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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6678
Homer, Odyssey, 9.39
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1. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 27.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

27.8. וְאֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל תְּדַבֵּר לֵאמֹר אִישׁ כִּי־יָמוּת וּבֵן אֵין לוֹ וְהַעֲבַרְתֶּם אֶת־נַחֲלָתוֹ לְבִתּוֹ׃ 27.8. And thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel, saying: If a man die, and have no son, then ye shall cause his inheritance to pass unto his daughter."
2. Homer, Iliad, 1.123-1.129, 2.134-2.135, 2.225-2.228, 9.318-9.319, 9.330-9.336, 11.670-11.761, 15.619, 16.212-16.215, 18.509-18.540 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

1.123. /In answer to him spoke swift-footed brilliant Achilles:Most glorious son of Atreus, most covetous of all, how shall the great-hearted Achaeans give you a prize? We know nothing of a hoard of wealth in common store, but whatever we took by pillage from the cities has been apportioned 1.124. /In answer to him spoke swift-footed brilliant Achilles:Most glorious son of Atreus, most covetous of all, how shall the great-hearted Achaeans give you a prize? We know nothing of a hoard of wealth in common store, but whatever we took by pillage from the cities has been apportioned 1.125. /and it is not seemly to gather these things back from the army. But give back the girl to the god, and we Achaeans will recompense you three and fourfold, if ever Zeus grants us to sack the well-walled city of Troy. 1.126. /and it is not seemly to gather these things back from the army. But give back the girl to the god, and we Achaeans will recompense you three and fourfold, if ever Zeus grants us to sack the well-walled city of Troy. 1.127. /and it is not seemly to gather these things back from the army. But give back the girl to the god, and we Achaeans will recompense you three and fourfold, if ever Zeus grants us to sack the well-walled city of Troy. 1.128. /and it is not seemly to gather these things back from the army. But give back the girl to the god, and we Achaeans will recompense you three and fourfold, if ever Zeus grants us to sack the well-walled city of Troy. 1.129. /and it is not seemly to gather these things back from the army. But give back the girl to the god, and we Achaeans will recompense you three and fourfold, if ever Zeus grants us to sack the well-walled city of Troy. In answer to him spoke lord Agamemnon: 2.134. /But allies there be out of many cities, men that wield the spear, who hinder me mightily, and for all that I am fain, suffer me not to sack the well-peopled citadel of Ilios. Already have nine years of great Zeus gone by 2.135. /and lo, our ships' timbers are rotted, and the tackling loosed; and our wives, I ween, and little children sit in our halls awaiting us; yet is our task wholly unaccomplished in furtherance whereof we came hither. Nay, come, even as I shall bid, let us all obey: 2.225. / Son of Atreus, with what art thou now again discontent, or what lack is thine? Filled are thy huts with bronze, and women full many are in thy huts, chosen spoils that we Achaeans give thee first of all, whensoe'er we take a citadel. Or dost thou still want gold also 2.226. / Son of Atreus, with what art thou now again discontent, or what lack is thine? Filled are thy huts with bronze, and women full many are in thy huts, chosen spoils that we Achaeans give thee first of all, whensoe'er we take a citadel. Or dost thou still want gold also 2.227. / Son of Atreus, with what art thou now again discontent, or what lack is thine? Filled are thy huts with bronze, and women full many are in thy huts, chosen spoils that we Achaeans give thee first of all, whensoe'er we take a citadel. Or dost thou still want gold also 2.228. / Son of Atreus, with what art thou now again discontent, or what lack is thine? Filled are thy huts with bronze, and women full many are in thy huts, chosen spoils that we Achaeans give thee first of all, whensoe'er we take a citadel. Or dost thou still want gold also 9.318. /Not me, I ween, shall Atreus' son, Agamemnon, persuade, nor yet shall the other Danaans, seeing there were to be no thanks, it seemeth, for warring against the foeman ever without respite. Like portion hath he that abideth at home, and if one warreth his best, and in one honour are held both the coward and the brave; 9.319. /Not me, I ween, shall Atreus' son, Agamemnon, persuade, nor yet shall the other Danaans, seeing there were to be no thanks, it seemeth, for warring against the foeman ever without respite. Like portion hath he that abideth at home, and if one warreth his best, and in one honour are held both the coward and the brave; 9.330. /from out all these I took much spoil and goodly, and all would I ever bring and give to Agamemnon, this son of Atreus; but he staying behind, even beside his swiftships, would take and apportion some small part, but keep the most. Some he gave as prizes to chieftains and kings 9.331. /from out all these I took much spoil and goodly, and all would I ever bring and give to Agamemnon, this son of Atreus; but he staying behind, even beside his swiftships, would take and apportion some small part, but keep the most. Some he gave as prizes to chieftains and kings 9.332. /from out all these I took much spoil and goodly, and all would I ever bring and give to Agamemnon, this son of Atreus; but he staying behind, even beside his swiftships, would take and apportion some small part, but keep the most. Some he gave as prizes to chieftains and kings 9.333. /from out all these I took much spoil and goodly, and all would I ever bring and give to Agamemnon, this son of Atreus; but he staying behind, even beside his swiftships, would take and apportion some small part, but keep the most. Some he gave as prizes to chieftains and kings 9.334. /from out all these I took much spoil and goodly, and all would I ever bring and give to Agamemnon, this son of Atreus; but he staying behind, even beside his swiftships, would take and apportion some small part, but keep the most. Some he gave as prizes to chieftains and kings 9.335. /and for them they abide untouched; but from me alone of the Achaeans hath he taken and keepeth my wife, the darling of my heart. Let him lie by her side and take his joy. But why must the Argives wage war against the Trojans? Why hath he gathered and led hither his host, this son of Atreus? Was it not for fair-haired Helen's sake? 9.336. /and for them they abide untouched; but from me alone of the Achaeans hath he taken and keepeth my wife, the darling of my heart. Let him lie by her side and take his joy. But why must the Argives wage war against the Trojans? Why hath he gathered and led hither his host, this son of Atreus? Was it not for fair-haired Helen's sake? 11.670. /Would that I were young and my strength were as when strife was set afoot between the Eleans and our folk about the lifting of kine, what time I slew Itymoneus, the valiant son of Hypeirochus, a man that dwelt in Elis, when I was driving off what we had seized in reprisal; and he while fighting for the kine 11.671. /Would that I were young and my strength were as when strife was set afoot between the Eleans and our folk about the lifting of kine, what time I slew Itymoneus, the valiant son of Hypeirochus, a man that dwelt in Elis, when I was driving off what we had seized in reprisal; and he while fighting for the kine 11.672. /Would that I were young and my strength were as when strife was set afoot between the Eleans and our folk about the lifting of kine, what time I slew Itymoneus, the valiant son of Hypeirochus, a man that dwelt in Elis, when I was driving off what we had seized in reprisal; and he while fighting for the kine 11.673. /Would that I were young and my strength were as when strife was set afoot between the Eleans and our folk about the lifting of kine, what time I slew Itymoneus, the valiant son of Hypeirochus, a man that dwelt in Elis, when I was driving off what we had seized in reprisal; and he while fighting for the kine 11.674. /Would that I were young and my strength were as when strife was set afoot between the Eleans and our folk about the lifting of kine, what time I slew Itymoneus, the valiant son of Hypeirochus, a man that dwelt in Elis, when I was driving off what we had seized in reprisal; and he while fighting for the kine 11.675. /was smitten amid the foremost by a spear from my hand; and he fell, and the country folk about him fled in terror. And booty exceeding great did we drive together from out the plain, fifty herds of kine, as many flocks of sheep, as many droves of swine, as many roving herds of goats 11.676. /was smitten amid the foremost by a spear from my hand; and he fell, and the country folk about him fled in terror. And booty exceeding great did we drive together from out the plain, fifty herds of kine, as many flocks of sheep, as many droves of swine, as many roving herds of goats 11.677. /was smitten amid the foremost by a spear from my hand; and he fell, and the country folk about him fled in terror. And booty exceeding great did we drive together from out the plain, fifty herds of kine, as many flocks of sheep, as many droves of swine, as many roving herds of goats 11.678. /was smitten amid the foremost by a spear from my hand; and he fell, and the country folk about him fled in terror. And booty exceeding great did we drive together from out the plain, fifty herds of kine, as many flocks of sheep, as many droves of swine, as many roving herds of goats 11.679. /was smitten amid the foremost by a spear from my hand; and he fell, and the country folk about him fled in terror. And booty exceeding great did we drive together from out the plain, fifty herds of kine, as many flocks of sheep, as many droves of swine, as many roving herds of goats 11.680. /and chestnut horses an hundred and fifty, all mares, and many of them had foals at the teat. These then we drave into Neleian Pylos by night into the citadel, and Neleus was glad at heart for that much spoil had fallen to me when going as a stripling into war. 11.681. /and chestnut horses an hundred and fifty, all mares, and many of them had foals at the teat. These then we drave into Neleian Pylos by night into the citadel, and Neleus was glad at heart for that much spoil had fallen to me when going as a stripling into war. 11.682. /and chestnut horses an hundred and fifty, all mares, and many of them had foals at the teat. These then we drave into Neleian Pylos by night into the citadel, and Neleus was glad at heart for that much spoil had fallen to me when going as a stripling into war. 11.683. /and chestnut horses an hundred and fifty, all mares, and many of them had foals at the teat. These then we drave into Neleian Pylos by night into the citadel, and Neleus was glad at heart for that much spoil had fallen to me when going as a stripling into war. 11.684. /and chestnut horses an hundred and fifty, all mares, and many of them had foals at the teat. These then we drave into Neleian Pylos by night into the citadel, and Neleus was glad at heart for that much spoil had fallen to me when going as a stripling into war. 11.685. /And heralds made loud proclamation at break of dawn that all men should come to whomsoever a debt was owing in goodly Elis; and they that were leaders of the Pylians gathered together and made division, for to many did the Epeians owe a debt, seeing that we in Pylos were few and oppressed. 11.686. /And heralds made loud proclamation at break of dawn that all men should come to whomsoever a debt was owing in goodly Elis; and they that were leaders of the Pylians gathered together and made division, for to many did the Epeians owe a debt, seeing that we in Pylos were few and oppressed. 11.687. /And heralds made loud proclamation at break of dawn that all men should come to whomsoever a debt was owing in goodly Elis; and they that were leaders of the Pylians gathered together and made division, for to many did the Epeians owe a debt, seeing that we in Pylos were few and oppressed. 11.688. /And heralds made loud proclamation at break of dawn that all men should come to whomsoever a debt was owing in goodly Elis; and they that were leaders of the Pylians gathered together and made division, for to many did the Epeians owe a debt, seeing that we in Pylos were few and oppressed. 11.689. /And heralds made loud proclamation at break of dawn that all men should come to whomsoever a debt was owing in goodly Elis; and they that were leaders of the Pylians gathered together and made division, for to many did the Epeians owe a debt, seeing that we in Pylos were few and oppressed. 11.690. /For mighty Heracles had come and oppressed us in the years that were before, and all that were our bravest had been slain. Twelve were we that were sons of peerless Neleus, and of these I alone was left, and all the rest had perished; wherefore the brazen-coated Epeans, proud of heart thereat 11.691. /For mighty Heracles had come and oppressed us in the years that were before, and all that were our bravest had been slain. Twelve were we that were sons of peerless Neleus, and of these I alone was left, and all the rest had perished; wherefore the brazen-coated Epeans, proud of heart thereat 11.692. /For mighty Heracles had come and oppressed us in the years that were before, and all that were our bravest had been slain. Twelve were we that were sons of peerless Neleus, and of these I alone was left, and all the rest had perished; wherefore the brazen-coated Epeans, proud of heart thereat 11.693. /For mighty Heracles had come and oppressed us in the years that were before, and all that were our bravest had been slain. Twelve were we that were sons of peerless Neleus, and of these I alone was left, and all the rest had perished; wherefore the brazen-coated Epeans, proud of heart thereat 11.694. /For mighty Heracles had come and oppressed us in the years that were before, and all that were our bravest had been slain. Twelve were we that were sons of peerless Neleus, and of these I alone was left, and all the rest had perished; wherefore the brazen-coated Epeans, proud of heart thereat 11.695. /in wantonness devised mischief against us. 11.696. /in wantonness devised mischief against us. 11.697. /in wantonness devised mischief against us. 11.698. /in wantonness devised mischief against us. 11.699. /in wantonness devised mischief against us. And from out the spoil old Neleus chose him a herd of kine and a great flock of sheep, choosing three hundred and their herdsman with them. For to him a great debt was owing in goodly Elis, even our horses, winners of prizes, with their car 11.700. /that had gone to the games, for they were to race for a tripod; but Augeias, king of men, kept them there, and sent back their driver, sorrowing for his horses. By reason of these things, both deeds and words, was the old man wroth and chose him recompense past telling; and the rest he gave to the people 11.701. /that had gone to the games, for they were to race for a tripod; but Augeias, king of men, kept them there, and sent back their driver, sorrowing for his horses. By reason of these things, both deeds and words, was the old man wroth and chose him recompense past telling; and the rest he gave to the people 11.702. /that had gone to the games, for they were to race for a tripod; but Augeias, king of men, kept them there, and sent back their driver, sorrowing for his horses. By reason of these things, both deeds and words, was the old man wroth and chose him recompense past telling; and the rest he gave to the people 11.703. /that had gone to the games, for they were to race for a tripod; but Augeias, king of men, kept them there, and sent back their driver, sorrowing for his horses. By reason of these things, both deeds and words, was the old man wroth and chose him recompense past telling; and the rest he gave to the people 11.704. /that had gone to the games, for they were to race for a tripod; but Augeias, king of men, kept them there, and sent back their driver, sorrowing for his horses. By reason of these things, both deeds and words, was the old man wroth and chose him recompense past telling; and the rest he gave to the people 11.705. /to divide, that so far as in him lay no man might go defrauded of an equal share. So we were disposing of all that there was, and round about the city were offering sacrifice to the gods; and on the third day the Epeians came all together, many men and single-hooved horses, with all speed, and among them the two Moliones did on their battle-gear 11.706. /to divide, that so far as in him lay no man might go defrauded of an equal share. So we were disposing of all that there was, and round about the city were offering sacrifice to the gods; and on the third day the Epeians came all together, many men and single-hooved horses, with all speed, and among them the two Moliones did on their battle-gear 11.707. /to divide, that so far as in him lay no man might go defrauded of an equal share. So we were disposing of all that there was, and round about the city were offering sacrifice to the gods; and on the third day the Epeians came all together, many men and single-hooved horses, with all speed, and among them the two Moliones did on their battle-gear 11.708. /to divide, that so far as in him lay no man might go defrauded of an equal share. So we were disposing of all that there was, and round about the city were offering sacrifice to the gods; and on the third day the Epeians came all together, many men and single-hooved horses, with all speed, and among them the two Moliones did on their battle-gear 11.709. /to divide, that so far as in him lay no man might go defrauded of an equal share. So we were disposing of all that there was, and round about the city were offering sacrifice to the gods; and on the third day the Epeians came all together, many men and single-hooved horses, with all speed, and among them the two Moliones did on their battle-gear 11.710. /though they were as yet but stripligs unskilled in furious valour. Now there is a city Thryoessa, a steep hill, far off on the Alpheius, the nethermost of sandy Pylos; about this they set their camp, fain to raze it utterly. But when they had coursed over the whole plain to us came Athene 11.711. /though they were as yet but stripligs unskilled in furious valour. Now there is a city Thryoessa, a steep hill, far off on the Alpheius, the nethermost of sandy Pylos; about this they set their camp, fain to raze it utterly. But when they had coursed over the whole plain to us came Athene 11.712. /though they were as yet but stripligs unskilled in furious valour. Now there is a city Thryoessa, a steep hill, far off on the Alpheius, the nethermost of sandy Pylos; about this they set their camp, fain to raze it utterly. But when they had coursed over the whole plain to us came Athene 11.713. /though they were as yet but stripligs unskilled in furious valour. Now there is a city Thryoessa, a steep hill, far off on the Alpheius, the nethermost of sandy Pylos; about this they set their camp, fain to raze it utterly. But when they had coursed over the whole plain to us came Athene 11.714. /though they were as yet but stripligs unskilled in furious valour. Now there is a city Thryoessa, a steep hill, far off on the Alpheius, the nethermost of sandy Pylos; about this they set their camp, fain to raze it utterly. But when they had coursed over the whole plain to us came Athene 11.715. /speeding down from Olympus by night with the message that we should array us for battle, and nowise loath were the folk she gathered in Pylos, but right eager for war. Now Neleus would not suffer me to arm myself, but hid away my horses, for he deemed that as yet I knew naught of deeds of war. 11.716. /speeding down from Olympus by night with the message that we should array us for battle, and nowise loath were the folk she gathered in Pylos, but right eager for war. Now Neleus would not suffer me to arm myself, but hid away my horses, for he deemed that as yet I knew naught of deeds of war. 11.717. /speeding down from Olympus by night with the message that we should array us for battle, and nowise loath were the folk she gathered in Pylos, but right eager for war. Now Neleus would not suffer me to arm myself, but hid away my horses, for he deemed that as yet I knew naught of deeds of war. 11.718. /speeding down from Olympus by night with the message that we should array us for battle, and nowise loath were the folk she gathered in Pylos, but right eager for war. Now Neleus would not suffer me to arm myself, but hid away my horses, for he deemed that as yet I knew naught of deeds of war. 11.719. /speeding down from Olympus by night with the message that we should array us for battle, and nowise loath were the folk she gathered in Pylos, but right eager for war. Now Neleus would not suffer me to arm myself, but hid away my horses, for he deemed that as yet I knew naught of deeds of war. 11.720. /Howbeit even so I was pre-eminent among our horsemen, on foot though I was, for so did Athene order the fight.There is a river Minyeïus that empties into the sea hard by Arene, where we waited for bright Dawn, we the horsemen of the Pylians, and the throngs of footmen flowed ever after. 11.721. /Howbeit even so I was pre-eminent among our horsemen, on foot though I was, for so did Athene order the fight.There is a river Minyeïus that empties into the sea hard by Arene, where we waited for bright Dawn, we the horsemen of the Pylians, and the throngs of footmen flowed ever after. 11.722. /Howbeit even so I was pre-eminent among our horsemen, on foot though I was, for so did Athene order the fight.There is a river Minyeïus that empties into the sea hard by Arene, where we waited for bright Dawn, we the horsemen of the Pylians, and the throngs of footmen flowed ever after. 11.723. /Howbeit even so I was pre-eminent among our horsemen, on foot though I was, for so did Athene order the fight.There is a river Minyeïus that empties into the sea hard by Arene, where we waited for bright Dawn, we the horsemen of the Pylians, and the throngs of footmen flowed ever after. 11.724. /Howbeit even so I was pre-eminent among our horsemen, on foot though I was, for so did Athene order the fight.There is a river Minyeïus that empties into the sea hard by Arene, where we waited for bright Dawn, we the horsemen of the Pylians, and the throngs of footmen flowed ever after. 11.725. /Thence with all speed, arrayed in our armour, we came at midday to the sacred stream of Alpheius. There we sacrificed goodly victims to Zeus, supreme in might, and a bull to Alpheius, and a bull to Poseidon, but to flashing-eyed Athene a heifer of the herd; 11.726. /Thence with all speed, arrayed in our armour, we came at midday to the sacred stream of Alpheius. There we sacrificed goodly victims to Zeus, supreme in might, and a bull to Alpheius, and a bull to Poseidon, but to flashing-eyed Athene a heifer of the herd; 11.727. /Thence with all speed, arrayed in our armour, we came at midday to the sacred stream of Alpheius. There we sacrificed goodly victims to Zeus, supreme in might, and a bull to Alpheius, and a bull to Poseidon, but to flashing-eyed Athene a heifer of the herd; 11.728. /Thence with all speed, arrayed in our armour, we came at midday to the sacred stream of Alpheius. There we sacrificed goodly victims to Zeus, supreme in might, and a bull to Alpheius, and a bull to Poseidon, but to flashing-eyed Athene a heifer of the herd; 11.729. /Thence with all speed, arrayed in our armour, we came at midday to the sacred stream of Alpheius. There we sacrificed goodly victims to Zeus, supreme in might, and a bull to Alpheius, and a bull to Poseidon, but to flashing-eyed Athene a heifer of the herd; 11.730. /and thereafter we took supper throughout the host by companies, and laid us down to sleep, each man in his battlegear, about the streams of the river. But the great-souled Epeians were marshalled about the city, fain to raze it utterly; but ere that might be there appeared unto them a mighty deed of war; 11.731. /and thereafter we took supper throughout the host by companies, and laid us down to sleep, each man in his battlegear, about the streams of the river. But the great-souled Epeians were marshalled about the city, fain to raze it utterly; but ere that might be there appeared unto them a mighty deed of war; 11.732. /and thereafter we took supper throughout the host by companies, and laid us down to sleep, each man in his battlegear, about the streams of the river. But the great-souled Epeians were marshalled about the city, fain to raze it utterly; but ere that might be there appeared unto them a mighty deed of war; 11.733. /and thereafter we took supper throughout the host by companies, and laid us down to sleep, each man in his battlegear, about the streams of the river. But the great-souled Epeians were marshalled about the city, fain to raze it utterly; but ere that might be there appeared unto them a mighty deed of war; 11.734. /and thereafter we took supper throughout the host by companies, and laid us down to sleep, each man in his battlegear, about the streams of the river. But the great-souled Epeians were marshalled about the city, fain to raze it utterly; but ere that might be there appeared unto them a mighty deed of war; 11.735. /for when the bright sun stood above the earth we made prayer to Zeus and Athene, and joined battle. 11.736. /for when the bright sun stood above the earth we made prayer to Zeus and Athene, and joined battle. 11.737. /for when the bright sun stood above the earth we made prayer to Zeus and Athene, and joined battle. 11.738. /for when the bright sun stood above the earth we made prayer to Zeus and Athene, and joined battle. 11.739. /for when the bright sun stood above the earth we made prayer to Zeus and Athene, and joined battle. But when the strife of the Pylians and Epeians began, I was first to slay my man, and to get me his single-hooved horses—even the spearman Mulius; son by marriage was he of Augeias 11.740. /and had to wife his eldest daughter, fair-haired Agamede, who knew all simples that the wide earth nourisheth. Him as he came against me I smote with may bronze-tipped spear, and he fell in the dust; but I leapt upon his chariot and took my stand amid the foremost fighters. But the great-souled Epeians 11.741. /and had to wife his eldest daughter, fair-haired Agamede, who knew all simples that the wide earth nourisheth. Him as he came against me I smote with may bronze-tipped spear, and he fell in the dust; but I leapt upon his chariot and took my stand amid the foremost fighters. But the great-souled Epeians 11.742. /and had to wife his eldest daughter, fair-haired Agamede, who knew all simples that the wide earth nourisheth. Him as he came against me I smote with may bronze-tipped spear, and he fell in the dust; but I leapt upon his chariot and took my stand amid the foremost fighters. But the great-souled Epeians 11.743. /and had to wife his eldest daughter, fair-haired Agamede, who knew all simples that the wide earth nourisheth. Him as he came against me I smote with may bronze-tipped spear, and he fell in the dust; but I leapt upon his chariot and took my stand amid the foremost fighters. But the great-souled Epeians 11.744. /and had to wife his eldest daughter, fair-haired Agamede, who knew all simples that the wide earth nourisheth. Him as he came against me I smote with may bronze-tipped spear, and he fell in the dust; but I leapt upon his chariot and took my stand amid the foremost fighters. But the great-souled Epeians 11.745. /fled one here, one there, when they saw the man fallen, even him that was leader of the horsemen and preeminent in fight. But I sprang upon them like a black tempest and fifty chariots I took, and about each one two warriors bit the ground, quelled by my spear. 11.746. /fled one here, one there, when they saw the man fallen, even him that was leader of the horsemen and preeminent in fight. But I sprang upon them like a black tempest and fifty chariots I took, and about each one two warriors bit the ground, quelled by my spear. 11.747. /fled one here, one there, when they saw the man fallen, even him that was leader of the horsemen and preeminent in fight. But I sprang upon them like a black tempest and fifty chariots I took, and about each one two warriors bit the ground, quelled by my spear. 11.748. /fled one here, one there, when they saw the man fallen, even him that was leader of the horsemen and preeminent in fight. But I sprang upon them like a black tempest and fifty chariots I took, and about each one two warriors bit the ground, quelled by my spear. 11.749. /fled one here, one there, when they saw the man fallen, even him that was leader of the horsemen and preeminent in fight. But I sprang upon them like a black tempest and fifty chariots I took, and about each one two warriors bit the ground, quelled by my spear. 11.750. /And now had I slain the two Moliones, of the blood of Actor, but that their father, the wide-ruling Shaker of Earth, saved them from war, and shrouded them in thick mist. Then Zeus vouchsafed great might to the men of Pylos, for so long did we follow through the wide plain 11.751. /And now had I slain the two Moliones, of the blood of Actor, but that their father, the wide-ruling Shaker of Earth, saved them from war, and shrouded them in thick mist. Then Zeus vouchsafed great might to the men of Pylos, for so long did we follow through the wide plain 11.752. /And now had I slain the two Moliones, of the blood of Actor, but that their father, the wide-ruling Shaker of Earth, saved them from war, and shrouded them in thick mist. Then Zeus vouchsafed great might to the men of Pylos, for so long did we follow through the wide plain 11.753. /And now had I slain the two Moliones, of the blood of Actor, but that their father, the wide-ruling Shaker of Earth, saved them from war, and shrouded them in thick mist. Then Zeus vouchsafed great might to the men of Pylos, for so long did we follow through the wide plain 11.754. /And now had I slain the two Moliones, of the blood of Actor, but that their father, the wide-ruling Shaker of Earth, saved them from war, and shrouded them in thick mist. Then Zeus vouchsafed great might to the men of Pylos, for so long did we follow through the wide plain 11.755. /slaying the men and gathering their goodly battle-gear, even till we drave our horses to Buprasium, rich in wheat, and the rock of Olen and the place where is the hill called the hill of Alesium, whence Athene again turned back the host. Then I slew the last man, and left him; but the Achaeans drave back their swift horses 11.756. /slaying the men and gathering their goodly battle-gear, even till we drave our horses to Buprasium, rich in wheat, and the rock of Olen and the place where is the hill called the hill of Alesium, whence Athene again turned back the host. Then I slew the last man, and left him; but the Achaeans drave back their swift horses 11.757. /slaying the men and gathering their goodly battle-gear, even till we drave our horses to Buprasium, rich in wheat, and the rock of Olen and the place where is the hill called the hill of Alesium, whence Athene again turned back the host. Then I slew the last man, and left him; but the Achaeans drave back their swift horses 11.758. /slaying the men and gathering their goodly battle-gear, even till we drave our horses to Buprasium, rich in wheat, and the rock of Olen and the place where is the hill called the hill of Alesium, whence Athene again turned back the host. Then I slew the last man, and left him; but the Achaeans drave back their swift horses 11.759. /slaying the men and gathering their goodly battle-gear, even till we drave our horses to Buprasium, rich in wheat, and the rock of Olen and the place where is the hill called the hill of Alesium, whence Athene again turned back the host. Then I slew the last man, and left him; but the Achaeans drave back their swift horses 11.760. /from Buprasium to Pylos, and all gave glory among the gods to Zeus, and to Nestor among men.of such sort was I among warriors, as sure as ever I was. But Achilles would alone have profit of his valour. Nay, verily, methinks he will bitterly lament hereafter, when the folk perisheth. 11.761. /from Buprasium to Pylos, and all gave glory among the gods to Zeus, and to Nestor among men.of such sort was I among warriors, as sure as ever I was. But Achilles would alone have profit of his valour. Nay, verily, methinks he will bitterly lament hereafter, when the folk perisheth. 16.212. /So saying, he aroused the strength and spirit of every man, and yet closer were their ranks serried when they heard their king. And as when a man buildeth the wall of a high house with close-set stones, to avoid the might of the winds, even so close were arrayed their helms and bossed shields; 16.213. /So saying, he aroused the strength and spirit of every man, and yet closer were their ranks serried when they heard their king. And as when a man buildeth the wall of a high house with close-set stones, to avoid the might of the winds, even so close were arrayed their helms and bossed shields; 16.214. /So saying, he aroused the strength and spirit of every man, and yet closer were their ranks serried when they heard their king. And as when a man buildeth the wall of a high house with close-set stones, to avoid the might of the winds, even so close were arrayed their helms and bossed shields; 18.509. /holding in their hands the staves of the loud-voiced heralds. Therewith then would they spring up and give judgment, each in turn. And in the midst lay two talents of gold, to be given to him whoso among them should utter the most righteous judgment.But around the other city lay in leaguer two hosts of warriors 18.510. /gleaming in armour. And twofold plans found favour with them, either to lay waste the town or to divide in portions twain all the substance that the lovely city contained within. Howbeit the besieged would nowise hearken thereto, but were arming to meet the foe in an ambush. The wall were their dear wives and little children guarding 18.511. /gleaming in armour. And twofold plans found favour with them, either to lay waste the town or to divide in portions twain all the substance that the lovely city contained within. Howbeit the besieged would nowise hearken thereto, but were arming to meet the foe in an ambush. The wall were their dear wives and little children guarding 18.512. /gleaming in armour. And twofold plans found favour with them, either to lay waste the town or to divide in portions twain all the substance that the lovely city contained within. Howbeit the besieged would nowise hearken thereto, but were arming to meet the foe in an ambush. The wall were their dear wives and little children guarding 18.513. /gleaming in armour. And twofold plans found favour with them, either to lay waste the town or to divide in portions twain all the substance that the lovely city contained within. Howbeit the besieged would nowise hearken thereto, but were arming to meet the foe in an ambush. The wall were their dear wives and little children guarding 18.514. /gleaming in armour. And twofold plans found favour with them, either to lay waste the town or to divide in portions twain all the substance that the lovely city contained within. Howbeit the besieged would nowise hearken thereto, but were arming to meet the foe in an ambush. The wall were their dear wives and little children guarding 18.515. /as they stood thereon, and therewithal the men that were holden of old age; but the rest were faring forth, led of Ares and Pallas Athene, both fashioned in gold, and of gold was the raiment wherewith they were clad. Goodly were they and tall in their harness, as beseemeth gods, clear to view amid the rest, and the folk at their feet were smaller. 18.516. /as they stood thereon, and therewithal the men that were holden of old age; but the rest were faring forth, led of Ares and Pallas Athene, both fashioned in gold, and of gold was the raiment wherewith they were clad. Goodly were they and tall in their harness, as beseemeth gods, clear to view amid the rest, and the folk at their feet were smaller. 18.517. /as they stood thereon, and therewithal the men that were holden of old age; but the rest were faring forth, led of Ares and Pallas Athene, both fashioned in gold, and of gold was the raiment wherewith they were clad. Goodly were they and tall in their harness, as beseemeth gods, clear to view amid the rest, and the folk at their feet were smaller. 18.518. /as they stood thereon, and therewithal the men that were holden of old age; but the rest were faring forth, led of Ares and Pallas Athene, both fashioned in gold, and of gold was the raiment wherewith they were clad. Goodly were they and tall in their harness, as beseemeth gods, clear to view amid the rest, and the folk at their feet were smaller. 18.519. /as they stood thereon, and therewithal the men that were holden of old age; but the rest were faring forth, led of Ares and Pallas Athene, both fashioned in gold, and of gold was the raiment wherewith they were clad. Goodly were they and tall in their harness, as beseemeth gods, clear to view amid the rest, and the folk at their feet were smaller. 18.520. /But when they were come to the place where it seemed good unto them to set their ambush, in a river-bed where was a watering-place for all herds alike, there they sate them down, clothed about with flaming bronze. Thereafter were two scouts set by them apart from the host, waiting till they should have sight of the sheep and sleek cattle. 18.521. /But when they were come to the place where it seemed good unto them to set their ambush, in a river-bed where was a watering-place for all herds alike, there they sate them down, clothed about with flaming bronze. Thereafter were two scouts set by them apart from the host, waiting till they should have sight of the sheep and sleek cattle. 18.522. /But when they were come to the place where it seemed good unto them to set their ambush, in a river-bed where was a watering-place for all herds alike, there they sate them down, clothed about with flaming bronze. Thereafter were two scouts set by them apart from the host, waiting till they should have sight of the sheep and sleek cattle. 18.523. /But when they were come to the place where it seemed good unto them to set their ambush, in a river-bed where was a watering-place for all herds alike, there they sate them down, clothed about with flaming bronze. Thereafter were two scouts set by them apart from the host, waiting till they should have sight of the sheep and sleek cattle. 18.524. /But when they were come to the place where it seemed good unto them to set their ambush, in a river-bed where was a watering-place for all herds alike, there they sate them down, clothed about with flaming bronze. Thereafter were two scouts set by them apart from the host, waiting till they should have sight of the sheep and sleek cattle. 18.525. /And these came presently, and two herdsmen followed with them playing upon pipes; and of the guile wist they not at all. 18.526. /And these came presently, and two herdsmen followed with them playing upon pipes; and of the guile wist they not at all. 18.527. /And these came presently, and two herdsmen followed with them playing upon pipes; and of the guile wist they not at all. 18.528. /And these came presently, and two herdsmen followed with them playing upon pipes; and of the guile wist they not at all. 18.529. /And these came presently, and two herdsmen followed with them playing upon pipes; and of the guile wist they not at all. But the liers-in-wait, when they saw these coming on, rushed forth against them and speedily cut off the herds of cattle and fair flocks of white-fleeced sheep, and slew the herdsmen withal. 18.530. /But the besiegers, as they sat before the places of gathering and heard much tumult among the kine, mounted forthwith behind their high-stepping horses, and set out thitherward, and speedily came upon them. Then set they their battle in array and fought beside the river banks, and were ever smiting one another with bronze-tipped spears. 18.531. /But the besiegers, as they sat before the places of gathering and heard much tumult among the kine, mounted forthwith behind their high-stepping horses, and set out thitherward, and speedily came upon them. Then set they their battle in array and fought beside the river banks, and were ever smiting one another with bronze-tipped spears. 18.532. /But the besiegers, as they sat before the places of gathering and heard much tumult among the kine, mounted forthwith behind their high-stepping horses, and set out thitherward, and speedily came upon them. Then set they their battle in array and fought beside the river banks, and were ever smiting one another with bronze-tipped spears. 18.533. /But the besiegers, as they sat before the places of gathering and heard much tumult among the kine, mounted forthwith behind their high-stepping horses, and set out thitherward, and speedily came upon them. Then set they their battle in array and fought beside the river banks, and were ever smiting one another with bronze-tipped spears. 18.534. /But the besiegers, as they sat before the places of gathering and heard much tumult among the kine, mounted forthwith behind their high-stepping horses, and set out thitherward, and speedily came upon them. Then set they their battle in array and fought beside the river banks, and were ever smiting one another with bronze-tipped spears. 18.535. /And amid them Strife and Tumult joined in the fray, and deadly Fate, grasping one man alive, fresh-wounded, another without a wound, and another she dragged dead through the mellay by the feet; and the raiment that she had about her shoulders was red with the blood of men. Even as living mortals joined they in the fray and fought; 18.536. /And amid them Strife and Tumult joined in the fray, and deadly Fate, grasping one man alive, fresh-wounded, another without a wound, and another she dragged dead through the mellay by the feet; and the raiment that she had about her shoulders was red with the blood of men. Even as living mortals joined they in the fray and fought; 18.537. /And amid them Strife and Tumult joined in the fray, and deadly Fate, grasping one man alive, fresh-wounded, another without a wound, and another she dragged dead through the mellay by the feet; and the raiment that she had about her shoulders was red with the blood of men. Even as living mortals joined they in the fray and fought; 18.538. /And amid them Strife and Tumult joined in the fray, and deadly Fate, grasping one man alive, fresh-wounded, another without a wound, and another she dragged dead through the mellay by the feet; and the raiment that she had about her shoulders was red with the blood of men. Even as living mortals joined they in the fray and fought; 18.539. /And amid them Strife and Tumult joined in the fray, and deadly Fate, grasping one man alive, fresh-wounded, another without a wound, and another she dragged dead through the mellay by the feet; and the raiment that she had about her shoulders was red with the blood of men. Even as living mortals joined they in the fray and fought; 18.540. /and they were haling away each the bodies of the others' slain.Therein he set also soft fallow-land, rich tilth and wide, that was three times ploughed; and ploughers full many therein were wheeling their yokes and driving them this way and that. And whensoever after turning they came to the headland of the field
3. Homer, Odyssey, 2.170-2.172, 5.43-5.261, 5.263-5.379, 7.259-7.260, 9.12-9.18, 9.40-9.61, 9.64-9.75, 9.79-9.104, 9.250-9.414, 10.1-10.76, 10.80-10.574, 12.159, 12.165-12.200, 12.208-12.220, 12.233-12.402, 14.211-14.275 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

4. Herodotus, Histories, 7.2, 7.59-7.99, 7.183-7.193 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.2. But while Darius was making preparations against Egypt and Athens, a great quarrel arose among his sons concerning the chief power in the land. They held that before his army marched he must declare an heir to the kingship according to Persian law. ,Three sons had been born to Darius before he became king by his first wife, the daughter of Gobryas, and four more after he became king by Atossa daughter of Cyrus. Artobazanes was the oldest of the earlier sons, Xerxes of the later; ,and as sons of different mothers they were rivals. Artobazanes pleaded that he was the oldest of all Darius' offspring and that it was everywhere customary that the eldest should rule; Xerxes argued that he was the son of Cyrus' daughter Atossa and that it was Cyrus who had won the Persians their freedom. 7.59. The territory of Doriscus is in Thrace, a wide plain by the sea, and through it flows a great river, the Hebrus; here had been built that royal fortress which is called Doriscus, and a Persian guard had been posted there by Darius ever since the time of his march against Scythia. ,It seemed to Xerxes to be a fit place for him to arrange and number his army, and he did so. All the ships had now arrived at Doriscus, and the captains at Xerxes' command brought them to the beach near Doriscus, where stands the Samothracian city of Sane, and Zone; at the end is Serreum, a well-known headland. This country was in former days possessed by the Cicones. ,To this beach they brought in their ships and hauled them up for rest. Meanwhile Xerxes made a reckoning of his forces at Doriscus. 7.60. I cannot give the exact number that each part contributed to the total, for there is no one who tells us that; but the total of the whole land army was shown to be one million and seven hundred thousand. ,They were counted in this way: ten thousand men were collected in one place, and when they were packed together as closely as could be a line was drawn around them; when this was drawn, the ten thousand were sent away and a wall of stones was built on the line reaching up to a man's navel; ,when this was done, others were brought into the walled space, until in this way all were numbered. When they had been numbered, they were marshalled by nations. 7.61. The men who served in the army were the following: the Persians were equipped in this way: they wore on their heads loose caps called tiaras, and on their bodies embroidered sleeved tunics, with scales of iron like the scales of fish in appearance, and trousers on their legs; for shields they had wicker bucklers, with quivers hanging beneath them; they carried short spears, long bows, and reed arrows, and daggers that hung from the girdle by the right thigh. ,Their commander was Otanes, son of Amestris and father of Xerxes' wife. They were formerly called by the Greeks Cephenes, but by themselves and their neighbors Artaei. ,When Perseus son of Danae and Zeus had come to Cepheus son of Belus and married his daughter Andromeda, a son was born to him whom he called Perses, and he left him there; for Cepheus had no male offspring; it was from this Perses that the Persians took their name. 7.62. The Medes in the army were equipped like the Persians; indeed, that fashion of armor is Median, not Persian. Their commander was Tigranes, an Achaemenid. The Medes were formerly called by everyone Arians, but when the Colchian woman Medea came from Athens to the Arians they changed their name, like the Persians. This is the Medes' own account of themselves. ,The Cissians in the army were equipped like the Persians, but they wore turbans instead of caps. Their commander was Anaphes son of Otanes. The Hyrcanians were armed like the Persians; their leader was Megapanus, who was afterwards the governor of Babylon. 7.63. The Assyrians in the army wore on their heads helmets of twisted bronze made in an outlandish fashion not easy to describe. They carried shields and spears and daggers of Egyptian fashion, and also wooden clubs studded with iron, and they wore linen breastplates. They are called by the Greeks Syrians, but the foreigners called them Assyrians. With them were the Chaldeans. Their commander was Otaspes son of Artachaees. 7.64. The Bactrians in the army wore a headgear very similar to the Median, carrying their native reed bows and short spears. ,The Sacae, who are Scythians, had on their heads tall caps, erect and stiff and tapering to a point; they wore trousers, and carried their native bows, and daggers, and also axes which they call “sagaris.” These were Amyrgian Scythians, but were called Sacae; that is the Persian name for all Scythians. The commander of the Bactrians and Sacae was Hystaspes, son of Darius and Cyrus' daughter Atossa. 7.65. The Indians wore garments of tree-wool, and carried reed bows and iron-tipped reed arrows. Such was their equipment; they were appointed to march under the command of Pharnazathres son of Artabates. 7.66. The Arians were equipped with Median bows, but in all else like the Bactrians; their commander was Sisamnes son of Hydarnes. The Parthians, Chorasmians, Sogdians, Gandarians, and Dadicae in the army had the same equipment as the Bactrians. ,The Parthians and Chorasmians had for their commander Artabazus son of Pharnaces, the Sogdians Azanes son of Artaeus, the Gandarians and Dadicae Artyphius son of Artabanus. 7.67. The Caspians in the army wore cloaks and carried their native reed bows and short swords. Such was their equipment; their leader was Ariomardus, brother of Artyphius. The Sarangae were conspicuous in their dyed garments and knee-high boots, carrying bows and Median spears. Their commander was Pherendates son of Megabazus. ,The Pactyes wore cloaks and carried their native bows and daggers; their commander was Artayntes son of Ithamitres. 7.68. The Utians and Mycians and Paricanians were equipped like the Pactyes; the Utians and Mycians had for their commander Arsamenes son of Darius, the Paricanians Siromitres son of Oeobazus. 7.69. The Arabians wore mantles girded up, and carried at their right side long bows curving backwards. The Ethiopians were wrapped in skins of leopards and lions, and carried bows made of palmwood strips, no less than four cubits long, and short arrows pointed not with iron but with a sharpened stone that they use to carve seals; furthermore, they had spears pointed with a gazelle's horn sharpened like a lance, and also studded clubs. ,When they went into battle they painted half their bodies with gypsum and the other half with vermilion. The Arabians and the Ethiopians who dwell above Egypt had as commander Arsames, the son of Darius and Artystone daughter of Cyrus, whom Darius loved best of his wives; he had an image made of her of hammered gold. 7.70. The Ethiopians above Egypt and the Arabians had Arsames for commander, while the Ethiopians of the east (for there were two kinds of them in the army) served with the Indians; they were not different in appearance from the others, only in speech and hair: the Ethiopians from the east are straight-haired, but the ones from Libya have the woolliest hair of all men. ,These Ethiopians of Asia were for the most part armed like the Indians; but they wore on their heads the skins of horses' foreheads, stripped from the head with ears and mane; the mane served them for a crest, and they wore the horses' ears stiff and upright; for shields they had bucklers of the skin of cranes. 7.71. The Libyans came in leather garments, using javelins of burnt wood. Their commander was Massages son of Oarizus. 7.72. The Paphlagonians in the army had woven helmets on their heads, and small shields and short spears, and also javelins and daggers; they wore their native shoes that reach midway to the knee. The Ligyes and Matieni and Mariandyni and Syrians were equipped like the Paphlagonians. These Syrians are called by the Persians Cappadocians. ,Dotus son of Megasidrus was commander of the Paphlagonians and Matieni, Gobryas son of Darius and Artystone of the Mariandyni and Ligyes and Syrians. 7.73. The Phrygian equipment was very similar to the Paphlagonian, with only a small difference. As the Macedonians say, these Phrygians were called Briges as long as they dwelt in Europe, where they were neighbors of the Macedonians; but when they changed their home to Asia, they changed their name also and were called Phrygians. The Armenians, who are settlers from Phrygia, were armed like the Phrygians. Both these together had as their commander Artochmes, who had married a daughter of Darius. 7.74. The Lydian armor was most similar to the Greek. The Lydians were formerly called Meiones, until they changed their name and were called after Lydus son of Atys. The Mysians wore on their heads their native helmets, carrying small shields and javelins of burnt wood. ,They are settlers from Lydia, and are called Olympieni after the mountain Olympus. The commander of the Lydians and Mysians was that Artaphrenes son of Artaphrenes, who attacked Marathon with Datis. 7.75. The Thracians in the army wore fox-skin caps on their heads, and tunics on their bodies; over these they wore embroidered mantles; they had shoes of fawnskin on their feet and legs; they also had javelins and little shields and daggers. ,They took the name of Bithynians after they crossed over to Asia; before that they were called (as they themselves say) Strymonians, since they lived by the Strymon; they say that they were driven from their homes by Teucrians and Mysians. The commander of the Thracians of Asia was Bassaces son of Artabanus. 7.76. The <Pisidians> had little shields of raw oxhide; each man carried two wolf-hunters' spears; they wore helmets of bronze, and on these helmets were the ears and horns of oxen wrought in bronze, and also crests; their legs were wrapped around with strips of purple rags. Among these men is a place of divination sacred to Ares. 7.77. The Cabelees, who are Meiones and are called Lasonii, had the same equipment as the Cilicians; when I come in my narrative to the place of the Cilicians, I will then declare what it was. The Milyae had short spears and garments fastened by brooches; some of them carried Lycian bows and wore caps of skin on their heads. The commander of all these was Badres son of Hystanes. 7.78. The Moschi wore wooden helmets on their heads, and carried shields and small spears with long points. The Tibareni and Macrones and Mossynoeci in the army were equipped like the Moschi. The commanders who marshalled them were, for the Moschi and Tibareni, Ariomardus son of Darius and Parmys, the daughter of Cyrus' son Smerdis; for the Macrones and Mossynoeci, Artayctes son of Cherasmis, who was governor of Sestus on the Hellespont. 7.79. The Mares wore on their heads their native woven helmets, and carried javelins and small hide shields. The Colchians had wooden helmets and small shields of raw oxhide and short spears, and also swords. The commander of the Mares and Colchians was Pharandates son of Teaspis. The Alarodians and Saspires in the army were armed like the Colchians; Masistius son of Siromitres was their commander. 7.80. The island tribes that came from the Red Sea, and from the islands where the king settles those who are called Exiles, wore dress and armor very similar to the Median. The commander of these islanders was Mardontes son of Bagaeus, who in the next year was general at Mykale and died in the battle. 7.81. These are the nations that marched by the mainland and had their places in the infantry. The commanders of this army were those whom I have mentioned, and they were the ones who marshalled and numbered them and appointed captains of thousands and ten thousands; the captains of ten thousands appointed the captains of hundreds and of tens. There were others who were leaders of companies and nations. 7.82. These were the commanders, as I have said; the generals of these and of the whole infantry were Mardonius son of Gobryas, Tritantaechmes son of that Artabanus who delivered the opinion that there should be no expedition against Hellas, Smerdomenes son of Otanes (these two latter were sons of Darius' brothers, and thus they were Xerxes' cousins), Masistes son of Darius and Atossa, Gergis son of Ariazus, and Megabyzus son of Zopyrus. 7.83. These were the generals of the whole infantry, except the Ten Thousand. Hydarnes son of Hydarnes was general of these picked ten thousand Persians, who were called Immortals for this reason: when any one of them was forced to fall out of the number by death or sickness, another was chosen so that they were never more or fewer than ten thousand. ,The Persians showed the richest adornment of all, and they were the best men in the army. Their equipment was such as I have said; beyond this they stood out by the abundance of gold that they had. They also brought carriages bearing concubines and many well-equipped servants; camels and beasts of burden carried food for them, apart from the rest of the army. 7.84. There are horsemen in these nations, but not all of them furnished cavalry. Only the following did so: the Persians, equipped like their infantry, except that some of them wore headgear of hammered bronze and iron. 7.85. There are also certain nomads called Sagartian; they are Persian in speech, and the fashion of their equipment is somewhat between the Persian and the Pactyan; they furnished eight thousand horsemen. It is their custom to carry no armor of bronze or iron, except only daggers, and to use ropes of twisted leather. ,They go to battle relying on these. This is the manner of fighting of these men: when they are at close quarters with their enemy, they throw their ropes, which have a noose at the end; whatever he catches, horse or man, each man drags to himself, and the enemy is entangled in the coils and slain. Such is their manner of fighting; they were marshalled with the Persians. 7.86. The Median cavalry were equipped like their infantry, and the Cissians similarly. The Indians were armed in the same manner as their infantry; they rode swift horses and drove chariots drawn by horses and wild asses. The Bactrians were equipped as were their foot, and the Caspians in the same manner. ,The Libyans, too, were armed like the men of their infantry, and all of them also drove chariots. In the same manner the Caspians and Paricanians were armed as the men of their infantry. The Arabians had the same equipment as the men of their infantry, and all of them rode on camels no less swift than horses. 7.87. These nations alone were on horseback; the number of the horsemen was shown to be eighty thousand, besides the camels and the chariots. All the rest of the horsemen were ranked with their companies, but the Arabians were posted last. Since horses cannot endure camels, their place was in the rear, so that the horses would not be frightened. 7.88. The captains of cavalry were Harmamithres and Tithaeus, sons of Datis; the third who was captain with them, Pharnuches, had been left behind sick at Sardis. As they set forth from Sardis, an unwelcome mishap befell him: a dog ran under the feet of the horse he was riding, and the horse was taken by surprise and frightened, so it reared up and threw Pharnuches; after his fall he vomited blood and began to waste away. ,The horse was immediately dealt with according to Pharnuces' command; his servants led it away to the place where it had thrown their master, and cut off its legs at the knee. Thus it was that Pharnuches lost his command. 7.89. The number of the triremes was twelve hundred and seven, and they were furnished by the following: the Phoenicians with the Syrians of Palestine furnished three hundred; for their equipment, they had on their heads helmets very close to the Greek in style; they wore linen breastplates, and carried shields without rims, and javelins. ,These Phoenicians formerly dwelt, as they themselves say, by the Red Sea; they crossed from there and now inhabit the seacoast of Syria. This part of Syria as far as Egypt is all called Palestine. ,The Egyptians furnished two hundred ships. They wore woven helmets and carried hollow shields with broad rims, and spears for sea-warfare, and great battle-axes. Most of them wore cuirasses and carried long swords. 7.90. Such was their armor. The Cyprians furnished a hundred and fifty ships; for their equipment, their princes wore turbans wrapped around their heads, and the people wore tunics, but in all else they were like the Greeks. These are their tribes: some are from Salamis and Athens, some from Arcadia, some from Cythnus, some from Phoenice, and some from Ethiopia, as the Cyprians themselves say. 7.91. The Cilicians furnished a hundred ships. They also wore on their heads their native helmets, carried bucklers of raw oxhide for shields, and were clad in woollen tunics; each had two javelins and a sword very close in style to the knives of Egypt. These Cilicians were formerly called Hypachaei, and took their name from Cilix son of Agenor, a Phoenician. The Pamphylians furnished a hundred ships: they were armed like the Greeks. These Pamphylians are descended from the Trojans of the diaspora who followed Amphilochus and Calchas. 7.92. The Lycians furnished fifty ships; they wore cuirasses and greaves, and carried cornel-wood bows and unfeathered arrows and javelins; goat-skins hung from their shoulders, and they wore on their heads caps crowned with feathers; they also had daggers and scimitars. The Lycians are from Crete and were once called Termilae; they took their name from Lycus son of Pandion, an Athenian. 7.93. The Dorians of Asia furnished thirty ships; their armor was Greek; they are of Peloponnesian descent. The Carians furnished seventy ships; they had scimitars and daggers, but the rest of their equipment was Greek. I have said in the beginning of my history what they were formerly called. 7.94. The Ionians furnished a hundred ships; their equipment was like the Greek. These Ionians, as long as they were in the Peloponnese, dwelt in what is now called Achaia, and before Danaus and Xuthus came to the Peloponnese, as the Greeks say, they were called Aegialian Pelasgians. They were named Ionians after Ion the son of Xuthus. 7.95. The islanders provided seventeen ships and were armed like Greeks; they were also of Pelasgian stock, which was later called Ionian for the same reason as were the Ionians of the twelve cities, who came from Athens. The Aeolians furnished sixty ships and were equipped like Greeks; formerly they were called Pelasgian, as the Greek story goes. ,of the people of the Hellespont, the people of Abydos had been charged by the king to remain at home and guard the bridges; the rest of the people from Pontus who came with the army furnished a hundred ships and were equipped like Greeks. They were settlers from the Ionians and Dorians. 7.96. Persians and Medes and Sacae served as soldiers on all the ships. The most seaworthy ships were furnished by the Phoenicians, and among them by the Sidonians. All of these, as with those who were marshalled in the infantry, each had their native leaders, whose names I do not record, since it is not necessary for the purpose of my history. ,The leaders of each nation are not worthy of mention, and every city of each nation had a leader of its own. These came not as generals but as slaves, like the rest of the expedition; I have already said who were the generals of supreme authority and the Persian commanders of each nation. 7.97. The admirals of the navy were Ariabignes son of Darius, Prexaspes son of Aspathines, Megabazus son of Megabates, and Achaemenes son of Darius. Ariabignes, son of Darius and Gobryas' daughter, was admiral of the Ionian and Carian fleet; the admiral of the Egyptians was Achaemenes, full brother of Xerxes; and the two others were admirals of the rest. The ships of thirty and of fifty oars, the light galleys, and the great transports for horses came to a total of three thousand all together. 7.98. After the admirals, the most famous of those on board were these: from Sidon, Tetramnestus son of Anysus; from Tyre, Matten son of Siromus; from Aradus, Merbalus son of Agbalus; from Cilicia, Syennesis son of Oromedon; from Lycia, Cyberniscus son of Sicas; from Cyprus, Gorgus son of Chersis and Timonax son of Timagoras; and from Caria, Histiaeus son of Tymnes, Pigres son of Hysseldomus, and Damasithymus son of Candaules. 7.99. I see no need to mention any of the other captains except Artemisia. I find it a great marvel that a woman went on the expedition against Hellas: after her husband died, she took over his tyranny, though she had a young son, and followed the army from youthful spirits and manliness, under no compulsion. ,Artemisia was her name, and she was the daughter of Lygdamis; on her fathers' side she was of Halicarnassian lineage, and on her mothers' Cretan. She was the leader of the men of Halicarnassus and Cos and Nisyrus and Calydnos, and provided five ships. ,Her ships were reputed to be the best in the whole fleet after the ships of Sidon, and she gave the king the best advice of all his allies. The cities that I said she was the leader of are all of Dorian stock, as I can show, since the Halicarnassians are from Troezen, and the rest are from Epidaurus. 7.183. The Greeks who were stationed at Artemisium were informed of these matters by beacons from Sciathus. They were frightened by this and accordingly changed their anchorage from Artemisium to Chalcis, proposing to guard the Euripus and leaving watchmen on the heights of Euboea. ,Three of the ten barbarian ships ran aground on the reef called the Ant, which lies between Sciathus and Magnesia. The barbarians then brought a pillar of stone and set it on the reef, and when their course was plain before them, the whole fleet set forth and sailed from Therma, eleven days after the king had marched from there. ,It was Pammon of Scyros who showed them where in the strait the reef lay. After sailing along all day, the foreign fleet reached Sepias in Magnesia and the beach between the town of Casthanaea and the Sepiad headland. 7.184. Until the whole host reached this place and Thermopylae it suffered no hurt, and calculation proves to me that its numbers were still such as I will now show. The ships from Asia were twelve hundred and seven in number, and including the entire host of nations involved, there were a total of two hundred and forty-one thousand and four hundred men, two hundred being reckoned for each ship. ,On board all these ships were thirty fighting men of the Persians and Medes and Sacae in addition to the company which each had of native fighters; the number of this added contingent is thirty-six thousand, two hundred and ten. ,To this and to the first number I add the crews of the ships of fifty oars, calculating eighty men for each, whether there were actually more or fewer. Now seeing that, as has already been said, three thousand of these vessels were assembled, the number of men in them must have been two hundred and forty thousand. ,These, then, were the ships' companies from Asia, and the total number of them was five hundred and seventeen thousand, six hundred and ten. There were seven hundred thousand and one hundred footsoldiers and eighty thousand cavalrymen; to these I add the Arabian camel-riders and Libyan charioteers, estimating them to have been twenty thousand in number. ,The forces of sea and land added together would consist of two million, three hundred and seventeen thousand, six hundred and ten men. So far I have spoken of the force which came from Asia itself, without the train of servants which followed it and the companies of the grain-bearing craft. 7.185. I must, however, also take into account the force brought from Europe, and I will rely on my best judgment in doing so. The Greeks of Thrace and the islands off Thrace furnished one hundred and twenty ships, and the companies of these ships must then have consisted of twenty-four thousand men. ,As regards the land army supplied by all the nations—Thracians, Paeonians, Eordi, Bottiaei, Chalcidians, Brygi, Pierians, Macedonians, Perrhaebi, Enienes, Dolopes, Magnesians, Achaeans, dwellers on the coast of Thrace—of all these I suppose the number to have been three hundred thousand. ,When these numbers are added to the numbers from Asia, the sum total of fighting men is two million, six hundred and forty-one thousand, six hundred and ten. 7.186. This then is the number of soldiers. As for the service-train which followed them and the crews of the light corn-bearing vessels and all the other vessels besides which came by sea with the force, these I believe to have been not fewer but more than the fighting men. ,Suppose, however, that they were equal in number, neither more nor fewer. If they were equal to the fighting contingent, they made up as many tens of thousands as the others. The number, then, of those whom Xerxes son of Darius led as far as the Sepiad headland and Thermopylae was five million, two hundred and eighty-three thousand, two hundred and twenty. 7.187. That is the number of Xerxes' whole force. No one, however, can say what the exact number of cooking women, and concubines, and eunuchs was, nor can one determine the number of the beasts of draught and burden, and the Indian dogs which accompanied the host; so many of them were there. It is accordingly not surprising to me that some of the streams of water ran dry. I do, however, wonder how there were provisions sufficient for so many tens of thousands, ,for calculation shows me, that if each man received one choenix of wheat a day and no more, eleven hundred thousand and three hundred and forty bushels would be required every day. In this calculation I take no account of the provisions for the women, eunuchs, beasts of burden and dogs. of all those tens of thousands of men, there was not one, as regards looks and grandeur, worthier than Xerxes himself to hold that command. 7.188. The Persian fleet put to sea and reached the beach of the Magnesian land, between the city of Casthanaea and the headland of Sepia. The first ships to arrive moored close to land, with the others after them at anchor; since the beach was not large, they lay at anchor in rows eight ships deep out into the sea. ,They spent the night in this way, but at dawn a storm descended upon them out of a clear and windless sky, and the sea began to boil. A strong east wind blew, which the people living in those parts call Hellespontian. ,Those who felt the wind rising or had proper mooring dragged their ships up on shore ahead of the storm and so survived with their ships. The wind did, however, carry those ships caught out in the open sea against the rocks called the Ovens at Pelion or onto the beach. Some ships were wrecked on the Sepian headland, others were cast ashore at the city of Meliboea or at Casthanaea. The storm was indeed unbearable. 7.189. The story is told that because of an oracle the Athenians invoked Boreas, the north wind, to help them, since another oracle told them to summon their son-in-law as an ally. According to the Hellenic story, Boreas had an Attic wife, Orithyia, the daughter of Erechtheus, ancient king of Athens. ,Because of this connection, so the tale goes, the Athenians considered Boreas to be their son-in-law. They were stationed off Chalcis in Euboea, and when they saw the storm rising, they then, if they had not already, sacrificed to and called upon Boreas and Orithyia to help them by destroying the barbarian fleet, just as before at Athos. ,I cannot say whether this was the cause of Boreas falling upon the barbarians as they lay at anchor, but the Athenians say that he had come to their aid before and that he was the agent this time. When they went home, they founded a sacred precinct of Boreas beside the Ilissus river. 7.190. They say that at the very least no fewer than 400 ships were destroyed in this labor, along with innumerable men and abundant wealth. This shipwreck proved useful to Ameinocles son of Cretines, a man of Magnesia who owned land around Sepia, for he later picked up many gold and silver cups cast up on shore, found the Persian treasures, and acquired other untold riches. Although he became very rich from his findings, he did not enjoy luck in everything, for he suffered greatly when his son was murdered. 7.191. There was no counting how many grain-ships and other vessels were destroyed. The generals of the fleet were afraid that the Thessalians might attack them now that they had been defeated, so they built a high palisade out of the wreckage. ,The storm lasted three days. Finally the Magi made offerings and cast spells upon the wind, sacrificing also to Thetis and the Nereids. In this way they made the wind stop on the fourth day—or perhaps it died down on its own. They sacrificed to Thetis after hearing from the Ionians the story that it was from this place that Peleus had carried her off and that all the headland of Sepia belonged to her and to the other Nereids. 7.192. The storm, then, ceased on the fourth day. Now the scouts stationed on the headlands of Euboea ran down and told the Hellenes all about the shipwreck on the second day after the storm began. ,After hearing this they prayed to Poseidon as their savior and poured libations. Then they hurried to Artemisium hoping to find few ships opposing them. So they came to Artemisium a second time and made their station there. From that time on they call Poseidon their savior. 7.193. The barbarians, when the wind ceased and the waves no longer ran high, put to sea and coasted along the mainland; they sailed around the headland of Magnesia and sailed straight into the gulf which stretches toward Pagasae. ,There is a place on this gulf in Magnesia, where, it is said, Heracles was sent for water and was left behind by Jason and his comrades of the Argo, when they were sailing to Aea in Colchis for the fleece; their purpose was to draw water from there and then to put out to sea. This is the reason why that place has been called Aphetae. Here Xerxes' men made their anchorage.
5. Vergil, Aeneis, 3.645-3.648 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.645. Then gifts he bade be brought of heavy gold 3.646. and graven ivory, which to our ships 3.647. he bade us bear; each bark was Ioaded full 3.648. with messy silver and Dodona 's pride
6. Lucan, Pharsalia, 9.599-9.601, 9.603-9.604 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Heliodorus, Ethiopian Story, 5.22.3 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, in odyssey Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
abraham, odysseus Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
abraham, tobiah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
achaemenides Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
achilles Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 27
adventure Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
aeneas Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
agora Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 27
alcinous Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
aphetae Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 174
booty Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 27
calypso Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
carthage Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
cato the younger, as anti-odyssean Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 189
charicleia Repath and Whitmarsh, Reading Heliodorus' Aethiopica (2022) 71
chemmis Repath and Whitmarsh, Reading Heliodorus' Aethiopica (2022) 71
cicones Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 174
clauss, j.j. Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 174
colchis, colchians Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 174
curse Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
cyclops Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
death, by drowning Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
dido Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
dream Repath and Whitmarsh, Reading Heliodorus' Aethiopica (2022) 71
endogamy Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
epicureanism Hunter, The Measure of Homer: The Ancient Reception of the Iliad (2018) 130
equality Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 27
ethnography Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 174
family, in tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
fish Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
gabael Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
geography Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 174
hero Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
homer, homeric Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 27
homer, model / anti-model for lucan Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 189
homer, odysseus, love and adventures Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, aea Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, aeolus Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, alcinous Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, carybdis Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, cicones Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, circe Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, cyclops, cyclopes Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, ino-leucothea Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, ithaca Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, laestrygonians Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, lotus-eaters Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, ogygia Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, phaeacians Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, polyphemus Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, poseidon Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, scheria Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, scylla Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, sirens Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
hoplites, phalanx Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 27
inheritance, moral and religious Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
intermediaries, divine, azariah, dispatched to rages Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
intertextuality Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 174
ithaca Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
jonah, odysseus Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
jonah, paul (apostle) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
jonah, tobiah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
journey, in odyssey Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
laos, laoi Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 27
livrea, e. Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 174
magnesia Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 174
malea, cape Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
marriage, arranged in heaven Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
marriage, endogamic Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
meliboea Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 174
modello-esemplare, herodotus as Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 174
non-greeks' Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 174
nostos, as master-trope explored by lucan Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 189
nostos, νόστος, return home, tobiah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
odysseus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87; Hunter, The Measure of Homer: The Ancient Reception of the Iliad (2018) 130; Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 189; Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 174; Repath and Whitmarsh, Reading Heliodorus' Aethiopica (2022) 71
odyssey, homers Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 174
ogygia Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
persia, persians Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 174
phaeacians Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
polyphemus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
poseidon Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
rages Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
raids Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 27
scheria Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
scholia on homer Hunter, The Measure of Homer: The Ancient Reception of the Iliad (2018) 130
scylla and charybdis Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
seneca Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 189
soldiers, fighting in mass Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 27
storm Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
theagenes Repath and Whitmarsh, Reading Heliodorus' Aethiopica (2022) 71
theon, aelius Hunter, The Measure of Homer: The Ancient Reception of the Iliad (2018) 130
thersites Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 27
thetis Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 174
thucydides Hunter, The Measure of Homer: The Ancient Reception of the Iliad (2018) 130
time, synchronism Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
time Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
trojan war Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
trojans Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
troy Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
twists, turns, in odyssey Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
ulysses Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
wandering Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
warfare Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 27
xerxes Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 174