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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6793
Irenaeus, Refutation Of All Heresies, 4.16.2


nanAnd that man was not justified by these things, but that they were given as a sign to the people, this fact shows,--that Abraham himself, without circumcision and without observance of Sabbaths, "believed God, and it was imputed unto him for righteousness; and he was called the friend of God." Then, again, Lot, without circumcision, was brought out from Sodom, receiving salvation from God. So also did Noah, pleasing God, although he was uncircumcised, receive the dimensions [of the ark], of the world of the second race [of men]. Enoch, too, pleasing God, without circumcision, discharged the office of God's legate to the angels although he was a man, and was translated, and is preserved until now as a witness of the just judgment of God, because the angels when they had transgressed fell to the earth for judgment, but the man who pleased [God] was translated for salvation. Moreover, all the rest of the multitude of those righteous men who lived before Abraham, and of those patriarchs who preceded Moses, were justified independently of the things above mentioned, and without the law of Moses. As also Moses himself says to the people in Deuteronomy: "The LORD thy God formed a covenant in Horeb. The LORD formed not this covenant with your fathers, but for you.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

18 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 6.1-6.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.1. וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃ 6.1. וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃ 6.2. וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃ 6.2. מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃ 6.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃ 6.4. הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃ 6.1. And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them," 6.2. that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose." 6.3. And the LORD said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man for ever, for that he also is flesh; therefore shall his days be a hundred and twenty years.’" 6.4. The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown."
2. Anon., 1 Enoch, 19.3 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

19.3. went astray shall become sirens.' And I, Enoch, alone saw the vision, the ends of all things: and no man shall see as I have seen.
3. Anon., Jubilees, 4.21-4.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.21. And he was the first among men that are born on earth who learnt writing and knowledge and wisdom 4.22. and who wrote down the signs of heaven according to the order of their months in a book, that men might know the seasons of the years according to the order of their separate months.
4. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 44.16, 49.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

44.16. Enoch pleased the Lord, and was taken up;he was an example of repentance to all generations. 49.14. No one like Enoch has been created on earth,for he was taken up from the earth.
5. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 9-10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Abraham, styled the friend, was found faithful, inasmuch as he rendered obedience to the words of God. He, in the exercise of obedience, went out from his own country, and from his kindred, and from his father's house, in order that, by forsaking a small territory, and a weak family, and an insignificant house, he might inherit the promises of God. For God said to him, Get you out from your country, and from your kindred, and from your father's house, into the land which I shall show you. And I will make you a great nation, and will bless you, and make your name great, and you shall be blessed. And I will bless them that bless you, and curse them that curse you; and in you shall all the families of the earth be blessed. Genesis 12:1-3 And again, on his departing from Lot, God said to him, Lift up your eyes, and look from the place where you now are, northward, and southward, and eastward, and westward; for all the land which you see, to you will I give it, and to your seed forever. And I will make your seed as the dust of the earth, [so that] if a man can number the dust of the earth, then shall your seed also be numbered. Genesis 13:14-16 And again [the Scripture] says, God brought forth Abram, and spoke unto him, Look up now to heaven, and count the stars if you are able to number them; so shall your seed be. And Abram believed God, and it was counted to him for righteousness. On account of his faith and hospitality, a son was given him in his old age; and in the exercise of obedience, he offered him as a sacrifice to God on one of the mountains which He showed him.
7. Mishnah, Berachot, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.5. One who is praying and makes a mistake, it is a bad sign for him. And if he is the messenger of the congregation (the prayer leader) it is a bad sign for those who have sent him, because one’s messenger is equivalent to one’s self. They said about Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa that he used to pray for the sick and say, “This one will die, this one will live.” They said to him: “How do you know?” He replied: “If my prayer comes out fluently, I know that he is accepted, but if not, then I know that he is rejected.”"
8. New Testament, Hebrews, 11.5-11.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.5. By faith, Enoch was taken away, so that he wouldn't see death, and he was not found, because God translated him. For he has had testimony given to him that before his translation he had been well pleasing to God. 11.6. Without faith it is impossible to be well pleasing to him, for he who comes to God must believe that he exists, and that he is a rewarder of those who seek him.
9. Clement of Alexandria, Extracts From The Prophets, 2.1, 53.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 5.1.10 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

11. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.27.3, 2.27.3, 3.18.7, 3.19, 3.19.1, 4.15.1, 4.16.1, 4.16.4-4.16.5, 4.22.1, 4.37.1-4.37.5, 4.37.7, 5.5.1, 5.29.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

12. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 23, 45, 92, 19 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Justin: It is this about which we are at a loss, and with reason, because, while you endure such things, you do not observe all the other customs which we are now discussing. This circumcision is not, however, necessary for all men, but for you alone, in order that, as I have already said, you may suffer these things which you now justly suffer. Nor do we receive that useless baptism of cisterns, for it has nothing to do with this baptism of life. Wherefore also God has announced that you have forsaken Him, the living fountain, and dug for yourselves broken cisterns which can hold no water. Even you, who are the circumcised according to the flesh, have need of our circumcision; but we, having the latter, do not require the former. For if it were necessary, as you suppose, God would not have made Adam uncircumcised; would not have had respect to the gifts of Abel when, being uncircumcised, he offered sacrifice and would not have been pleased with the uncircumcision of Enoch, who was not found, because God had translated him. Lot, being uncircumcised, was saved from Sodom, the angels themselves and the Lord sending him out. Noah was the beginning of our race; yet, uncircumcised, along with his children he went into the ark. Melchizedek, the priest of the Most High, was uncircumcised; to whom also Abraham the first who received circumcision after the flesh, gave tithes, and he blessed him: after whose order God declared, by the mouth of David, that He would establish the everlasting priest. Therefore to you alone this circumcision was necessary, in order that the people may be no people, and the nation no nation; as also Hosea, one of the twelve prophets, declares. Moreover, all those righteous men already mentioned, though they kept no Sabbaths, were pleasing to God; and after them Abraham with all his descendants until Moses, under whom your nation appeared unrighteous and ungrateful to God, making a calf in the wilderness: wherefore God, accommodating Himself to that nation, enjoined them also to offer sacrifices, as if to His name, in order that you might not serve idols. Which precept, however, you have not observed; nay, you sacrificed your children to demons. And you were commanded to keep Sabbaths, that you might retain the memorial of God. For His word makes this announcement, saying, 'That you may know that I am God who redeemed you.' Ezekiel 20:12
13. Tertullian, Against The Jews, 4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4. It follows, accordingly, that, in so far as the abolition of carnal circumcision and of the old law is demonstrated as having been consummated at its specific times, so also the observance of the Sabbath is demonstrated to have been temporary. For the Jews say, that from the beginning God sanctified the seventh day, by resting on it from all His works which He made; and that thence it was, likewise, that Moses said to the People: Remember the day of the sabbaths, to sanctify it: every servile work you shall not do therein, except what pertains unto life. Whence we (Christians) understand that we still more ought to observe a sabbath from all servile work always, and not only every seventh day, but through all time. And through this arises the question for us, what sabbath God willed us to keep? For the Scriptures point to a sabbath eternal and a sabbath temporal. For Isaiah the prophet says, Your sabbaths my soul hates; Isaiah 1:13 and in another place he says, My sabbaths you have profaned. Whence we discern that the temporal sabbath is human, and the eternal sabbath is accounted divine; concerning which He predicts through Isaiah: And there shall be, He says, month after month, and day after day, and sabbath after sabbath; and all flesh shall come to adore in Jerusalem, says the Lord; which we understand to have been fulfilled in the times of Christ, when all flesh - that is, every nation - came to adore in Jerusalem God the Father, through Jesus Christ His Son, as was predicted through the prophet: Behold, proselytes through me shall go unto You. Thus, therefore, before this temporal sabbath, there was withal an eternal sabbath foreshown and foretold; just as before the carnal circumcision there was withal a spiritual circumcision foreshown. In short, let them teach us, as we have already premised, that Adam observed the sabbath; or that Abel, when offering to God a holy victim, pleased Him by a religious reverence for the sabbath; or that Enoch, when translated, had been a keeper of the sabbath; or that Noah the ark-builder observed, on account of the deluge, an immense sabbath; or that Abraham, in observance of the sabbath, offered Isaac his son; or that Melchizedek in his priesthood received the law of the sabbath. But the Jews are sure to say, that ever since this precept was given through Moses, the observance has been binding. Manifest accordingly it is, that the precept was not eternal nor spiritual, but temporary, which would one day cease. In short, so true is it that it is not in the exemption from work of the sabbath- that is, of the seventh day - that the celebration of this solemnity is to consist, that Joshua the Son of Nun, at the time that he was reducing the city Jericho by war, stated that he had received from God a precept to order the People that priests should carry the ark of the testament of God seven days, making the circuit of the city; and thus, when the seventh day's circuit had been performed, the walls of the city would spontaneously fall. Joshua 6:1-20 Which was so done; and when the space of the seventh day was finished, just as was predicted, down fell the walls of the city. Whence it is manifestly shown, that in the number of the seven days there intervened a sabbath-day. For seven days, whencesoever they may have commenced, must necessarily include within them a sabbath-day; on which day not only must the priests have worked, but the city must have been made a prey by the edge of the sword by all the people of Israel. Nor is it doubtful that they wrought servile work, when, in obedience to God's precept, they drove the preys of war. For in the times of the Maccabees, too, they did bravely in fighting on the sabbaths, and routed their foreign foes, and recalled the law of their fathers to the primitive style of life by fighting on the sabbaths. Nor should I think it was any other law which they thus vindicated, than the one in which they remembered the existence of the prescript touching the day of the sabbaths. Whence it is manifest that the force of such precepts was temporary, and respected the necessity of present circumstances; and that it was not with a view to its observance in perpetuity that God formerly gave them such a law.
14. Tertullian, On The Apparel of Women, 1.3, 2.10 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

15. Tertullian, On Idolatry, 15.6 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

16. Origen, Commentary On John, 6.25 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

17. Origen, Against Celsus, 5.52-5.55 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.52. But the statement of Celsus which we wish to examine at present is the following: Let us then pass over the refutations which might be adduced against the claims of their teacher, and let him be regarded as really an angel. But is he the first and only one who came (to men), or were there others before him? If they should say that he is the only one, they would be convicted of telling lies against themselves. For they assert that on many occasions others came, and sixty or seventy of them together, and that these became wicked, and were cast under the earth and punished with chains, and that from this source originate the warm springs, which are their tears; and, moreover, that there came an angel to the tomb of this said being - according to some, indeed, one, but according to others, two - who answered the women that he had arisen. For the Son of God could not himself, as it seems, open the tomb, but needed the help of another to roll away the stone. And again, on account of the pregcy of Mary, there came an angel to the carpenter, and once more another angel, in order that they might take up the young Child and flee away (into Egypt). But what need is there to particularize everything, or to count up the number of angels said to have been sent to Moses, and others among them? If, then, others were sent, it is manifest that he also came from the same God. But he may be supposed to have the appearance of announcing something of greater importance (than those who preceded him), as if the Jews had been committing sin, or corrupting their religion, or doing deeds of impiety; for these things are obscurely hinted at. 5.53. The preceding remarks might suffice as an answer to the charges of Celsus, so far as regards those points in which our Saviour Jesus Christ is made the subject of special investigation. But that we may avoid the appearance of intentionally passing over any portion of his work, as if we were unable to meet him, let us, even at the risk of being tautological (since we are challenged to this by Celsus), endeavour as far as we can with all due brevity to continue our discourse, since perhaps something either more precise or more novel may occur to us upon the several topics. He says, indeed, that he has omitted the refutations which have been adduced against the claims which Christians advance on behalf of their teacher, although he has not omitted anything which he was able to bring forward, as is manifest from his previous language, but makes this statement only as an empty rhetorical device. That we are not refuted, however, on the subject of our great Saviour, although the accuser may appear to refute us, will be manifest to those who peruse in a spirit of truth-loving investigation all that is predicted and recorded of Him. And, in the next place, since he considers that he makes a concession in saying of the Saviour, Let him appear to be really an angel, we reply that we do not accept of such a concession from Celsus; but we look to the work of Him who came to visit the whole human race in His word and teaching, as each one of His adherents was capable of receiving Him. And this was the work of one who, as the prophecy regarding Him said, was not simply an angel, but the Angel of the great counsel: for He announced to men the great counsel of the God and Father of all things regarding them, (saying) of those who yield themselves up to a life of pure religion, that they ascend by means of their great deeds to God; but of those who do not adhere to Him, that they place themselves at a distance from God, and journey on to destruction through their unbelief of Him. He then continues: If even the angel came to men, is he the first and only one who came, or did others come on former occasions? And he thinks he can meet either of these dilemmas at great length, although there is not a single real Christian who asserts that Christ was the only being that visited the human race. For, as Celsus says, If they should say the only one, there are others who appeared to different individuals. 5.54. In the next place, he proceeds to answer himself as he thinks fit in the following terms: And so he is not the only one who is recorded to have visited the human race, as even those who, under pretext of teaching in the name of Jesus, have apostatized from the Creator as an inferior being, and have given in their adherence to one who is a superior God and father of him who visited (the world), assert that before him certain beings came from the Creator to visit the human race. Now, as it is in the spirit of truth that we investigate all that relates to the subject, we shall remark that it is asserted by Apelles, the celebrated disciple of Marcion, who became the founder of a certain sect, and who treated the writings of the Jews as fabulous, that Jesus is the only one that came to visit the human race. Even against him, then, who maintained that Jesus was the only one that came from God to men, it would be in vain for Celsus to quote the statements regarding the descent of other angels, seeing Apelles discredits, as we have already mentioned, the miraculous narratives of the Jewish Scriptures; and much more will he decline to admit what Celsus has adduced, from not understanding the contents of the Book of Enoch. No one, then, convicts us of falsehood, or of making contradictory assertions, as if we maintained both that our Saviour was the only being that ever came to men, and yet that many others came on different occasions. And in a most confused manner, moreover, does he adduce, when examining the subject of the visits of angels to men, what he has derived, without seeing its meaning, from the contents of the Book of Enoch; for he does not appear to have read the passages in question, nor to have been aware that the books which bear the name Enoch do not at all circulate in the Churches as divine, although it is from this source that he might be supposed to have obtained the statement, that sixty or seventy angels descended at the same time, who fell into a state of wickedness.
18. Origen, On First Principles, 1.3.3, 4.4.8 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 158
adam and christ Osborne (2001), Irenaeus of Lyons, 235
angelic sin,as epistemological transgression Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 148, 158
anthropology Osborne (2001), Irenaeus of Lyons, 235, 236
anti-christ Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 101
apocalyptic literature,and book of daniel Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 148, 158
apocalyptic literature,history of scholarship on Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 148, 158
appropriation Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 101
augustine Osborne (2001), Irenaeus of Lyons, 235
body Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 101
book of the watchers,circulation and transmission of Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 148
book of the watchers,quotations and allusions to Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 148
celsus Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 148
christ,resurrection of Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 101
christian Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 101
circumcised Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 101
circumcision Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 158
clement of alexandria Osborne (2001), Irenaeus of Lyons, 235
death Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 101
decalogue Osborne (2001), Irenaeus of Lyons, 236
elijah Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 101
enoch,as author Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 148
enoch,as pre-christian christian Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 148, 158
enoch,as prophet Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 148
enoch,as rebuking fallen angels Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 158
enoch,as righteous apart from the law Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 158
enoch,elevation of Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 158
enoch,escape from death Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 158
enoch Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 101
enochic literary tradition,place of book of dreams in Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 148, 158
enochic literature,christian preservation of Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 148
ethics Osborne (2001), Irenaeus of Lyons, 235, 236
free will and freedom Osborne (2001), Irenaeus of Lyons, 235
freedom Osborne (2001), Irenaeus of Lyons, 235, 236
genesis,and book of the watchers Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 148, 158
heaven Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 101
immortality Osborne (2001), Irenaeus of Lyons, 235
individual Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 101
intermarriage Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 148, 158
irenaeus Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 158
jesus Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 101
jesus movement,and enochic texts and traditions Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 148
jews Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 101
john the baptist Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 101
julius africanus Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 148
knowledge,revealed Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 148, 158
literary production Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 148, 158
love and truth Osborne (2001), Irenaeus of Lyons, 236
marcionites Osborne (2001), Irenaeus of Lyons, 236
melchizedek Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 101
miraculous Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 101
nicea,council of Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 148
noah Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 148, 158
obedience Osborne (2001), Irenaeus of Lyons, 235, 236
origen Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 148
participation Osborne (2001), Irenaeus of Lyons, 235, 236
paul Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 101
resurrection Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 101
righteous Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 101
righteousness Osborne (2001), Irenaeus of Lyons, 236
sabbath Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 101
second adam Osborne (2001), Irenaeus of Lyons, 235
slavery' Osborne (2001), Irenaeus of Lyons, 235
slavery Osborne (2001), Irenaeus of Lyons, 236
sons of god,as angels Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 148
tertullian Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 101; Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 158
titus Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 101
translation Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 101
uncircumcised Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 101
valentinians Osborne (2001), Irenaeus of Lyons, 235
vitae prophetarum Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 101