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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6678
Homer, Odyssey, 13.184-13.440
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ὣς οἱ μέν ῥʼ εὔχοντο Ποσειδάωνι ἄνακτιSo they prayed to lord Poseidon, the Phaeacian kingdom's leaders and commanders, as they stood around an altar. Then divine Odysseus awoke from sleeping in his fatherland, but did not recognize it, since he'd been so long away. For goddess Pallas Athena
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Παλλὰς Ἀθηναίη, κούρη Διός, ὄφρα μιν αὐτὸνZeus's daughter, had poured mist around him so she could make him unrecognizable and tell him every thing, so his wife would not recognize him, or his townsmen and friends, before all the suitors paid for their transgressions. She therefore made everything look strange to the lord
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ἀτραπιτοί τε διηνεκέες λιμένες τε πάνορμοιthe straight pathways, the harbors always fit for mooring, the steep rocks, and luxuriant trees. Springing up, he stood and looked at his fatherland. Then he wailed, and smacked his thighs with his downturned hands, and said in lamentation:
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ὤ μοι ἐγώ, τέων αὖτε βροτῶν ἐς γαῖαν ἱκάνω;“Oh my me, in what mortals' land have I arrived, and are they wanton, unjust, and wild, or hospitable and have god-fearing minds? Where do I take these many possessions? Where do I wander myself? If only I'd stayed with the Phaeacian
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αὐτοῦ· ἐγὼ δέ κεν ἄλλον ὑπερμενέων βασιλήωνwhere I was. I would have reached another exceedingly mighty king, who'd have welcomed me and sent me on my way. Now I don't know where to put it, and I won't leave it where it is, lest by chance my spoils become another's. Humph! Not completely wise or just
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ἦσαν Φαιήκων ἡγήτορες ἠδὲ μέδοντεςwere the Phaeacian leaders and commanders, who brought me away to a strange land. Yes, they said they'd bring me to clear Ithaca, but they didn't do it. May Zeus, the god of supplicants, punish them, Zeus who watches over other men, too, and punishes whoever does wrong.
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ἀλλʼ ἄγε δὴ τὰ χρήματʼ ἀριθμήσω καὶ ἴδωμαιBut come now, let me count these possessions and see if they haven't gone and taken anything of mine in their hollow ship. So saying, he counted the gorgeous tripods and cauldrons and the gold and fine woven clothing. None of it was missing, but he mourned for his fatherland
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ἑρπύζων παρὰ θῖνα πολυφλοίσβοιο θαλάσσηςand crept along the shore of the loudly-surging sea in much grief. Athena came close by him, disguised in the form of young man, a shepherd of sheep, delicate all over, such as the sons of lords are, with a well-made cloak, folded double, around her shoulders.
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ποσσὶ δʼ ὑπὸ λιπαροῖσι πέδιλʼ ἔχε, χερσὶ δʼ ἄκοντα.She had sandals beneath her sleek feet and a javelin in her hands. Odysseus rejoiced at the sight of her and came to face her, and, voicing winged words, he said to her: “Friend, since you're the first that I've met in this place, hello, and may you not at all meet me with evil intent
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ἀλλὰ σάω μὲν ταῦτα, σάω δʼ ἐμέ· σοὶ γὰρ ἐγώ γεbut save these things, and save me. For I pray to you as to a god, and I come to your dear knees. And tell me this truly, so I'll know it well. What land is this, what kingdom, what men are born here? Is it perhaps some clear island or some headland
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κεῖθʼ ἁλὶ κεκλιμένη ἐριβώλακος ἠπείροιο;that lies sloping from the fertile mainland to the sea? Bright-eyed goddess Athena said back to him: “Stranger, you're a fool, or come from far away, if you ask about this land. In truth, it's not at all nameless, but very many know it
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ἠμὲν ὅσοι ναίουσι πρὸς ἠῶ τʼ ἠέλιόν τεboth those who dwell towards the dawn and sun and those back towards the murky darkness. Yes, it's rocky and not fit for horses, but it's not too poor, though it isn't built wide, for there's unlimited food on it, and wine on it, too.
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γίγνεται· αἰεὶ δʼ ὄμβρος ἔχει τεθαλυῖά τʼ ἐέρση·There's always rain and luxuriant dew. It's good for grazing goats and cattle. There's woodland of all kinds, and watering places in it that never fail. Because of this, stranger, the name of Ithaca reaches even to Troy, though they say that's far away from Achaean land.”
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ὣς φάτο, γήθησεν δὲ πολύτλας δῖος ὈδυσσεύςSo said he, and long-suffering divine Odysseus was glad, and rejoiced in the land of his fathers, as Pallas Athena, aegis-bearer Zeus's daughter, spoke to him. And, voicing winged words, he spoke to her, but he didn't tell the truth, but took his words back
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αἰεὶ ἐνὶ στήθεσσι νόον πολυκερδέα νωμῶν·always applying the very wily mind in his chest: “I heard of Ithaca even in wide Crete, far away over the sea. Now I've even come myself with these possessions. I left just as many with my children and fled, after I killed the dear son of Idomeneus
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Ὀρσίλοχον πόδας ὠκύν, ὃς ἐν Κρήτῃ εὐρείῃwift-of-foot Orsilochus, who in wide Crete defeated with his fast feet men who work for bread, because he wanted to rob me of all my Trojanbooty, for which I suffered sorrows in my heart, cutting through men's wars and painful waves
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οὕνεκʼ ἄρʼ οὐχ ᾧ πατρὶ χαριζόμενος θεράπευονbecause I wouldn't please his father and serve as his cohort in the Trojan kingdom, but led others as my comrades. I struck him with my bronze-tipped spear as he came down from the fields, in ambush with a comrade near the road. A very dark night shrouded heaven, and no man
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ἀνθρώπων ἐνόησε, λάθον δέ ἑ θυμὸν ἀπούρας.aw us, as, unnoticed, I took away his life. Then after I killed him with sharp bronze, I went at once to a ship, begged illustrious Phoenicians, and gave booty satisfactory to them. I bid them take me aboard and set me down in Pylo
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ἢ εἰς Ἤλιδα δῖαν, ὅθι κρατέουσιν Ἐπειοί.or in divine Elis where the Epeians have power. But, indeed, the wind's force pushed them away from there much against their will, and they didn't want to deceive me, but, made to wander from there, we reached here at night. In haste we rowed into the harbor, and none of us had any
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δόρπου μνῆστις ἔην, μάλα περ χατέουσιν ἑλέσθαιthought of dinner, though they very much needed to take it, but getting out of the ship as we were, all of us lay down. Then sweet sleep came upon me in my weariness, and they took my possessions from the hollow ship and set them down right where I myself lay on the sand.
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οἱ δʼ ἐς Σιδονίην εὖ ναιομένην ἀναβάντεςThey got aboard and went to well-inhabited Sidon, but I was left behind, grieving in my heart.” So said he, and bright-eyed goddess Athena smiled and caressed him with her hand. She appeared in the form of a beautiful tall woman skilled in splendid works.
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καί μιν φωνήσασʼ ἔπεα πτερόεντα προσηύδα·And, voicing winged words, she said to him: “He'd have to be thievish and cunning to surpass you in all your wiles, even if it were a god who met you. Reckless one, intricate plotter, insatiable in your wiles, you wouldn't, even in your own land, forgo your fraud
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μύθων τε κλοπίων, οἵ τοι πεδόθεν φίλοι εἰσίν.and thievish words, that are, from the ground up, dear to you. But come, let's talk of this no longer. Both of us know cunning arts, since you're by far the best among all mortals in speeches and in counsel, while among all the gods I'm celebrated for cunning arts and wisdom. Yet you didn't recognize
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Παλλάδʼ Ἀθηναίην, κούρην Διός, ἥ τέ τοι αἰεὶPallas Athena, the daughter of Zeus, who's ever by your side, and guards you in all your labors, and made you dear to all Phaeacians. Now here I've come again, to weave a plan with you, and to hide your possessions, the ones the illustrious Phaeacian
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ὤπασαν οἴκαδʼ ἰόντι ἐμῇ βουλῇ τε νόῳ τεent with you on your way homeward, by my plan and idea, and to tell you how many troubles it's your fate to endure in your well-built house. You must endure it, too, by necessity, and not speak out to any of them all, neither man nor woman, to the effect that you've come back from wandering, but you must
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πάσχειν ἄλγεα πολλά, βίας ὑποδέγμενος ἀνδρῶν.in silence suffer many sorrows, submitting to the violence of men. Adroit Odysseus said to her in reply: It's hard for a mortal, even a very knowing one, to recognize you, goddess, when he meets you, for you make yourself look like everything. But I know this well, that you were kind to me before
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ἧος ἐνὶ Τροίῃ πολεμίζομεν υἷες Ἀχαιῶν.when we sons of the Achaeans warred in Troy. Then after we sacked Priam's lofty city and went off in our ships, a god scattered the Achaeans. I didn't see you then, daughter of Zeus, nor did I notice you come aboard my ship to ward off some sorrow from me.
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ἀλλʼ αἰεὶ φρεσὶν ᾗσιν ἔχων δεδαϊγμένον ἦτορInstead, I wandered, ever holding my torn heart in my mind, until the gods freed me from evil, until you, in the rich Phaeacian kingdom, encouraged me with your words and led me yourself to their city. Now I supplicate you before your father'for I don't think
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ἥκειν εἰς Ἰθάκην εὐδείελον, ἀλλά τινʼ ἄλληνI've come to clear Ithaca, but find myself in another land, and I think you're making fun of me, telling me these things to beguile my mind' tell me if I've truly reached my beloved fatherland.” Then bright-eyed goddess Athena answered him:
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αἰεί τοι τοιοῦτον ἐνὶ στήθεσσι νόημα·“You always have such thoughts in your chest, therefore I can't leave you, unhappy as you are, because you're well-mannered, keen-witted, and discreet. For gladly would another man, come from wandering, hasten to see his wife and children in his palace
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σοὶ δʼ οὔ πω φίλον ἐστὶ δαήμεναι οὐδὲ πυθέσθαιbut it's not yet dear to you to learn or to find out until you've tested your wife, who indeed sits as before in your palace, and forever for her, unhappy days and nights pass by as she sheds tears. But I never doubted it, instead, in my heart
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ᾔδεʼ, ὃ νοστήσεις ὀλέσας ἄπο πάντας ἑταίρους·I knew that you'd return after losing all your comrades. But I didn't want to fight with Poseidon, my father's brother, who put resentment in his heart for you, enraged that you blinded his beloved son. But come, I'll show you the seat of Ithaca, so you'll believe me.
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Φόρκυνος μὲν ὅδʼ ἐστὶ λιμήν, ἁλίοιο γέροντοςThis is the harbor of Phorcys, the old man of the sea, and this the long-leaved olive tree at the harbor's head and near it a pleasant dusky cave, sacred to the nymphs who are called Naiads. This is the wide cave with the vaulted roof where you offered
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ἔρδεσκες νύμφῃσι τεληέσσας ἑκατόμβας·many perfect hecatombs to nymphs, and this is Neriton, a mountain clothed in forest.” So saying, the goddess scattered the mist and the land appeared. Long-suffering divine Odysseus was glad then, rejoicing in his land, and kissed the grain-giving ground.
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αὐτίκα δὲ νύμφῃς ἠρήσατο, χεῖρας ἀνασχών·Lifting up his arms, he prayed immediately to the nymphs: “Naiad nymphs, daughters of Zeus, I never thought I'd see you again. I greet you now with gentle prayers. And we'll give you gifts, too, just as before, if Zeus's daughter who grants spoils graciously allow
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αὐτόν τε ζώειν καί μοι φίλον υἱὸν ἀέξῃ.me to go on living and nurtures my dear son.” Bright-eyed goddess Athena said back to him: “Take heart, don't let these things concern your mind, instead, let's put your possessions right now in a corner of the marvelous cave so they'll stay safe for you
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αὐτοὶ δὲ φραζώμεθʼ ὅπως ὄχʼ ἄριστα γένηται.then let ourselves consider how things best by far may happen.” So saying, the goddess entered the shadowy cave, searching through the cave for hiding places. Then Odysseusbrought everything near, the gold and indestructible bronze and the well-made raiment the Phaeacians gave him
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καὶ τὰ μὲν εὖ κατέθηκε, λίθον δʼ ἐπέθηκε θύρῃσιand stowed it well away. Then Aegis-bearer Zeus's daughter Pallas Athena placed a stone as a door. The two sat down beside the base of the sacred olive tree and planned destruction for the haughty suitors. Bright-eyed goddess Athena was the first of them to speak:
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διογενὲς Λαερτιάδη, πολυμήχανʼ Ὀδυσσεῦ“Zeus-born Laertiades, resourceful Odysseus, consider how to lay your hands upon the shameless suitors, who for the past three years have ruled throughout your hall, wooing your godlike wife, and giving her bride gifts. Yet she ever mourns in her heart for your return
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πάντας μέν ῥʼ ἔλπει καὶ ὑπίσχεται ἀνδρὶ ἑκάστῳwhile she offers hope to all and makes promises to each man, sending messages, but her mind is intent on other things. Adroit Odysseus said to her in reply: “Hmmm. Very surely, I was going to perish in my palace by the evil fate of Atreides Agamemnon
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εἰ μή μοι σὺ ἕκαστα, θεά, κατὰ μοῖραν ἔειπες.if you, goddess, hadn't duly told me every thing. But come, weave a plan, how I can take revenge on them, then stand yourself beside me and put dauntless courage in me, just as when we destroyed the sleek battlements of Troy. If you'd as eagerly stand by me, bright-eyes
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καί κε τριηκοσίοισιν ἐγὼν ἄνδρεσσι μαχοίμηνI'd do battle, even with three hundred men, along with you, lady goddess, if you'd help me zealously. Then bright-eyed goddess Athena answered him: “In truth, I will be with you and I won't forget you when we labor at these things. And I think some
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αἵματί τʼ ἐγκεφάλῳ τε παλαξέμεν ἄσπετον οὖδαςwill spatter the ground unspeakably with blood and brain, some of the suitor men, who devour your substance. But come, I'll make you unrecognizable to all mortals. I'll shrivel the beautiful flesh on your supple limbs, destroy the blond hair from your head, and dress you in tatter
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ἕσσω ὅ κε στυγέῃσιν ἰδὼν ἄνθρωπον ἔχονταo the man who sees you wearing them will loathe you. I'll deform your eyes, that were gorgeous before, so you'll look despicable to all the suitors and to your wife and son, whom you left in your palace. First of all, you yourself go to the swineherd
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ὅς τοι ὑῶν ἐπίουρος, ὁμῶς δέ τοι ἤπια οἶδεwho's the guardian of your pigs, thinks so kindly of you, and loves your son and discreet Penelope. You'll find him sitting by his pigs, who are feeding by the rock of Corax and at Arethusa spring, eating many tasty acorns and drinking the black water
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πίνουσαι, τά θʼ ὕεσσι τρέφει τεθαλυῖαν ἀλοιφήν.things that, for pigs, thicken their luxuriant lard. Stay there, and sit beside him, and ask about everything, while I go to Sparta where the women are beautiful and summon Telemachus, your beloved son, Odysseus, who went to spacious Lacedaemon, to Menelaus
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ᾤχετο πευσόμενος μετὰ σὸν κλέος, εἴ που ἔτʼ εἴης.to find out news of you, whether you were still anywhere alive.” Adroit Odysseus said to her in reply: “Why didn't you tell him, you who in your mind know all? Perhaps it was so he'd too suffer sorrows, wandering on the barren sea, while others ate his substance?”
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τὸν δʼ ἠμείβετʼ ἔπειτα θεὰ γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη·Then bright-eyed goddess Athena answered him: “Don't let him be too much on your mind. I myself escorted him, so he win good fame by going there. So he has no hard work, but sits at ease in the house of Atreides, and abundance lies beside him.
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ἦ μέν μιν λοχόωσι νέοι σὺν νηῒ μελαίνῃYes, young men wait in ambush in a black ship, eager to kill him before he reaches his fatherland, but I don't expect that at all. Rather, the earth will cover some of the suitor men, who devour your substance.” So saying, Athena touched him with her wand.
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κάρψεν μὲν χρόα καλὸν ἐνὶ γναμπτοῖσι μέλεσσιShe shriveled the beautiful flesh on his supple limbs, destroyed the blond hair from his head, and placed about all his limbs the skin of an aged old man. She deformed his eyes, that were gorgeous before, then threw about him a rag, a different, foul one, and a tunic
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ῥωγαλέα ῥυπόωντα, κακῷ μεμορυγμένα καπνῷ·tattered, filthy things, soiled with foul smoke. She dressed the hide of a swift deer, stripped of hair, about him, then gave him a staff and an unseemly pouch, full of holes. A twisted cord was on it as a strap. So the two plotted and parted. She then
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ἐς Λακεδαίμονα δῖαν ἔβη μετὰ παῖδʼ Ὀδυσῆος.went to divine Lacedaemon, after the son of Odysseus.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

15 results
1. Homer, Iliad, 2.419-2.420, 2.859, 6.311, 8.551-8.552, 10.46, 20.300-20.308, 24.601-24.620 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

2.419. /and have burned with consuming fire the portals thereof, and cloven about the breast of Hector his tunic, rent with the bronze; and in throngs may his comrades round about him fall headlong in the dust, and bite the earth. So spake he; but not as yet would the son of Cronos grant him fulfillment; 2.420. /nay, he accepted the sacrifice, but toil he made to wax unceasingly. Then, when they had prayed and had sprinkled the barley grains, they first drew back the victims' heads and cut their throats, and flayed them; and they cut out the thigh-pieces and covered them with a double layer of fat, and laid raw flesh thereon. 2.859. /and Cromna and Aegialus and lofty Erythini.But of the Halizones Odius and Epistrophus were captains from afar, from Alybe, where is the birth-place of silver. And of the Mysians the captains were Chromis and Ennomus the augur; howbeit with his auguries he warded not off black fate 6.311. /on Troy and the Trojans' wives and their little children. So spake she praying, but Pallas Athene denied the prayer.Thus were these praying to the daughter of great Zeus, but Hector went his way to the palace of Alexander, the fair palace that himself had builded with the men 8.551. /but thereof the blessed gods partook not, neither were minded thereto; for utterly hated of them was sacred Ilios, and Priam, and the people of Priam with goodly spear of ash. 8.552. /but thereof the blessed gods partook not, neither were minded thereto; for utterly hated of them was sacred Ilios, and Priam, and the people of Priam with goodly spear of ash. 10.46. /the Argives and their ships, seeing the mind of Zeus is turned. To the sacrifices of Hector, it seemeth, his heart inclineth rather than to ours. For never have I seen neither heard by the telling of another that one man devised in one day so many terrible deeds, as Hector, dear to Zeus, hath wrought upon the sons of the Achaeans, by himself alone 20.300. /Nay, come, let us head him forth from out of death, lest the son of Cronos be anywise wroth, if so be Achilles slay him; for it is ordained unto him to escape, that the race of Dardanus perish not without seed and be seen no more—of Dardanus whom the son of Cronos loved above all the children born to him 20.301. /Nay, come, let us head him forth from out of death, lest the son of Cronos be anywise wroth, if so be Achilles slay him; for it is ordained unto him to escape, that the race of Dardanus perish not without seed and be seen no more—of Dardanus whom the son of Cronos loved above all the children born to him 20.302. /Nay, come, let us head him forth from out of death, lest the son of Cronos be anywise wroth, if so be Achilles slay him; for it is ordained unto him to escape, that the race of Dardanus perish not without seed and be seen no more—of Dardanus whom the son of Cronos loved above all the children born to him 20.303. /Nay, come, let us head him forth from out of death, lest the son of Cronos be anywise wroth, if so be Achilles slay him; for it is ordained unto him to escape, that the race of Dardanus perish not without seed and be seen no more—of Dardanus whom the son of Cronos loved above all the children born to him 20.304. /Nay, come, let us head him forth from out of death, lest the son of Cronos be anywise wroth, if so be Achilles slay him; for it is ordained unto him to escape, that the race of Dardanus perish not without seed and be seen no more—of Dardanus whom the son of Cronos loved above all the children born to him 20.305. /from mortal women. For at length hath the son of Cronos come to hate the race of Priam; and now verily shall the mighty Aeneas be king among the Trojans, and his sons' sons that shall be born in days to come. 20.306. /from mortal women. For at length hath the son of Cronos come to hate the race of Priam; and now verily shall the mighty Aeneas be king among the Trojans, and his sons' sons that shall be born in days to come. 20.307. /from mortal women. For at length hath the son of Cronos come to hate the race of Priam; and now verily shall the mighty Aeneas be king among the Trojans, and his sons' sons that shall be born in days to come. 20.308. /from mortal women. For at length hath the son of Cronos come to hate the race of Priam; and now verily shall the mighty Aeneas be king among the Trojans, and his sons' sons that shall be born in days to come. 24.601. /and lieth upon a bier; and at break of day thou shalt thyself behold him, as thou bearest him hence; but for this present let us bethink us of supper. For even the fair-haired Niobe bethought her of meat, albeit twelve children perished in her halls, six daughters and six lusty sons. 24.602. /and lieth upon a bier; and at break of day thou shalt thyself behold him, as thou bearest him hence; but for this present let us bethink us of supper. For even the fair-haired Niobe bethought her of meat, albeit twelve children perished in her halls, six daughters and six lusty sons. 24.603. /and lieth upon a bier; and at break of day thou shalt thyself behold him, as thou bearest him hence; but for this present let us bethink us of supper. For even the fair-haired Niobe bethought her of meat, albeit twelve children perished in her halls, six daughters and six lusty sons. 24.604. /and lieth upon a bier; and at break of day thou shalt thyself behold him, as thou bearest him hence; but for this present let us bethink us of supper. For even the fair-haired Niobe bethought her of meat, albeit twelve children perished in her halls, six daughters and six lusty sons. 24.605. /The sons Apollo slew with shafts from his silver bow, being wroth against Niobe, and the daughters the archer Artemis, for that Niobe had matched her with fair-cheeked Leto, saying that the goddess had borne but twain, while herself was mother to many; wherefore they, for all they were but twain, destroyed them all. 24.606. /The sons Apollo slew with shafts from his silver bow, being wroth against Niobe, and the daughters the archer Artemis, for that Niobe had matched her with fair-cheeked Leto, saying that the goddess had borne but twain, while herself was mother to many; wherefore they, for all they were but twain, destroyed them all. 24.607. /The sons Apollo slew with shafts from his silver bow, being wroth against Niobe, and the daughters the archer Artemis, for that Niobe had matched her with fair-cheeked Leto, saying that the goddess had borne but twain, while herself was mother to many; wherefore they, for all they were but twain, destroyed them all. 24.608. /The sons Apollo slew with shafts from his silver bow, being wroth against Niobe, and the daughters the archer Artemis, for that Niobe had matched her with fair-cheeked Leto, saying that the goddess had borne but twain, while herself was mother to many; wherefore they, for all they were but twain, destroyed them all. 24.609. /The sons Apollo slew with shafts from his silver bow, being wroth against Niobe, and the daughters the archer Artemis, for that Niobe had matched her with fair-cheeked Leto, saying that the goddess had borne but twain, while herself was mother to many; wherefore they, for all they were but twain, destroyed them all. 24.610. /For nine days' space they lay in their blood, nor was there any to bury them, for the son of Cronos turned the folk to stones; howbeit on the tenth day the gods of heaven buried them; and Niobe bethought her of meat, for she was wearied with the shedding of tears. And now somewhere amid the rocks, on the lonely mountains 24.611. /For nine days' space they lay in their blood, nor was there any to bury them, for the son of Cronos turned the folk to stones; howbeit on the tenth day the gods of heaven buried them; and Niobe bethought her of meat, for she was wearied with the shedding of tears. And now somewhere amid the rocks, on the lonely mountains 24.612. /For nine days' space they lay in their blood, nor was there any to bury them, for the son of Cronos turned the folk to stones; howbeit on the tenth day the gods of heaven buried them; and Niobe bethought her of meat, for she was wearied with the shedding of tears. And now somewhere amid the rocks, on the lonely mountains 24.613. /For nine days' space they lay in their blood, nor was there any to bury them, for the son of Cronos turned the folk to stones; howbeit on the tenth day the gods of heaven buried them; and Niobe bethought her of meat, for she was wearied with the shedding of tears. And now somewhere amid the rocks, on the lonely mountains 24.614. /For nine days' space they lay in their blood, nor was there any to bury them, for the son of Cronos turned the folk to stones; howbeit on the tenth day the gods of heaven buried them; and Niobe bethought her of meat, for she was wearied with the shedding of tears. And now somewhere amid the rocks, on the lonely mountains 24.615. /on Sipylus, where, men say, are the couching-places of goddesses, even of the nymphs that range swiftly in the dance about Achelous, there, albeit a stone, she broodeth over her woes sent by the gods. But come, let us twain likewise, noble old sire, bethink us of meat; and thereafter shalt thou make lament over thy dear son 24.616. /on Sipylus, where, men say, are the couching-places of goddesses, even of the nymphs that range swiftly in the dance about Achelous, there, albeit a stone, she broodeth over her woes sent by the gods. But come, let us twain likewise, noble old sire, bethink us of meat; and thereafter shalt thou make lament over thy dear son 24.617. /on Sipylus, where, men say, are the couching-places of goddesses, even of the nymphs that range swiftly in the dance about Achelous, there, albeit a stone, she broodeth over her woes sent by the gods. But come, let us twain likewise, noble old sire, bethink us of meat; and thereafter shalt thou make lament over thy dear son 24.618. /on Sipylus, where, men say, are the couching-places of goddesses, even of the nymphs that range swiftly in the dance about Achelous, there, albeit a stone, she broodeth over her woes sent by the gods. But come, let us twain likewise, noble old sire, bethink us of meat; and thereafter shalt thou make lament over thy dear son 24.619. /on Sipylus, where, men say, are the couching-places of goddesses, even of the nymphs that range swiftly in the dance about Achelous, there, albeit a stone, she broodeth over her woes sent by the gods. But come, let us twain likewise, noble old sire, bethink us of meat; and thereafter shalt thou make lament over thy dear son 24.620. /when thou hast borne him into Ilios; mourned shall he be of thee many tears. Therewith swift Achilles sprang up, and slew a white-fleeced sheep, and his comrades flayed it and made it ready well and duly, and sliced it cunningly and spitted the morsels, and roasted them carefully and drew all off the spits.
2. Homer, Odyssey, 1.60-1.62, 3.157, 3.159-3.160, 4.502, 8.71-8.72, 8.565-8.569, 9.534, 9.551-9.555, 10.516-10.529, 11.23-11.50, 11.114, 11.130-11.132, 12.233-12.265, 12.339-12.365, 12.387-12.388, 12.396-12.397, 13.125-13.183, 13.185-13.440, 14.414, 14.418-14.438, 14.443-14.445, 19.196-19.202, 20.348, 23.277-23.279, 24.215, 24.364 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

3. Aeschylus, Persians, 206-208, 205 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

205. ὁρῶ δὲ φεύγοντʼ αἰετὸν πρὸς ἐσχάραν 205. But I saw an eagle fleeing for safety to the altar of Phoebus—and out of terror, my friends, I stood speechless. Thereupon I caught sight of a falcon rushing at full speed with outstretched wings and with his talons plucking at the head of the eagle, which did nothing but cower and
4. Euripides, Alcestis, 120-122, 119 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5. Euripides, Electra, 171 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

171. ἀγγέλλει δ' ὅτι νῦν τριταί-
6. Euripides, Suppliant Women, 155 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

155. Didst consult seers, and gaze into the flame of burnt-offerings? Adrastu
7. Herodotus, Histories, 1.50, 6.81-6.82, 6.91, 7.133-7.134, 8.122 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.50. After this, he tried to win the favor of the Delphian god with great sacrifices. He offered up three thousand beasts from all the kinds fit for sacrifice, and on a great pyre burnt couches covered with gold and silver, golden goblets, and purple cloaks and tunics; by these means he hoped the better to win the aid of the god, to whom he also commanded that every Lydian sacrifice what he could. ,When the sacrifice was over, he melted down a vast store of gold and made ingots of it, the longer sides of which were of six and the shorter of three palms' length, and the height was one palm. There were a hundred and seventeen of these. Four of them were of refined gold, each weighing two talents and a half; the rest were of gold with silver alloy, each of two talents' weight. ,He also had a figure of a lion made of refined gold, weighing ten talents. When the temple of Delphi was burnt, this lion fell from the ingots which were the base on which it stood; and now it is in the treasury of the Corinthians, but weighs only six talents and a half, for the fire melted away three and a half talents. 6.81. Then Cleomenes sent most of his army back to Sparta, while he himself took a thousand of the best warriors and went to the temple of Hera to sacrifice. When he wished to sacrifice at the altar the priest forbade him, saying that it was not holy for a stranger to sacrifice there. Cleomenes ordered the helots to carry the priest away from the altar and whip him, and he performed the sacrifice. After doing this, he returned to Sparta. 6.82. But after his return his enemies brought him before the ephors, saying that he had been bribed not to take Argos when he might have easily taken it. Cleomenes alleged (whether falsely or truly, I cannot rightly say; but this he alleged in his speech) that he had supposed the god's oracle to be fulfilled by his taking of the temple of Argus; therefore he had thought it best not to make any attempt on the city before he had learned from the sacrifices whether the god would deliver it to him or withstand him; ,when he was taking omens in Hera's temple a flame of fire had shone forth from the breast of the image, and so he learned the truth of the matter, that he would not take Argos. If the flame had come out of the head of the image, he would have taken the city from head to foot utterly; but its coming from the breast signified that he had done as much as the god willed to happen. This plea of his seemed to the Spartans to be credible and reasonable, and he far outdistanced the pursuit of his accusers. 6.91. But this happened later. The rich men of Aegina gained mastery over the people, who had risen against them with Nicodromus, then made them captive and led them out to be killed. Because of this a curse fell upon them, which despite all their efforts they could not get rid of by sacrifice, and they were driven out of their island before the goddess would be merciful to them. ,They had taken seven hundred of the people alive; as they led these out for slaughter one of them escaped from his bonds and fled to the temple gate of Demeter the Lawgiver, where he laid hold of the door-handles and clung to them. They could not tear him away by force, so they cut off his hands and carried him off, and those hands were left clinging fast to the door-handles. 7.133. To Athens and Sparta Xerxes sent no heralds to demand earth, and this he did for the following reason. When Darius had previously sent men with this same purpose, those who made the request were cast at the one city into the Pit and at the other into a well, and bidden to obtain their earth and water for the king from these locations. ,What calamity befell the Athenians for dealing in this way with the heralds I cannot say, save that their land and their city were laid waste. I think, however, that there was another reason for this, and not the aforesaid. 7.134. Be that as it may, the anger of Talthybius, Agamemnon's herald, fell upon the Lacedaemonians. At Sparta there is a shrine of Talthybius and descendants of Talthybius called Talthybiadae, who have the special privilege of conducting all embassies from Sparta. ,Now there was a long period after the incident I have mentioned above during which the Spartans were unable to obtain good omens from sacrifice. The Lacedaemonians were grieved and dismayed by this and frequently called assemblies, making a proclamation inviting some Lacedaemonian to give his life for Sparta. Then two Spartans of noble birth and great wealth, Sperthias son of Aneristus and Bulis son of Nicolaus, undertook of their own free will to make atonement to Xerxes for Darius' heralds who had been killed at Sparta. ,Thereupon the Spartans sent these men to Media for execution. 8.122. Having sent the first-fruits to Delphi, the Greeks, in the name of the country generally, made inquiry of the god whether the first-fruits which he had received were of full measure and whether he was content. To this he said that he was content with what he had received from all other Greeks, but not from the Aeginetans. From these he demanded the victor's prize for the sea-fight of Salamis. When the Aeginetans learned that, they dedicated three golden stars which are set on a bronze mast, in the angle, nearest to Croesus' bowl.
8. Sophocles, Antigone, 1005-1022, 999, 1001 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9. Xenophon, Constitution of The Spartans, 13.2 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

13.2. But I will go back to the beginning, and explain how the King sets out with an army. First he offers up sacrifice at home to Zeus the Leader and to the gods associated with him. Or, if we read οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ with Haase, he and his staff. By the associated gods we should understand Castor and Pollux, the Dioscuri. In the Oxford text I gave τοῖν σιοῖν , the twin gods. If the sacrifice appears propitious, the Fire-bearer takes fire from the altar and leads the way to the borders of the land. There the King offers sacrifice again to Zeus and Athena.
10. Aeschines, Letters, 3.121 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

11. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.305-1.409, 5.789-5.792, 5.800, 5.803-5.804, 5.812, 5.814-5.815, 9.77-9.122 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.305. near him, her radiant eyes all dim with tears 1.306. nor smiling any more, Venus approached 1.307. and thus complained: “O thou who dost control 1.308. things human and divine by changeless laws 1.309. enthroned in awful thunder! What huge wrong 1.310. could my Aeneas and his Trojans few 1.311. achieve against thy power? For they have borne 1.312. unnumbered deaths, and, failing Italy 1.313. the gates of all the world against them close. 1.314. Hast thou not given us thy covet 1.315. that hence the Romans when the rolling years 1.316. have come full cycle, shall arise to power 1.317. from Troy 's regenerate seed, and rule supreme 1.318. the unresisted lords of land and sea? 1.319. O Sire, what swerves thy will? How oft have I 1.320. in Troy 's most lamentable wreck and woe 1.321. consoled my heart with this, and balanced oft 1.322. our destined good against our destined ill! 1.323. But the same stormful fortune still pursues 1.324. my band of heroes on their perilous way. 1.325. When shall these labors cease, O glorious King? 1.326. Antenor, though th' Achaeans pressed him sore 1.327. found his way forth, and entered unassailed 1.328. Illyria 's haven, and the guarded land 1.329. of the Liburni. Straight up stream he sailed 1.330. where like a swollen sea Timavus pours 1.331. a nine-fold flood from roaring mountain gorge 1.332. and whelms with voiceful wave the fields below. 1.333. He built Patavium there, and fixed abodes 1.334. for Troy 's far-exiled sons; he gave a name 1.335. to a new land and race; the Trojan arms 1.336. were hung on temple walls; and, to this day 1.337. lying in perfect peace, the hero sleeps. 1.338. But we of thine own seed, to whom thou dost 1.339. a station in the arch of heaven assign 1.340. behold our navy vilely wrecked, because 1.341. a single god is angry; we endure 1.342. this treachery and violence, whereby 1.343. wide seas divide us from th' Hesperian shore. 1.344. Is this what piety receives? Or thus 1.346. Smiling reply, the Sire of gods and men 1.347. with such a look as clears the skies of storm 1.348. chastely his daughter kissed, and thus spake on: 1.349. “Let Cytherea cast her fears away! 1.350. Irrevocably blest the fortunes be 1.351. of thee and thine. Nor shalt thou fail to see 1.352. that City, and the proud predestined wall 1.353. encompassing Lavinium . Thyself 1.354. hall starward to the heights of heaven bear 1.355. Aeneas the great-hearted. Nothing swerves 1.356. my will once uttered. Since such carking cares 1.357. consume thee, I this hour speak freely forth 1.358. and leaf by leaf the book of fate unfold. 1.359. Thy son in Italy shall wage vast war 1.360. and, quell its nations wild; his city-wall 1.361. and sacred laws shall be a mighty bond 1.362. about his gathered people. Summers three 1.363. hall Latium call him king; and three times pass 1.364. the winter o'er Rutulia's vanquished hills. 1.365. His heir, Ascanius, now Iulus called 1.366. (Ilus it was while Ilium 's kingdom stood) 1.367. full thirty months shall reign, then move the throne 1.368. from the Lavinian citadel, and build 1.370. Here three full centuries shall Hector's race 1.371. have kingly power; till a priestess queen 1.372. by Mars conceiving, her twin offspring bear; 1.373. then Romulus, wolf-nursed and proudly clad 1.374. in tawny wolf-skin mantle, shall receive 1.375. the sceptre of his race. He shall uprear 1.376. and on his Romans his own name bestow. 1.377. To these I give no bounded times or power 1.378. but empire without end. Yea, even my Queen 1.379. Juno, who now chastiseth land and sea 1.380. with her dread frown, will find a wiser way 1.381. and at my sovereign side protect and bless 1.382. the Romans, masters of the whole round world 1.383. who, clad in peaceful toga, judge mankind. 1.384. Such my decree! In lapse of seasons due 1.385. the heirs of Ilium 's kings shall bind in chains 1.386. Mycenae 's glory and Achilles' towers 1.387. and over prostrate Argos sit supreme. 1.388. of Trojan stock illustriously sprung 1.389. lo, Caesar comes! whose power the ocean bounds 1.390. whose fame, the skies. He shall receive the name 1.391. Iulus nobly bore, great Julius, he. 1.392. Him to the skies, in Orient trophies dress 1.393. thou shalt with smiles receive; and he, like us 1.394. hall hear at his own shrines the suppliant vow. 1.395. Then will the world grow mild; the battle-sound 1.396. will be forgot; for olden Honor then 1.397. with spotless Vesta, and the brothers twain 1.398. Remus and Romulus, at strife no more 1.399. will publish sacred laws. The dreadful gates 1.400. whence issueth war, shall with close-jointed steel 1.401. be barred impregnably; and prisoned there 1.402. the heaven-offending Fury, throned on swords 1.403. and fettered by a hundred brazen chains 1.405. These words he gave, and summoned Maia's son 1.406. the herald Mercury, who earthward flying 1.407. hould bid the Tyrian realms and new-built towers 1.408. welcome the Trojan waifs; lest Dido, blind 1.409. to Fate's decree, should thrust them from the land. 5.789. But far removed, upon a lonely shore 5.790. a throng of Trojan dames bewailed aloud 5.791. their lost Anchises, and with tears surveyed 5.792. the mighty deep. “O weary waste of seas! 5.800. one Beroe, Doryclus' aged wife 5.803. he called the Trojan dames: “O ye ill-starred 5.804. that were not seized and slain by Grecian foes 5.812. of Eryx, of Acestes, friend and kin; 5.814. and build a town? O city of our sires! 5.815. O venerated gods from haughty foes 9.77. tands howling at the postern all night long; 9.78. beneath the ewes their bleating lambs lie safe; 9.79. but he, with undesisting fury, more 9.80. rages from far, made frantic for his prey 9.81. by hunger of long hours, his foaming jaws 9.82. athirst for blood: not less the envy burned 9.83. of the Rutulian, as he scanned in vain 9.84. the stronghold of his foe. Indigt scorn 9.85. thrilled all his iron frame. But how contrive 9.86. to storm the fortress or by force expel 9.87. the Trojans from the rampart, and disperse 9.88. along the plain? Straightway he spied the ships 9.89. in hiding near the camp, defended well 9.90. by mounded river-bank and fleeting wave. 9.91. On these he fell; while his exultant crew 9.92. brought firebrands, and he with heart aflame 9.93. grasped with a vengeful hand the blazing pine. 9.94. To the wild work his followers sped; for who 9.95. could prove him craven under Turnus' eye? 9.96. The whole troop for the weapon of their rage 9.97. eized smoking coals, of many a hearth the spoil; 9.98. red glare of fuming torches burned abroad 9.100. What god, O Muses, saved the Trojans then 9.101. from wrathful flame? Who shielded then the fleet 9.102. I pray you tell, from bursting storm of fire? 9.103. From hoary eld the tale, but its renown 9.104. ings on forever. When Aeneas first 9.105. on Phrygian Ida hewed the sacred wood 9.106. for rib and spar, and soon would put to sea 9.107. that mighty mother of the gods, they say 9.108. the Berecynthian goddess, thus to Jove 9.109. addressed her plea: “Grant, O my son, a boon 9.110. which thy dear mother asks, who aided thee 9.111. to quell Olympian war. A grove I have 9.112. of sacred pine, long-loved from year to year. 9.113. On lofty hill it grew, and thither came 9.114. my worshippers with gifts, in secret gloom 9.115. of pine-trees dark and shadowing maple-boughs.; 9.116. these on the Dardan warrior at his need 9.117. I, not unwilling, for his fleet bestowed. 9.118. But I have fears. O, Iet a parent's prayer 9.119. in this prevail, and bid my care begone! 9.120. Let not rude voyages nor the shock of storm 9.121. my ships subdue, but let their sacred birth 9.122. on my charmed hills their strength and safety be!”
12. Achilles Tatius, The Adventures of Leucippe And Cleitophon, 2.12.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13. Chariton, Chaereas And Callirhoe, 6.2.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

14. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 8.42.6, 8.42.11 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8.42.6. Azanian Arcadians, acorn-eaters, who dwell In Phigaleia, the cave that hid Deo, who bare a horse, You have come to learn a cure for grievous famine, Who alone have twice been nomads, alone have twice lived on wild fruits. It was Deo who made you cease from pasturing, Deo who made you pasture again After being binders of corn and eaters With the reading ἀναστοφάγους “made you pasture again, and to be non-eaters of cakes, after being binders of corn.” of cakes, Because she was deprived of privileges and ancient honors given by men of former times. And soon will she make you eat each other and feed on your children, Unless you appease her anger with libations offered by all your people, And adorn with divine honors the nook of the cave. 8.42.11. It was mainly to see this Demeter that I came to Phigalia . I offered no burnt sacrifice to the goddess, that being a custom of the natives. But the rule for sacrifice by private persons, and at the annual sacrifice by the community of Phigalia, is to offer grapes and other cultivated fruits, with honeycombs and raw wool still full of its grease. These they place on the altar built before the cave, afterwards pouring oil over them.
15. Philostratus The Athenian, Life of Apollonius, 4.16 (2nd cent. CE

4.16. Therest of the company also besought him to tell them all about it, and as they were in a mood to listen to him, he said: Well, it was not by digging a ditch like Odysseus, nor by tempting souls with the blood of sheep, that I obtained a conversation with Achilles; but I offered up the prayer which the Indians say they use in approaching their heroes. “O Achilles,' I said, “most of mankind declare that you are dead, but I cannot agree with them, nor can Pythagoras, my spiritual ancestor. If then we hold the truth, show to us your own form; for you would profit not a little by showing yourself to my eyes, if you should be able to use them to attest your existence.” Thereupon a slight earthquake shook the neighborhood of the barrow, and a youth issued forth five cubits high, wearing a cloak ofThessalian fashion; but in appearance he was by no means the braggart figure which some imagine Achilles to have been. Though he was stern to look upon, he had never lost his bright look; and it seems to me that his beauty has never received its meed of praise, even though Homer dwelt at length upon it; for it was really beyond the power of words, and it is easier for the singer to ruin his fame in this respect than to praise him as he deserved. At first sight he was of the size which I have mentioned, but he grew bigger, till he was twice as large and even more than that; at any rate he appeared to me to be twelve cubits high just at that moment when he reached his complete stature, and his beauty grew apace with his length. He told me then that he had never at any time shorn off his hair, bit preserved it to inviolate for the river Spercheus, for this was the river of his first intimacy; but on his cheeks you saw the first down.And he addressed me and said: “I am pleased to have met you, since I have long wanted a man like yourself. For the Thessalians for a long time past have failed to present their offerings to my tomb, and I do not yet wish to show my wrath against them; for if I did so, they would perish more thoroughly than ever the Hellenes did on this spot; accordingly I resort to gentle advice, and would warn them not to violate ancient custom, nor to prove themselves worse men than the Trojans here, who though they were robbed of so many of their heroes by myself, yet sacrifice publicly to me, and also give me the tithes of their fruits of season, and olive branch in hand ask for a truce from my hostility. But this I will not grant, for the perjuries which they committed against me will not suffer Ilium ever to resume its pristine beauty, nor to regain the prosperity which yet has favored many a city that was destroyed of old; nay, if they rebuild it, things shall go as hard with them as if their city had been captured only yesterday. In order then to save me from bringing the Thessalian polity then to the same condition, you must go as my envoy to their council in behalf of the object I have mentioned.” “I will be your envoy,” I replied, “for the object of my embassy were to save them from ruin. But, O Achilles, I would ask something of you.” “I understand,” said he, “for it is plain you are going to ask about the Trojan war. So ask me five questions about whatever you like, and that the Fates approve of.” I accordingly asked him firstly, if he had obtained burial in accordance with the story of the poets. “I lie here,” he answered, “as was most delightful to myself and Patroclus; for you know we met in mere youth, and a single golden jar holds the remains of both of us, as if we were one. But as for the dirges of the Muses and Nereids, which they say are sung over me, the Muses, I may tell you, never once came here at all, though the Nereids still resort to the spot.” Next I asked him, if Polyxena was really slaughtered over his tomb; and he replied that this was true, but that she was not slain by the Achaeans, but that she came of her own free will to the sepulcher, and that so high was the value she set on her passion for him and she for her, that she threw herself upon an upright sword. The third questions was this: “Did Helen, O Achilles, really come to Troy or was it Homer that was pleased to make up the story?' “For a long time,” he replied, “we were deceived and tricked into sending envoys to the Trojans and fighting battles in her behalf, in the belief that she was in Ilium, whereas she really was living in Egypt and in the house of Proteus, whither she had been snatched away by Paris. But when we became convinced thereof, we continued to fight to win Troy itself, so as not to disgrace ourselves by retreat.” The fourth question which I ventured upon was this: “I wonder,” I said, “that Greece ever produced at any one time so many and such distinguished heroes as Homer says were gathered against Troy.' But Achilles answered: “Why even the barbarians did not fall far short of us, so abundantly then did excellence flourish all over the earth.” And my fifth question was this: “Why was it that Homer knew nothing about Palamedes, or if he knew him, then kept him out of your story?' “If Palamedes,' he answered, “never came to Troy, then Troy never existed either. But since this wisest and most warlike hero fell in obedience to Odysseus' whim, Homer does not introduce him into his poems, lest he should have to record the shame of Odysseus in his song.” And withal Achilles raised a wail over him as over one who was the greatest and most beautiful of men, the youngest and also the most warlike, one who in sobriety surpassed all others, and had often foregathered with the Muses. “But you,” he added, “O Apollonius, since sages have a tender regard for one another, you must care for his tomb and restore the image of Palamedes that has been so contemptuously cast aside; and it lies in Aeolis close to Methymna in Lesbos.' Wit these words and with the closing remarks concerning the youth from Paros, Achilles vanished with a flash of summer lightning, for indeed the cocks were already beginning their chant.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
achaeans Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 143, 159
achilles Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 21; Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 143
aegina Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 334
aelian Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 159
aeneas Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 63, 97
aeolus, king of the winds Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 63
agamemnon Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 143
ajax, lesser de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 117
ajax the lesser Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 159
alyattes Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 159, 334
alyssae Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 159
anthropology Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 472
aphrodite Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 143
apollo Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 21; Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 102, 143, 159
apotheosis Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 102
argive Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 334
argives Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 334
artemis Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 21; Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 143
asclepius Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 143
athena Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 97; Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 26, 143, 159; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 117
athens Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 102
atossa Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 334
babylon Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 143
burkert, walter Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 472
carthage Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 97
cassandra Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 159
cenchreae Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 101
christianity Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 472
circe Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 97
cleombrotus Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 334
cleomenes Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 334
crete Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 97
croesus Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 334
cyrene Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 26
cyrus the great Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 102
delphic Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 334
demeter Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 102, 334
detienne, marcel Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 472
dido Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 97
eating / food Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 21
emotions, anger, wrath (ira, mênis) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 63
emotions, anger/rage de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 117
emotions Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 63
ethical qualities, anger, wrath (ira, mênis) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 63
ethical qualities, caution Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 97
ethical qualities, craftiness, deceit, deception, disguise, feigning, guile, sleight of hand, trickery (dolus, dolos) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 97
ethical qualities, disguise Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 97
ethical qualities, falsehood, lies Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 97
euripides Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 472; Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 143
gods Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 63, 97
helios Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 143
hera Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 143
hero Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 63, 97
herodotus Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 102, 143, 159, 334
horace Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 97
idomeneus Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 143
intertextuality, allusion, two-tier intertextuality, model Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 97
isis Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 101, 102
ithaca Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 63, 97; Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 21
juno Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 63
leitzitat (guide citation) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 97
leto Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 21; Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 143
locri Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 159
messapians Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 21
metamorphosis, as amazing / astonishing Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 102
metamorphosis, audience reaction to / interpretation of Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 21
metamorphosis narratives, patterns of Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 21
narratives Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 97
narrators, aeneid Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 97
neptune Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 63
niobe Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 21
nymphs Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 63; Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 21
odysseus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 63; Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 21; Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 26, 143, 159; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 117
odysseus crew Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 159
orsilochus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 97
pain/suffering de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 117
palinurus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 63
patron, patronage, divine patron Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 97
persians Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 159
phaeacians Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 63, 97; Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 21; Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 102, 159, 334
phigalia Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 102
philosophy Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 102
phoenix Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 102
phorcys Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 97
plants Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 21
plutarch Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 26
polyphemus, cyclops de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 117
poseidon Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 63; Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 21; Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 159, 334; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 117
prayer for metamorphosis / release Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 21
priam Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 21
punishment de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 117
religious authority, sacred law/prescriptions Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 472
rocks Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 21
sacred law of cyrene Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 26
sacrifice (thysia), animal slaughter Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 472
sacrifice (thysia), rules and prescriptions Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 472
sacrifice (thysia), standards of decorum Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 472
sacrifice (thysia) Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 472
scheria Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 26
seafaring Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 63
sicily Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 63
sirens Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 97
solon Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 159
sparta Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 159, 334
springs Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 21
storm Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 63
sun Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 159
theano Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 26
thucydides Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 143
transgression Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 63
trees Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 21
trojans Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 63
troy Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 97; Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 26, 143, 159
van straten, folkert' Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 472
venus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 63, 97
vernant, jean-pierre Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 472
wandering Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 97
war, warfare Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 97
winds Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 63
xenophon Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 102
xerxes Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 102, 334
zeus Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 21; Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 26, 143; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 117