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Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 13.272

ὁ δὲ Κυζικηνὸς ̓Αντίοχος παραγενόμενος εἰς τὴν Συρίαν πολλοῖς ἔτεσιν πρὸς τὸν ἀδελφὸν πολεμῶν διετέλει. ̔Υρκανὸς δὲ πάντα ἐκεῖνον τὸν χρόνον ἐν εἰρήνῃ διῆγεν:But Antiochus Cyzicenus coming into Syria, continued many years at war with his brother. Now Hyrcanus lived all this while in peace;

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1. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 16.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

16.23. The rest of the acts of John and his wars and the brave deeds which he did, and the building of the walls which he built, and his achievements
2. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 12.138-12.144, 13.230-13.267, 13.270-13.271, 13.273-13.300, 13.307, 13.324, 13.395, 14.248-14.250, 15.403, 15.409, 18.91 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.138. “King Antiochus To Ptolemy, Sendeth Greeting. /p“Since the Jews, upon our first entrance on their country, demonstrated their friendship towards us, and when we came to their city [Jerusalem], received us in a splendid manner, and came to meet us with their senate, and gave abundance of provisions to our soldiers, and to the elephants, and joined with us in ejecting the garrison of the Egyptians that were in the citadel 12.139. we have thought fit to reward them, and to retrieve the condition of their city, which hath been greatly depopulated by such accidents as have befallen its inhabitants, and to bring those that have been scattered abroad back to the city. 12.141. And these payments I would have fully paid them, as I have sent orders to you. I would also have the work about the temple finished, and the cloisters, and if there be any thing else that ought to be rebuilt. And for the materials of wood, let it be brought them out of Judea itself and out of the other countries, and out of Libanus tax free; and the same I would have observed as to those other materials which will be necessary, in order to render the temple more glorious; 12.142. and let all of that nation live according to the laws of their own country; and let the senate, and the priests, and the scribes of the temple, and the sacred singers, be discharged from poll-money and the crown tax and other taxes also. 12.143. And that the city may the sooner recover its inhabitants, I grant a discharge from taxes for three years to its present inhabitants, and to such as shall come to it, until the month Hyperberetus. 12.144. We also discharge them for the future from a third part of their taxes, that the losses they have sustained may be repaired. And all those citizens that have been carried away, and are become slaves, we grant them and their children their freedom, and give order that their substance be restored to them.” 13.231. for Ptolemy brought them upon the wall, and tormented them in the sight of all, and threatened that he would throw them down headlong, unless Hyrcanus would leave off the siege. And as he thought that so far as he relaxed as to the siege and taking of the place, so much favor did he show to those that were dearest to him by preventing their misery, his zeal about it was cooled. 13.232. However, his mother spread out her hands, and begged of him that he would not grow remiss on her account, but indulge his indignation so much the more, and that he would do his utmost to take the place quickly, in order to get their enemy under his power, and then to avenge upon him what he had done to those that were dearest to himself; for that death would be to her sweet, though with torment, if that enemy of theirs might but be brought to punishment for his wicked dealings to them. 13.233. Now when his mother said so, he resolved to take the fortress immediately; but when he saw her beaten, and torn to pieces, his courage failed him, and he could not but sympathize with what his mother suffered, and was thereby overcome. 13.234. And as the siege was drawn out into length by this means, that year on which the Jews used to rest came on; for the Jews observe this rest every seventh year, as they do every seventh day; 13.235. o that Ptolemy being for this cause released from the war, he slew the brethren of Hyrcanus, and his mother; and when he had so done, he fled to Zeno, who was called Cotylas, who was then the tyrant of the city Philadelphia. 13.236. 2. But Antiochus, being very uneasy at the miseries that Simon had brought upon him, he invaded Judea in the fourth years’ of his reign, and the first year of the principality of Hyrcanus, in the hundred and sixty-second olympiad. 13.237. And when he had burnt the country, he shut up Hyrcanus in the city, which he encompassed round with seven encampments; but did just nothing at the first, because of the strength of the walls, and because of the valor of the besieged, although they were once in want of water, which yet they were delivered from by a large shower of rain, which fell at the setting of the Pleiades. 13.238. However, about the north part of the wall, where it happened the city was upon a level with the outward ground, the king raised a hundred towers of three stories high, and placed bodies of soldiers upon them; 13.239. and as he made his attacks every day, he cut a double ditch, deep and broad, and confined the inhabitants within it as within a wall; but the besieged contrived to make frequent sallies out; and if the enemy were not any where upon their guard, they fell upon them, and did them a great deal of mischief; and if they perceived them, they then retired into the city with ease. 13.241. However, Antiochus would not let those that were excluded go away, who therefore wandering about between the walls, and consuming away by famine, died miserably; but when the feast of tabernacles was at hand, those that were within commiserated their condition, and received them in again. 13.242. And when Hyrcanus sent to Antiochus, and desired there might be a truce for seven days, because of the festival, he gave way to this piety towards God, and made that truce accordingly. And besides that, he sent in a magnificent sacrifice, bulls with their horns gilded, with all sorts of sweet spices, and with cups of gold and silver. 13.243. So those that were at the gates received the sacrifices from those that brought them, and led them to the temple, Antiochus the mean while feasting his army, which was a quite different conduct from Antiochus Epiphanes, who, when he had taken the city, offered swine upon the altar, and sprinkled the temple with the broth of their flesh, in order to violate the laws of the Jews, and the religion they derived from their forefathers; for which reason our nation made war with him, and would never be reconciled to him; 13.244. but for this Antiochus, all men called him Antiochus the Pious, for the great zeal he had about religion. 13.245. 3. Accordingly, Hyrcanus took this moderation of his kindly; and when he understood how religious he was towards the Deity, he sent an embassage to him, and desired that he would restore the settlements they received from their forefathers. So he rejected the counsel of those that would have him utterly destroy the nation, by reason of their way of living, which was to others unsociable, and did not regard what they said. 13.246. But being persuaded that all they did was out of a religious mind, he answered the ambassadors, that if the besieged would deliver up their arms, and pay tribute for Joppa, and the other cities which bordered upon Judea, and admit a garrison of his, on these terms he would make war against them no longer. 13.247. But the Jews, although they were content with the other conditions, did not agree to admit the garrison, because they could not associate with other people, nor converse with them; yet were they willing, instead of the admission of the garrison, to give him hostages, and five hundred talents of silver; of which they paid down three hundred, and sent the hostages immediately, which king Antiochus accepted. One of those hostages was Hyrcanus’s brother. But still he broke down the fortifications that encompassed the city. 13.248. And upon these conditions Antiochus broke up the siege, and departed. 13.249. 4. But Hyrcanus opened the sepulcher of David, who excelled all other kings in riches, and took out of it three thousand talents. He was also the first of the Jews that, relying on this wealth, maintained foreign troops. There was also a league of friendship and mutual assistance made between them; upon which Hyrcanus admitted him into the city, and furnished him with whatsoever his army wanted in great plenty, and with great generosity 13.251. “When Antiochus had erected a trophy at the river Lycus, upon his conquest of Indates, the general of the Parthians, he staid there two days. It was at the desire of Lyrcanus the Jew, because it was such a festival derived to them from their forefathers, whereon the law of the Jews did not allow them to travel.” 13.252. And truly he did not speak falsely in saying so; for that festival, which we call Pentecost, did then fall out to be the next day to the Sabbath. Nor is it lawful for us to journey, either on the Sabbath day, or on a festival day. 13.253. But when Antiochus joined battle with Arsaces, the king of Parthin, he lost a great part of his army, and was himself slain; and his brother Demetrius succeeded in the kingdom of Syria, by the permission of Arsaces, who freed him from his captivity at the same time that Antiochus attacked Parthin, as we have formerly related elsewhere. 13.254. 1. But when Hyrcanus heard of the death of Antiochus, he presently made an expedition against the cities of Syria, hoping to find them destitute of fighting men, and of such as were able to defend them. 13.255. However, it was not till the sixth month that he took Medaba, and that not without the greatest distress of his army. After this he took Samega, and the neighboring places; and besides these, Shechem and Gerizzim, and the nation of the Cutheans 13.256. who dwelt at the temple which resembled that temple which was at Jerusalem, and which Alexander permitted Sanballat, the general of his army, to build for the sake of Manasseh, who was son-in-law to Jaddua the high priest, as we have formerly related; which temple was now deserted two hundred years after it was built. 13.257. Hyrcanus took also Dora and Marissa, cities of Idumea, and subdued all the Idumeans; and permitted them to stay in that country, if they would circumcise their genitals, and make use of the laws of the Jews; 13.258. and they were so desirous of living in the country of their forefathers, that they submitted to the use of circumcision, and of the rest of the Jewish ways of living; at which time therefore this befell them, that they were hereafter no other than Jews. 13.259. 2. But Hyrcanus the high priest was desirous to renew that league of friendship they had with the Romans. Accordingly, he sent an embassage to them; and when the senate had received their epistle, they made a league of friendship with them, after the manner following: 13.261. had somewhat to propose about that league of friendship and mutual assistance which subsisted between them and the Romans, and about other public affairs, who desired that Joppa, and the havens, and Gazara, and the springs [of Jordan], and the several other cities and countries of theirs, which Antiochus had taken from them in the war, contrary to the decree of the senate, might be restored to them; 13.262. and that it might not be lawful for the king’s troops to pass through their country, and the countries of those that are subject to them; and that what attempts Antiochus had made during that war, without the decree of the senate, might be made void; 13.263. and that they would send ambassadors, who should take care that restitution be made them of what Antiochus had taken from them, and that they should make an estimate of the country that had been laid waste in the war; and that they would grant them letters of protection to the kings and free people, in order to their quiet return home. 13.264. It was therefore decreed, as to these points, to renew their league of friendship and mutual assistance with these good men, and who were sent by a good and a friendly people.” 13.265. But as to the letters desired, their answer was, that the senate would consult about that matter when their own affairs would give them leave; and that they would endeavor, for the time to come, that no like injury should be done to them; and that their praetor Fanius should give them money out of the public treasury to bear their expenses home. 13.266. And thus did Fanius dismiss the Jewish ambassadors, and gave them money out of the public treasury; and gave the decree of the senate to those that were to conduct them, and to take care that they should return home in safety. 13.267. 3. And thus stood the affairs of Hyrcanus the high priest. But as for king Demetrius, who had a mind to make war against Hyrcanus, there was no opportunity nor room for it, while both the Syrians and the soldiers bare ill-will to him, because he was an ill man. But when they had sent ambassadors to Ptolemy, who was called Physcon, that he would send them one of the family of Seleucus, in order to take the kingdom 13.271. o he staid in his own land, and resolved to prepare himself for the attack he expected from his brother, who was called Cyzicenus, because he had been brought up in that city. He was the son of Antiochus that was called Soter, who died in Parthia. He was the brother of Demetrius, the father of Grypus; for it had so happened, that one and the same Cleopatra was married to two who were brethren, as we have related elsewhere. 13.273. for after the death of Antlochus, he revolted from the Macedonians, nor did he any longer pay them the least regard, either as their subject or their friend; but his affairs were in a very improving and flourishing condition in the times of Alexander Zebina, and especially under these brethren, for the war which they had with one another gave Hyrcanus the opportunity of enjoying himself in Judea quietly, insomuch that he got an immense quantity of money. 13.274. However, when Antiochus Cyzicenus distressed his land, he then openly showed what he meant. And when he saw that Antiochus was destitute of Egyptian auxiliaries, and that both he and his brother were in an ill condition in the struggles they had one with another, he despised them both. 13.275. 2. So he made an expedition against Samaria which was a very strong city; of whose present name Sebaste, and its rebuilding by Herod, we shall speak at a proper time; but he made his attack against it, and besieged it with a great deal of pains; for he was greatly displeased with the Samaritans for the injuries they had done to the people of Merissa, a colony of the Jews, and confederate with them, and this in compliance to the kings of Syria. 13.276. When he had therefore drawn a ditch, and built a double wall round the city, which was fourscore furlongs long, he set his sons Antigonus and Arisrobulna over the siege; which brought the Samaritans to that great distress by famine, that they were forced to eat what used not to be eaten, and to call for Antiochus Cyzicenus to help them 13.277. who came readily to their assistance, but was beaten by Aristobulus; and when he was pursued as far as Scythopolis by the two brethren, he got away. So they returned to Samaria, and shut them again within the wall, till they were forced to send for the same Antiochus a second time to help them 13.278. who procured about six thousand men from Ptolemy Lathyrus, which were sent them without his mother’s consent, who had then in a manner turned him out of his government. With these Egyptians Antiochus did at first overrun and ravage the country of Hyrcanus after the manner of a robber, for he durst not meet him in the face to fight with him, as not having an army sufficient for that purpose, but only from this supposal, that by thus harassing his land he should force Hyrcanus to raise the siege of Samaria; 13.279. but because he fell into snares, and lost many of his soldiers therein, he went away to Tripoli, and committed the prosecution of the war against the Jews to Callimander and Epicrates. 13.281. And when Hyrcanus had taken that city, which was not done till after a year’s siege, he was not contented with doing that only, but he demolished it entirely, and brought rivulets to it to drown it, for he dug such hollows as might let the water run under it; nay, he took away the very marks that there had ever been such a city there. 13.282. Now a very surprising thing is related of this high priest Hyrcanus, how God came to discourse with him; for they say that on the very same day on which his sons fought with Antiochus Cyzicenus, he was alone in the temple, as high priest, offering incense, and heard a voice, that his sons had just then overcome Antiochus. 13.283. And this he openly declared before all the multitude upon his coming out of the temple; and it accordingly proved true; and in this posture were the affairs of Hyrcanus. 13.284. 4. Now it happened at this time, that not only those Jews who were at Jerusalem and in Judea were in prosperity, but also those of them that were at Alexandria, and in Egypt and Cyprus; 13.285. for Cleopatra the queen was at variance with her son Ptolemy, who was called Lathyrus, and appointed for her generals Chelcias and Aias, the sons of that Onias who built the temple in the prefecture of Heliopolis, like to that at Jerusalem, as we have elsewhere related. 13.286. Cleopatra intrusted these men with her army, and did nothing without their advice, as Strabo of Cappadocia attests, when he saith thus 13.287. “Now the greater part, both those that came to Cyprus with us, and those that were sent afterward thither, revolted to Ptolemy immediately; only those that were called Onias’s party, being Jews, continued faithful, because their countrymen Chelcias and Aias were in chief favor with the queen.” These are the words of Strabo. 13.288. 5. However, this prosperous state of affairs moved the Jews to envy Hyrcanus; but they that were the worst disposed to him were the Pharisees, who were one of the sects of the Jews, as we have informed you already. These have so great a power over the multitude, that when they say any thing against the king, or against the high priest, they are presently believed. 13.289. Now Hyrcanus was a disciple of theirs, and greatly beloved by them. And when he once invited them to a feast, and entertained them very kindly, when he saw them in a good humor, he began to say to them, that they knew he was desirous to be a righteous man, and to do all things whereby he might please God, which was the profession of the Pharisees also. 13.291. a man of an ill temper, and delighting in seditious practices. This man said, “Since thou desirest to know the truth, if thou wilt be righteous in earnest, lay down the high priesthood, and content thyself with the civil government of the people,” 13.292. And when he desired to know for what cause he ought to lay down the high priesthood, the other replied, “We have heard it from old men, that thy mother had been a captive under the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes. “ This story was false, and Hyrcanus was provoked against him; and all the Pharisees had a very great indignation against him. 13.293. 6. Now there was one Jonathan, a very great friend of Hyrcanus’s, but of the sect of the Sadducees, whose notions are quite contrary to those of the Pharisees. He told Hyrcanus that Eleazar had cast such a reproach upon him, according to the common sentiments of all the Pharisees, and that this would be made manifest if he would but ask them the question, What punishment they thought this man deserved? 13.294. for that he might depend upon it, that the reproach was not laid on him with their approbation, if they were for punishing him as his crime deserved. So the Pharisees made answer, that he deserved stripes and bonds, but that it did not seem right to punish reproaches with death. And indeed the Pharisees, even upon other occasions, are not apt to be severe in punishments. 13.295. At this gentle sentence, Hyrcanus was very angry, and thought that this man reproached him by their approbation. It was this Jonathan who chiefly irritated him, and influenced him so far 13.296. that he made him leave the party of the Pharisees, and abolish the decrees they had imposed on the people, and to punish those that observed them. From this source arose that hatred which he and his sons met with from the multitude: 13.297. but of these matters we shall speak hereafter. What I would now explain is this, that the Pharisees have delivered to the people a great many observances by succession from their fathers, which are not written in the laws of Moses; and for that reason it is that the Sadducees reject them, and say that we are to esteem those observances to be obligatory which are in the written word, but are not to observe what are derived from the tradition of our forefathers. 13.298. And concerning these things it is that great disputes and differences have arisen among them, while the Sadducees are able to persuade none but the rich, and have not the populace obsequious to them, but the Pharisees have the multitude on their side. But about these two sects, and that of the Essenes, I have treated accurately in the second book of Jewish affairs. 13.299. 7. But when Hyrcanus had put an end to this sedition, he after that lived happily, and administered the government in the best manner for thirty-one years, and then died, leaving behind him five sons. He was esteemed by God worthy of the three privileges,—the government of his nation, the dignity of the high priesthood, and prophecy; 13.307. 2. Aristobulus yielded to these imputations, but took care both that his brother should not suspect him, and that he himself might not run the hazard of his own safety; so he ordered his guards to lie in a certain place that was under ground, and dark; (he himself then lying sick in the tower which was called Antonia;) and he commanded them, that in case Antigonus came in to him unarmed, they should not touch any body, but if armed, they should kill him; 13.324. 2. When Alexander Janneus had settled the government in the manner that he judged best, he made an expedition against Ptolemais; and having overcome the men in battle, he shut them up in the city, and sat round about it, and besieged it; for of the maritime cities there remained only Ptolemais and Gaza to be conquered, besides Strato’s Tower and Dora, which were held by the tyrant Zoilus. 13.395. 4. Now at this time the Jews were in possession of the following cities that had belonged to the Syrians, and Idumeans, and Phoenicians: At the sea-side, Strato’s Tower, Apollonia, Joppa, Jamnia, Ashdod, Gaza, Anthedon, Raphia, and Rhinocolura; 14.248. and since the nation of the Jews, and their high priest Hyrcanus, sent as ambassadors to them, Strato, the son of Theodatus, and Apollonius, the son of Alexander, and Eneas, the son of Antipater 14.249. and Aristobulus, the son of Amyntas, and Sosipater, the son of Philip, worthy and good men, who gave a particular account of their affairs, the senate thereupon made a decree about what they had desired of them, that Antiochus the king, the son of Antiochus, should do no injury to the Jews, the confederates of the Romans; and that the fortresses, and the havens, and the country, and whatsoever else he had taken from them, should be restored to them; and that it may be lawful for them to export their goods out of their own havens; 15.403. 4. Now on the north side [of the temple] was built a citadel, whose walls were square, and strong, and of extraordinary firmness. This citadel was built by the kings of the Asamonean race, who were also high priests before Herod, and they called it the Tower, in which were reposited the vestments of the high priest, which the high priest only put on at the time when he was to offer sacrifice. 15.409. And that these things were so, the afflictions that happened to us afterwards [about them] are sufficient evidence. But for the tower itself, when Herod the king of the Jews had fortified it more firmly than before, in order to secure and guard the temple, he gratified Antonius, who was his friend, and the Roman ruler, and then gave it the name of the Tower of Antonia. 18.91. although at this time they were laid up in the tower of Antonia, the citadel so called, and that on the occasion following: There was one of the [high] priests, named Hyrcanus; and as there were many of that name, he was the first of them; this man built a tower near the temple, and when he had so done, he generally dwelt in it, and had these vestments with him, because it was lawful for him alone to put them on, and he had them there reposited when he went down into the city, and took his ordinary garments;
3. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.61 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.61. 5. And now Antiochus was so angry at what he had suffered from Simeon, that he made an expedition into Judea, and sat down before Jerusalem and besieged Hyrcanus; but Hyrcanus opened the sepulchre of David, who was the richest of all kings, and took thence about three thousand talents in money, and induced Antiochus, by the promise of three thousand talents, to raise the siege. Moreover, he was the first of the Jews that had money enough, and began to hire foreign auxiliaries also. 1.61. However, when he was in Cilicia, he received the forementioned epistle from his father, and made great haste accordingly. But when he had sailed to Celenderis, a suspicion came into his mind relating to his mother’s misfortunes; as if his soul foreboded some mischief to itself.
4. Tosefta, Ketuvot, 13.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 91.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

91.3. וַיָּבֹאוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לִשְׁבֹּר וגו' (בראשית מב, ה), וּמִנַּיִן לְעֵדָה שֶׁהִיא עֲשָׂרָה, רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא וְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן, נֶאֱמַר כָּאן (במדבר לה, כד): עֵדָה, וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן (במדבר יד, כז): עַד מָתַי לָעֵדָה הָרָעָה, מָה עֵדָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לְהַלָּן עֲשָׂרָה, אַף עֵדָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כָּאן עֲשָׂרָה. אָמַר רַבִּי סִימוֹן, נֶאֱמַר כָּאן (ויקרא כב, לב): תּוֹךְ, וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן (בראשית מב, ה): תּוֹךְ, מַה תּוֹךְ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לְהַלָּן עֲשָׂרָה, אַף תּוֹךְ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר הָכָא עֲשָׂרָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר אָבוֹן אִם בְּתוֹךְ אֲפִלּוּ עַד כַּמָּה, אֶלָּא נֶאֱמַר כָּאן בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, מַה בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לְהַלָּן עֲשָׂרָה אַף בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כָּאן עֲשָׂרָה. רַבִּי סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אָמַר, תִּינוֹק עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ סְנִיף לַעֲשָׂרָה, וְהָא תָּנֵי אֵין מְדַקְדְּקִין בְּקָטָן, אָמַר רַבִּי סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי לִשְׁנֵי קְטַנִּים נִצְרְכָה, אֶחָד סָפֵק וְאֶחָד קָטָן עוֹשִׂין אֶת הַסָּפֵק עִקָּר וְאֶת הַקָּטָן לִסְנִיף. תָּנֵי קָטָן וְסֵפֶר תּוֹרָה, עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ סְנִיף. אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן כֵּן הוּא מַתְנִיתִין, קָטָן לְסֵפֶר תּוֹרָה עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ סְנִיף. מֵאֵימָתַי עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ סְנִיף, רַבִּי אֲבוּנָא אָמַר אִתְפַּלְגוּן בְּהָא רַבִּי יוּדָן וְרַב הוּנָא תַּרְוֵיהוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל, חַד אֲמַר כְּדֵי שֶׁיְהֵא יוֹדֵעַ טִיב בְּרָכָה. וְאוֹחֲרָנָא אֲמַר כְּדֵי שֶׁיְהֵא יוֹדֵעַ לְמִי הוּא מְבָרֵךְ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר פָּזִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַסֵּי תִּשְׁעָה נִרְאִים כַּעֲשָׂרָה מְזַמְּנִין, מַאי עָבֵיד מְסֻיָּמִין, אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ קָטָן בֵּינֵיהֶם. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב בַּר זַבְדִי בְּעָא קוֹמֵי רַבִּי יוֹסֵף, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁעוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ סְנִיף לַעֲשָׂרָה כָּךְ עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ סְנִיף לִשְׁלשָׁה. אֲמַר לֵיהּ הֲדָא הִיא וְלֹא כָּל שֶׁכֵּן לְהַלָּן שֶׁהוּא מַזְכִּיר אֶת הַשֵּׁם עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ סְנִיף, כָּאן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַזְכִּיר אֶת הַשֵּׁם אֵין עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ סְנִיף. אֲמַר לֵיהּ הֲדָא אָמְרָה עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ סְנִיף בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן אֲבָל לִקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וְלִתְפִלָּה אֵין עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ סְנִיף עַד שֶׁיָּבִיא שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת: אֲמַר רַבִּי אַסֵּי זִמְנִין סַגִּיאִין אֲכָלִית עִם רַבִּי תַּחְלִיפָא וְזִמְנִין סַגִּיאִין אֲכָלִית עִם רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר סִיסִי חֲבִיבִי וְלָא זָמְנִין עָלַי עַד שֶׁהֵבֵאתִי שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת. וּמֵאֵימָתַי הוּא קוֹרֵא בַּתּוֹרָה, אֲמַר רַבִּי אֲבִינָא אִתְפַּלְגוּן רַב הוּנָא וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה תַּרְוֵיהוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל, חַד אָמַר מִשֶּׁהוּא יוֹדֵעַ לְבָרֵךְ, וְאוֹחֲרָנָא אָמַר עַד שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ טִיב בְּרָכָה שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ לְמִי מְבָרְכִין. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר שִׁילַת בְּעָא קוֹמֵי רַב, וְאִית דְּאָמְרִין בְּעוֹן קַמֵּיהּ שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר שִׁילַת, תִּשְׁעָה פַּת וְאֶחָד יָרָק מַהוּ, אֲמַר לְהוֹן, מְזַמְּנִין. שְׁמוֹנָה פַּת וּשְׁנַיִם יָרָק, מְזַמְּנִין. שִׁבְעָה וְשִׁשָּׁה פַּת וְאַרְבָּעָה יָרָק מַהוּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מְזַמְּנִין. רַבִּי אֲבִינָא בְּעָא וּמֶחֱצָה עַל מֶחֱצָה מַהוּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי זְעֵירָא עַד דַּאֲנָא תַּמָּן אִצְטְרָכִית לְמִשְׁאֲלֵיהּ וּמֵיצְרָי לִי מִינָהּ דְּלָא שְׁאִלְתִּיו. רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בָּעֵי אוֹתוֹ שֶׁאָכַל יָרָק מַהוּ מְזַמְּנָא עֲלוֹהִי. תָּנֵי שְׁלשׁ מֵאוֹת נְזִירִין סָלְקִין בָּעֲיִין לִמְקָרְבָה תְּשַׁע מְאָה קוּרְבָּנִין בְּיוֹמֵי דְּשִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטַח, לִמְאָה וְחַמְשִׁין מָצָא לָהֶם פֶּתַח וּמְאָה וְחַמְשִׁין לָא מָצָא פֶּתַח. סָלֵיק רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטַח גַּבֵּי יַנַּאי מַלְכָּא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ תְּלַת מְאָה נְזִירִין סָלְקוּ בָּעֲיִין לִמְקָרְבָה תְּשַׁע מְאָה קוּרְבָּנִין וְלֵית לְהוֹן, אֶלָּא יְהֵיב אַתְּ פַּלְגָּא מִן דִּידָךְ וַאֲנָא פַּלְגָא מִן דִּידִי וְיֵזְלוּן וִיקָרְבוּן, יְהַב יַנַּאי מַלְכָּא פַּלְגָא מִן דִּילֵיהּ וַאֲזַלּוּן וְקָרְבוּן. אֲתוֹן וַאֲמָרִין לִשְׁנָא בִּישָׁא לְיַנַּאי מַלְכָּא עַל שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטַח, תֶּהֱוֵי יְדַע דְּכָל מַה דְּקָרְבוּן מִדִּידָךְ קָרְבוּן, בְּרַם שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטַח לָא יָהֵיב מִן דִּידֵיהּ כְּלוּם. כָּעַס יַנַּאי מַלְכָּא עַל שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטַח. שְׁמַע דְּהוּא כָּעֵס עֲלוֹהִי, צְרַת [נסח אחר צרח] לֵיהּ וַעֲרַק, לְבָתַר יוֹמֵי הֲווֹן בְּנֵי אֱנָשָׁא רַבְרְבִין מִן מַלְכוּתָא דְּפַרְסָאֵי יַתְבִין נָגְסִין עַל פָּתוֹרָא דְּיַנַּאי מַלְכָּא, אֲמַרוּן לֵיהּ מָרִי מַלְכָּא נָהֲרִין אֲנַן דַּהֲוָה הָכָא חַד סַב וַהֲוָה אֲמַר לָן מִילֵי דְאוֹרָיְיתָא, אֲמַר לַאֲחָתֵיהּ שְׁלַחִי בַּתְרֵיהּ וְאַיְיתִיתֵיהּ. אֲמַרָה לֵיהּ הַב לִי מִלָּא וּשְׁלַח לֵיהּ עִזְקָתָךְ, וְהוּא אָתֵי. יְהַב לָהּ מִלָּא וּשְׁלַח לֵיהּ עִזְקָתֵיהּ וַאֲתָא. מִדַּאֲתָא יְתֵיב לֵיהּ בֵּין מַלְכָּא לְמַלְכְּתָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ, לְמָה עֲרַקְתְּ, שְׁמָעִית דְּמָרִי מַלְכָּא כָּעֵיס עֲלַי וּצְרַח לִי מִינָךְ דְּלָא תִקְטְלַנִּי וְקַיְימַת הָדֵין קְרָיָא (ישעיה כו, כ): חֲבִי כִּמְעַט רֶגַע עַד יַעֲבָר זָעַם, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לְמָה אַפְלֵית בִּי. אֲמַר לֵיהּ חַס וְשָׁלוֹם לָא אַפְלֵית בָּךְ, אֶלָּא אַתְּ מִמָּמוֹנָךְ וַאֲנָא מִן אוֹרָיְיתָא, דִּכְתִיב (קהלת ז, יב): כִּי בְּצֵל הַחָכְמָה בְּצֵל הַכָּסֶף. אָמַר לוֹ וּלְמָה לָא אֲמַרְתְּ לִי, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִי אֲמַרִית לָךְ לָא הֲוָה יַהֲבִית. אֲמַר לֵיהּ לְמָה יְתַבְתְּ לָךְ בֵּין מַלְכָּא לְמַלְכְּתָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ בְּסֵפֶר בֶּן סִירָא כָּתוּב: סַלְסְלֶהָ וּתְרוֹמְמֶךּ וּבֵין נְגִידִים תּוֹשִׁיבֶךָּ. אֲמַר מְזוֹג לֵיהּ יְבָרֵךְ. אֲמַר בָּרוּךְ עַל הַמָּזוֹן שֶׁאָכַל יַנַּאי וַחֲבֵרָיו. אֲמַר עַד כַּדּוּן אַתְּ בְּקַשְׁיוּתָךְ, לָא שְׁמָעִית מִן יוֹמוֹי יַנַּאי בְּבִרְכְתָא. אֲמַר וּמָה אִית לִי לְמֵימַר, נְבָרֵךְ עַל שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ, וַאֲנִי לֹא אָכַלְתִּי. אֲמַר אַיְיתוֹן לֵיהּ וְיֵיכוּל. מִן דַּאֲכֵיל אֲמַר בָּרוּךְ שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן חֲלוּקִין עָלָיו עַל שְׁמוּעַת שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטַח, רַבִּי אַבָּא אָמַר עַל הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה אָמַר עַל הַשְּׁנִיָּה. מִחְלְפָא שִׁיטָתֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי יִרְמְיָה, תַּמָּן צְרִיכָה לֵיהּ, וְהָכָא פְּשִׁיטָא לֵיהּ. מַאן דִּצְרִיכָה לֵיהּ כְּרַבָּנָן, וּמַאן דִּפְשִׁיטָא לֵיהּ כְּרַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, דְּתָנֵי עֲלָהּ וְהֵסֵב עִמָּהֶן וְטִיבֵּל עִמָּהֶן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹא אָכַל כַּזַּיִת דָּגָן מְזַמְּנִין עָלָיו, דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים. רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב בַּר אַחָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר לְעוֹלָם אֵין מְזַמְּנִין עָלָיו עַד שֶׁאוֹכֵל כַּזַּיִת דָּגָן, וְהָא תָּנֵי שְׁנַיִם פַּת וְאֶחָד יָרָק מְזַמְּנִין. מַתְנִיתִין כְּרַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל.
6. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

7. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 81, 122

122. carefully that of the Greeks as well. They were specially qualified therefore for serving on embassies and they undertook this duty whenever it was necessary. They possessed a great facility for conferences and the discussion of problems connected with the law. They espoused the middle course - and this is always the best course to pursue. They abjured the rough and uncouth manner, but they were altogether above pride and never assumed an air of superiority over others, and in conversation they were ready to listen and give an appropriate answer to every question. And all of them carefully observed this rule and were anxious above everything else to excel each other in

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
antiochus,iii Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 348
antiochus,vii Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 348
antiochus vii sidetes Bar Kochba (1997), Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora, 277
favors,of caesar Udoh (2006), To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E, 69
grants,territorial Udoh (2006), To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E, 69
great plain,in josephus Udoh (2006), To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E, 69
hasmonean period,construction of fortresses during Bar Kochba (1997), Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora, 277
hasmoneans,historicity of narratives concerning Kalmin (1998), The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity, 137
hyrcanus i Udoh (2006), To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E, 69
jerusalem,antonia Bar Kochba (1997), Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora, 277
jerusalem,citadel Bar Kochba (1997), Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora, 277
jerusalem,pseudo-aristeas on Bar Kochba (1997), Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora, 277
jewish state,and caesar Udoh (2006), To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E, 69
jewish state,restitution of territory to,by c. Udoh (2006), To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E, 69
john hyrcanus,constructs baris Bar Kochba (1997), Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora, 277
joppa,caesars territorial grant of Udoh (2006), To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E, 69
josephus,on jewish state,grants to,by caesar Udoh (2006), To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E, 69
josephus,on territorial grants Udoh (2006), To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E, 69
julius caesar,and jews,decrees of c. concerning jewish state Udoh (2006), To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E, 69
julius caesar,favors of Udoh (2006), To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E, 69
maccabees,i Bar Kochba (1997), Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora, 277
poll tax Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 348
pseudo-aristeas,dating of Bar Kochba (1997), Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora, 277
pseudo-aristeas,on jerusalem Bar Kochba (1997), Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora, 277
ptolemy,seleucid governor Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 348
seleucid monarchy Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 348
seleucids,administration Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 348
seleucids,privileges granted jews Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 348
senatus consulta,on antiochus,to return territory seized from jews Udoh (2006), To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E, 69
senatus consulta,on embassy of hyrcanus i Udoh (2006), To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E, 69
temple,jewish contribution Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 348
temple (jerusalem),baris protecting Bar Kochba (1997), Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora, 277
temple (jerusalem),citadel overlooking Bar Kochba (1997), Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora, 277
tyre' Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 348