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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6793
Irenaeus, Refutation Of All Heresies, 1.20.1


nanBesides the above [misrepresentations], they adduce an unspeakable number of apocryphal and spurious writings, which they themselves have forged, to bewilder the minds of foolish men, and of such as are ignorant of the Scriptures of truth. Among other things, they bring forward that false and wicked story which relates that our Lord, when He was a boy learning His letters, on the teacher saying to Him, as is usual, "Pronounce Alpha," replied [as He was bid], "Alpha." But when, again, the teacher bade Him say, "Beta," the Lord replied, "Do thou first tell me what Alpha is, and then I will tell thee what Beta is." This they expound as meaning that He alone knew the Unknown, which He revealed under its type Alpha.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

13 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 61.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

61.2. לִקְרֹא שְׁנַת־רָצוֹן לַיהוָה וְיוֹם נָקָם לֵאלֹהֵינוּ לְנַחֵם כָּל־אֲבֵלִים׃ 61.2. To proclaim the year of the LORD’S good pleasure, And the day of vengeance of our God; To comfort all that mourn;"
2. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 12.9-12.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.9. וַיֹּאמֶר לֵךְ דָּנִיֵּאל כִּי־סְתֻמִים וַחֲתֻמִים הַדְּבָרִים עַד־עֵת קֵץ׃ 12.9. And he said: ‘Go thy way, Daniel; for the words are shut up and sealed till the time of the end." 12.10. Many shall purify themselves, and make themselves white, and be refined; but the wicked shall do wickedly; and none of the wicked shall understand; but they that are wise shall understand."
3. New Testament, Romans, 11.33 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.33. Oh the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and the knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past tracing out!
4. New Testament, Matthew, 11.25-11.27, 13.17, 19.11, 23.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.25. At that time, Jesus answered, "I thank you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that you hid these things from the wise and understanding, and revealed them to infants. 11.26. Yes, Father, for so it was well-pleasing in your sight. 11.27. All things have been delivered to me by my Father. No one knows the Son, except the Father; neither does anyone know the Father, except the Son, and he to whom the Son desires to reveal him. 13.17. For most assuredly I tell you that many prophets and righteous men desired to see the things which you see, and didn't see them; and to hear the things which you hear, and didn't hear them. 19.11. But he said to them, "Not all men can receive this saying, but those to whom it is given. 23.9. Call no man on the earth your father, for one is your Father, he who is in heaven.
5. Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies, 5.9.18-5.9.20, 6.42.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.1.3, 1.3.1, 1.3.6, 1.4.2, 1.5.3, 1.6.1, 1.6.4, 1.7.5, 1.8.1, 1.8.3, 1.9.1, 1.9.4, 1.10.2-1.10.3, 1.16.3, 1.19.1, 1.20.2-1.20.3, 1.24.5, 1.25.5, 1.31.1, 2.17.9, 2.22.4-2.22.5, 2.27.2-2.27.3, 2.28.6-2.28.7, 2.28.9, 3.4.1, 3.4.3, 3.8.1, 3.11.9, 3.12.11, 3.18.7, 3.21.5, 4.6.4, 4.33.8, 4.33.15, 4.35.4, 4.36.2, 5.35.1-5.35.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7. Irenaeus, Demonstration of The Apostolic Teaching, 36 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 72, 56 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

56. God who appeared to Moses is distinguished from God the Father Justin: Moses, then, the blessed and faithful servant of God, declares that He who appeared to Abraham under the oak in Mamre is God, sent with the two angels in His company to judge Sodom by Another who remains ever in the supercelestial places, invisible to all men, holding personal intercourse with none, whom we believe to be Maker and Father of all things; for he speaks thus: 'God appeared to him under the oak in Mamre, as he sat at his tent-door at noontide. And lifting up his eyes, he saw, and behold, three men stood before him; and when he saw them, he ran to meet them from the door of his tent; and he bowed himself toward the ground, and said . . .' Genesis 18:1-2 'Abraham went up early in the morning to the place where he stood before the Lord: and he looked toward Sodom and Gomorrha, and toward the adjacent country, and beheld, and, lo, a flame went up from the earth, like the smoke of a furnace.' And when I had made an end of quoting these words, I asked them if they had understood them. And they said they had understood them, but that the passages adduced brought forward no proof that there is any other God or Lord, or that the Holy Spirit says so, besides the Maker of all things. Justin: I shall attempt to persuade you, since you have understood the Scriptures, [of the truth] of what I say, that there is, and that there is said to be, another God and Lord subject to the Maker of all things; who is also called an Angel, because He announces to men whatsoever the Maker of all things— above whom there is no other God — wishes to announce to them. I quoted once more the previous passage. Justin: Do you think that God appeared to Abraham under the oak in Mamre, as the Scripture asserts? Trypho: Assuredly. Justin: Was He one of those three whom Abraham saw, and whom the Holy Spirit of prophecy describes as men? Trypho: No; but God appeared to him, before the vision of the three. Then those three whom the Scripture calls men, were angels; two of them sent to destroy Sodom, and one to announce the joyful tidings to Sarah, that she would bear a son; for which cause he was sent, and having accomplished his errand, went away. Justin: How then does the one of the three, who was in the tent, and who said, 'I shall return to you hereafter, and Sarah shall have a son,' Genesis 18:10 appear to have returned when Sarah had begotten a son, and to be there declared, by the prophetic word, God? But that you may clearly discern what I say, listen to the words expressly employed by Moses; they are these: 'And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian bond-woman, whom she bore to Abraham, sporting with Isaac her son, and said to Abraham, Cast out this bond-woman and her son; for the son of this bond-woman shall not share the inheritance of my son Isaac. And the matter seemed very grievous in Abraham's sight, because of his son. But God said to Abraham, Let it not be grievous in your sight because of the son, and because of the bond-woman. In all that Sarah has said to you, hearken to her voice; for in Isaac shall your seed be called.' Genesis 21:9-12 Have you perceived, then, that He who said under the oak that He would return, since He knew it would be necessary to advise Abraham to do what Sarah wished him, came back as it is written; and is God, as the words declare, when they so speak: 'God said to Abraham, Let it not be grievous in your sight because of the son, and because of the bond-woman?' Trypho: Certainly; but you have not proved from this that there is another God besides Him who appeared to Abraham, and who also appeared to the other patriarchs and prophets. You have proved, however, that we were wrong in believing that the three who were in the tent with Abraham were all angels. Justin: If I could not have proved to you from the Scriptures that one of those three is God, and is called Angel, because, as I already said, He brings messages to those to whom God the Maker of all things wishes [messages to be brought], then in regard to Him who appeared to Abraham on earth in human form in like manner as the two angels who came with Him, and who was God even before the creation of the world, it were reasonable for you to entertain the same belief as is entertained by the whole of your nation. Trypho: Assuredly, for up to this moment this has been our belief. Justin: Reverting to the Scriptures, I shall endeavour to persuade you, that He who is said to have appeared to Abraham, and to Jacob, and to Moses, and who is called God, is distinct from Him who made all things — numerically, I mean, not [distinct] in will. For I affirm that He has never at any time done anything which He who made the world— above whom there is no other God — has not wished Him both to do and to engage Himself with. Trypho: Prove now that this is the case, that we also may agree with you. For we do not understand you to affirm that He has done or said anything contrary to the will of the Maker of all things. Justin: The Scripture just quoted by me will make this plain to you. It is thus: 'The sun was risen on the earth, and Lot entered into Segor (Zoar); and the Lord rained on Sodom sulphur and fire from the Lord out of heaven, and overthrew these cities and all the neighbourhood.' Genesis 19:23 The fourth of those who had remained with Trypho: It must therefore necessarily be said that one of the two angels who went to Sodom, and is named by Moses in the Scripture Lord, is different from Him who also is God and appeared to Abraham. Justin: It is not on this ground solely that it must be admitted absolutely that some other one is called Lord by the Holy Spirit besides Him who is considered Maker of all things; not solely [for what is said] by Moses, but also [for what is said] by David. For there is written by him: 'The Lord says to my Lord, Sit on My right hand, until I make Your enemies Your footstool,' as I have already quoted. And again, in other words: 'Your throne, O God, is for ever and ever. A sceptre of equity is the sceptre of Your kingdom: You have loved righteousness and hated iniquity: therefore God, even Your God, has anointed You with the oil of gladness above Your fellows.' If, therefore, you assert that the Holy Spirit calls some other one God and Lord, besides the Father of all things and His Christ, answer me; for I undertake to prove to you from Scriptures themselves, that He whom the Scripture calls Lord is not one of the two angels that went to Sodom, but He who was with them, and is called God, that appeared to Abraham. Trypho: Prove this; for, as you see, the day advances, and we are not prepared for such perilous replies; since never yet have we heard any man investigating, or searching into, or proving these matters; nor would we have tolerated your conversation, had you not referred everything to the Scriptures: for you are very zealous in adducing proofs from them; and you are of opinion that there is no God above the Maker of all things. Justin: You are aware, then, that the Scripture says, 'And the Lord said to Abraham, Why did Sarah laugh, saying, Shall I truly conceive? For I am old. Is anything impossible with God? At the time appointed shall I return to you according to the time of life, and Sarah shall have a son.' Genesis 18:13-14 And after a little interval: 'And the men rose up from thence, and looked towards Sodom and Gomorrha; and Abraham went with them, to bring them on the way. And the Lord said, I will not conceal from Abraham, my servant, what I do.' Genesis 18:16-17 And again, after a little, it thus says: 'The Lord said, The cry of Sodom and Gomorrha is great, and their sins are very grievous. I will go down now, and see whether they have done altogether according to their cry which has come unto me; and if not, that I may know. And the men turned away thence, and went to Sodom. But Abraham was standing before the Lord; and Abraham drew near, and said, Will You destroy the righteous with the wicked?' Genesis 18:20-23 And so on, for I do not think fit to write over again the same words, having written them all before, but shall of necessity give those by which I established the proof to Trypho and his companions. Then I proceeded to what follows, in which these words are recorded: Justin: 'And the Lord went His way as soon as He had left communing with Abraham; and [Abraham] went to his place. And there came two angels to Sodom at even. And Lot sat in the gate of Sodom;' Genesis 18:33, Genesis 19:1 and what follows until, 'But the men put forth their hands, and pulled Lot into the house to them, and shut to the door of the house;' Genesis 19:10 and what follows till, And the angels laid hold on his hand, and on the hand of his wife, and on the hands of his daughters, the Lord being merciful to him. And it came to pass, when they had brought them forth abroad, that they said, Save, save your life. Look not behind you, nor stay in all the neighbourhood; escape to the mountain, lest you be taken along with [them]. And Lot said to them, I beseech [You], O Lord, since Your servant has found grace in Your sight, and You have magnified Your righteousness, which You show towards me in saving my life; but I cannot escape to the mountain, lest evil overtake me, and I die. Behold, this city is near to flee unto, and it is small: there I shall be safe, since it is small; and any soul shall live. And He said to him, Behold, I have accepted you also in this matter, so as not to destroy the city for which you have spoken. Make haste to save yourself there; for I shall not do anything till you have come there. Therefore he called the name of the city Segor (Zoar). The sun was risen upon the earth; and Lot entered into Segor (Zoar). And the Lord rained on Sodom and Gomorrha sulphur and fire from the Lord out of heaven; and He overthrew these cities, and all the neighbourhood. Genesis 19:16-25 Justin: (After another pause.) And now have you not perceived, my friends, that one of the three, who is both God and Lord, and ministers to Him who is in the heavens, is Lord of the two angels? For when [the angels] proceeded to Sodom, He remained behind, and communed with Abraham in the words recorded by Moses; and when He departed after the conversation, Abraham went back to his place. And when he came [to Sodom], the two angels no longer conversed with Lot, but Himself, as the Scripture makes evident; and He is the Lord who received commission from the Lord who [remains] in the heavens, i.e., the Maker of all things, to inflict upon Sodom and Gomorrha the [judgments] which the Scripture describes in these terms: 'The Lord rained down upon Sodom and Gomorrha sulphur and fire from the Lord out of heaven.'
9. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 3.25, 4.10 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

10. Origen, Against Celsus, 3.12 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.12. In the next place, since he reproaches us with the existence of heresies in Christianity as being a ground of accusation against it, saying that when Christians had greatly increased in numbers, they were divided and split up into factions, each individual desiring to have his own party; and further, that being thus separated through their numbers, they confute one another, still having, so to speak, one name in common, if indeed they still retain it. And this is the only thing which they are yet ashamed to abandon, while other matters are determined in different ways by the various sects. In reply to which, we say that heresies of different kinds have never originated from any matter in which the principle involved was not important and beneficial to human life. For since the science of medicine is useful and necessary to the human race, and many are the points of dispute in it respecting the manner of curing bodies, there are found, for this reason, numerous heresies confessedly prevailing in the science of medicine among the Greeks, and also, I suppose, among those barbarous nations who profess to employ medicine. And, again, since philosophy makes a profession of the truth, and promises a knowledge of existing things with a view to the regulation of life, and endeavours to teach what is advantageous to our race, and since the investigation of these matters is attended with great differences of opinion, innumerable heresies have consequently sprung up in philosophy, some of which are more celebrated than others. Even Judaism itself afforded a pretext for the origination of heresies, in the different acceptation accorded to the writings of Moses and those of the prophets. So, then, seeing Christianity appeared an object of veneration to men, not to the more servile class alone, as Celsus supposes, but to many among the Greeks who were devoted to literary pursuits, there necessarily originated heresies - not at all, however, as the result of faction and strife, but through the earnest desire of many literary men to become acquainted with the doctrines of Christianity. The consequence of which was, that, taking in different acceptations those discourses which were believed by all to be divine, there arose heresies, which received their names from those individuals who admired, indeed, the origin of Christianity, but who were led, in some way or other, by certain plausible reasons, to discordant views. And yet no one would act rationally in avoiding medicine because of its heresies; nor would he who aimed at that which is seemly entertain a hatred of philosophy, and adduce its many heresies as a pretext for his antipathy. And so neither are the sacred books of Moses and the prophets to be condemned on account of the heresies in Judaism.
11. Augustine, Reply To Faustus, 11.2 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

12. Epiphanius, Panarion, 31.23.1-31.23.4, 38.1.5 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

13. Theodoret of Cyrus, Compendium Against Heresies, 1.15 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 184
alexandria, alexandrian Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 294
allegory Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 157
anicetus Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 294
apokrypha Stroumsa, Hidden Widsom: Esoteric Traditions and the Roots of Christian Mysticism (1996) 39
apostolikon, marcions as a corruption of pauls letters Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 184
astrology Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 157
augustine Stroumsa, Hidden Widsom: Esoteric Traditions and the Roots of Christian Mysticism (1996) 39
basilides Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 294
blasphemy, heresy as Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 237
bridal chamber Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 476
canon, appeal in heresiology Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 236, 237
carpocratians Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 237, 243
cerinthus Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 157
church Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 476
cosmos, cosmology, nature Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 294
cyprus Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 294
demiurge Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 294
educated, erudite Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 294
education, monastic Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 305
elchasaites Stroumsa, Hidden Widsom: Esoteric Traditions and the Roots of Christian Mysticism (1996) 39
eusebius of caesarea Stroumsa, Hidden Widsom: Esoteric Traditions and the Roots of Christian Mysticism (1996) 39
excommunication Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 294
exegesis, allegorical Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 243, 244
exegesis, in gnosticism Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 236, 237, 243, 244
exegesis, in irenaeus Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 236, 237, 243, 244
exegesis, in valentianianism Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 237, 243
exegesis, literal Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 236, 237, 244
galen Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 294
gnosis, gnostic(ism) Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 476
gnosticism, cento Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 236
gnostics Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 294; Stroumsa, Hidden Widsom: Esoteric Traditions and the Roots of Christian Mysticism (1996) 39
herakleon Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 294
heresy Stroumsa, Hidden Widsom: Esoteric Traditions and the Roots of Christian Mysticism (1996) 39
heretics {see also gnostics; marcionites) Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 294
homer Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 157
hyginus, elder Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 294
infancy gospel of thomas, economic status of jesus Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 339
infancy gospel of thomas Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 339
intellectuals Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 294
irenaeus, criticism of gnostic exegesis Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 236, 237, 243, 244
irenaeus Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 157, 305
jewish people Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 244
john, gospel of Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 157
judeo-christianity Stroumsa, Hidden Widsom: Esoteric Traditions and the Roots of Christian Mysticism (1996) 39
manichaeans Stroumsa, Hidden Widsom: Esoteric Traditions and the Roots of Christian Mysticism (1996) 39
marcosians Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 476
matthew Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 208
moses Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 184
myth(ological), mythology Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 476
myth, associated with heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 243
nag hammadi codices, codex ii Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 305
numenius of apamea Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 305
old testament, criticism of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 237
origen Stroumsa, Hidden Widsom: Esoteric Traditions and the Roots of Christian Mysticism (1996) 39
parables Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 157
paul Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 157
philosophy, greek Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 157
pius, elder Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 294
plague Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 294
platonism Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 305; Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 294
pre‐existence, of christ Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 184
provincials, immigrants Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 294
ptolemy (valentinian, teacher of justin, apol. Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 294
revelation Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 305
rhetoric (study) Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 294
ritual' Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 476
scripture, as contested authority Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 243, 244
secrecy Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 305
septuagint Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 184
simonians (sect) Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 237
sin Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 208
succession, authentic succession Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 244
synoptic problem Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 208
syria(n) Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 476
teachers Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 184
tertullian Stroumsa, Hidden Widsom: Esoteric Traditions and the Roots of Christian Mysticism (1996) 39
torah (law) Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 157
trypho Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 184
valentinian(ism) Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 476
valentinians Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 157
valentinus Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 294; Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 184
εἱρμός Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 243, 244
νόθος Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 236, 237
παρεισφέρειν Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 236, 237
πιθανολογία Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 236
πλάσσειν Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 236, 237
τάξις Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 243, 244
ἀπόκρυφος Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 236, 237
ὑπόθεσις Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 243
ῥᾳδιούργημα Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 236, 237