִיתִי מוֹרִי עִם בְּשָׂמִי, אָכַלְתִּי יַעְרִי עִם דִּבְשִׁי, שָׁתִיתִי יֵינִי עִם חֲלָבִי, כְּנֶגֶד שְׁלשָׁה דְבָרִים שֶׁעָשׂוּ הַנְּשִׂיאִים שֶׁלֹא כְּהֹגֶן וְקִבְּלָם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן: בְּכָל מָקוֹם אֵין הַיָּחִיד מִתְנַדֵּב בַּקְּטֹרֶת, וְהַנְּשִׂיאִים הֵבִיאוּ, (במדבר ז, יד): כַּף אַחַת עֲשָׂרָה זָהָב מְלֵאָה קְטֹרֶת. בְּכָל מָקוֹם אֵין הַיָּחִיד מֵבִיא חַטָּאת אֶלָּא אַחַר יְדִיעַת חֶטְאוֹ, וְאֵלּוּ הֵבִיאוּ שָׂעִיר שֶׁלֹא בְּחֵטְא. בְּכָל מָקוֹם אֵין קָרְבַּן יָחִיד דּוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת, וְכָאן קָרְבַּן יָחִיד דּוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת. הָא לָמַדְנוּ כַּמָּה קָרְבַּן נְשִׂיאִים חָבִיב לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא. 13.2. בַּיּוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי נָשִׂיא לִבְנֵי גָד אֶלְיָסָף בֶּן דְּעוּאֵל (במדבר ז, מב), לְפִי שֶׁשִּׁמְעוֹן לָקַח חַרְבּוֹ וְהָלַךְ וְעָשָׂה מִלְחָמָה עִם אַנְשֵׁי שְׁכֶם בִּשְׁבִיל אֲחוֹתוֹ, וּבְנֵי גָד עָבְרוּ אֶת הַיַּרְדֵּן לַעֲזֹר לַאֲחֵיהֶם לִירַשׁ אֶת הָאָרֶץ, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (דברים לג, כא): צִדְקַת ה' עָשָׂה וּמִשְׁפָּטָיו עִם יִשְׂרָאֵל, לְכָךְ זָכָה וְהִקְרִיב אַחַר שִׁמְעוֹן. (במדבר ז, מג): קָרְבָּנוֹ קַעֲרַת כֶּסֶף אַחַת וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה כְּנֶגֶד יְצִיאַת מִצְרַיִם הִקְרִיב נְשִׂיא גָד, וְלָמָּה כֵן, לְפִי שֶׁבֵּרְכוֹ אָבִיו בִּגְדוּדִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית מט, יט): גָּד גְּדוּד יְגוּדֶנּוּ וְהוּא יָגֻד עָקֵב, וְדָבָר זֶה אָמַר יַעֲקֹב עַל מַה שֶּׁהָיָה עָתִיד לַעֲבֹר חָלוּץ לַמִּלְחָמָה אֶת הַיַּרְדֵּן, כְּמָה דְּתֵימָא (במדבר לב, כז): וַעֲבָדֶיךָ יַעַבְרוּ כָּל חֲלוּץ צָבָא לִפְנֵי ה' לַמִּלְחָמָה וגו', וּבִיצִיאַת מִצְרַיִם כְּתִיב צָבָא, כְּמָה דְּתֵימָא (שמות יב, מא): יָצְאוּ כָּל צִבְאוֹת ה' וגו', וְנֶאֱמַר בָּהֶם (שמות יג, יח): וַחֲמֻשִׁים עָלוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וגו', הוּא חֲמֻשִׁים הוּא חֲלוּצִים, וּלְיוֹצְאֵי מִצְרַיִם נֶחְלְקָה הָאָרֶץ, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (שמות ו, ח): וְנָתַתִּי אֹתָהּ לָכֶם מוֹרָשָׁה אֲנִי ה'. וּבְנֵי גָד סִיְּעוּ לָהֶם עַד שֶׁנִּכְבְּשָׁה הָאָרֶץ וְנֶחְלְקָה לְכֻלָּם, לְפִיכָךְ הִקְרִיב נָשִׂיא שֶׁלָּהֶם עַל יְצִיאַת מִצְרָיִם. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה, הִתְחִיל לְהַקְרִיב קָרְבָּנוֹ כְּנֶגֶד מַה שֶּׁאֵרַע לָהֶם מִיּוֹם שֶׁיָּרְדוּ יַעֲקֹב וּבָנָיו לְמִצְרַיִם עַד שֶׁיָּצְאוּ, הֲדָא הוּא דִּכְתִיב: קָרְבָּנוֹ קַעֲרַת כֶּסֶף אַחַת, כְּנֶגֶד יוֹכֶבֶד אֵם משֶׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בָּהּ (שמות ב, א): וַיֵּלֶךְ אִישׁ מִבֵּית לֵוִי וַיִּקַּח אֶת בַּת לֵוִי, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁגֵּרְשָׁהּ עַמְרָם וְחָזַר וּלְקָחָהּ, וּלְכָךְ הִקְרִיב קְעָרָה שֶׁלֹא תִּקְרֵי קַעֲרַת, אֶלָּא קְרַעַת, לְפִי שֶׁנִּקְרַעַת מִמֶּנּוּ, אֲתוֹיֵי דְּדֵין הוּא אֲתוֹיֵי דְּדֵין. כֶּסֶף אַחַת, שֶׁנִּתְאַוָּה עַמְרָם לְהַחֲזִירָהּ לְאִשָּׁה עַל יְדֵי מִרְיָם אֲחוֹת אַהֲרֹן, וּלְכָךְ כְּתִיב כֶּסֶף, עַל שֵׁם הַתַּאֲוָה, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (תהלים פד, ג): נִכְסְפָה וְגַם כָּלְתָה נַפְשִׁי וגו', וְאוֹמֵר (בראשית לא, ל): כִּי נִכְסֹף נִכְסַפְתָּה לְבֵית אָבִיךָ וגו'. אַחַת, אַל תִּקְרֵי אַחַת אֶלָּא אֲחוֹת, שֶׁבְּעֵת שֶׁהָיְתָה אֲחוֹת אַהֲרֹן נִתְנַבָּאת וְאָמְרָה לְאָבִיהָ שֶׁיַּחֲזִיר אִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁעָתִיד לְהוֹלִיד מִמֶּנָּהּ בֵּן שֶׁיִּגְאֹל אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, עַל זֶה נֶאֱמַר (שמות טו, כ): וַתִּקַּח מִרְיָם הַנְּבִיאָה אֲחוֹת אַהֲרֹן וגו', וְכִי אֲחוֹת אַהֲרֹן וְלֹא אֲחוֹת משֶׁה, אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיְתָה נְבוּאָתָהּ בְּעֵת שֶׁהָיְתָה אֲחוֹת אַהֲרֹן וְלֹא אֲחוֹת משֶׁה, שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נוֹלַד משֶׁה, וּלְפִיכָךְ בְּעֵת שֶׁהֻשְּׁלַךְ משֶׁה לַיְאוֹר הָלְכָה וְרָאֲתָה מַה יֶּאֱרַע לְמשֶׁה וּמַה יִּהְיֶה בְּסוֹף נְבוּאָתָהּ, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (שמות ב, ד): וַתֵּתַצַּב אֲחֹתוֹ מֵרָחֹק וגו'. הֱוֵי כֶּסֶף אַחַת. (במדבר ז, מג): שְׁלשִׁים וּמֵאָה מִשְׁקָלָה, לְפִי שֶׁהָיְתָה בַּת מֵאָה וּשְׁלשִׁים שָׁנָה בְּעֵת שֶׁנּוֹלַד משֶׁה, הָא כֵיצַד, לְפִי שֶׁיּוֹכֶבֶד נוֹלְדָה בֵּין הַחוֹמוֹת בְּעֵת שֶׁיָּרְדוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לְמִצְרַיִם, וּלְפִיכָךְ נִכְנְסָה בְּחֶשְׁבּוֹן הַיּוֹרְדִים לְמִצְרַיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית מו, טו): כָּל נֶפֶשׁ בָּנָיו וּבְנוֹתָיו שְׁלשִׁים וְשָׁלשׁ. בִּכְלָלָן אַתְּ מוֹצֵא שְׁלשִׁים וְשָׁלשׁ וּבִפְרָטָן אֵין אַתְּ מוֹצֵא כִּי אִם שְׁלשִׁים וּשְׁתַּיִם, לָמָּה, שֶׁיּוֹכֶבֶד נוֹלְדָה בֵּין הַחוֹמוֹת וְהָיְתָה מִן הַבָּאִים לְמִצְרַיִם, אֵין אָנוּ יוֹדְעִים שֶׁבְּמִצְרַיִם נוֹלְדָה, אַחַר שֶׁלֹא הֻזְכַּר שְׁמָהּ עִם שְׁמוֹת הַבָּאִים, אֶלָּא לוֹמַר לָךְ שֶׁבְּמִצְרַיִם נוֹלְדָה בֵּין הַחוֹמוֹת בְּעֵת שֶׁנִּכְנְסוּ לְמִצְרַיִם, אֲבָל לֹא הוֹרְתָה בְּמִצְרַיִם. צֵא וַחֲשֹׁב מִיּוֹם שֶׁיָּרְדוּ אֲבוֹתֵינוּ לְמִצְרַיִם עַד יוֹם שֶׁנּוֹלַד משֶׁה הֵן מֵאָה וּשְׁלשִׁים שָׁנָה, לְפִי שֶׁ'רד"ו' שָׁנִים עָשׂוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּמִצְרַיִם, מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית מב, ג): רְד"וּ שָׁמָּה, צֵא מֵהֶן שְׁמֹנִים שָׁנָה שֶׁהָיוּ לְמשֶׁה בְּעֵת שֶׁיָּצְאוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּצְרַיִם, נִשְׁתַּיְרוּ מֵאָה וּשְׁלשִׁים, הָא לָמַדְנוּ שֶׁיּוֹכֶבֶד בַּת מֵאָה וּשְׁלשִׁים שָׁנָה הָיְתָה בְּעֵת שֶׁנּוֹלַד משֶׁה. (במדבר ז, מג): מִזְרָק אֶחָד כֶּסֶף זֶה משֶׁה, שֶׁנִּזְרַק לַיְאוֹר. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שֶׁנִּזְרַק מִן מִצְרַיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות ב, טו): וַיִּבְרַח משֶׁה וגו'. שִׁבְעִים שֶׁקֶל בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ (במדבר ז, מג), אֵלּוּ שִׁבְעִים זְקֵנִים שֶׁמִּנָּה משֶׁה כֻּלָּם נְבִיאִים, מֵאוֹתָן שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא (במדבר ג, יח): וּבָאתָ אַתָּה וְזִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל מֶלֶךְ וגו', וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר (במדבר יא, טז): אֶסְפָה לִי שִׁבְעִים אִישׁ מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וגו'. (במדבר ז, מג): שְׁנֵיהֶם מְלֵאִים סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשֶׁמֶן לְמִנְחָה, שֶׁהוּא וְהֵם כֻּלָּם נִתְמַלְּאוּ רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ, וְהֵם נִתְמַלְּאוּ רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ מֵרוּחוֹ שֶׁל משֶׁה, וּמשֶׁה לֹא חָסַר כְּלוּם, כְּאָדָם שֶׁמַּדְלִיק נֵר מִנֵּר, הַנֵּר דּוֹלֵק וַחֲבֵרוֹ אֵינוֹ חָסֵר, כְּאָדָם שֶׁמֵּרִיחַ בָּאֶתְרוֹג הוּא נֶהֱנָה וְהָאֶתְרוֹג אֵינוֹ חָסֵר כְּלוּם. לְמִנְחָה, כְּמָה דְּתֵימָא (במדבר יא, כה): וַיְהִי כְּנוֹחַ עֲלֵיהֶם הָרוּחַ וַיִּתְנַבְּאוּ וגו'. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שְׁנֵיהֶם מְלֵאִים, כְּנֶגֶד אֶלְדָד וּמֵידָד, כְּמָה דְּתֵימָא (במדבר יא, כו): וַיִּשָּׁאֲרוּ שְׁנֵי אֲנָשִׁים בַּמַּחֲנֶה שֵׁם הָאֶחָד אֶלְדָד וגו'. לְמִנְחָה, כְּמָה דְּתֵימָא (במדבר יא, כו): וַתָּנַח עֲלֵיהֶם הָרוּחַ וַיִּתְנַבְּאוּ וגו', (במדבר ז, מד): כַּף אַחַת, שֶׁמִּתַּחַת יַד משֶׁה לָקוּ הַמִּצְרִיִּים עֶשֶׂר מַכּוֹת, הֱוֵי (במדבר ז, מד): עֲשָׂרָה זָהָב, לָמָּה הָיוּ מִקְצַת הַכֵּלִים שֶׁל כֶּסֶף וּמִקְצָתָן שֶׁל זָהָב, לוֹמַר לָךְ הָאַחֲרוֹנִים שֶׁהָיוּ שֶׁל זָהָב כְּנֶגֶד בִּיזַת הַיָּם, שֶׁכְּשֵׁם שֶׁהַזָּהָב נֶחְמָד וְיָקָר מִן הַכֶּסֶף, כָּךְ הָיְתָה בִּיזַת הַיָּם גְּדוֹלָה מִשֶּׁל מִצְרַיִם, וְעַל אֵלּוּ וְאֵלּוּ נֶאֱמַר (שיר השירים א, יא): תּוֹרֵי זָהָב נַעֲשֶׂה לָּךְ, זוֹ בִּזַּת הַיָּם, (שיר השירים א, יא): עִם נְקֻדּוֹת הַכָּסֶף, זוֹ בִּזַּת מִצְרַיִם, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר (יחזקאל טז, ז): וַתָּבֹאִי בַּעֲדִי עֲדָיִים, בַּעֲדִי, זוֹ בִּזַּת מִצְרַיִם, עֲדָיִים, זוֹ בִּזַּת הַיָּם, הֱוֵי (במדבר ז, מד): מְלֵאָה קְטֹרֶת, שֶׁכָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל נִתְמַלְּאוּ מֵהֶם כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב וְכָל מִינֵי בְּשָׂמִים, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר (שיר השירים ד, יג יד): שְׁלָחַיִךְ פַּרְדֵּס רִמּוֹנִים וגו' נֵרְדְּ וְכַרְכֹּם קָנֶה וְקִנָּמוֹן, הֱוֵי: מְלֵאָה קְטֹרֶת. דָּבָר אַחֵר, מֵאָה וּשְׁלשִׁים שֶׁל קְעָרָה, וְשִׁבְעִים שֶׁל מִזְרָק, וַעֲשָׂרָה שֶׁל כַּף, הֲרֵי מֵאָה וָעֶשֶׂר, כְּנֶגֶד רְד"וּ שָׁנִים שֶׁעָשׂוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּמִצְרַיִם מִיּוֹם שֶׁיָּרַד יַעֲקֹב לְמִצְרַיִם עַד שֶׁיָּצְאוּ מִשָּׁם. (במדבר ז, מה): פַּר אֶחָד בֶּן וגו', הִזְכִּיר שְׁלשָׁה מִינִים לְעוֹלָה, כְּנֶגֶד שְׁלשָׁה פַּרְנָסִים טוֹבִים שֶׁנָּתַן לָהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, משֶׁה אַהֲרֹן וּמִרְיָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מיכה ו, ד): וָאֶשְׁלַח לְפָנֶיךָ אֶת משֶׁה אַהֲרֹן וּמִרְיָם. נָתַן לָהֶם מָן בִּזְכוּת משֶׁה, וְעַנְנֵי כָּבוֹד בִּזְכוּת אַהֲרֹן, וּבְאֵר בִּזְכוּת מִרְיָם. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר שְׁלשָׁה מִינֵי עוֹלָה, כְּנֶגֶד שָׁלשׁ מִדּוֹת טוֹבוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ בְּיָדָן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּמִצְרַיִם וּבִזְכוּתָן נִגְאֲלוּ, שֶׁלֹא שִׁנּוּ אֶת שְׁמָם, וְלֹא שִׁנּוּ אֶת לְשׁוֹנָם, וְשֶׁגָּדְרוּ עַצְמָם מִן הָעֶרְוָה. (במדבר ז, מו): שְׂעִיר עִזִּים אֶחָד לְחַטָּאת, כְּנֶגֶד הַפֶּסַח, שֶׁצִּוָּה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַעֲשׂוֹת מִן הָעִזִּים עַל פְּרִישׁוּת עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים, לְפִי שֶׁעוֹבְדֵי עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים הָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּמִצְרַיִם, וְלֹא הָיְתָה מִדַּת הַדִּין נוֹתֶנֶת לְגָאֲלָם עַד שֶׁפֵּרְשׁוּ מִמֶּנָּה. וְעַל פְּרִישׁוּת עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים שֶׁעָשׂוּ וְנִגְאֲלוּ עָלֶיהָ, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (שמות יב, יג): וְרָאִיתִי אֶת הַדָּם וּפָסַחְתִּי עֲלֵכֶם, לְפִיכָךְ הִקְרִיבוּ כְּנֶגְדָהּ שָׂעִיר לְחַטָּאת, לְפִי שֶׁבַּעֲוֹן עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים הָיוּ מַקְרִיבִין שָׂעִיר לְחַטָּאת. (במדבר ז, מז): וּלְזֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים בָּקָר שְׁנַיִם, כְּנֶגֶד יַעֲקֹב וְיוֹסֵף שֶׁבִּזְכוּתָם נִגְאֲלוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּצְרַיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עז, טז): גָּאַלְתָּ בִּזְרֹעַ עַמֶּךָ בְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב וְיוֹסֵף סֶלָּה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, כְּנֶגֶד משֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן, שֶׁהֵם עָשׂוּ אֶת כָּל הַמּוֹפְתִים וְעַל יְדֵיהֶן יָצְאוּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יא, ו): וּמשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן עָשׂוּ אֶת כָּל הַמֹּפְתִים הָאֵלֶּה וגו'. (במדבר ז, מז): אֵילִם חֲמִשָּׁה וגו', לָמָּה שְׁלשָׁה מִינִים, כְּנֶגֶד שְׁלשָׁה אָבוֹת, שֶׁזָּכַר לָהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הַבְּרִית שֶׁכָּרַת לָהֶם וּגְאָלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות ב, כד): וַיִּשְׁמַע אֱלֹהִים אֶת נַאֲקָתָם וַיִּזְכֹּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת בְּרִיתוֹ אֶת אַבְרָהָם אֶת יִצְחָק וְאֶת יַעֲקֹב. לָמָּה חֲמִשָּׁה חֲמִשָּׁה, לְפִי שֶׁחֶשְׁבּוֹנָם עוֹלֶה חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר כְּנֶגֶד הָאָבוֹת וְהַשְּׁבָטִים שֶׁהֵם חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר, שֶׁכְּשֵׁם שֶׁנִּשְׁבַּע הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לָאָבוֹת כָּךְ נִשְׁבַּע לַשְּׁבָטִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (חבקוק ג, ט): שְׁבֻעוֹת מַטּוֹת אֹמֶר סֶלָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לָמָּה חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר, לְפִי שֶׁנִּגְאֲלוּ בַּחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר בְּנִיסָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר לג, ג): מִמָּחֳרַת הַפֶּסַח וגו', וְאוֹמֵר (הושע ג, ב): וָאֶכְּרֶהָ לִי בַּחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר כָּסֶף. (במדבר ז, מז): זֶה קָרְבַּן אֶלְיָסָף וגו', כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁהִקְרִיב עַל סֵדֶר גְּאֻלַּת מִצְרַיִם, הִתְחִיל מְקַלֵּס אֶת קָרְבָּנוֹ, זֶה קָרְבַּן אֶלְיָסָף בֶּן דְּעוּאֵל.
14. Anon., Pesiqta De Rav Kahana, 1.1



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 81
abraham Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 81
amram Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 81; Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 33, 34
authority Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 145
constitution Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 145
covenant Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 81
dream Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 81
dreams and visions, examples, gospels and acts Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 158
dreams and visions, examples, josephus Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 158
dreams and visions, participatory Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 158
egypt Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 168
egyptians Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 168
ethiopia/ethiopians Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 168
euripides Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 5
ezekiel, tragedian, euripides as model Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 5
ezekiel, tragedian, general profile Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 5
ezekiel, tragedian, mosess dream Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 5
ezekiel, tragedian, ot throne imagery Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 5
ezekiel, tragedian, septuagint usage Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 5
ezekiel, tragedian Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 5
genos/gene/gens/genus, in josephus Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 168
god, and Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 145
hebrews/israelites, as ethnos or genos Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 168
identity as nation or people, as indicated by genos Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 168
idumaeans Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 168
immigrants Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 168
interpretation, hellenistic jewish Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 145
jews/judeans/ioudaioi, and ethnic vocabulary in josephus Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 168
jochebed Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 34
josephus Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 145; Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 168
joy Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 268
lineage and genealogy as identity marker, in josephus Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 168
meddlesomeness Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 268
minor, mosess childhood Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 5
mosaic discourse Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 145
moses, art Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 145
moses, prophet Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 145
moses Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 145; Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 81; Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 33, 34
neighbors Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 268
parthia/parthians Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 168
philo of alexandria Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 5
politics Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 145
portents Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 158
priesthood, priests, succession Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 145
priesthood, priests Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 145
prophecy Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 145
rabbis Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 34
raguel (jethro) Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 5
revelation Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 145
septuagint Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 145
shekhina, universal Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 145
sinai, lawgiving Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 145
sinai Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 145
solon Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 268
sparta/spartans Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 168
syria/syrians Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 168
territory as identity marker Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 168
the tongue Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 268
torah, constitution Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 145
torah, universality Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 145
transmission of tradition Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 145
virtue' Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 268
vision Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 33, 34