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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7234
Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 10.19-10.20


πλανᾶται γὰρ κἀν τούτῳ οὐκ ̓Ασσυρίων λέγων τὸν βασιλέα ἀλλ' ̓Αράβων: μυῶν γὰρ πλῆθός φησι μιᾷ νυκτὶ τὰ τόξα καὶ τὰ λοιπὰ ὅπλα διαφαγεῖν τῶν ̓Ασσυρίων, καὶ διὰ τοῦτο μὴ ἔχοντα τόξα τὸν βασιλέα τὴν στρατιὰν ἀπάγειν ἀπὸ τοῦ Πηλουσίου.But in this Herodotus was mistaken, when he called this king not king of the Assyrians, but of the Arabians; for he saith that “a multitude of mice gnawed to pieces in one night both the bows and the rest of the armor of the Assyrians, and that it was on that account that the king, when he had no bows left, drew off his army from Pelusium.”


πλανᾶται γὰρ κἀν τούτῳ οὐκ ̓Ασσυρίων λέγων τὸν βασιλέα ἀλλ' ̓Αράβων: μυῶν γὰρ πλῆθός φησι μιᾷ νυκτὶ τὰ τόξα καὶ τὰ λοιπὰ ὅπλα διαφαγεῖν τῶν ̓Ασσυρίων, καὶ διὰ τοῦτο μὴ ἔχοντα τόξα τὸν βασιλέα τὴν στρατιὰν ἀπάγειν ἀπὸ τοῦ Πηλουσίου.2. Now Daniel and his kinsmen had resolved to use a severe diet, and to abstain from those kinds of food which came from the king’s table, and entirely to forbear to eat of all living creatures. So he came to Ashpenaz, who was that eunuch to whom the care of them was committed, and desired him to take and spend what was brought for them from the king, but to give them pulse and dates for their food, and any thing else, besides the flesh of living creatures, that he pleased, for that their inclinations were to that sort of food, and that they despised the other.


Δόξαν δὲ Δανιήλῳ μετὰ τῶν συγγενῶν σκληραγωγεῖν ἑαυτὸν καὶ τῶν ἀπὸ τῆς βασιλικῆς τραπέζης ἐδεσμάτων ἀπέχεσθαι καὶ καθόλου πάντων τῶν ἐμψύχων, προσελθὼν ̓Ασχάνῃ τῷ τὴν ἐπιμέλειαν αὐτῶν ἐμπεπιστευμένῳ εὐνούχῳ τὰ μὲν παρὰ τοῦ βασιλέως αὐτοῖς κομιζόμενα παρεκάλεσεν αὐτὸν ἀναλίσκειν λαμβάνοντα, παρέχειν δ' αὐτοῖς ὄσπρια καὶ φοίνικας εἰς διατροφὴν καὶ εἴ τι τῶν ἀψύχων ἕτερον βούλοιτο: πρὸς γὰρ τὴν τοιαύτην δίαιταν αὐτοὺς κεκινῆσθαι, τῆς δ' ἑτέρας περιφρονεῖν.But in this Herodotus was mistaken, when he called this king not king of the Assyrians, but of the Arabians; for he saith that “a multitude of mice gnawed to pieces in one night both the bows and the rest of the armor of the Assyrians, and that it was on that account that the king, when he had no bows left, drew off his army from Pelusium.”


Δόξαν δὲ Δανιήλῳ μετὰ τῶν συγγενῶν σκληραγωγεῖν ἑαυτὸν καὶ τῶν ἀπὸ τῆς βασιλικῆς τραπέζης ἐδεσμάτων ἀπέχεσθαι καὶ καθόλου πάντων τῶν ἐμψύχων, προσελθὼν ̓Ασχάνῃ τῷ τὴν ἐπιμέλειαν αὐτῶν ἐμπεπιστευμένῳ εὐνούχῳ τὰ μὲν παρὰ τοῦ βασιλέως αὐτοῖς κομιζόμενα παρεκάλεσεν αὐτὸν ἀναλίσκειν λαμβάνοντα, παρέχειν δ' αὐτοῖς ὄσπρια καὶ φοίνικας εἰς διατροφὴν καὶ εἴ τι τῶν ἀψύχων ἕτερον βούλοιτο: πρὸς γὰρ τὴν τοιαύτην δίαιταν αὐτοὺς κεκινῆσθαι, τῆς δ' ἑτέρας περιφρονεῖν.2. Now Daniel and his kinsmen had resolved to use a severe diet, and to abstain from those kinds of food which came from the king’s table, and entirely to forbear to eat of all living creatures. So he came to Ashpenaz, who was that eunuch to whom the care of them was committed, and desired him to take and spend what was brought for them from the king, but to give them pulse and dates for their food, and any thing else, besides the flesh of living creatures, that he pleased, for that their inclinations were to that sort of food, and that they despised the other.


nanAnd Herodotus does indeed give us this history; nay, and Berosus, who wrote of the affairs of Chaldea, makes mention of this king Sennacherib, and that he ruled over the Assyrians, and that he made an expedition against all Asia and Egypt; and says thus:


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5 results
1. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 9.278, 10.20, 11.168, 12.29-12.30, 20.118-20.148 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.278. but when he was not admitted [into the city] by the king, he besieged Samaria three years, and took it by force in the ninth year of the reign of Hoshea, and in the seventh year of Hezekiah, king of Jerusalem, and quite demolished the government of the Israelites, and transplanted all the people into Media and Persia among whom he took king Hoshea alive; 11.168. 7. Now when he was come to Babylon, and had taken with him many of his countrymen, who voluntarily followed him, he came to Jerusalem in the twenty and fifth year of the reign of Xerxes. And when he had shown the epistles to God he gave them to Adeus, and to the other governors. He also called together all the people to Jerusalem, and stood in the midst of the temple, and made the following speech to them: 12.29. for I suppose that they were made captives without our father’s consent, and against equity; and that their country was harassed by the insolence of the soldiers, and that, by removing them into Egypt, the soldiers have made a great profit by them. 12.29. upon which Judas met him; and when he intended to give him battle, he saw that his soldiers were backward to fight, because their number was small, and because they wanted food, for they were fasting, he encouraged them, and said to them, that victory and conquest of enemies are not derived from the multitude in armies, but in the exercise of piety towards God; 20.118. 1. Now there arose a quarrel between the Samaritans and the Jews on the occasion following: It was the custom of the Galileans, when they came to the holy city at the festivals, to take their journeys through the country of the Samaritans; and at this time there lay, in the road they took, a village that was called Ginea, which was situated in the limits of Samaria and the great plain, where certain persons thereto belonging fought with the Galileans, and killed a great many of them. 20.119. But when the principal of the Galileans were informed of what had been done, they came to Cumanus, and desired him to avenge the murder of those that were killed; but he was induced by the Samaritans, with money, to do nothing in the matter; 20.121. And when their principal men endeavored to pacify them, and promised to endeavor to persuade Cureanus to avenge those that were killed, they would not hearken to them, but took their weapons, and entreated the assistance of Eleazar, the son of Dineus, a robber, who had many years made his abode in the mountains, with which assistance they plundered many villages of the Samaritans. 20.122. When Cumanus heard of this action of theirs, he took the band of Sebaste, with four regiments of footmen, and armed the Samaritans, and marched out against the Jews, and caught them, and slew many of them, and took a great number of them alive; 20.123. whereupon those that were the most eminent persons at Jerusalem, and that both in regard to the respect that was paid them, and the families they were of, as soon as they saw to what a height things were gone, put on sackcloth, and heaped ashes upon their heads, and by all possible means besought the seditious, and persuaded them that they would set before their eyes the utter subversion of their country, the conflagration of their temple, and the slavery of themselves, their wives, and children, which would be the consequences of what they were doing; and would alter their minds, would cast away their weapons, and for the future be quiet, and return to their own homes. These persuasions of theirs prevailed upon them. 20.124. So the people dispersed themselves, and the robbers went away again to their places of strength; and after this time all Judea was overrun with robberies. 20.125. 2. But the principal of the Samaritans went to Ummidius Quadratus, the president of Syria, who at that time was at Tyre, and accused the Jews of setting their villages on fire, and plundering them; 20.126. and said withal, that they were not so much displeased at what they had suffered, as they were at the contempt thereby shown to the Romans; while if they had received any injury, they ought to have made them the judges of what had been done, and not presently to make such devastation, as if they had not the Romans for their governors; 20.127. on which account they came to him, in order to obtain that vengeance they wanted. This was the accusation which the Samaritans brought against the Jews. But the Jews affirmed that the Samaritans were the authors of this tumult and fighting, and that, in the first place, Cumanus had been corrupted by their gifts, and passed over the murder of those that were slain in silence;— 20.128. which allegations when Quadratus heard, he put off the hearing of the cause, and promised that he would give sentence when he should come into Judea, and should have a more exact knowledge of the truth of that matter. 20.129. So these men went away without success. Yet was it not long ere Quadratus came to Samaria, where, upon hearing the cause, he supposed that the Samaritans were the authors of that disturbance. But when he was informed that certain of the Jews were making innovations, he ordered those to be crucified whom Cumanus had taken captives. 20.131. whom Quadratus ordered to be put to death: but still he sent away Aias the high priest, and Aus the commander [of the temple], in bonds to Rome, to give an account of what they had done to Claudius Caesar. 20.132. He also ordered the principal men, both of the Samaritans and of the Jews, as also Cumanus the procurator, and Ceier the tribune, to go to Italy to the emperor, that he might hear their cause, and determine their differences one with another. 20.133. But he came again to the city of Jerusalem, out of his fear that the multitude of the Jews should attempt some innovations; but he found the city in a peaceable state, and celebrating one of the usual festivals of their country to God. So he believed that they would not attempt any innovations, and left them at the celebration of the festival, and returned to Antioch. 20.134. 3. Now Cumanus, and the principal of the Samaritans, who were sent to Rome, had a day appointed them by the emperor whereon they were to have pleaded their cause about the quarrels they had one with another. 20.135. But now Caesar’s freed-men and his friends were very zealous on the behalf of Cumanus and the Samaritans; and they had prevailed over the Jews, unless Agrippa, junior, who was then at Rome, had seen the principal of the Jews hard set, and had earnestly entreated Agrippina, the emperor’s wife, to persuade her husband to hear the cause, so as was agreeable to his justice, and to condemn those to be punished who were really the authors of this revolt from the Roman government:— 20.136. whereupon Claudius was so well disposed beforehand, that when he had heard the cause, and found that the Samaritans had been the ringleaders in those mischievous doings, he gave order that those who came up to him should be slain, and that Cureanus should be banished. He also gave order that Celer the tribune should be carried back to Jerusalem, and should be drawn through the city in the sight of all the people, and then should be slain. 20.137. 1. So Claudius sent Felix, the brother of Pallas, to take care of the affairs of Judea; 20.138. and when he had already completed the twelfth year of his reign, he bestowed upon Agrippa the tetrarchy of Philip and Batanea, and added thereto Trachonites, with Abila; which last had been the tetrarchy of Lysanias; but he took from him Chalcis, when he had been governor thereof four years. 20.139. And when Agrippa had received these countries as the gift of Caesar, he gave his sister Drusilla in marriage to Azizus, king of Emesa, upon his consent to be circumcised; for Epiphanes, the son of king Antiochus, had refused to marry her, because, after he had promised her father formerly to come over to the Jewish religion, he would not now perform that promise. 20.141. 2. But for the marriage of Drusilla with Azizus, it was in no long time afterward dissolved upon the following occasion: 20.142. While Felix was procurator of Judea, he saw this Drusilla, and fell in love with her; for she did indeed exceed all other women in beauty; and he sent to her a person whose name was Simon one of his friends; a Jew he was, and by birth a Cypriot, and one who pretended to be a magician, and endeavored to persuade her to forsake her present husband, and marry him; and promised, that if she would not refuse him, he would make her a happy woman. 20.143. Accordingly she acted ill, and because she was desirous to avoid her sister Bernice’s envy, for she was very ill treated by her on account of her beauty, was prevailed upon to transgress the laws of her forefathers, and to marry Felix; and when he had had a son by her, he named him Agrippa. 20.144. But after what manner that young man, with his wife, perished at the conflagration of the mountain Vesuvius, in the days of Titus Caesar, shall be related hereafter. 20.145. 3. But as for Bernice, she lived a widow a long while after the death of Herod [king of Chalcis], who was both her husband and her uncle; but when the report went that she had criminal conversation with her brother, [Agrippa, junior,] she persuaded Poleme, who was king of Cilicia, to be circumcised, and to marry her, as supposing that by this means she should prove those calumnies upon her to be false; 20.146. and Poleme was prevailed upon, and that chiefly on account of her riches. Yet did not this matrimony endure long; but Bernice left Poleme, and, as was said, with impure intentions. So he forsook at once this matrimony, and the Jewish religion; 20.147. and, at the same time, Mariamne put away Archelaus, and was married to Demetrius, the principal man among the Alexandrian Jews, both for his family and his wealth; and indeed he was then their alabarch. So she named her son whom she had by him Agrippinus. But of all these particulars we shall hereafter treat more exactly. 20.148. 1. Now Claudius Caesar died when he had reigned thirteen years, eight months, and twenty days; and a report went about that he was poisoned by his wife Agrippina. Her father was Germanicus, the brother of Caesar. Her husband was Domitius Aenobarbus, one of the most illustrious persons that was in the city of Rome;
2. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 5.389 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.389. You are also acquainted with the slavery we were under at Babylon, where the people were captives for seventy years; yet were they not delivered into freedom again before God made Cyrus his gracious instrument in bringing it about; accordingly they were set free by him, and did again restore the worship of their Deliverer at his temple.
3. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.73, 2.142 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.73. 14. I shall begin with the writings of the Egyptians; not indeed of those that have written in the Egyptian language, which it is impossible for me to do. But Manetho was a man who was by birth an Egyptian; yet had he made himself master of the Greek learning, as is very evident, for he wrote the history of his own country in the Greek tongue, by translating it, as he saith himself, out of their sacred records: he also finds great fault with Herodotus for his ignorance and false relations of Egyptian affairs. 2.142. Apion was therefore quite blinded in his mind when, for the sake of the Egyptians, he contrived to reproach us, and to accuse such others as not only make use of that conduct of life which he so much abuses, but have also taught other men to be circumcised, as says Herodotus;
4. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 143, 112 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

5. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

90b. וכתיב (מלכים ב ז, כ) ויהי לו כן וירמסו אותו העם בשער וימות ודילמא קללת אלישע גרמה ליה דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב קללת חכם אפי' על חנם היא באה אם כן לכתוב קרא וירמסוהו וימות מאי בשער על עסקי שער,(אמר ר' יוחנן) מניין לתחיית המתים מן התורה שנאמר (במדבר יח, כח) ונתתם ממנו [את] תרומת ה' לאהרן הכהן וכי אהרן לעולם קיים והלא לא נכנס לארץ ישראל שנותנין לו תרומה אלא מלמד שעתיד לחיות וישראל נותנין לו תרומה מכאן לתחיית המתים מן התורה,דבי רבי ישמעאל תנא לאהרן כאהרן מה אהרן חבר אף בניו חברים,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן מניין שאין נותנין תרומה לכהן עם הארץ שנאמר (דברי הימים ב לא, ד) ויאמר לעם ליושבי ירושלים לתת מנת (לכהנים ולוים) למען יחזקו בתורת ה' כל המחזיק בתורת ה' יש לו מנת ושאינו מחזיק בתורת ה' אין לו מנת,אמר רב אחא בר אדא אמר רב יהודה כל הנותן תרומה לכהן עם הארץ כאילו נותנה לפני ארי מה ארי ספק דורס ואוכל ספק אינו דורס ואוכל אף כהן עם הארץ ספק אוכלה בטהרה ספק אוכלה בטומאה,ר' יוחנן אמר אף גורם לו מיתה שנאמר (ויקרא כב, ט) ומתו בו כי יחללוהו דבי ר"א בן יעקב תנא אף משיאו עון אשמה שנאמר (ויקרא כב, טז) והשיאו אותם עון אשמה באכלם את קדשיהם,תניא ר' סימאי אומר מניין לתחיית המתים מן התורה שנאמר (שמות ו, ד) וגם הקימותי את בריתי אתם לתת להם את ארץ כנען לכם לא נאמר אלא להם מכאן לתחיית המתים מן התורה:,(צד"ק ג"ם גש"ם ק"ם סימן): שאלו מינין את רבן גמליאל מניין שהקדוש ברוך הוא מחיה מתים אמר להם מן התורה ומן הנביאים ומן הכתובים ולא קיבלו ממנו,מן התורה דכתיב (דברים לא, טז) ויאמר ה' אל משה הנך שוכב עם אבותיך וקם אמרו לו ודילמא וקם העם הזה וזנה,מן הנביאים דכתיב (ישעיהו כו, יט) יחיו מתיך נבלתי יקומון הקיצו ורננו שוכני עפר כי טל אורות טלך וארץ רפאים תפיל ודילמא מתים שהחיה יחזקאל,מן הכתובים דכתיב (שיר השירים ז, י) וחכך כיין הטוב הולך לדודי למישרים דובב שפתי ישנים ודילמא רחושי מרחשן שפוותיה בעלמא כר' יוחנן דאמר ר' יוחנן משום ר"ש בן יהוצדק כל מי שנאמרה הלכה בשמו בעולם הזה שפתותיו דובבות בקבר שנאמר דובב שפתי ישנים,עד שאמר להם מקרא זה (דברים יא, כא) אשר נשבע ה' לאבותיכם לתת להם לכם לא נאמר אלא להם מיכן לתחיית המתים מן התורה,וי"א מן המקרא הזה אמר להם (דברים ד, ד) ואתם הדבקים בה' אלהיכם חיים כלכם היום (פשיטא דחיים כולכם היום אלא אפילו ביום שכל העולם כולם מתים אתם חיים) מה היום כולכם קיימין אף לעוה"ב כולכם קיימין,שאלו רומיים את רבי יהושע בן חנניה מניין שהקב"ה מחיה מתים ויודע מה שעתיד להיות אמר להו תרווייהו מן המקרא הזה שנאמר (דברים לא, טז) ויאמר ה' אל משה הנך שוכב עם אבותיך וקם העם הזה וזנה,ודילמא וקם העם הזה וזנה אמר להו נקוטו מיהא פלגא בידייכו דיודע מה שעתיד להיות איתמר נמי א"ר יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחאי מניין שהקדוש ברוך הוא מחיה מתים ויודע מה שעתיד להיות שנאמר הנך שוכב עם אבותיך וקם וגו',תניא א"ר אליעזר בר' יוסי בדבר זה זייפתי ספרי מינים שהיו אומרים אין תחיית המתים מן התורה אמרתי להן זייפתם תורתכם ולא העליתם בידכם כלום שאתם אומרים אין תחיית המתים מן התורה הרי הוא אומר (במדבר טו, לא) הכרת תכרת הנפש ההיא עונה בה הכרת תכרת בעולם הזה עונה בה לאימת לאו לעולם הבא,א"ל רב פפא לאביי ולימא להו תרוייהו מהכרת תכרת אינהו הוו אמרי ליה דברה תורה כלשון בני אדם,כתנאי הכרת תכרת הכרת בעולם הזה תכרת לעולם הבא דברי ר"ע אמר לו ר' ישמעאל והלא כבר נאמר (במדבר טו, ל) את ה' הוא מגדף ונכרתה וכי שלשה עולמים יש אלא ונכרתה בעולם הזה הכרת לעולם הבא הכרת תכרת דברה תורה כלשון בני אדם,בין ר' ישמעאל ובין ר"ע עונה בה מאי עבדי ביה לכדתניא יכול אפילו עשה תשובה ת"ל עונה בה לא אמרתי אלא בזמן שעונה בה,שאלה קליאופטרא מלכתא את ר"מ אמרה ידענא דחיי שכבי דכתיב (תהלים עב, טז) ויציצו מעיר כעשב הארץ אלא כשהן עומדין עומדין ערומין או בלבושיהן עומדין אמר לה ק"ו מחיטה ומה חיטה שנקברה ערומה יוצאה בכמה לבושין צדיקים שנקברים בלבושיהן על אחת כמה וכמה,א"ל קיסר לרבן גמליאל אמריתו דשכבי חיי הא הוו עפרא ועפרא מי קא חיי 90b. bAnd it is written: “And it was for him so, and the people trampled him in the gate, and he died”(II Kings 7:20). The Gemara challenges: bPerhapsit was bthe curse of Elishathat bcausedthe officer to die in that manner, not the principle of punishment measure for measure for his lack of belief, bas Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: The curse of a Sage, evenif bbaseless, comesto be fulfilled? This is all the more so true concerning the curse of Elisha, which was warranted. The Gemara answers: bIf so, let the verse write: And they trampled him and he died. Whatdoes the term b“in the gate”serve to teach? It teaches that he died bover mattersrelating bto the gate [ isha’ar /i].It was for the cynical dismissal of the prophecy of Elisha that the officer voiced at the city gate that he was punished measure for measure and was trampled at the city gate.,§ bRabbi Yoḥa says: From whereis the bresurrection of the deadderived bfrom the Torah?It is derived from this verse, bas it is statedwith regard to iterumaof the tithe: b“And you shall give the iterumaof the Lord to Aaron the priest”(Numbers 18:28). bAnd does Aaron exist foreverso that one can fulfill the mitzva by giving him the iterumaof the tithe? bBut is it notso that Aaron bdid not enter Eretz Yisrael,the only place bwherethe people would bgive him iteruma /i? Rather,the verse bteaches thatAaron is destined bto live in the future and the Jewish peoplewill bgive him iteruma /i. From hereit is derived that bthe resurrection of the dead is from the Torah. /b, bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taughta different derivation from this verse. From the term b“to Aaron”one derives that iterumamust be given to a priest blike Aaron; just as Aaron is one devoted to the meticulous observance of mitzvot, particularly those relating to ritual purity, iteruma /i, and tithes [ iḥaver /i], so tooone gives iterumato bhis descendantswho are iḥaverim /i. /b, bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says: From whereis it derived bthat one does not give iterumato a priestwho is ban iam ha’aretz /i?It is derived from a verse, bas it is stated: “And he commanded the people who dwelled in Jerusalem to give the portion of the priests and of the Levites, so that they may firmly adhere to the Torah of the Lord”(II Chronicles 31:4). bEveryone who firmly adheres to the Torah of the Lord has a portion, and anyone who does not firmly adhere to the Torah of the Lord does not have a portion. /b, bRav Aḥa bar Adda saysthat bRav Yehuda says:With regard to banyone who gives iterumato a priestwho is ban iam ha’aretz /i, it is as though he placedthe iteruma bbefore a lion. Just aswith regard to ba lion,there is buncertaintywhether it will bmaulits prey band eatit, and buncertaintywhether it will bnot maulits prey bandinstead beatit alive, bso too,with regard to ba priestwho is ban iam ha’aretz /ito whom one gives iteruma /i, there is buncertaintywhether he will beat it in purity,and there is buncertaintywhether he will beat it in impurity,thereby violating a prohibition by Torah law., bRabbi Yoḥa says:One who gives iterumato a priest who is an iam ha’aretz beven causesthe priest’s bdeath, as it is statedwith regard to iteruma /i: b“And die therefore if they profane it”(Leviticus 22:9). Priests who partake of iterumain a state of ritual impurity profane it and are liable to be punished with death at the hand of Heaven. bThe school of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov taught:By giving iterumato a priest who is an iam ha’aretz /i, bone also brings upon him a sin of guilt,i.e., a sin that will lead to additional sins, bas it is stated: “And so bring upon them a sin of guilt when they eat their sacred items”(Leviticus 22:16).,§ bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Simai says: From whereis bresurrection of the deadderived bfrom the Torah?It is derived from a verse, bas it is statedwith regard to the Patriarchs: b“I have also established My covet with them to give to them the land of Canaan”(Exodus 6:4). The phrase: To give bto youthe land of Canaan, bis not stated,as the meaning of the verse is not that God fulfilled the covet with the Patriarchs when he gave the land of Canaan to the children of Israel; brather,it is stated: “To give bto themthe land of Canaan,” meaning to the Patriarchs themselves. bFrom hereis it derived that bthe resurrection of the dead is from the Torah,as in the future the Patriarchs will come to life and inherit the land.,The Gemara records a mnemonic for those cited in the upcoming discussion: iTzadi /i, idalet /i, ikuf /i; igimmel /i, imem /i; igimmel /i, ishin /i, imem /i; ikuf /i, imem /i.Heretics asked Rabban Gamliel: From whereis it derived bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, revives the dead?Rabban Gamliel bsaid to themthat this matter can be proven bfrom the Torah, from the Prophets, and from Writings, but they did not acceptthe proofs bfrom him. /b,The proof bfrom the Torahis bas it is written: “And the Lord said to Moses, behold, you shall lie with your fathers and arise”(Deuteronomy 31:16). The heretics bsaid to him: But perhapsthe verse should be divided in a different manner, and it should be read: “Behold, you shall lie with your fathers, band this people will arise and strayafter the foreign gods of the land.”,The proof bfrom the Prophetsis bas it is written: “Your dead shall live, my corpse shall arise. Awake and sing, you that dwell in the dust, for your dew is as the dew of vegetation, and the land shall cast out the dead”(Isaiah 26:19). The heretics said to him: bBut perhapsthe prophecy was fulfilled with bthe dead that Ezekiel revived.No proof may be cited from that verse with regard to any future resurrection.,The proof bfrom Writingsis bas it is written: “And your palate is like the best wine that glides down smoothly for my beloved, moving gently the lips of those that sleep”(Song of Songs 7:10), indicating that the dead will ultimately rise and speak. The heretics said to him: bBut perhaps merely their lips will move, in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yoḥa, as Rabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak: Anyone in whose name a ihalakhais stated in this world, his lips move in the graveas if repeating the statement cited in his name, bas it is stated: “Moving gently the lips of those that sleep.”No proof may be cited from that verse, as it is unrelated to resurrection.,This exchange continued buntilRabban Gamliel bstated to them this verse:“That your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children, upon the land bthat the Lord took an oath to your forefathers to give them”(Deuteronomy 11:21). The phrase: bTogive byou, is not stated; rather,it is stated: b“Togive bthem,”to the Patriarchs themselves, as in the future the Patriarchs will come to life and inherit the land. bFrom here resurrection of the deadis derived bfrom the Torah. /b, bAnd there are those who saythat it is bfrom thisfollowing bversethat bhe said to themhis ultimate proof: b“But you who cleave to the Lord your God every one of you is alive this day”(Deuteronomy 4:4). Wasn’t it bobviouswith regard to the children of Israel whom God was addressing, that b“every one of you is alive this day”? Rather,the meaning of the verse is: bEven on the day when everyone is dead you will live; just as today every one of you is alive, so too, in the World-to-Come every one of youwill be balive. /b, bThe Romans asked Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya: From whereis it derived bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, revives the dead, andfrom where is it derived that bHe knows what is destined to be?Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya bsaid to them: Both of thosematters are derived bfrom this verse, as it is stated: “And the Lord said to Moses, Behold, you shall lie with your fathers and arise; this people will go astray”(Deuteronomy 31:16). This indicates that Moses will die and then arise from the dead and that the Holy One, Blessed be He, knows what the children of Israel are destined to do.,The Romans asked: bBut perhapsthe verse should be divided in a different manner, and it should be read: “Behold, you shall lie with your fathers band this people will arise and go astrayafter the foreign gods of the land.” Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya bsaid to them: Take at leasta response to bhalfof your question bin your handsfrom that verse, bthatGod bknows what is destined to be.The Gemara comments: bIt was also statedon a similar note by an iamoraciting a itanna /i, as bRabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: From whereis it derived bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, revives the dead, andfrom where is it derived that bHe knows what is destined to be?It is derived from a verse, bas it is stated: “Behold, you shall lie with your fathers and arise.” /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, says: With thisfollowing bmatter, I refuted the books of the Samaritans, as they would saythat bthere is nosource for bthe resurrection of the dead from the Torah. I said to them: You falsified your torah and you accomplished nothing, as you say there is nosource for bthe resurrection of the dead from the Torah,and the Torah bstates: “That soul shall be excised; his iniquity shall be upon him”(Numbers 15:31). You interpret the phrase “that soul bshall be excised”to mean that a sinner will be punished with death bin this world.If so, with regard to the phrase b“his iniquity shall be upon him,” for whenis that destined to be? Is it bnot for the World-to-Come,i.e., the world as it will exist after the resurrection of the dead? Apparently, there is a World-to-Come and there is an allusion to it in the Torah., bRav Pappa said to Abaye: And letRabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, bsay tothe Samaritans that bboth of thosematters can be derived bfromthe phrase b“shall be excised [ ihikkaret tikkaret /i].”“ iHikkaret /i” indicates that the sinner is excised from this world, and “ itikkaret /i” indicates that the sinner is excised from the World-to-Come. Abaye answered: Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, preferred not to cite proof from the compound verb, because the Samaritans bwould say: The Torah spoke in the language of people,and the compound verb is merely a stylistic flourish.,The Gemara notes: These derivations of Rabbi Eliezer and Rav Pappa are bparallelto a dispute between itanna’im /iwith regard to b“ ihikkaret tikkaret /i,”as follows: b“ iHikkaret /i”indicates that the sinner is excised bin this world,and b“ itikkaret /i”indicates that the sinner is excised bin the World-to-Come;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yishmael said to him: Isn’t it already statedin the previous verse: b“That person that blasphemes the Lord, that soul shall be excised [ ivenikhreta /i]”(Numbers 15:30), band are there three worldsfrom which the sinner is excised? bRather,from the term b“ ivenikhreta /i”it is derived that the sinner is excised bin this world,from b“ ihikkaret /i”it is derived that the sinner is excised bin the World-to-Come,and from the compound verb b“ ihikkaret tikkaret /i”nothing is derived, as bthe Torah spoke in the language of people. /b,The Gemara asks: According to bboth Rabbi Yishmael and Rabbi Akiva, what do they do with,i.e., what do they derive from, the phrase b“His iniquity shall be upon him”?The Gemara answers: That phrase is necessary bfor thatderivation bwhich is taughtin a ibaraita /i: One bmighthave thought that the sinner is excised bevenafter bhe repented.Therefore, bthe verse states: “His iniquity shall be upon him.”God states: bI saidthat the sinner will be excised bonly when his iniquityremains bupon him. /b,§ The Gemara relates: bQueen Cleopatra asked Rabbi Meira question. bShe said: I know that the dead will live, as it is written: “And may they blossom out of the city like grass of the earth”(Psalms 72:16). Just as grass grows, so too, the dead will come to life. bBut when they arise,will they barise naked orwill bthey arise with their garments?Rabbi Meir bsaid to her:It is derived ia fortiorifrom wheat. If wheat, which is buried naked,meaning that the kernel is sown without the chaff, bemerges with several garmentsof chaff, ball the more sowill bthe righteous, who are buried with their garments,arise with their garments.,The Roman bemperor said to Rabban Gamliel: You say that the dead will live. Aren’t they dust? And does dust come to life? /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
benediction of the minim Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 81
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 724
friedländer, moritz Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 81
graetz, heinrich Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 81
minim, kuttim (samaritans) Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 81
minim, laws of Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 81
minim, their identity Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 81
minut, collaboration with the enemy Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 81
minut, gnosticism Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 81
minut, rejection of the jewish people' Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 81
ressurection of the dead Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 81
samaritans Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 81
shimon ben azzai Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 81
simon magus Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 81