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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6678
Homer, Odyssey, 10.307-10.542
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ἔστην δʼ εἰνὶ θύρῃσι θεᾶς καλλιπλοκάμοιο·I stood in the door of the fair-haired goddess. I stood there and shouted, and the goddess heard my voice. She soon came out, opened the shiny doors, and called me in, then I followed with grief in my heart. She brought me in and sat me on a silver-studded chair
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καλοῦ δαιδαλέου· ὑπὸ δὲ θρῆνυς ποσὶν ἦεν·beautiful, intricately worked. A foot-rest for my feet was under it. She made me a potion in a golden goblet, so I would drink, and threw a drug in, with evil intent in her heart. Then after she gave and I drank but it didn't enchant me, she struck me with her wand, called out my name, and said:
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ἔρχεο νῦν συφεόνδε, μετʼ ἄλλων λέξο ἑταίρων.'Go now to the pigsty, lie with the rest of your comrades!' “So said she, but I drew my sharp sword from beside my thigh and rushed at Circe as if eager to kill her. With a great cry she ran under, clasped my knees, and, wailing, spoke winged words to me:
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τίς πόθεν εἰς ἀνδρῶν; πόθι τοι πόλις ἠδὲ τοκῆες;'What man and from where are you? Where are your city and parents? Wonder holds me that you drank this drug but weren't at all enchanted, for no other man ever withstood this drug the first time he drank it and it passed his wall of teeth. In your chest you have some kind of mind that can't be charmed.
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ἦ σύ γʼ Ὀδυσσεύς ἐσσι πολύτροπος, ὅν τέ μοι αἰεὶSurely you're Odysseus, the wily one that Argeiphontes of the golden wand ever told me would come with a swift black ship on his way back from Troy. But come, put your sword in its sheath, and then let the two of us get in our bed, so, mixing
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εὐνῇ καὶ φιλότητι πεποίθομεν ἀλλήλοισιν.in making love and love, we'll get to trust each other.' “So said she. Then I in answer said to her: 'Circe, how can you bid me be gentle with you, who made my comrades pigs in your palace, and with a wily mind, since you have me here, bid me
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ἐς θάλαμόν τʼ ἰέναι καὶ σῆς ἐπιβήμεναι εὐνῆςgo into your bedroom and get in your bed, so you can make me, stripped naked, unmanly and a coward? And I won't be willing to get into your bed unless, goddess, you dare to swear a great oath to me, that you won't plan another evil misery for me.'
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ὣς ἐφάμην, ἡ δʼ αὐτίκʼ ἀπώμνυεν, ὡς ἐκέλευον.“So said I, and she at once swore as I'd bid her. Then after she'd sworn and completed the oath, right then I got into Circe's gorgeous bed. “Meanwhile, handmaids worked in the palace, four of them, who were the maidservants in her house.
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γίγνονται δʼ ἄρα ταί γʼ ἔκ τε κρηνέων ἀπό τʼ ἀλσέωνThey were born of springs, and of groves, and of sacred rivers that flow toward the sea. One of them threw fine purple blankets on the chairs, on top, then threw cloths under them below. The second one pulled silver tables in front of the chair
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ἀργυρέας, ἐπὶ δέ σφι τίθει χρύσεια κάνεια·and placed golden baskets on them. The third mixed sweet honey-hearted wine in a silver bowl and set out golden goblets. The fourth brought water and lit a big fire under a great tripod, and the water heated.
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αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ δὴ ζέσσεν ὕδωρ ἐνὶ ἤνοπι χαλκῷThe after the water boiled in the dazzling bronze, she sat me in a tub and bathed me from the great tripod, over my head and shoulders, once she'd mingled it to suit me, until she took the heart-wasting weariness from my limbs. Then after she bathed me and anointed me richly with olive oil
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ἀμφὶ δέ με χλαῖναν καλὴν βάλεν ἠδὲ χιτῶναhe threw a fine cloak and tunic about me, brought me in and sat me on a silver-studded chair, beautiful, intricately worked. A foot-rest for my feet was under it. A handmaid brought water for washing in a fine golden pitcher and poured it above a silver basin
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νίψασθαι· παρὰ δὲ ξεστὴν ἐτάνυσσε τράπεζαν.o we could wash, then pulled a polished table beside us. A venerable housekeeper brought bread and set it before us placing many foods on it, pleasing us from her stores, and bid us eat, but I was not pleased at heart, and I sat there, my mind on something else, my heart foreboding evil.
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Κίρκη δʼ ὡς ἐνόησεν ἔμʼ ἥμενον οὐδʼ ἐπὶ σίτῳ“Now Circe noticed, how I sat but did not throw my hands upon the food and how a mighty sorrow held me, then stood close by and spoke winged words to me: 'Why do you sit this way, Odysseus, like a mute, eating your heart but touching neither food nor drink?
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ἦ τινά που δόλον ἄλλον ὀίεαι· οὐδέ τί σε χρὴPerhaps you suspect another trick? You needn't fear at all, for I've sworn a mighty oath to you.' “So said she. Then I in answer said to her: 'Circe, what man who is right-minded would dare partake of food and drink
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πρὶν λύσασθʼ ἑτάρους καὶ ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖσιν ἰδέσθαι;before he freed his comrades and saw them in his eyes? but, if you bid me eat and drink in earnest, free them, so I can see my trusty comrades with my eyes.' “So said I, and Circe walked directly through her hall, holding her wand in her hand, opened the doors of the pigsty
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ἐκ δʼ ἔλασεν σιάλοισιν ἐοικότας ἐννεώροισιν.and drove them out, looking like hogs nine years old. Then they stood opposite, and she went through them and smeared on each another drug. From their limbs bristles flowed, the ones the ruinous drug that lady Circe'd given them made grow before
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ἄνδρες δʼ ἂψ ἐγένοντο νεώτεροι ἢ πάρος ἦσανand they soon became men. They were younger than before, and handsomer by far, and bigger to look at. They knew me, and each clasped my hands. A longing to weep came on us all, and about us the house echoed horribly. The goddess herself felt pity for us.
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ἡ δέ μευ ἄγχι στᾶσα προσηύδα δῖα θεάων·The goddess divine stood near and said to me: 'Zeus-born Laertiades, resourceful Odysseus, go now to your swift ship and sea's shore. First of all, haul your ship onto land, then stow all your goods and gear in caves
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αὐτὸς δʼ ἂψ ἰέναι καὶ ἄγειν ἐρίηρας ἑταίρους.then come back yourself and bring your trusty comrades.' “So said she. Then my manly heart obeyed, and I made my way to my swift ship and sea's shore. Then on my swift ship I found my trusty comrades, grieving pitiably, shedding thick tears.
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ὡς δʼ ὅτʼ ἂν ἄγραυλοι πόριες περὶ βοῦς ἀγελαίαςAs when calves in the barnyard all frisk opposite the cows of the herd, coming to the dunghill once they've had their fill of fodder, and the pens no longer hold them, but mooing constantly they run about their mothers, so they, when they saw me with their eyes
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δακρυόεντες ἔχυντο· δόκησε δʼ ἄρα σφίσι θυμὸςpoured over me in tears. Then it seemed they felt as if they'd reached their fatherland and the city itself of rugged Ithaca, where they were born and bred, and as they wept they spoke winged words to me: 'We rejoice as much at your returning, Zeus-nurtured one
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ὡς εἴ τʼ εἰς Ἰθάκην ἀφικοίμεθα πατρίδα γαῖαν·as if we'd reached our fatherland, Ithaca. But come, recount the destruction of the rest of our comrades!' “So said they. Then I spoke to them with words meant to win them: 'First of all, we'll haul our ship onto land, then we'll stow all our goods and gear in caves
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αὐτοὶ δʼ ὀτρύνεσθε ἐμοὶ ἅμα πάντες ἕπεσθαιthen all of you spur yourselves to follow me so you can see your comrades in Circe's sacred home, eating and drinking, for they have an abundance.' “So said I, and they quickly obeyed my words. Only Eurylochus held back all my comrades
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καί σφεας φωνήσας ἔπεα πτερόεντα προσηύδα·and, voicing winged words, he said to them: 'Ah, wretched ones, where are we going? Why are you eager for these evils, going down to the hall of Circe, who'll make each and every one of us either pigs or wolves or lions, to guard her big house under compulsion
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ὥς περ Κύκλωψ ἔρξʼ, ὅτε οἱ μέσσαυλον ἵκοντοeven as the Cyclops penned them, when our comrades went to his courtyard, and bold Odysseus followed with them, for by by this man's recklessness they perished!' “So said he, then I pondered in my mind drawing my sharp-edged sword from beside my thick thigh
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τῷ οἱ ἀποπλήξας κεφαλὴν οὖδάσδε πελάσσαιand cutting off his head with it to bring him to the ground though he was very close kin to me by marriage, but my comrades, from one place or another, restrained me with words meant to win me: 'Zeus-born, if you order it, we'll let this one stay where he is beside the ship and guard it.
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ἡμῖν δʼ ἡγεμόνευʼ ἱερὰ πρὸς δώματα Κίρκης.Then, guide us to Circe's sacred home.' “So saying, they went up from the ship and sea. And Eurylochus was not left beside the hollow ship, but followed, for he feared my vehement rebuke. “Meanwhile, with kind care, Circe bathed and richly anointed
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ἐνδυκέως λοῦσέν τε καὶ ἔχρισεν λίπʼ ἐλαίῳwith olive oil my other comrades in her house, then threw about them fleecy cloaks and tunics. We found them all dining well in her palace. When they saw and recognized each other face to face, they wept in lamentation, and the house echoed all around.
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ἡ δέ μευ ἄγχι στᾶσα προσηύδα δῖα θεάων·The goddess divine stood near and said to me: 'Zeus-nurtured Laertiades, resourceful Odysseus, raise loud lamentation no longer. I know myself how many sorrows you've suffered on the fishy sea and how much hostile men have harmed you on dry land
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ἀλλʼ ἄγετʼ ἐσθίετε βρώμην καὶ πίνετε οἶνονbut come, eat food and drink wine, so that in your chest you'll get again the heart you had when you first left your native land of rugged Ithaca. Now, you're withered and heartless, with hard wandering always on your mind, and your heart
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θυμὸς ἐν εὐφροσύνῃ, ἐπεὶ ἦ μάλα πολλὰ πέποσθε.is never in happiness, since you've surely suffered very much.' “So said she, and our manly spirit yielded in turn. There every day, until a year came to its end, we sat feasting on boundless meat and sweet wine. But when a year was over, and seasons turned around
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μηνῶν φθινόντων, περὶ δʼ ἤματα μακρὰ τελέσθηas the months passed, and long days brought about, right then my trusty comrades summoned me and said: 'Possessed one, remember now your fatherland, if it's ordained that you be saved and reach your well-built house and your fatherland.'
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ὣς ἔφαν, αὐτὰρ ἐμοί γʼ ἐπεπείθετο θυμὸς ἀγήνωρ.“So said they. Then my manly heart obeyed, So then all day until the sun went down, we sat feasting on boundless meat and sweet wine. When the sun went down and dusk came on, they lay down to sleep throughout the shadowy hall.
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αὐτὰρ ἐγὼ Κίρκης ἐπιβὰς περικαλλέος εὐνῆς“Then I climbed on Circe's gorgeous bed and entreated her by the knees. The goddess heard my voice, and, voicing winged words, I said to her: 'Circe, fulfill for me the promise that you promised, to send me home. My heart is eager now
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ἠδʼ ἄλλων ἑτάρων, οἵ μευ φθινύθουσι φίλον κῆρand my comrades' hearts as well, who make my dear heart pine, lamenting around me, when you're somewhere away.' “So said I, and the goddess divine immediately answered: 'Zeus-nurtured Laertiades, resourceful Odysseus, stay no longer in my house against your will.
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ἀλλʼ ἄλλην χρὴ πρῶτον ὁδὸν τελέσαι καὶ ἱκέσθαιBut, first you need to complete a different journey, and go to the house of Hades and dread Persephone, to consult the soul of Teiresias the Theban, the blind seer whose mind is intact. To him, even after dying, Persephone gave mind
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οἴῳ πεπνῦσθαι, τοὶ δὲ σκιαὶ ἀίσσουσιν.that he alone has wits, while others flit about as shadows.' “So said she. Then my dear heart was broken, and I sat weeping on the bed, and, truly, my heart no longer wished to live and see sun's light. Then after I'd had enough of weeping and writhing
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καὶ τότε δή μιν ἔπεσσιν ἀμειβόμενος προσέειπον·right then I said to her in answer: 'Circe, who'll guide us on this journey? No one's ever reached the house of Hades in a black ship!' “So said I, and the goddess divine immediately answered: 'Zeus-nurtured Laertiades, resourceful Odysseus
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μή τί τοι ἡγεμόνος γε ποθὴ παρὰ νηὶ μελέσθωdon't let the absence of a guide bother you beside your ship, but set up the mast, spread the white sails, and sit. North Wind's breath will bear her for you. But when you drive through Ocean with your ship, there will be a rough headland and groves of Persephone
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μακραί τʼ αἴγειροι καὶ ἰτέαι ὠλεσίκαρποιtall poplars and willows losing their fruit. Land your ship at that spot, by deep-eddying Ocean, but go yourself to the dank house of Hades. There Pyriphlegethus and Cocytus, which is a branch of the water of the Styx, flow into Acheron
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πέτρη τε ξύνεσίς τε δύω ποταμῶν ἐριδούπων·and there is a rock and the junction of two roaring rivers. Then draw near there, hero, as I bid you, and dig a pit a cubit's length this way and that, and pour a libation to all the dead about it, first with milk and honey, thereafter with sweet wine
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τὸ τρίτον αὖθʼ ὕδατι· ἐπὶ δʼ ἄλφιτα λευκὰ παλύνειν.a third time with water, then sprinkle white barley groats upon it. Entreat repeatedly the helpless heads of the dead, that when you get to Ithaca you'll offer a cow that's not yet calved, your best one, in your palace, and will fill the pyre with good things, and that you'll sacrifice separately, to Teiresias alone
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παμμέλανʼ, ὃς μήλοισι μεταπρέπει ὑμετέροισιν.a solid-black ram, that stands out among your sheep. Then after you've entreated the famous tribes of corpses with your prayers, offer sheep there, a ram and a black female, turning them toward Erebus, but turn yourself away and face the river's streams. There, many soul
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ψυχαὶ ἐλεύσονται νεκύων κατατεθνηώτων.of the dead who've died will come. Then at that moment urge and order your comrades to skin and burn the sheep that lie there slaughtered by ruthless bronze, and to pray to the gods, to mighty Hades and dread Persephone.
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αὐτὸς δὲ ξίφος ὀξὺ ἐρυσσάμενος παρὰ μηροῦYou yourself, draw your sharp sword from beside your thigh and sit, but don't let the helpless heads of the dead go close to the blood before you question Teiresias. Then soon the seer, the leader of men, will come to you, who'll tell you the way and stages of your journey
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νόστον θʼ, ὡς ἐπὶ πόντον ἐλεύσεαι ἰχθυόεντα.and of your return home, how you'll go upon the fishy sea.' “So said she, and golden-throned Dawn immediately came. She dressed a cloak and tunic about me as clothing, and the nymph herself put on a great white cloak, delicate and lovely, threw a fine golden girdle
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

22 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 27.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

27.8. וְאֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל תְּדַבֵּר לֵאמֹר אִישׁ כִּי־יָמוּת וּבֵן אֵין לוֹ וְהַעֲבַרְתֶּם אֶת־נַחֲלָתוֹ לְבִתּוֹ׃ 27.8. And thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel, saying: If a man die, and have no son, then ye shall cause his inheritance to pass unto his daughter."
2. Hesiod, Theogony, 1007-1020, 342, 1006 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

1006. The queen who stirred up conflict and who led
3. Homer, Iliad, 2.134-2.135, 2.825, 4.91, 6.25, 12.21 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

2.134. /But allies there be out of many cities, men that wield the spear, who hinder me mightily, and for all that I am fain, suffer me not to sack the well-peopled citadel of Ilios. Already have nine years of great Zeus gone by 2.135. /and lo, our ships' timbers are rotted, and the tackling loosed; and our wives, I ween, and little children sit in our halls awaiting us; yet is our task wholly unaccomplished in furtherance whereof we came hither. Nay, come, even as I shall bid, let us all obey: 2.825. /men of wealth, that drink the dark water of Aesepus, even the Troes, these again were led by the glorious son of Lycaon, Pandarus, to whom Apollo himself gave the bow.And they that held Adrasteia and the land of Apaesus, and that held Pityeia and the steep mount of Tereia 4.91. /as he stood, and about him were the stalwart ranks of the shield-bearing hosts that followed him from the streams of Aesepus. Then she drew near, and spake to him winged words:Wilt thou now hearken to me, thou wise-hearted son of Lycaon? Then wouldst thou dare to let fly a swift arrow upon Menelaus 6.25. /he while shepherding his flocks lay with the nymph in love, and she conceived and bare twin sons. of these did the son of Mecisteus loose the might and the glorious limbs and strip the armour from their shoulders.And Polypoetes staunch in fight slew Astyalus 12.21. /Rhesus and Heptaporus and Caresus and Rhodius, and Granicus and Aesepus, and goodly Scamander, and Simois, by the banks whereof many shields of bull's-hide and many helms fell in the dust, and the race of men half-divine—of all these did Phoebus Apollo turn the mouths together
4. Homer, Odyssey, 1.37-1.43, 1.81-1.87, 1.96-1.324, 2.170-2.172, 2.382-2.387, 5.1, 5.28-5.261, 5.263-5.379, 6.20-6.47, 7.18-7.38, 7.259-7.260, 8.8-8.14, 8.17-8.19, 8.193-8.200, 9.39-9.61, 9.64-9.75, 9.79-9.104, 9.250-9.414, 10.1-10.76, 10.80-10.306, 10.308-10.574, 12.159, 12.165-12.200, 12.208-12.220, 12.233-12.402, 13.221-13.440, 15.1-15.44, 16.156-16.174, 17.365, 19.33, 20.30-20.55, 22.205-22.275, 24.502-24.548 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

5. Homeric Hymns, To Aphrodite, 109-127, 212-238, 260-263, 108 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

108. The child of Zeus addressed him and said: “I
6. Herodotus, Histories, 1.172, 2.35, 3.2 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.172. I think the Caunians are aborigines of the soil, but they say that they came from Crete . Their speech has become like the Carian, or the Carian like theirs (for I cannot clearly decide), but in their customs they diverge widely from the Carians, as from all other men. Their chief pleasure is to assemble for drinking-bouts in groups according to their ages and friendships: men, women, and children. ,Certain foreign rites of worship were established among them; but afterwards, when they were inclined otherwise, and wanted to worship only the gods of their fathers, all Caunian men of full age put on their armor and went together as far as the boundaries of Calynda, striking the air with their spears and saying that they were casting out the alien gods. 2.35. It is sufficient to say this much concerning the Nile . But concerning Egypt, I am going to speak at length, because it has the most wonders, and everywhere presents works beyond description; therefore, I shall say the more concerning Egypt . ,Just as the Egyptians have a climate peculiar to themselves, and their river is different in its nature from all other rivers, so, too, have they instituted customs and laws contrary for the most part to those of the rest of mankind. Among them, the women buy and sell, the men stay at home and weave; and whereas in weaving all others push the woof upwards, the Egyptians push it downwards. ,Men carry burdens on their heads, women on their shoulders. Women pass water standing, men sitting. They ease their bowels indoors, and eat out of doors in the streets, explaining that things unseemly but necessary should be done alone in private, things not unseemly should be done openly. ,No woman is dedicated to the service of any god or goddess; men are dedicated to all deities male or female. Sons are not compelled against their will to support their parents, but daughters must do so though they be unwilling. 3.2. But the Egyptians, who say that Cambyses was the son of this daughter of Apries, claim him as one of theirs; they say that it was Cyrus who asked Amasis for his daughter, and not Cambyses. ,But what they say is false. They are certainly not unaware (for if any understand the customs of the Persians the Egyptians do) firstly, that it is not their custom for illegitimate offspring to rule when there are legitimate offspring; and secondly, that Cambyses was the son of Cassandane, the daughter of Pharnaspes, who was an Achaemenid, and not of the Egyptian woman. But they falsify the story, pretending to be related to the house of Cyrus. That is the truth of the matter.
7. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 6.2.1 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

6.2.1. It was settled originally as follows, and the peoples that occupied it are these. The earliest inhabitants spoken of in any part of the country are the Cyclopes and Laestrygones; but I cannot tell of what race they were, or whence they came or whither they went, and must leave my readers to what the poets have said of them and to what may be generally known concerning them.
8. Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica, 4.659-4.663 (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.659. καρπαλίμως δʼ ἐνθένδε διὲξ ἁλὸς οἶδμα νέοντο 4.660. Αὐσονίης ἀκτὰς Τυρσηνίδας εἰσορόωντες· 4.661. ἷξον δʼ Αἰαίης λιμένα κλυτόν· ἐκ δʼ ἄρα νηὸς 4.662. πείσματʼ ἐπʼ ἠιόνων σχεδόθεν βάλον. ἔνθα δὲ Κίρκην 4.663. εὗρον ἁλὸς νοτίδεσσι κάρη ἐπιφαιδρύνουσαν·
9. Cicero, Letters, 2.13.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

10. Cicero, Letters, 2.13.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

11. Cicero, Letters, 2.13.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

12. Cicero, Letters, 2.13.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

13. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 6.139-6.140, 14.260-14.261, 14.274, 14.276-14.284, 14.291, 14.293-14.307, 14.320-14.434 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Strabo, Geography, 5.3.6, 12.4.6, 12.8.11, 13.1.4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5.3.6. At 290 stadia from Antium is Mount Circaion, insulated by the sea and marshes. They say that it contains numerous roots, but this perhaps is only to harmonize with the myth relating to Circe. It has a small city, together with a sanctuary to Circe and an altar to Minerva; they likewise say that a cup is shown which belonged to Ulysses. Between [Antium and Circaion] is the river Stura, which has a station for ships: the rest of the coast is exposed to the southwest wind, with the exception of this small harbour of Circaion. Above this, in the interior, is the Pomentine plain: the region next to this was formerly inhabited by the Ausonians, who likewise possessed Campania: next after these the Osci, who also held part of Campania; now, however, as we have remarked, the whole, as far as Sinuessa, belongs to the Latini. A peculiar fate has attended the Osci and Ausonians; for although the Osci have ceased to exist as a distinct tribe, their dialect is extant among the Romans, dramatic and burlesque pieces composed in it being still represented at certain games which were instituted in ancient times. And as for the Ausonians, although they never have dwelt by the sea of Sicily, it is named the Ausonian Sea. At 100 stadia from Circaion is Tarracina, formerly named Trachina, on account of its ruggedness; before it is a great marsh, formed by two rivers, the larger of which is called the Aufidus. This is the first place where the Via Appia approaches the sea. This road is paved from Rome to Brundusium, and has great traffic. of the maritime cities, these alone are situated on it; Tarracina, beyond it Formiae, Minturnae, Sinuessa, and towards its extremity Tarentum and Brundusium. Near to Tarracina, advancing in the direction of Rome, a canal runs by the side of the Via Appia, which is supplied at intervals by water from the marshes and rivers. Travellers generally sail up it by night, embarking in the evening, and landing in the morning to travel the rest of their journey by the way; however, during the day the passage boat is towed by mules. Beyond is Formiae, founded by the Lacedemonians, and formerly called Hormiae, on account of its excellent port. Between these [two cities], is a gulf which they have named Caiata, in fact all gulfs are called by the Lacedemonians Caietae: some, however, say that the gulf received this appellation from [Caieta], the nurse of Aeneas. From Tarracina to the promontory of Caiata is a length of 100 stadia. Here are opened vast caverns, which contain large and sumptuous mansions. From hence to Formiae is a distance of 40 stadia. Between this city and Sinuessa, at a distance of about 80 stadia from each, is Minturnae. The river Liris, formerly named the Clanis, flows through it. It descends from the Apennines, passes through the country of the Vescini, and by the village of Fregellae, (formerly a famous city,) and so into a sacred grove situated below the city, and held in great veneration by the people of Minturnae. There are two islands, named Pandataria and Pontia, lying in the high sea, and clearly discernible from the caverns. Although small, they are well inhabited, are not at any great distance from each other, and at 250 stadia from the mainland. Caecubum is situated on the gulf of Caiata, and next to it Fundi, a city on the Via Appia. All these places produce excellent wines; but those of Caecubum, Fundi, and Setia are most in repute, and so are the Falernian, Alban, and Statanian wines. Sinuessa is situated in a gulf from which it takes its name, sinus signifying [in Latin] a gulf. Near to it are some fine hot-baths, good for the cure of various maladies. Such are the maritime cities of Latium. 12.8.11. Cyzicus is an island in the Propontis, being connected with the mainland by two bridges; and it is not only most excellent in the fertility of its soil, but in size has a perimeter of about five hundred stadia. It has a city of the same name near the bridges themselves, and two harbors that can be closed, and more than two hundred ship-sheds. One part of the city is on level ground and the other is near a mountain called Arcton-oros. Above this mountain lies another mountain, Dindymus; it rises into a single peak, and it has a sanctuary of Dindymene, Mother of the Gods, which was founded by the Argonauts. This city rivals the foremost of the cities of Asia in size, in beauty, and in its excellent administration of affairs both in peace and in war. And its adornment appears to be of a type similar to that of Rhodes and Massalia and ancient Carthage. Now I am omitting most details, but I may say that there are three directors who take care of the public buildings and the engines of war, and three who have charge of the treasure-houses, one of which contains arms and another engines of war and another grain. They prevent the grain from spoiling by mixing Chalcidic earth with it. They showed in the Mithridatic war the advantage resulting from this preparation of theirs; for when the king unexpectedly came over against them with one hundred and fifty thousand men and with a large cavalry, and took possession of the mountain opposite the city, the mountain called Adrasteia, and of the suburb, and then, when he transferred his army to the neck of land above the city and was fighting them, not only on land, but also by sea with four hundred ships, the Cyziceni held out against all attacks, and, by digging a counter-tunnel, all but captured the king alive in his own tunnel; but he forestalled this by taking precautions and by withdrawing outside his tunnel: Lucullus, the Roman general, was able, though late, to send an auxiliary force to the city by night; and, too, as an aid to the Cyziceni, famine fell upon that multitudinous army, a thing which the king did not foresee, because he suffered a great loss of men before he left the island. But the Romans honored the city; and it is free to this day, and holds a large territory, not only that which it has held from ancient times, but also other territory presented to it by the Romans; for, of the Troad, they possess the parts round Zeleia on the far side of the Aesepus, as also the plain of Adrasteia, and, of Lake Dascylitis, they possess some parts, while the Byzantians possess the others. And in addition to Dolionis and Mygdonis they occupy a considerable territory extending as far as lake Miletopolitis and Lake Apolloniatis itself. It is through this region that the Rhyndacus River flows; this river has its sources in Azanitis, and then, receiving from Mysia Abrettene, among other rivers, the Macestus, which flows from Ancyra in Abaeitis, empties into the Propontis opposite the island Besbicos. In this island of the Cyziceni is a well-wooded mountain called Artace; and in front of this mountain lies an isle bearing the same name; and near by is a promontory called Melanus, which one passes on a coasting-voyage from Cyzicus to Priapus. 13.1.4. The Aeolians, then, were scattered throughout the whole of that country which, as I have said, the poet called Trojan. As for later authorities, some apply the name to all Aeolis, but others to only a part of it; and some to the whole of Troy, but others to only a part of it, not wholly agreeing with one another about anything. For instance, in reference to the places on the Propontis, Homer makes the Troad begin at the Aesepus River, whereas Eudoxus makes it begin at Priapus and Artace, the place on the island of the Cyziceni that lies opposite Priapus, and thus contracts the limits; but Damastes contracts the country still more, making it begin at Parium; and, in fact, Damastes prolongs the Troad to Lectum, whereas other writers prolong it differently. Charon of Lampsacus diminishes its extent by three hundred stadia more, making it begin at Practius, for that is the distance from Parium to Practius; however, he prolongs it to Adramyttium. Scylax of Caryanda makes it begin at Abydus; and similarly Ephorus says that Aeolis extends from Abydus to Cyme, while others define its extent differently.
15. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.50-1.222, 1.302-1.304, 1.307-1.308, 1.657-1.694, 1.709-1.719, 3.384-3.387, 3.645-3.648, 4.90-4.128, 4.238-4.246, 4.376-4.380, 7.10, 7.187-7.191 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.50. Below th' horizon the Sicilian isle 1.51. just sank from view, as for the open sea 1.52. with heart of hope they sailed, and every ship 1.53. clove with its brazen beak the salt, white waves. 1.54. But Juno of her everlasting wound 1.55. knew no surcease, but from her heart of pain 1.56. thus darkly mused: “Must I, defeated, fail 1.57. of what I will, nor turn the Teucrian King 1.58. from Italy away? Can Fate oppose? 1.59. Had Pallas power to lay waste in flame 1.60. the Argive fleet and sink its mariners 1.61. revenging but the sacrilege obscene 1.62. by Ajax wrought, Oileus' desperate son? 1.63. She, from the clouds, herself Jove's lightning threw 1.64. cattered the ships, and ploughed the sea with storms. 1.65. Her foe, from his pierced breast out-breathing fire 1.66. in whirlwind on a deadly rock she flung. 1.67. But I, who move among the gods a queen 1.68. Jove's sister and his spouse, with one weak tribe 1.69. make war so long! Who now on Juno calls? 1.71. So, in her fevered heart complaining still 1.72. unto the storm-cloud land the goddess came 1.73. a region with wild whirlwinds in its womb 1.74. Aeolia named, where royal Aeolus 1.75. in a high-vaulted cavern keeps control 1.76. o'er warring winds and loud concourse of storms. 1.77. There closely pent in chains and bastions strong 1.78. they, scornful, make the vacant mountain roar 1.79. chafing against their bonds. But from a throne 1.80. of lofty crag, their king with sceptred hand 1.81. allays their fury and their rage confines. 1.82. Did he not so, our ocean, earth, and sky 1.83. were whirled before them through the vast ie. 1.84. But over-ruling Jove, of this in fear 1.85. hid them in dungeon dark: then o'er them piled 1.86. huge mountains, and ordained a lawful king 1.87. to hold them in firm sway, or know what time 1.88. with Jove's consent, to loose them o'er the world. 1.90. “Thou in whose hands the Father of all gods 1.91. and Sovereign of mankind confides the power 1.92. to calm the waters or with winds upturn 1.93. great Aeolus! a race with me at war 1.94. now sails the Tuscan main towards Italy 1.95. bringing their Ilium and its vanquished powers. 1.96. Uprouse thy gales. Strike that proud navy down! 1.97. Hurl far and wide, and strew the waves with dead! 1.98. Twice seven nymphs are mine, of rarest mould; 1.99. of whom Deiopea, the most fair 1.100. I give thee in true wedlock for thine own 1.101. to mate thy noble worth; she at thy side 1.102. hall pass long, happy years, and fruitful bring 1.104. Then Aeolus: “'T is thy sole task, O Queen 1.105. to weigh thy wish and will. My fealty 1.106. thy high behest obeys. This humble throne 1.107. is of thy gift. Thy smiles for me obtain 1.108. authority from Jove. Thy grace concedes 1.109. my station at your bright Olympian board 1.111. Replying thus, he smote with spear reversed 1.112. the hollow mountain's wall; then rush the winds 1.113. through that wide breach in long, embattled line 1.114. and sweep tumultuous from land to land: 1.115. with brooding pinions o'er the waters spread 1.116. east wind and south, and boisterous Afric gale 1.117. upturn the sea; vast billows shoreward roll; 1.118. the shout of mariners, the creak of cordage 1.119. follow the shock; low-hanging clouds conceal 1.120. from Trojan eyes all sight of heaven and day; 1.121. night o'er the ocean broods; from sky to sky 1.122. the thunders roll, the ceaseless lightnings glare; 1.123. and all things mean swift death for mortal man. 1.124. Straightway Aeneas, shuddering with amaze 1.125. groaned loud, upraised both holy hands to Heaven 1.126. and thus did plead: “O thrice and four times blest 1.127. ye whom your sires and whom the walls of Troy 1.128. looked on in your last hour! O bravest son 1.129. Greece ever bore, Tydides! O that I 1.130. had fallen on Ilian fields, and given this life 1.131. truck down by thy strong hand! where by the spear 1.132. of great Achilles, fiery Hector fell 1.133. and huge Sarpedon; where the Simois 1.134. in furious flood engulfed and whirled away 1.136. While thus he cried to Heaven, a shrieking blast 1.137. mote full upon the sail. Up surged the waves 1.138. to strike the very stars; in fragments flew 1.139. the shattered oars; the helpless vessel veered 1.140. and gave her broadside to the roaring flood 1.141. where watery mountains rose and burst and fell. 1.142. Now high in air she hangs, then yawning gulfs 1.143. lay bare the shoals and sands o'er which she drives. 1.144. Three ships a whirling south wind snatched and flung 1.145. on hidden rocks,—altars of sacrifice 1.146. Italians call them, which lie far from shore 1.147. a vast ridge in the sea; three ships beside 1.148. an east wind, blowing landward from the deep 1.149. drove on the shallows,—pitiable sight,— 1.150. and girdled them in walls of drifting sand. 1.151. That ship, which, with his friend Orontes, bore 1.152. the Lycian mariners, a great, plunging wave 1.153. truck straight astern, before Aeneas' eyes. 1.154. Forward the steersman rolled and o'er the side 1.155. fell headlong, while three times the circling flood 1.156. pun the light bark through swift engulfing seas. 1.157. Look, how the lonely swimmers breast the wave! 1.158. And on the waste of waters wide are seen 1.159. weapons of war, spars, planks, and treasures rare 1.160. once Ilium 's boast, all mingled with the storm. 1.161. Now o'er Achates and Ilioneus 1.162. now o'er the ship of Abas or Aletes 1.163. bursts the tempestuous shock; their loosened seams 1.165. Meanwhile how all his smitten ocean moaned 1.166. and how the tempest's turbulent assault 1.167. had vexed the stillness of his deepest cave 1.168. great Neptune knew; and with indigt mien 1.169. uplifted o'er the sea his sovereign brow. 1.170. He saw the Teucrian navy scattered far 1.171. along the waters; and Aeneas' men 1.172. o'erwhelmed in mingling shock of wave and sky. 1.173. Saturnian Juno's vengeful stratagem 1.174. her brother's royal glance failed not to see; 1.175. and loud to eastward and to westward calling 1.176. he voiced this word: “What pride of birth or power 1.177. is yours, ye winds, that, reckless of my will 1.178. audacious thus, ye ride through earth and heaven 1.179. and stir these mountain waves? Such rebels I— 1.180. nay, first I calm this tumult! But yourselves 1.181. by heavier chastisement shall expiate 1.182. hereafter your bold trespass. Haste away 1.183. and bear your king this word! Not unto him 1.184. dominion o'er the seas and trident dread 1.185. but unto me, Fate gives. Let him possess 1.186. wild mountain crags, thy favored haunt and home 1.187. O Eurus! In his barbarous mansion there 1.188. let Aeolus look proud, and play the king 1.190. He spoke, and swiftlier than his word subdued 1.191. the swelling of the floods; dispersed afar 1.192. th' assembled clouds, and brought back light to heaven. 1.193. Cymothoe then and Triton, with huge toil 1.194. thrust down the vessels from the sharp-edged reef; 1.195. while, with the trident, the great god's own hand 1.196. assists the task; then, from the sand-strewn shore 1.197. out-ebbing far, he calms the whole wide sea 1.198. and glides light-wheeled along the crested foam. 1.199. As when, with not unwonted tumult, roars 1.200. in some vast city a rebellious mob 1.201. and base-born passions in its bosom burn 1.202. till rocks and blazing torches fill the air 1.203. (rage never lacks for arms)—if haply then 1.204. ome wise man comes, whose reverend looks attest 1.205. a life to duty given, swift silence falls; 1.206. all ears are turned attentive; and he sways 1.207. with clear and soothing speech the people's will. 1.208. So ceased the sea's uproar, when its grave Sire 1.209. looked o'er th' expanse, and, riding on in light 1.211. Aeneas' wave-worn crew now landward made 1.212. and took the nearest passage, whither lay 1.213. the coast of Libya . A haven there 1.214. walled in by bold sides of a rocky isle 1.215. offers a spacious and secure retreat 1.216. where every billow from the distant main 1.217. breaks, and in many a rippling curve retires. 1.218. Huge crags and two confronted promontories 1.219. frown heaven-high, beneath whose brows outspread 1.220. the silent, sheltered waters; on the heights 1.221. the bright and glimmering foliage seems to show 1.222. a woodland amphitheatre; and yet higher 1.302. and nations populous from shore to shore 1.303. paused on the peak of heaven, and fixed his gaze 1.304. on Libya . But while he anxious mused 1.307. and thus complained: “O thou who dost control 1.308. things human and divine by changeless laws 1.657. in night's first watch burst o'er them unawares 1.658. with bloody havoc and a host of deaths; 1.659. then drove his fiery coursers o'er the plain 1.660. before their thirst or hunger could be stayed 1.661. on Trojan corn or Xanthus ' cooling stream. 1.662. Here too was princely Troilus, despoiled 1.663. routed and weaponless, O wretched boy! 1.664. Ill-matched against Achilles! His wild steeds 1.665. bear him along, as from his chariot's rear 1.666. he falls far back, but clutches still the rein; 1.667. his hair and shoulders on the ground go trailing 1.668. and his down-pointing spear-head scrawls the dust. 1.669. Elsewhere, to Pallas' ever-hostile shrine 1.670. daughters of Ilium, with unsnooded hair 1.671. and lifting all in vain her hallowed pall 1.672. walked suppliant and sad, beating their breasts 1.673. with outspread palms. But her unswerving eyes 1.674. the goddess fixed on earth, and would not see. 1.675. Achilles round the Trojan rampart thrice 1.676. had dragged the fallen Hector, and for gold 1.677. was making traffic of the lifeless clay. 1.678. Aeneas groaned aloud, with bursting heart 1.679. to see the spoils, the car, the very corpse 1.680. of his lost friend,—while Priam for the dead 1.681. tretched forth in piteous prayer his helpless hands. 1.682. There too his own presentment he could see 1.683. urrounded by Greek kings; and there were shown 1.684. hordes from the East, and black-browed Memnon's arms; 1.685. her band of Amazons, with moon-shaped shields 1.686. Penthesilea led; her martial eye 1.687. flamed on from troop to troop; a belt of gold 1.688. beneath one bare, protruded breast she bound— 1.690. While on such spectacle Aeneas' eyes 1.691. looked wondering, while mute and motionless 1.692. he stood at gaze, Queen Dido to the shrine 1.693. in lovely majesty drew near; a throng 1.694. of youthful followers pressed round her way. 1.709. encompassed by armed men, and lifted high 1.710. upon a throne; her statutes and decrees 1.711. the people heard, and took what lot or toil 1.712. her sentence, or impartial urn, assigned. 1.713. But, lo! Aeneas sees among the throng 1.714. Antheus, Sergestus, and Cloanthus bold 1.715. with other Teucrians, whom the black storm flung 1.716. far o'er the deep and drove on alien shores. 1.717. Struck dumb was he, and good Achates too 1.718. half gladness and half fear. Fain would they fly 1.719. to friendship's fond embrace; but knowing not 3.384. on fierce Ulysses' hearth and native land. 3.385. nigh hoar Leucate's clouded crest we drew 3.386. where Phoebus' temple, feared by mariners 3.387. loomed o'er us; thitherward we steered and reached 3.645. Then gifts he bade be brought of heavy gold 3.646. and graven ivory, which to our ships 3.647. he bade us bear; each bark was Ioaded full 3.648. with messy silver and Dodona 's pride 4.90. with many a votive gift; or, peering deep 4.91. into the victims' cloven sides, she read 4.92. the fate-revealing tokens trembling there. 4.93. How blind the hearts of prophets be! Alas! 4.94. of what avail be temples and fond prayers 4.95. to change a frenzied mind? Devouring ever 4.96. love's fire burns inward to her bones; she feels 4.97. quick in her breast the viewless, voiceless wound. 4.98. Ill-fated Dido ranges up and down 4.99. the spaces of her city, desperate 4.100. her life one flame—like arrow-stricken doe 4.101. through Cretan forest rashly wandering 4.102. pierced by a far-off shepherd, who pursues 4.103. with shafts, and leaves behind his light-winged steed 4.104. not knowing; while she scours the dark ravines 4.105. of Dicte and its woodlands; at her heart 4.106. the mortal barb irrevocably clings. 4.107. around her city's battlements she guides 4.108. aeneas, to make show of Sidon 's gold 4.109. and what her realm can boast; full oft her voice 4.110. essays to speak and frembling dies away: 4.111. or, when the daylight fades, she spreads anew 4.112. a royal banquet, and once more will plead 4.113. mad that she is, to hear the Trojan sorrow; 4.114. and with oblivious ravishment once more 4.115. hangs on his lips who tells; or when her guests 4.116. are scattered, and the wan moon's fading horn 4.117. bedims its ray, while many a sinking star 4.118. invites to slumber, there she weeps alone 4.119. in the deserted hall, and casts her down 4.120. on the cold couch he pressed. Her love from far 4.121. beholds her vanished hero and receives 4.122. his voice upon her ears; or to her breast 4.123. moved by a father's image in his child 4.124. he clasps Ascanius, seeking to deceive 4.125. her unblest passion so. Her enterprise 4.126. of tower and rampart stops: her martial host 4.127. no Ionger she reviews, nor fashions now 4.128. defensive haven and defiant wall; 4.238. the flash of lightnings on the conscious air 4.239. were torches to the bridal; from the hills 4.240. the wailing wood-nymphs sobbed a wedding song. 4.241. Such was that day of death, the source and spring 4.242. of many a woe. For Dido took no heed 4.243. of honor and good-name; nor did she mean 4.244. her loves to hide; but called the lawlessness 4.246. Swift through the Libyan cities Rumor sped. 4.376. flowed purple from his shoulder, broidered fair 4.377. by opulent Dido with fine threads of gold 4.378. her gift of love; straightway the god began: 4.379. “Dost thou for lofty Carthage toil, to build 4.380. foundations strong? Dost thou, a wife's weak thrall 7.10. Freshly the night-winds breathe; the cloudless moon 7.187. looked o'er the world, they took their separate ways 7.188. exploring shore and towns; here spread the pools 7.189. and fountain of Numicius; here they see 7.190. the river Tiber, where bold Latins dwell. 7.191. Anchises' son chose out from his brave band
16. Vergil, Eclogues, 8.70 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

8.70. bloom with narcissus-flower, the tamarisk
17. Juvenal, Satires, 3.305-3.308 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. Plutarch, Beasts Are Rational, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Plutarch, Camillus, 22 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Suetonius, Iulius, 44.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

21. Antoninus Liberalis, Collection of Metamorphoses, 2.6 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

22. Apuleius, The Golden Ass, 1.9 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, in odyssey Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
abraham, odysseus Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
abraham, tobiah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
achaemenides Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
achilles Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 29
adventure Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87, 94
aegisthus Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 29
aeneas Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87, 94; Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
aeolus, king of the winds Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
aesepus Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
africa Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
aiaia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
alcinous Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
alexander the great, and rome Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
alexander the great, writings on Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
allegory Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 18
animals, domestic Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 18
aphrodite Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
apollonios of perge Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
arachne Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 18, 19
arcadia Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 19
argos and argives Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
artemis Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 18, 19
asia, europe and Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
athena Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 29
audience Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 29
bird Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 370
bronze age Luck, Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts (2006) 93
calypso Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87; Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 29; Miller and Clay, Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury (2019) 128, 129; Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
campania Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
carthage Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87, 94; Miller and Clay, Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury (2019) 129
caunians Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 92
cicero (marcus tullius cicero Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
circe Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94; Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 18, 19; Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 29; Luck, Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts (2006) 93, 94, 95, 96; Miller and Clay, Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury (2019) 128, 129; Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140; Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
circe (gr. kirkē) Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 370
circei Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
cupid Miller and Clay, Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury (2019) 129
curse Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
cyclops Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87; Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 29
death, by drowning Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
demeter, and iasion Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
dido Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87; Miller and Clay, Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury (2019) 129
dogs Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 18
dufner, c.m. Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 92
egypt, egyptians Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 92
endogamy Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
eos Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
epilepsy (as the sacred disease) Luck, Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts (2006) 96
erotic context Miller and Clay, Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury (2019) 128, 129
ethnography Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 92
eurymachus Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 29
family, in tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
fish Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
flora Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
folklore Luck, Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts (2006) 93
gabael Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
gallic invasion Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
gender, female Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 29
gilgamesh Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
greek, language Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 370
hecate Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 18, 19
hellespontine phrygia Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
herdsman, as mediator Miller and Clay, Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury (2019) 128
herdsman, in homer Miller and Clay, Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury (2019) 129
herdsman Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
hermes, as go-between Miller and Clay, Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury (2019) 128
hermes, erotic, see also erotic context Miller and Clay, Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury (2019) 128, 129
hermes Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 18, 19; Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 29
hero Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87; Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 29
hesiod Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94; Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
hippocrates of cos Luck, Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts (2006) 96
history Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
homer, ancient scholarship Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
homer, iliad Miller and Clay, Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury (2019) 128, 129
homer, odysseus, love and adventures Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, aea Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, aeolus Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, alcinous Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, carybdis Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, cicones Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, circe Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, cyclops, cyclopes Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, ino-leucothea Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, ithaca Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, laestrygonians Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, lotus-eaters Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, ogygia Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, phaeacians Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, polyphemus Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, poseidon Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, scheria Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, scylla Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey, sirens Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
homer, odyssey Miller and Clay, Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury (2019) 128, 129
homer Miller and Clay, Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury (2019) 129
homeric hymn, to aphrodite Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
horace Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
horses Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 18
hunter, r.l. Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 92
iasion Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
ida Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
immortality Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 29
incarnation Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 370
inheritance, moral and religious Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
ino Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 29
intentions Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
intermediaries, divine, azariah, dispatched to rages Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
ishtar Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
italy (italia) Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
ithaca Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87, 94; Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 29
jonah, odysseus Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
jonah, paul (apostle) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
jonah, tobiah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
journey, in odyssey Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
jupiter Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94; Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 19
laestrygonians Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
latium Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
leucothea Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 29
lifeworld, lifeworld experience Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 29
lions Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 18
lydia and lydians, and babylon Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
macareus Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 18
magic Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 18; Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 92
malea, cape Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
marriage, arranged in heaven Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
marriage, endogamic Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
marriage customs, of gods and heroes Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
marriage customs, of tyrants Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
mercury/hermes, in vergil Miller and Clay, Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury (2019) 129
mercury Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
metamorphosis, as amazing / astonishing Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 19
metamorphosis, types of Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 18
metamorphosis narratives, patterns of Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 18, 19
minerva Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 18, 19
mode, historiographical' Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 92
moly Miller and Clay, Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury (2019) 129
mossynoecians Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 92
mother of the gods, multiple identities of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
mother of the gods, rivers, streams, and springs associated with Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
mystery cult / religion Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 19
narrators, aeneid Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
nausicaa Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 29
nestor Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 29
noemon Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 29
nostos, νόστος, return home, tobiah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
nymph, and nymphs Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
nymphs, and hermes Miller and Clay, Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury (2019) 128
odysseus, and hermes Miller and Clay, Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury (2019) 128, 129
odysseus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87; Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 18, 19; Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 29; Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 92; Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140; Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143; Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 370
odyssey, homers Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 92
ogygia Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87; Miller and Clay, Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury (2019) 129
olympian gods Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 29
pan Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 19
pedasus Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
peleus Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
phaeacians Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87; Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 29
phorcys Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
phrygia and phrygians, hellespontine Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
picus Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 19
pigs Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 18
plants Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 19
plot Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 29
polyphemus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
pomptine marsh Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
poseidon Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
purifications Luck, Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts (2006) 96
queen (regina, potnia) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
rages Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
rationalizing Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 19
sacred marriage, in myth Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
sacred marriage Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
scheria Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
scylla and charybdis Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
sheep Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 18
sicily Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
siren Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 29
storm Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87, 94
telemachus Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 29
telepylus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
theophrastus of eresos Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
thetis Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 29; Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
time, synchronism Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
time Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
tithonus Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
troad Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
trojan war Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87; Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140; Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 370
trojans Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87, 94
troy Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
twists, turns, in odyssey Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 49
tyranny, theology of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 140
ulysses Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87; Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 18
venus Miller and Clay, Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury (2019) 129
vergil, aeneid Miller and Clay, Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury (2019) 129
vergil Miller and Clay, Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury (2019) 129
visibility Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 29
wandering Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
werewolves Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 19
winds Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
witches Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 19
wolves Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 18
xenophon Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 92