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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6757
Iamblichus, Life Of Pythagoras, 83
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

15 results
1. Parmenides, Fragments, None (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2. Empedocles, Fragments, None (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

4. Aristoxenus, Fragments, None (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 5.87 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5.87. quare hoc hoc atque hoc Non. videndum est, possitne nobis hoc ratio philosophorum dare. pollicetur certe. nisi enim id faceret, cur Plato Aegyptum peragravit, ut a sacerdotibus barbaris numeros et caelestia acciperet? cur post Tarentum ad Archytam? cur ad reliquos Pythagoreos, Echecratem, Timaeum, Arionem, Locros, ut, cum Socratem expressisset, adiungeret Pythagoreorum disciplinam eaque, quae Socrates repudiabat, addisceret? cur ipse Pythagoras et Aegyptum lustravit et Persarum magos adiit? cur tantas regiones barbarorum pedibus obiit, tot maria transmisit? cur haec eadem Democritus? qui —vere falsone, quaerere mittimus quaerere mittimus Se. quereremus BER queremus V quae- rere nolumus C.F.W. Mue. —dicitur oculis se se oculis BE privasse; privavisse R certe, ut quam minime animus a cogitationibus abduceretur, patrimonium neglexit, agros deseruit incultos, quid quaerens aliud nisi vitam beatam? beatam vitam R quam si etiam in rerum cognitione ponebat, tamen ex illa investigatione naturae consequi volebat, bono ut esset animo. id enim ille id enim ille R ideo enim ille BE id ille V id est enim illi summum bonum; eu)qumi/an cet. coni. Mdv. summum bonum eu)qumi/an et saepe a)qambi/an appellat, id est animum terrore liberum. 5.87.  On this your cousin and I are agreed. Hence what we have to consider is this, can the systems of the philosophers give us happiness? They certainly profess to do so. Whether it not so, why did Plato travel through Egypt to learn arithmetic and astronomy from barbarian priests? Why did he later visit Archytas at Tarentum, or the other Pythagoreans, Echecrates, Timaeus and Arion, at Locri, intending to append to his picture of Socrates an account of the Pythagorean system and to extend his studies into those branches which Socrates repudiated? Why did Pythagoras himself scour Egypt and visit the Persian magi? why did he travel on foot through those vast barbarian lands and sail across those many seas? Why did Democritus do the same? It is related of Democritus (whether truly or falsely we are not concerned to inquire) that he deprived himself of eyesight; and it is certain that in order that his mind should be distracted as little as possible from reflection, he neglected his paternal estate and left his land uncultivated, engrossed in the search for what else but happiness? Even if he supposed happiness to consist in knowledge, still he designed that his study of natural philosophy should bring him cheerfulness of mind; since that is his conception of the Chief Good, which he entitles euthumia, or often athambia, that is freedom from alarm.
6. Cicero, Republic, 1.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.16. Dein Tubero: Nescio, Africane, cur ita memoriae proditum sit, Socratem omnem istam disputationem reiecisse et tantum de vita et de moribus solitum esse quaerere. Quem enim auctorem de illo locupletiorem Platone laudare possumus? cuius in libris multis locis ita loquitur Socrates, ut etiam, cum de moribus, de virtutibus, denique de re publica disputet, numeros tamen et geometriam et harmoniam studeat Pythagorae more coniungere. Tum Scipio: Sunt ista, ut dicis; sed audisse te credo, Tubero, Platonem Socrate mortuo primum in Aegyptum discendi causa, post in Italiam et in Siciliam contendisse, ut Pythagorae inventa perdisceret, eumque et cum Archyta Tarentino et cum Timaeo Locro multum fuisse et Philoleo commentarios esse ctum, cumque eo tempore in iis locis Pythagorae nomen vigeret, illum se et hominibus Pythagoreis et studiis illis dedisse. Itaque cum Socratem unice dilexisset eique omnia tribuere voluisset, leporem Socraticum subtilitatemque sermonis cum obscuritate Pythagorae et cum illa plurimarum artium gravitate contexuit.
7. Cicero, Timaeus, 1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

8. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 3.36, 4.55 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.36. quid iaces aut quid maeres aut cur succumbis cedisque fortunae? quae quae om. G 1 pervellere te forsitan potuerit et pungere, non potuit certe vires frangere. magna vis est in virtutibus; eas excita, si forte dormiunt. iam tibi aderit princeps fortitudo, quae te animo tanto esse coget, ut omnia, quae possint homini evenire, contemnas et pro nihilo putes. aderit temperantia, quae est eadem moderatio, a me quidem paulo ante appellata frugalitas, quae te turpiter et nequiter facere nihil patietur. patiatur X ( cf. coget 21 dicet 28) quid est autem nequius aut turpius ecfeminato eff. G 1 e corr. R 2 V rec viro? ne iustitia quidem sinet te ista facere, cui minimum esse videtur in hac causa loci; loqui X corr. V c? quae tamen ita dicet dupliciter esse te iniustum, cum et alienum adpetas, appetas V 2 qui mortalis natus condicionem conditionem GKV postules inmortalium et graviter feras te, quod utendum acceperis, reddidisse. 4.55. Oratorem vero irasci minime decet, simulare non dedecet. simulare n. dedecet om. V decet X an tibi irasci tum videmur, cum quid in causis acrius et vehementius dicimus? quid? cum iam rebus transactis et praeteritis orationes scribimus, num irati scribimus? ecquis ecquis s etquis X hoc animadvertit? Accius Atr. 233 animadvortet de orat. 3, 217 M (animum advertit L), quod hic quoque fort. restituendum vincite! —num aut egisse umquam iratum Aesopum aut scripsisse existimas existimamus KR iratum Accium? aguntur ista praeclare, et ab oratore quidem melius, si modo est orator, est orator melius G 1 quam ab ullo histrione, istrione X ( str. G 1 ) sed aguntur leniter et mente tranquilla. Libidinem vero laudare cuius est libidinis? lubid. GRK c Themistoclem mihi et Demosthenen demostenen X proferri G 1 profertis, additis Pythagoran Democritum Platonem. quid? vos studia libidinem libidine GK vocatis? quae vel optimarum rerum, ut ea sunt quae profertis, sedata tamen et et add. G 2 tranquilla esse debent. Iam aegritudinem laudare, unam rem maxime detestabilem, quorum est tandem philosophorum? at ad KR commode dixit Afranius: dum modo doleat aliquid, fr. 409 cf. p. 383, 13 doleat doleat lateat G 1 quidlibet. quidlibet hic X dixit enim de adulescente perdito ac dissoluto, nos autem de constanti viro ac sapienti sapienti ex -e V 1 quaerimus. et quidem ipsam illam iram centurio habeat aut signifer vel ceteri, de quibus dici non necesse est, ne rhetorum aperiamus mysteria. utile est enim uti motu utinmotu K 1 animi, qui uti ratione non potest. nos autem, ut testificor saepe, de sapiente quaerimus. quoque ( item post Afranii versum )
9. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 15.1-15.478 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Aelian, Varia Historia, 4.17 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

11. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 3.3.14, 5.9.59 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

12. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 1.7, 1.35, 1.77, 8.19, 8.24-8.35 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.35. of songs still sung these verses belong to him:Many words do not declare an understanding heart.Seek one sole wisdom.Choose one sole good.For thou wilt check the tongues of chatterers prating without end.Here too are certain current apophthegms assigned to him:of all things that are, the most ancient is God, for he is uncreated.The most beautiful is the universe, for it is God's workmanship.The greatest is space, for it holds all things.The swiftest is mind, for it speeds everywhere.The strongest, necessity, for it masters all.The wisest, time, for it brings everything to light.He held there was no difference between life and death. Why then, said one, do you not die? Because, said he, there is no difference. 1.77. Plato also cites him in the Protagoras: Even the gods do not fight against necessity. Again, office shows the man. Once, when asked what is the best thing, he replied, To do well the work in hand. And, when Croesus inquired what is the best rule, he answered, The rule of the shifting wood, by which he meant the law. He also urged men to win bloodless victories. When the Phocaean said that we must search for a good man, Pittacus rejoined, If you seek too carefully, you will never find him. He answered various inquiries thus: What is agreeable? Time. Obscure? The future. Trustworthy? The earth. Untrustworthy? The sea. It is the part of prudent men, he said, before difficulties arise, to provide against their arising; 8.19. Above all, he forbade as food red mullet and blacktail, and he enjoined abstinence from the hearts of animals and from beans, and sometimes, according to Aristotle, even from paunch and gurnard. Some say that he contented himself with just some honey or a honeycomb or bread, never touching wine in the daytime, and with greens boiled or raw for dainties, and fish but rarely. His robe was white and spotless, his quilts of white wool, for linen had not yet reached those parts. 8.24. to respect all divination, to sing to the lyre and by hymns to show due gratitude to gods and to good men. To abstain from beans because they are flatulent and partake most of the breath of life; and besides, it is better for the stomach if they are not taken, and this again will make our dreams in sleep smooth and untroubled.Alexander in his Successions of Philosophers says that he found in the Pythagorean memoirs the following tenets as well. 8.25. The principle of all things is the monad or unit; arising from this monad the undefined dyad or two serves as material substratum to the monad, which is cause; from the monad and the undefined dyad spring numbers; from numbers, points; from points, lines; from lines, plane figures; from plane figures, solid figures; from solid figures, sensible bodies, the elements of which are four, fire, water, earth and air; these elements interchange and turn into one another completely, and combine to produce a universe animate, intelligent, spherical, with the earth at its centre, the earth itself too being spherical and inhabited round about. There are also antipodes, and our down is their up. 8.26. Light and darkness have equal part in the universe, so have hot and cold, and dry and moist; and of these, if hot preponderates, we have summer; if cold, winter; if dry, spring; if moist, late autumn. If all are in equilibrium, we have the best periods of the year, of which the freshness of spring constitutes the healthy season, and the decay of late autumn the unhealthy. So too, in the day, freshness belongs to the morning, and decay to the evening, which is therefore more unhealthy. The air about the earth is stagt and unwholesome, and all within it is mortal; but the uppermost air is ever-moved and pure and healthy, and all within it is immortal and consequently divine. 8.27. The sun, the moon, and the other stars are gods; for, in them, there is a preponderance of heat, and heat is the cause of life. The moon is illumined by the sun. Gods and men are akin, inasmuch as man partakes of heat; therefore God takes thought for man. Fate is the cause of things being thus ordered both as a whole and separately. The sun's ray penetrates through the aether, whether cold or dense – the air they call cold aether, and the sea and moisture dense aether – and this ray descends even to the depths and for this reason quickens all things. 8.28. All things live which partake of heat – this is why plants are living things – but all have not soul, which is a detached part of aether, partly the hot and partly the cold, for it partakes of cold aether too. Soul is distinct from life; it is immortal, since that from which it is detached is immortal. Living creatures are reproduced from one another by germination; there is no such thing as spontaneous generation from earth. The germ is a clot of brain containing hot vapour within it; and this, when brought to the womb, throws out, from the brain, ichor, fluid and blood, whence are formed flesh, sinews, bones, hairs, and the whole of the body, while soul and sense come from the vapour within. 8.29. First congealing in about forty days, it receives form and, according to the ratios of harmony, in seven, nine, or at the most ten, months, the mature child is brought forth. It has in it all the relations constituting life, and these, forming a continuous series, keep it together according to the ratios of harmony, each appearing at regulated intervals. Sense generally, and sight in particular, is a certain unusually hot vapour. This is why it is said to see through air and water, because the hot aether is resisted by the cold; for, if the vapour in the eyes had been cold, it would have been dissipated on meeting the air, its like. As it is, in certain [lines] he calls the eyes the portals of the sun. His conclusion is the same with regard to hearing and the other senses. 8.30. The soul of man, he says, is divided into three parts, intelligence, reason, and passion. Intelligence and passion are possessed by other animals as well, but reason by man alone. The seat of the soul extends from the heart to the brain; the part of it which is in the heart is passion, while the parts located in the brain are reason and intelligence. The senses are distillations from these. Reason is immortal, all else mortal. The soul draws nourishment from the blood; the faculties of the soul are winds, for they as well as the soul are invisible, just as the aether is invisible. 8.31. The veins, arteries, and sinews are the bonds of the soul. But when it is strong and settled down into itself, reasonings and deeds become its bonds. When cast out upon the earth, it wanders in the air like the body. Hermes is the steward of souls, and for that reason is called Hermes the Escorter, Hermes the Keeper of the Gate, and Hermes of the Underworld, since it is he who brings in the souls from their bodies both by land and sea; and the pure are taken into the uppermost region, but the impure are not permitted to approach the pure or each other, but are bound by the Furies in bonds unbreakable. 8.32. The whole air is full of souls which are called genii or heroes; these are they who send men dreams and signs of future disease and health, and not to men alone, but to sheep also and cattle as well; and it is to them that purifications and lustrations, all divination, omens and the like, have reference. The most momentous thing in human life is the art of winning the soul to good or to evil. Blest are the men who acquire a good soul; they can never be at rest, nor ever keep the same course two days together. 8.33. Right has the force of an oath, and that is why Zeus is called the God of Oaths. Virtue is harmony, and so are health and all good and God himself; this is why they say that all things are constructed according to the laws of harmony. The love of friends is just concord and equality. We should not pay equal worship to gods and heroes, but to the gods always, with reverent silence, in white robes, and after purification, to the heroes only from midday onwards. Purification is by cleansing, baptism and lustration, and by keeping clean from all deaths and births and all pollution, and abstaining from meat and flesh of animals that have died, mullets, gurnards, eggs and egg-sprung animals, beans, and the other abstinences prescribed by those who perform rites in the sanctuaries. 8.34. According to Aristotle in his work On the Pythagoreans, Pythagoras counselled abstinence from beans either because they are like the genitals, or because they are like the gates of Hades . . . as being alone unjointed, or because they are injurious, or because they are like the form of the universe, or because they belong to oligarchy, since they are used in election by lot. He bade his disciples not to pick up fallen crumbs, either in order to accustom them not to eat immoderately, or because connected with a person's death; nay, even, according to Aristophanes, crumbs belong to the heroes, for in his Heroes he says:Nor taste ye of what falls beneath the board !Another of his precepts was not to eat white cocks, as being sacred to the Month and wearing suppliant garb – now supplication ranked with things good – sacred to the Month because they announce the time of day; and again white represents the nature of the good, black the nature of evil. Not to touch such fish as were sacred; for it is not right that gods and men should be allotted the same things, any more than free men and slaves. 8.35. Not to break bread; for once friends used to meet over one loaf, as the barbarians do even to this day; and you should not divide bread which brings them together; some give as the explanation of this that it has reference to the judgement of the dead in Hades, others that bread makes cowards in war, others again that it is from it that the whole world begins.He held that the most beautiful figure is the sphere among solids, and the circle among plane figures. Old age may be compared to everything that is decreasing, while youth is one with increase. Health means retention of the form, disease its destruction. of salt he said it should be brought to table to remind us of what is right; for salt preserves whatever it finds, and it arises from the purest sources, sun and sea.
13. Iamblichus, Life of Pythagoras, 81-82, 84-86, 97-98, 100 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

14. Porphyry, Life of Pythagoras, 41-45, 37 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

37. His utterances were of two kinds, plain or symbolical. His teaching was twofold: of his disciples some were called Students, and others Hearers. The Students learned the fuller and more exactly elaborate reasons of science, while the Hearers heard only the chief heads of learning, without more detailed explanations. SPAN
15. Aristoxenus, Fragments, None



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 30
acts of the apostles Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 30
acusmata Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 152, 342, 585
alexander polyhistor Bryan, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164; Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
antiphon Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 30
archytas of tarentum Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
aristotle Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 80, 81, 82
aristoxenus Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
bias of priene Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 81
chaeremon the stoic, on the egyptian priests Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 30
chryssipus Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 30
cicero Bryan, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164; Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
delatte, a. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 81; Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 342
diogenes laertius Bryan, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164; Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
dionysus Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 238
empedocles, daimonology and metempsychosis in Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 238
giangiulio, m. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 82
glory Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 342
gold tablets Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 238
herzog, r. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 81
hölk, c. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 80
hüffmeier, a. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 82
iamblichus Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 80, 82; Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
joly, r. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 81
memory, review of the previous day Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 585
memory Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 585
mewaldt, j. Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 152
minar, e. Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 342
mêtis Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 238
nigidius figulus Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
opinion Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 342
ovid Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
parmenides, doxa, its governing goddess Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 238
parmenides, his embryology Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 238
parmenides, on the soul, and metempsychosis Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 238
parmenides, the kouros journey, as a journey of the soul Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 238
philolaus Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
places, e. des Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 82
porphyry Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 82; Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
pseudepigrapha Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
pythagoras Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 81, 82; Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
pythagoras and the pythagoreans, and metempsychosis Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 238
pythagorean precepts, order of Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 152
pythagoreans, division of mathematici and acousmati Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
pythagoreans, structure of daily activities Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 585
pythagoreans, writings of Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
riedweg, c. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 80
rohde, e. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 80, 82
rose, v. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 82
rösler, w. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 81
solon Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 81
wehrli, f. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 81
zhmud, l.' Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 80
zhmud, l. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 81