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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6704
Horace, Odes, 3.30


nanAERE PERENNIUS I’ve raised a monument, more durable than bronze, one higher than the Pyramids’ royal towers, that no devouring rain, or fierce northerly gale, has power to destroy: nor the immeasurable succession of years, and the swift passage of time. I’ll not utterly die, but a rich part of me, will escape Persephone: and fresh with the praise of posterity, I’ll rise, beyond. While the High Priest, and the silent Virgin, climb the Capitol, I’ll be famous, I, born of humble origin, (from where wild Aufidus roars, and where Daunus once, lacking in streams, ruled over a rural people) as the first to re-create Aeolian song in Italian verse. Melpomene, take pride, in what has been earned by your merit, and, Muse, willingly, crown my hair, with the Delphic laurel.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

29 results
1. Hesiod, Theogony, 28, 27 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

27. Those daughters of Lord Zeus proclaimed to me:
2. Homer, Odyssey, 9.82-9.97 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

3. Cicero, De Oratore, 2.36 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.36. Historia vero testis temporum, lux veritatis, vita memoriae, magistra vitae, nuntia vetustatis, qua voce alia nisi oratoris immortalitati commendatur? Nam si qua est ars alia, quae verborum aut faciendorum aut legendorum scientiam profiteatur; aut si quisquam dicitur nisi orator formare orationem eamque variare et distinguere quasi quibusdam verborum sententiarumque insignibus; aut si via ulla nisi ab hac una arte traditur aut argumentorum aut sententiarum aut denique discriptionis atque ordinis, fateamur aut hoc, quod haec ars profiteatur, alienum esse aut cum alia aliqua arte esse commune: sed si in hac una est ea ratio atque doctrina, non, si qui aliarum artium bene locuti sunt, eo minus id est huius unius proprium;
4. Augustus, Res Gestae Divi Augusti, 20 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

5. Catullus, Poems, 1.9-1.10, 68.5-68.6 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6. Horace, Ars Poetica, 388 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7. Horace, Odes, 1.1.29-1.1.36, 1.4, 1.6, 2.18, 2.20, 3.14, 3.30.1-3.30.2, 3.30.10, 4.11 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.4. 2. Now at the time when this great concussion of affairs happened, the affairs of the Romans were themselves in great disorder. Those Jews also, who were for innovations, then arose when the times were disturbed; they were also in a flourishing condition for strength and riches, insomuch that the affairs of the East were then exceeding tumultuous, while some hoped for gain, and others were afraid of loss in such troubles; 1.4. and when the city had already received its sacred constitution again, Antiochus died; whose son Antiochus succeeded him in the kingdom, and in his hatred to the Jews also. 1.4. but when Zenodorus was dead, Caesar bestowed on him all that land which lay between Trachonitis and Galilee. Yet, what was still of more consequence to Herod, he was beloved by Caesar next after Agrippa, and by Agrippa next after Caesar; whence he arrived at a very great degree of felicity. Yet did the greatness of his soul exceed it, and the main part of his magimity was extended to the promotion of piety. 1.6. I thought it therefore an absurd thing to see the truth falsified in affairs of such great consequence, and to take no notice of it; but to suffer those Greeks and Romans that were not in the wars to be ignorant of these things, and to read either flatteries or fictions, while the Parthians, and the Babylonians, and the remotest Arabians, and those of our nation beyond Euphrates, with the Adiabeni, by my means, knew accurately both whence the war begun, what miseries it brought upon us, and after what manner it ended. 1.6. And as the siege was delayed by this means, the year of rest came on, upon which the Jews rest every seventh year as they do on every seventh day. On this year, therefore, Ptolemy was freed from being besieged, and slew the brethren of John, with their mother, and fled to Zeno, who was also called Cotylas, who was the tyrant of Philadelphia. 1.6. Whereupon the king avenged this insolent attempt of the mother upon her son, and blotted Herod, whom he had by her, out of his testament, who had been before named therein as successor to Antipater. 2.18. but as soon as those that were his hinderance were gone, when Varus was gone to Antioch, and Archelaus was sailed to Rome, he immediately went on to Jerusalem, and seized upon the palace. And when he had called for the governors of the citadels, and the stewards [of the king’s private affairs], he tried to sift out the accounts of the money, and to take possession of the citadels. 2.18. This was told to Tiberius by one of Agrippa’s domestics, who thereupon was very angry, and ordered Agrippa to be bound, and had him very ill-treated in the prison for six months, until Tiberius died, after he had reigned twenty-two years, six months, and three days. 3.14. Accordingly, he wrote these things, and sent messengers immediately to carry his letter to Jerusalem. 3.14. but Antonius, who was not unapprised of the attack they were going to make upon the city, drew out his horsemen beforehand, and being neither daunted at the multitude, nor at the courage of the enemy, received their first attacks with great bravery; and when they crowded to the very walls, he beat them off. 4.11. 3. But Vespasian removed from Emmaus, where he had last pitched his camp before the city Tiberias (now Emmaus, if it be interpreted, may be rendered “a warm bath,” for therein is a spring of warm water, useful for healing) and came to Gamala; 4.11. And indeed there was a miserable destruction made of the women and children; while some of them took courage to call their husbands and kinsmen back, and to beseech them, with the bitterest lamentations, to stay for them;
8. Horace, Letters, 1.1.10, 1.20, 2.1, 2.2.180-2.2.181 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.1. 1. After the death of Isaac, his sons divided their habitations respectively; nor did they retain what they had before; but Esau departed from the city of Hebron, and left it to his brother, and dwelt in Seir, and ruled over Idumea. He called the country by that name from himself, for he was named Adom; which appellation he got on the following occasion:— 2.1. This affection of his father excited the envy and the hatred of his brethren; as did also his dreams which he saw, and related to his father, and to them, which foretold his future happiness, it being usual with mankind to envy their very nearest relations such their prosperity. Now the visions which Joseph saw in his sleep were these:— 2.1. 3. Now these brethren of his were under distraction and terror, and thought that very great danger hung over them; yet not at all reflecting upon their brother Joseph, and standing firm under the accusations laid against them, they made their defense by Reubel, the eldest of them, who now became their spokesman:
9. Horace, Sermones, 2.3.115-2.3.116 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

10. Livy, History, None (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

11. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 5.1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

12. Ovid, Amores, 1.1-1.2, 1.8.2, 1.15, 1.15.25-1.15.28, 2.12, 3.9 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Ovid, Fasti, 5.517-5.518 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

5.517. Recovering his wits, he sacrificed the ox that ploughed 5.518. His meagre land, and roasted it in a great fire:
14. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 2.1-2.4, 15.745-15.879 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Ovid, Tristia, 3.1, 4.10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Propertius, Elegies, 2.1.31-2.1.34, 3.4 (1st cent. BCE

17. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.1, 8.671-8.713 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.1. Arms and the man I sing, who first made way 8.671. Seek ye a king from far!’ So in the field 8.672. inert and fearful lies Etruria's force 8.673. disarmed by oracles. Their Tarchon sent 8.674. envoys who bore a sceptre and a crown 8.675. even to me, and prayed I should assume 8.676. the sacred emblems of Etruria's king 8.677. and lead their host to war. But unto me 8.678. cold, sluggish age, now barren and outworn 8.679. denies new kingdoms, and my slow-paced powers 8.680. run to brave deeds no more. Nor could I urge 8.681. my son, who by his Sabine mother's line 8.682. is half Italian-born. Thyself art he 8.683. whose birth illustrious and manly prime 8.684. fate favors and celestial powers approve. 8.685. Therefore go forth, O bravest chief and King 8.686. of Troy and Italy ! To thee I give 8.687. the hope and consolation of our throne 8.688. pallas, my son, and bid him find in thee 8.689. a master and example, while he learns 8.690. the soldier's arduous toil. With thy brave deeds 8.691. let him familiar grow, and reverence thee 8.692. with youthful love and honor. In his train 8.693. two hundred horsemen of Arcadia 8.694. our choicest men-at-arms, shall ride; and he 8.695. in his own name an equal band shall bring 8.696. to follow only thee.” Such the discourse. 8.697. With meditative brows and downcast eyes 8.698. Aeneas and Achates, sad at heart 8.699. mused on unnumbered perils yet to come. 8.700. But out of cloudless sky Cythera's Queen 8.701. gave sudden signal: from th' ethereal dome 8.702. a thunder-peal and flash of quivering fire 8.703. tumultuous broke, as if the world would fall 8.704. and bellowing Tuscan trumpets shook the air. 8.705. All eyes look up. Again and yet again 8.706. crashed the terrible din, and where the sky 8.707. looked clearest hung a visionary cloud 8.708. whence through the brightness blazed resounding arms. 8.709. All hearts stood still. But Troy 's heroic son 8.710. knew that his mother in the skies redeemed 8.711. her pledge in sound of thunder: so he cried 8.712. “Seek not, my friend, seek not thyself to read 8.713. the meaning of the omen. 'T is to me
18. Vergil, Eclogues, 6 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

19. Vergil, Georgics, 2.472, 3.1-3.48 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.472. Besport them, sheep and heifers glut their greed. 3.1. Thee too, great Pales, will I hymn, and thee 3.2. Amphrysian shepherd, worthy to be sung 3.3. You, woods and waves Lycaean. All themes beside 3.4. Which else had charmed the vacant mind with song 3.5. Are now waxed common. of harsh Eurystheus who 3.6. The story knows not, or that praiseless king 3.7. Busiris, and his altars? or by whom 3.8. Hath not the tale been told of Hylas young 3.9. Latonian Delos and Hippodame 3.10. And Pelops for his ivory shoulder famed 3.11. Keen charioteer? Needs must a path be tried 3.12. By which I too may lift me from the dust 3.13. And float triumphant through the mouths of men. 3.14. Yea, I shall be the first, so life endure 3.15. To lead the Muses with me, as I pa 3.16. To mine own country from the Aonian height; 3.17. I, placeName key= 3.18. of Idumaea, and raise a marble shrine 3.19. On thy green plain fast by the water-side 3.20. Where Mincius winds more vast in lazy coils 3.21. And rims his margent with the tender reed. 3.22. Amid my shrine shall Caesar's godhead dwell. 3.23. To him will I, as victor, bravely dight 3.24. In Tyrian purple, drive along the bank 3.25. A hundred four-horse cars. All placeName key= 3.26. Leaving Alpheus and Molorchus' grove 3.27. On foot shall strive, or with the raw-hide glove; 3.28. Whilst I, my head with stripped green olive crowned 3.29. Will offer gifts. Even 'tis present joy 3.30. To lead the high processions to the fane 3.31. And view the victims felled; or how the scene 3.32. Sunders with shifted face, and placeName key= 3.33. Inwoven thereon with those proud curtains rise. 3.34. of gold and massive ivory on the door 3.35. I'll trace the battle of the Gangarides 3.36. And our Quirinus' conquering arms, and there 3.37. Surging with war, and hugely flowing, the placeName key= 3.38. And columns heaped on high with naval brass. 3.39. And placeName key= 3.40. And quelled Niphates, and the Parthian foe 3.41. Who trusts in flight and backward-volleying darts 3.42. And trophies torn with twice triumphant hand 3.43. From empires twain on ocean's either shore. 3.44. And breathing forms of Parian marble there 3.45. Shall stand, the offspring of Assaracus 3.46. And great names of the Jove-descended folk 3.47. And father Tros, and placeName key= 3.48. of Cynthus. And accursed Envy there
20. Vitruvius Pollio, On Architecture, 1.1.5, 2.8.16, 2.9.14, 2.9.16, 9.6.3 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

21. Martial, Epigrams, 10.2, 10.48 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Martial, Epigrams, 10.2, 10.48 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

23. New Testament, Luke, 2.32 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.32. A light for revelation to the Gentiles, And the glory of your people Israel.
24. Seneca The Younger, On Anger, 1.21.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

25. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 86.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

26. Statius, Siluae, 2.4.11-2.4.12, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

27. Apuleius, The Golden Ass, 5.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

28. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 5.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.6. To Domitius Apollinaris. I was charmed with the kind consideration which led you, when you heard that I was about to visit my Tuscan villa in the summer, to advise me not to do so during the season when you consider the district unhealthy. Undoubtedly, the region along the Tuscan coast is trying and dangerous to the health, but my property lies well back from the sea; indeed, it is just under the Apennines, which are the healthiest of our mountain ranges. However, that you may not have the slightest anxiety on my account, let me tell you all about the climatic conditions, the lie of the land, and the charms of my villa. It will be as pleasant reading for you as it is pleasant writing for me. In winter the air is cold and frosty The contour of the district is most beautiful. Picture to yourself an immense amphitheatre, such as only Nature can create, with a wide-spreading plain ringed with hills, and the summits of the hills themselves covered with tall and ancient forests. There is plentiful and varied hunting to be had. Down the mountain slopes there are stretches of timber woods, and among these are rich, deep-soiled hillocks - where if you look for a stone you will have hard work to find one - which are just as fertile as the most level plains, and ripen just as rich harvests, though later in the season. Below these, along the whole hillsides, stretch the vineyards which present an unbroken line far and wide, on the borders and lowest level of which comes a fringe of trees. Then you reach the meadows and the fields - fields which only the most powerful oxen and the stoutest ploughs can turn. The soil is so tough and composed of such thick clods that when it is first broken up it has to be furrowed nine times before it is subdued. The meadows are jewelled with flowers, and produce trefoil and other herbs, always tender and soft, and looking as though they were always fresh. For all parts are well nourished by never-failing streams, and even where there is most water there are no swamps, for the slope of the land drains off into the Tiber all the moisture that it receives and cannot itself absorb. The Tiber runs through the middle of the plain; it is navigable for ships, and all the grain is carried downstream to the city, at least in winter and spring. In summer the volume of water dwindles away, leaving but the name of a great river to the dried-up bed, but in the autumn it recovers its flood. You would be delighted if you could obtain a view of the district from the mountain height, for you would think you were looking not so much at earth and fields as at a beautiful landscape picture of wonderful loveliness. Such is the variety, such the arrangement of the scene, that wherever the eyes fall they are sure to be refreshed. My villa, though it lies at the foot of the hill, enjoys as fine a prospect as though it stood on the summit; the ascent is so gentle and easy, and the gradient so unnoticeable, that you find yourself at the top without feeling that you are ascending. The Apennines lie behind it, but at a considerable distance, and even on a cloudless and still day it gets a breeze from this range, never boisterous and rough, for its strength is broken and lost in the distance it has to travel. Most of the house faces south; in summer it gets the sun from the sixth hour, and in winter considerably earlier, inviting it as it were into the portico, which is broad and long to correspond, and contains a number of apartments and an old-fashioned hall. In front, there is a terrace laid out in different patterns and bounded with an edging of box; then comes a sloping ridge with figures of animals on both sides cut out of the box-trees, while on the level ground stands an acanthus-tree, with leaves so soft that I might almost call them liquid. Round this is a walk bordered by evergreens pressed and trimmed into various shapes; then comes an exercise ground, round like a circus, which surrounds the box-trees that are cut into different forms, and the dwarf shrubs that are kept clipped. Everything is protected by an enclosure, which is hidden and withdrawn from sight by the tiers of box-trees. Beyond is a meadow, as well worth seeing for its natural charm as the features just described are for their artificial beauty, and beyond that there stretches an expanse of fields and a number of other meadows and thickets. At the head of the portico there runs out the dining-room, from the doors of which can be seen the end of the terrace with the meadow and a good expanse of country beyond it, while from the windows the view on the one hand commands one side of the terrace and the part of the villa which juts out, and on the other the grove and foliage of the adjoining riding-school. Almost opposite to the middle of the portico is a summer-house standing back a little, with a small open space in the middle shaded by four plane-trees. Among them is a marble fountain, from which the water plays upon and lightly sprinkles the roots of the plane-trees and the grass plot beneath them. In this summer-house there is a bed-chamber which excludes all light, noise, and sound, and adjoining it is a dining-room for my friends, which faces upon the small court and the other portico, and commands the view enjoyed by the latter. There is another bed-chamber, which is leafy and shaded by the nearest plane-tree and built of marble up to the balcony; above is a picture of a tree with birds perched in the branches equally beautiful with the marble. Here there is a small fountain with a basin around the latter, and the water runs into it from a number of small pipes, which produce a most agreeable sound. In the corner of the portico is a spacious bed-chamber leading out of the dining-room, some of its windows looking out upon the terrace, others upon the meadow, while the windows in front face the fish-pond which lies just beneath them, and is pleasant both to eye and ear, as the water falls from a considerable elevation and glistens white as it is caught in the marble basin. This bed-chamber is beautifully warm even in winter, for it is flooded with an abundance of sunshine. The heating chamber for the bath adjoins it, and on a cloudy day we turn in steam to take the place of the sun's warmth. Next comes a roomy and cheerful undressing room for the bath, from which you pass into a cool chamber containing a large and shady swimming bath. If you prefer more room or warmer water to swim in, there is a pond in the court with a well adjoining it, from which you can make the water colder when you are tired of the warm. Adjoining the cold bath is one of medium warmth, for the sun shines lavishly upon it, but not so much as upon the hot bath which is built farther out. There are three sets of steps leading to it, two exposed to the sun, and the third out of the sun though quite as light. Above the dressing-room is a ball court where various kinds of exercise can be taken, and a number of games can be played at once. Not far from the bath-room is a staircase leading to a covered passage, at the head of which are three rooms, one looking out upon the courtyard with the four plane-trees, the second upon the meadow, and the third upon the vineyards, so each therefore enjoys a different view. At the end of the passage is a bed-chamber constructed out of the passage itself, which looks out upon the riding-course, the vineyards, and the mountains. Connected with it is another bed-chamber open to the sun, and especially so in winter time. Leading out of this is an apartment which adjoins the riding-course of the villa. Such is the appearance and the use to which the front of my house is put. At the side is a raised covered gallery, which seems not so much to look out upon the vineyards as to touch them; in the middle is a dining-room which gets the invigorating breezes from the valleys of the Apennines, while at the other side, through the spacious windows and the folding doors, you seem to be close upon the vineyards again with the gallery between. On the side of the room where there are no windows is a private winding staircase by which the servants bring up the requisites for a meal. At the end of the gallery is a bed-chamber, and the gallery itself affords as pleasant a prospect from there as the vineyards. Underneath runs a sort of subterranean gallery, which in summer time remains perfectly cool, and as it has sufficient air within it, it neither admits any from without nor needs any. Next to both these galleries the portico commences where the dining-room ends, and this is cold before mid-day, and summery when the sun has reached his zenith. This gives the approach to two apartments, one of which contains four beds and the other three, and they are bathed in sunshine or steeped in shadow, according to the position of the sun. But though the arrangements of the house itself are charming, they are far and away surpassed by the riding-course. It is quite open in the centre, and the moment you enter your eye ranges over the whole of it. Around its borders are plane-trees clothed with ivy, and so while the foliage at the top belongs to the trees themselves, that on the lower parts belongs to the ivy, which creeps along the trunk and branches, and spreading across to the neighbouring trees, joins them together. Between the plane-trees are box shrubs, and on the farther side of the shrubs is a ring of laurels which mingle their shade with that of the plane-trees. At the far end, the straight boundary of the riding-course is curved into semi-circular form, which quite changes its appearance. It is enclosed and covered with cypress-trees, the deeper shade of which makes it darker and gloomier than at the sides, but the inner circles - for there are more than one - are quite open to the sunshine. Even roses grow there, and the warmth of the sun is delightful as a change from the cool of the shade. When you come to the end of these various winding alleys, the boundary again runs straight, or should I say boundaries, for there are a number of paths with box shrubs between them. In places there are grass plots intervening, in others box shrubs, which are trimmed to a great variety of patterns, some of them being cut into letters forming my name as owner and that of the gardener. Here and there are small pyramids and apple-trees, and now and then in the midst of all this graceful artificial work you suddenly come upon what looks like a real bit of the country planted there. The intervening space is beautified on both sides with dwarf plane-trees; beyond these is the acanthus-tree that is supple and flexible to the hand, and there are more boxwood figures and names. At the upper end is a couch of white marble covered with a vine, the latter being supported by four small pillars of Carystian marble. Jets of water flow from the couch through small pipes and look as if they were forced out by the weight of persons reclining thereon, and the water is caught in a stone cistern and then retained in a graceful marble basin, regulated by pipes out of sight, so that the basin, while always full, never overflows. The heavier dishes and plates are placed at the side of the basin when I dine there, but the lighter ones, formed into the shapes of little boats and birds, float on the surface and travel round and round. Facing this is a fountain which receives back the water it expels, for the water is thrown up to a considerable height and then falls down again, and the pipes that perform the two processes are connected. Directly opposite the couch is a bed-chamber, and each lends a grace to the other. It is formed of glistening marble, and through the projecting folding doors you pass at once among the foliage, while both from the upper and lower windows you look out upon the same green picture. Within is a little cabinet which seems to belong at once to the same and yet another bed-chamber. This contains a bed and it has windows on every side, yet the shade is so thick outside that very little light enters, for a wonderfully luxuriant vine has climbed up to the roof and covers the whole building. You can fancy you are in a grove as you lie there, only that you do not feel the rain as you do among trees. Here too a fountain rises and immediately loses itself underground. There are a number of marble chairs placed up and down, which are as restful for persons tired with walking as the bed-chamber itself. Near these chairs are little fountains, and throughout the whole riding-course you hear the murmur of tiny streams carried through pipes, which run wherever you please to direct them. These are used to water the shrubs, sometimes in one part, sometimes in another, and at other times all are watered together. I should long since have been afraid of boring you, had I not set out in this letter to take you with me round every corner of my estate. For I am not at all apprehensive that you will find it tedious to read about a place which certainly would not tire you to look at, especially as you can get a little rest whenever you desire, and can sit down, so to speak, by laying down the letter. Moreover, I have been indulging my affection for the place, for I am greatly attached to anything that is mainly the work of my own hands or that someone else has begun and I have taken up. In short - for there is no reason is there? why I should not be frank with you, whether my judgments are sound or unsound - I consider that it is the first duty of a writer to select the title of his work and constantly ask himself what he has begun to write about. He may be sure that so long as he keeps to his subject-matter he will not be tedious, but that he will bore his readers to distraction if he starts dragging in extraneous matter to make weight. Observe the length with which Homer describes the arms of Achilles, and Virgil the arms of Aeneas - yet in both cases the description seems short, because the author only carries out what he intended to. Observe how Aratus hunts up and brings together even the tiniest stars - yet he does not exceed due limits. For his description is not an excursus, but the end and aim of the whole work. It is the same with myself, if I may compare my lowly efforts with their great ones. I have been trying to give you a bird's eye view of the whole of my villa, and if I have introduced no extraneous matter and have never wandered off my subject, it is not the letter containing the description which is to be considered of excessive size, but rather the villa which has been described. However, let me get back to the point I started from, lest I give you an opportunity of justly condemning me by my own law, by not pursuing this digression any farther. I have explained to you why I prefer my Tuscan house to my other places at Tusculum, Tibur and Praeneste. For in addition to all the beauties I have described above, my repose here is more profound and more comfortable, and therefore all the freer from anxiety. There is no necessity to don the toga, no neighbour ever calls to drag me out; everything is placid and quiet; and this peace adds to the healthiness of the place, by giving it, so to speak, a purer sky and a more liquid air. I enjoy better health both in mind and body here than anywhere else, for I exercise the former by study and the latter by hunting. Besides, there is no place where my household keep in better trim, and up to the present I have not lost a single one of all whom I brought with me. I hope Heaven will forgive the boast, and that the gods will continue my happiness to me and preserve this place in all its beauty. Farewell.
29. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 5.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.6. To Domitius Apollinaris. I was charmed with the kind consideration which led you, when you heard that I was about to visit my Tuscan villa in the summer, to advise me not to do so during the season when you consider the district unhealthy. Undoubtedly, the region along the Tuscan coast is trying and dangerous to the health, but my property lies well back from the sea; indeed, it is just under the Apennines, which are the healthiest of our mountain ranges. However, that you may not have the slightest anxiety on my account, let me tell you all about the climatic conditions, the lie of the land, and the charms of my villa. It will be as pleasant reading for you as it is pleasant writing for me. In winter the air is cold and frosty The contour of the district is most beautiful. Picture to yourself an immense amphitheatre, such as only Nature can create, with a wide-spreading plain ringed with hills, and the summits of the hills themselves covered with tall and ancient forests. There is plentiful and varied hunting to be had. Down the mountain slopes there are stretches of timber woods, and among these are rich, deep-soiled hillocks - where if you look for a stone you will have hard work to find one - which are just as fertile as the most level plains, and ripen just as rich harvests, though later in the season. Below these, along the whole hillsides, stretch the vineyards which present an unbroken line far and wide, on the borders and lowest level of which comes a fringe of trees. Then you reach the meadows and the fields - fields which only the most powerful oxen and the stoutest ploughs can turn. The soil is so tough and composed of such thick clods that when it is first broken up it has to be furrowed nine times before it is subdued. The meadows are jewelled with flowers, and produce trefoil and other herbs, always tender and soft, and looking as though they were always fresh. For all parts are well nourished by never-failing streams, and even where there is most water there are no swamps, for the slope of the land drains off into the Tiber all the moisture that it receives and cannot itself absorb. The Tiber runs through the middle of the plain; it is navigable for ships, and all the grain is carried downstream to the city, at least in winter and spring. In summer the volume of water dwindles away, leaving but the name of a great river to the dried-up bed, but in the autumn it recovers its flood. You would be delighted if you could obtain a view of the district from the mountain height, for you would think you were looking not so much at earth and fields as at a beautiful landscape picture of wonderful loveliness. Such is the variety, such the arrangement of the scene, that wherever the eyes fall they are sure to be refreshed. My villa, though it lies at the foot of the hill, enjoys as fine a prospect as though it stood on the summit; the ascent is so gentle and easy, and the gradient so unnoticeable, that you find yourself at the top without feeling that you are ascending. The Apennines lie behind it, but at a considerable distance, and even on a cloudless and still day it gets a breeze from this range, never boisterous and rough, for its strength is broken and lost in the distance it has to travel. Most of the house faces south; in summer it gets the sun from the sixth hour, and in winter considerably earlier, inviting it as it were into the portico, which is broad and long to correspond, and contains a number of apartments and an old-fashioned hall. In front, there is a terrace laid out in different patterns and bounded with an edging of box; then comes a sloping ridge with figures of animals on both sides cut out of the box-trees, while on the level ground stands an acanthus-tree, with leaves so soft that I might almost call them liquid. Round this is a walk bordered by evergreens pressed and trimmed into various shapes; then comes an exercise ground, round like a circus, which surrounds the box-trees that are cut into different forms, and the dwarf shrubs that are kept clipped. Everything is protected by an enclosure, which is hidden and withdrawn from sight by the tiers of box-trees. Beyond is a meadow, as well worth seeing for its natural charm as the features just described are for their artificial beauty, and beyond that there stretches an expanse of fields and a number of other meadows and thickets. At the head of the portico there runs out the dining-room, from the doors of which can be seen the end of the terrace with the meadow and a good expanse of country beyond it, while from the windows the view on the one hand commands one side of the terrace and the part of the villa which juts out, and on the other the grove and foliage of the adjoining riding-school. Almost opposite to the middle of the portico is a summer-house standing back a little, with a small open space in the middle shaded by four plane-trees. Among them is a marble fountain, from which the water plays upon and lightly sprinkles the roots of the plane-trees and the grass plot beneath them. In this summer-house there is a bed-chamber which excludes all light, noise, and sound, and adjoining it is a dining-room for my friends, which faces upon the small court and the other portico, and commands the view enjoyed by the latter. There is another bed-chamber, which is leafy and shaded by the nearest plane-tree and built of marble up to the balcony; above is a picture of a tree with birds perched in the branches equally beautiful with the marble. Here there is a small fountain with a basin around the latter, and the water runs into it from a number of small pipes, which produce a most agreeable sound. In the corner of the portico is a spacious bed-chamber leading out of the dining-room, some of its windows looking out upon the terrace, others upon the meadow, while the windows in front face the fish-pond which lies just beneath them, and is pleasant both to eye and ear, as the water falls from a considerable elevation and glistens white as it is caught in the marble basin. This bed-chamber is beautifully warm even in winter, for it is flooded with an abundance of sunshine. The heating chamber for the bath adjoins it, and on a cloudy day we turn in steam to take the place of the sun's warmth. Next comes a roomy and cheerful undressing room for the bath, from which you pass into a cool chamber containing a large and shady swimming bath. If you prefer more room or warmer water to swim in, there is a pond in the court with a well adjoining it, from which you can make the water colder when you are tired of the warm. Adjoining the cold bath is one of medium warmth, for the sun shines lavishly upon it, but not so much as upon the hot bath which is built farther out. There are three sets of steps leading to it, two exposed to the sun, and the third out of the sun though quite as light. Above the dressing-room is a ball court where various kinds of exercise can be taken, and a number of games can be played at once. Not far from the bath-room is a staircase leading to a covered passage, at the head of which are three rooms, one looking out upon the courtyard with the four plane-trees, the second upon the meadow, and the third upon the vineyards, so each therefore enjoys a different view. At the end of the passage is a bed-chamber constructed out of the passage itself, which looks out upon the riding-course, the vineyards, and the mountains. Connected with it is another bed-chamber open to the sun, and especially so in winter time. Leading out of this is an apartment which adjoins the riding-course of the villa. Such is the appearance and the use to which the front of my house is put. At the side is a raised covered gallery, which seems not so much to look out upon the vineyards as to touch them; in the middle is a dining-room which gets the invigorating breezes from the valleys of the Apennines, while at the other side, through the spacious windows and the folding doors, you seem to be close upon the vineyards again with the gallery between. On the side of the room where there are no windows is a private winding staircase by which the servants bring up the requisites for a meal. At the end of the gallery is a bed-chamber, and the gallery itself affords as pleasant a prospect from there as the vineyards. Underneath runs a sort of subterranean gallery, which in summer time remains perfectly cool, and as it has sufficient air within it, it neither admits any from without nor needs any. Next to both these galleries the portico commences where the dining-room ends, and this is cold before mid-day, and summery when the sun has reached his zenith. This gives the approach to two apartments, one of which contains four beds and the other three, and they are bathed in sunshine or steeped in shadow, according to the position of the sun. But though the arrangements of the house itself are charming, they are far and away surpassed by the riding-course. It is quite open in the centre, and the moment you enter your eye ranges over the whole of it. Around its borders are plane-trees clothed with ivy, and so while the foliage at the top belongs to the trees themselves, that on the lower parts belongs to the ivy, which creeps along the trunk and branches, and spreading across to the neighbouring trees, joins them together. Between the plane-trees are box shrubs, and on the farther side of the shrubs is a ring of laurels which mingle their shade with that of the plane-trees. At the far end, the straight boundary of the riding-course is curved into semi-circular form, which quite changes its appearance. It is enclosed and covered with cypress-trees, the deeper shade of which makes it darker and gloomier than at the sides, but the inner circles - for there are more than one - are quite open to the sunshine. Even roses grow there, and the warmth of the sun is delightful as a change from the cool of the shade. When you come to the end of these various winding alleys, the boundary again runs straight, or should I say boundaries, for there are a number of paths with box shrubs between them. In places there are grass plots intervening, in others box shrubs, which are trimmed to a great variety of patterns, some of them being cut into letters forming my name as owner and that of the gardener. Here and there are small pyramids and apple-trees, and now and then in the midst of all this graceful artificial work you suddenly come upon what looks like a real bit of the country planted there. The intervening space is beautified on both sides with dwarf plane-trees; beyond these is the acanthus-tree that is supple and flexible to the hand, and there are more boxwood figures and names. At the upper end is a couch of white marble covered with a vine, the latter being supported by four small pillars of Carystian marble. Jets of water flow from the couch through small pipes and look as if they were forced out by the weight of persons reclining thereon, and the water is caught in a stone cistern and then retained in a graceful marble basin, regulated by pipes out of sight, so that the basin, while always full, never overflows. The heavier dishes and plates are placed at the side of the basin when I dine there, but the lighter ones, formed into the shapes of little boats and birds, float on the surface and travel round and round. Facing this is a fountain which receives back the water it expels, for the water is thrown up to a considerable height and then falls down again, and the pipes that perform the two processes are connected. Directly opposite the couch is a bed-chamber, and each lends a grace to the other. It is formed of glistening marble, and through the projecting folding doors you pass at once among the foliage, while both from the upper and lower windows you look out upon the same green picture. Within is a little cabinet which seems to belong at once to the same and yet another bed-chamber. This contains a bed and it has windows on every side, yet the shade is so thick outside that very little light enters, for a wonderfully luxuriant vine has climbed up to the roof and covers the whole building. You can fancy you are in a grove as you lie there, only that you do not feel the rain as you do among trees. Here too a fountain rises and immediately loses itself underground. There are a number of marble chairs placed up and down, which are as restful for persons tired with walking as the bed-chamber itself. Near these chairs are little fountains, and throughout the whole riding-course you hear the murmur of tiny streams carried through pipes, which run wherever you please to direct them. These are used to water the shrubs, sometimes in one part, sometimes in another, and at other times all are watered together. I should long since have been afraid of boring you, had I not set out in this letter to take you with me round every corner of my estate. For I am not at all apprehensive that you will find it tedious to read about a place which certainly would not tire you to look at, especially as you can get a little rest whenever you desire, and can sit down, so to speak, by laying down the letter. Moreover, I have been indulging my affection for the place, for I am greatly attached to anything that is mainly the work of my own hands or that someone else has begun and I have taken up. In short - for there is no reason is there? why I should not be frank with you, whether my judgments are sound or unsound - I consider that it is the first duty of a writer to select the title of his work and constantly ask himself what he has begun to write about. He may be sure that so long as he keeps to his subject-matter he will not be tedious, but that he will bore his readers to distraction if he starts dragging in extraneous matter to make weight. Observe the length with which Homer describes the arms of Achilles, and Virgil the arms of Aeneas - yet in both cases the description seems short, because the author only carries out what he intended to. Observe how Aratus hunts up and brings together even the tiniest stars - yet he does not exceed due limits. For his description is not an excursus, but the end and aim of the whole work. It is the same with myself, if I may compare my lowly efforts with their great ones. I have been trying to give you a bird's eye view of the whole of my villa, and if I have introduced no extraneous matter and have never wandered off my subject, it is not the letter containing the description which is to be considered of excessive size, but rather the villa which has been described. However, let me get back to the point I started from, lest I give you an opportunity of justly condemning me by my own law, by not pursuing this digression any farther. I have explained to you why I prefer my Tuscan house to my other places at Tusculum, Tibur and Praeneste. For in addition to all the beauties I have described above, my repose here is more profound and more comfortable, and therefore all the freer from anxiety. There is no necessity to don the toga, no neighbour ever calls to drag me out; everything is placid and quiet; and this peace adds to the healthiness of the place, by giving it, so to speak, a purer sky and a more liquid air. I enjoy better health both in mind and body here than anywhere else, for I exercise the former by study and the latter by hunting. Besides, there is no place where my household keep in better trim, and up to the present I have not lost a single one of all whom I brought with me. I hope Heaven will forgive the boast, and that the gods will continue my happiness to me and preserve this place in all its beauty. Farewell.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aeneas, shield of Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 205
aeneas Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 203
agency, agent Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 35
agrippa, m. vipsanius Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 183
allusion Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 203
anchises Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 248
antimachus of colophon Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 154
antulla Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 35
apollo Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 203
ateius capito Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 152
audiences, power of Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 205
augustus, author, alientation of Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 183
augustus, building works Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 305
augustus, city of marble Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 63
augustus, res gestae accomplishments Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 63
augustus, res gestae monumental text Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 63
augustus/octavian, as author and builder Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 205, 248
augustus/octavian, as performer of a public image Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 205
authorial intention Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 248
banquet, and horace Rohland, Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature (2022) 93
bodel, j. Pinheiro et al., Philosophy and the Ancient Novel (2015) 2
book, alienation of author from Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 183
book, and immortality of poet Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 168, 183
books Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 205
brick Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 63
calendar, and consular date Rohland, Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature (2022) 93
callimachus Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 203
catullus, and anxiety over books fate Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 168
catullus, and horace on poetic immortality Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 150, 151
catullus, anxieties about poetic immortality Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 154
catullus, on reading Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 220
cinna the poet Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 150
closure Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 35
coda (see sphragis) Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 68
copying, of texts Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 205, 248
cura, of augustus Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 63
damnatio memoriae König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 240
de architectura, literariness and textuality Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 63
death Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 35, 71
destruction Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 44
domitian Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 44
domitius apollinaris König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 228
durability, of architecture Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 63, 64
eclogues (vergil) Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 183
elegy, erotic Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 203
empire, as territorial expanse Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 248
ennius Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 203
epic Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 203; Mawford and Ntanou, Ancient Memory: Remembrance and Commemoration in Graeco-Roman Literature (2021) 2
epicedion–epicedia Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 68, 71
epigraphy Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 64
exempla and exemplarity Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 137
exile, poetry of Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 68
faenius telesphorus, as an agent Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 35
faenius telesphorus Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 35
fama König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 228; Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 205
fame Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 203
faustinus Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 35
frontinus, and martial König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 240
frontinus, de aquis König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 240
funeral, laudations Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 248
funeral Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 35
historiography Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 137
history and historiography Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 63
holmes, d. Pinheiro et al., Philosophy and the Ancient Novel (2015) 2
horace, and reading Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 220
horace, odes Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 168; König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 228
horace, on writing Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 183
horace, quintus horatius flaccus, and poetic memory Rohland, Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature (2022) 93
horace, quintus horatius flaccus, and textuality Rohland, Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature (2022) 93
horace, textuality and durability in Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 63, 64
horace, writes narrative technical history of literature Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 150
immortality, poetic, and popular envy Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 152
immortality, poetic, threatened by changing tastes Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 151, 152, 154
immortality, poetic Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 150
immortality Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 3, 205, 248
inconsistency Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 248
indeterminacy, hindsight Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 205
indeterminacy, horace Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 248
indeterminacy, strategies Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 248
interior spaces, palaces and houses of wealthy Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 305
jason (the aesonian leader) Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 152
judgment Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 205
julius caesar Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 63
juvencus, christ as proper poetic topic for Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 369
juvencus Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 369
kepotaphium Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 35
language, linguistics, power of words, puns Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 137
latin christian poetry, juvencus Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 369
latin christian poetry Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 369
legibility, of monuments Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 63
literary interactions, synchronic König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 240
livy Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 137
locus amoenus König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 228
lyric, and poetic memory Rohland, Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature (2022) 93
maecenas Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 153, 154
margins and marginality Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 205, 248
martial, and pliny König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 228
martial König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 228, 240
mausoleum Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 63
mausoleum of augustus Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 248; Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 152, 153
mausolus Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 63
memoria posteris tradere formula Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 64
memory, poetic Mawford and Ntanou, Ancient Memory: Remembrance and Commemoration in Graeco-Roman Literature (2021) 2
metaliterariness Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 3
metamorphoses (ovid) Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 168
monumentality/monuments Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 137
monumentality König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 228, 240
monuments Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 63; Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 248
monumentum Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 63; Pinheiro et al., Philosophy and the Ancient Novel (2015) 2
moral ideology, augustan Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 203
mors Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 203
nan, and poetic memory Rohland, Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature (2022) 93
neoteric poets, horaces closeness to Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 151
neoteric poets, works mostly lost Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 150
nepos, cornelius Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 168
odes (horace), on vocal performance Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 183
omission Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 248
orpheus Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 71
otium and negotium König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 228
ovid, anxieties about poetic immortality Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 151, 152, 154
ovid, metamorphoses Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 369; Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 168
ovid, on immortality of poet Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 168
ovid Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 203
paratexts Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 248
penelope Mawford and Ntanou, Ancient Memory: Remembrance and Commemoration in Graeco-Roman Literature (2021) 2
periodization, in horace, epistle 2.1 Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 150
pliny (the younger) König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 228
poet, immortality of through book Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 168, 183
poetic fame, from objective merit or popularity? Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 154
poetry vs physical monuments Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 152, 153, 154
poets, dependence on readers Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 205
poets, rivalry with the princeps Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 3, 205
power, of audiences Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 205, 248
presence/absence Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 205
priest Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 71
propertius Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 3
proportion and proportionality, functional Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 63
proportion and proportionality, in representation Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 63
provinces Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 248
provincial readers, neoterics despise, horace desires Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 150, 151
public and private lives Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 205
pygmalion (in the a.), (in the met.) Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 203
rape Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 137
reader and audience Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 137
reading, in error or ignorance Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 205
regime change, flavian into trajanic König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 240
res gestae Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 248
res publica restituta Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 152
revisionary Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 248
ritual Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 44, 71
rivers, nile Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 205
roman cityscape Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 248
rome Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 203
self-fashioning König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 228
semiotics of visualisation König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 228
sestius, lucius Rohland, Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature (2022) 93
socio-literary interactions König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 228
sosii, booksellers Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 151
sphragis Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 68
sulpicia Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 203
survival König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 240
temple, as metaliterary devices Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 3
temple Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 248
textuality, and horace Rohland, Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature (2022) 93
textuality, and wine labels Rohland, Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature (2022) 93
tibullus Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 203
time König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 240
tombs Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 203
trimalchio Pinheiro et al., Philosophy and the Ancient Novel (2015) 2
triumph, of poets and fame Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 3
varius Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 183
varro of atax, ovid questions his epics immortality Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 152
vergil, aeneid Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 203
vergil, bucolics Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 203
vergil, eclogues Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 183
vergil, georgics Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 203
vergil, works will last as long as rome in ovid Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 154
vergil Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 205
visual texts Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 248
vitruvius, and history Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 63
voice' Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 248
wine, and horace Rohland, Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature (2022) 93
wine, appelation, alban Rohland, Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature (2022) 93
wine label Rohland, Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature (2022) 93
wine storage, and condo Rohland, Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature (2022) 93
wine storage, and diffundo Rohland, Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature (2022) 93
wine storage, and poetic memory Rohland, Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature (2022) 93
zmyrna (cinna) Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 150, 154