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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6678
Homer, Odyssey, 10.133-10.574
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Αἰαίην δʼ ἐς νῆσον ἀφικόμεθʼ· ἔνθα δʼ ἔναιεWe reached the island of Aeaea, and there lived the dread goddess with human speech, fair-haired Circe, sister of malign Aeetes. Both were born of Helios, who brings light to mortals, and of their mother Perses, whom Oceanus bore as his daughter.
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ἔνθα δʼ ἐπʼ ἀκτῆς νηὶ κατηγαγόμεσθα σιωπῇThere, we headed with our ship down to the beach in silence, into a ship-sheltering harbor, and some god led the way. We got out then and lay there for two days and two nights, eating our hearts in pain and exhaustion. But when fair-haired Dawn brought the third day on
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καὶ τότʼ ἐγὼν ἐμὸν ἔγχος ἑλὼν καὶ φάσγανον ὀξὺright then I grabbed my spear and a sharp sword and climbed quickly from the ship to a vantage point, in the hope I'd somehow see the works and hear the sound of mortals. I climbed to a rugged lookout, and stood, and smoke from the wide-wayed ground was visible to me
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Κίρκης ἐν μεγάροισι, διὰ δρυμὰ πυκνὰ καὶ ὕλην.in Circe's palace, through dense thickets and a forest. Then I considered in my mind and heart whether to go and find out, since I'd seen the sparkling smoke. This way seemed better to me as I pondered, to go first to my swift ship and the sea's shore
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δεῖπνον ἑταίροισιν δόμεναι προέμεν τε πυθέσθαι.give my comrades dinner, and send them to find out. But when, on my way, I was near my double-curved ship, right then some god, alone as I was, took pity on me, and sent a high-horned hart, a big one, right into my path. He'd come down to the river from his pasture in the forest
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πιόμενος· δὴ γάρ μιν ἔχεν μένος ἠελίοιο.to drink, for the sun's strength already held him. I struck him, down on the spine, in the middle of the back, and the bronze spear pierced right through. He fell down squealing in the dust, and his spirit flew away. Stepping on him, I pulled the bronze spear from the wound
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εἰρυσάμην· τὸ μὲν αὖθι κατακλίνας ἐπὶ γαίῃleaned it down, and left it on the ground. Then I plucked twigs and willow branches, braided a rope a fathom's length long, well-plaited over and across, tied the feet of the dread monster together, and, carrying him on my neck, went to my black ship
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ἔγχει ἐρειδόμενος, ἐπεὶ οὔ πως ἦεν ἐπʼ ὤμουleaning on my spear, since there was no way to carry him on my shoulder with either hand, for he was a very big beast. I threw him down in front of the ship, and, going to each man, roused my comrades with words meant to win them: 'Friends, despite our grief, we won't go down
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εἰς Ἀίδαο δόμους, πρὶν μόρσιμον ἦμαρ ἐπέλθῃ·to the house of Hades before the destined day comes on us. But come, as long as there's food and drink in our swift ship, let's remember food and not let ourselves be consumed by hunger!' “So said I, and they quickly obeyed my words. Uncovering themselves beside the barren sea's shore
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θηήσαντʼ ἔλαφον· μάλα γὰρ μέγα θηρίον ἦεν.they beheld the hart with wonder, for he was a very big beast. Then after they'd looked and satisfied their eyes, they washed their hands and made a sumptuous feast. So then all day until the sun went down, we sat feasting on boundless meat and sweet wine.
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ἦμος δʼ ἠέλιος κατέδυ καὶ ἐπὶ κνέφας ἦλθεWhen the sun went down and dusk came on, we laid down then to sleep at the edge of sea's surf. When early-born rose-fingered Dawn appeared, right then I held an assembly and said among them all: 'Comrades, though you're suffering evil, listen to my words!
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ὦ φίλοι, οὐ γάρ τʼ ἴδμεν, ὅπῃ ζόφος οὐδʼ ὅπῃ ἠώςFriends, since we don't know which way darkness is, which way dawn, which way sun that shines on mortals goes beneath the earth, or which way it comes back up, then let's consider quickly it there's still some course of action, though I don't think there is. For I climbed to a rugged lookout and saw the island
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νῆσον, τὴν πέρι πόντος ἀπείριτος ἐστεφάνωται·around which the boundless sea is encircled. The island itself lies low, and in its center I saw smoke with my eyes, through dense thickets and a forest.' “So said I, and their dear heart was broken as they recalled the deeds of the Laestrygonian Antiphate
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Κύκλωπός τε βίης μεγαλήτορος, ἀνδροφάγοιο.and the violence of the man-eater, the great-hearted Cyclops. They cried shrilly, letting thick tears fall, but no good result came of their weeping. “Then I counted into two all my well-greaved comrades and assigned to both of them a leader.
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τῶν μὲν ἐγὼν ἦρχον, τῶν δʼ Εὐρύλοχος θεοειδής.I led one of them; godlike Eurylochus, the other. We quickly shook lots in a bronze helmet and out popped the lot of great-hearted Eurylochus. He made his way with twenty-two crying companions, and they left us, weeping, behind.
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εὗρον δʼ ἐν βήσσῃσι τετυγμένα δώματα ΚίρκηςIn a glen they found the house of Circe, built of polished stones, in an open place, and about it were mountain wolves and lions, whom she'd enchanted, since she gave them evil drugs. But they didn't attack the men. They stood up on them
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οὐρῇσιν μακρῇσι περισσαίνοντες ἀνέσταν.instead, and fawned over them wagging their long tails. As when dogs fawn about their master coming from a feast, for he always carries tidbits to please their appetite, so the strong-clawed wolves and lions fawned about them, but they were afraid when they saw the dread monsters.
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ἔσταν δʼ ἐν προθύροισι θεᾶς καλλιπλοκάμοιοThey stood in the doorway of the fair-haired goddess and heard Circe singing in a beautiful voice as she plied a great immortal web, such as the works of goddesses are: delicate, lovely, and splendid. The first of them to speak was leader of men Polites
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ὅς μοι κήδιστος ἑτάρων ἦν κεδνότατός τε·who was the dearest and most devoted of my comrades: 'Friends, someone inside, either woman or goddess, is plying a great web and singing beautifully, and the whole floor is echoing, so let's quickly cry out to her.' “So said he, and they cried out and called.
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ἡ δʼ αἶψʼ ἐξελθοῦσα θύρας ὤιξε φαεινὰςShe soon came out, opened the shiny doors, and called them in, and they all, in ignorance, followed, but Eurylochus stayed behind, suspecting it was a trick. She led them in and sat them down on chairs and couches and in their presence stirred cheese, barley groats
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οἴνῳ Πραμνείῳ ἐκύκα· ἀνέμισγε δὲ σίτῳand pale green honey in Pramnean wine, then mixed baneful drugs into the food, so they'd completely forget their fatherland. Then after she gave it and they drank, right then she struck them with her wand and confined them in pigsties. They had the head, voice, hair, and shape
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καὶ δέμας, αὐτὰρ νοῦς ἦν ἔμπεδος, ὡς τὸ πάρος περ.of pigs, but their minds were intact, as they were before. So they'd been confined, crying. Now Circe threw to them oak and ilex acorns and cornel fruit to eat, such as pigs that sleep on the ground always eat. “Eurylochus at once came to my swift black ship
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ἀγγελίην ἑτάρων ἐρέων καὶ ἀδευκέα πότμον.and told the news of my comrades and their bitter fate. But he couldn't speak a word at all, much though he wanted to, stricken at heart with great sorrow. The eyes in him were filled with tears, and his heart was set on weeping. But when we all questioned him in amazement
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καὶ τότε τῶν ἄλλων ἑτάρων κατέλεξεν ὄλεθρον·right then he told of the destruction of the rest of his comrades: 'We went, as you bid, through the thickets, brilliant Odysseus. In a glen we found a beautiful house, built of polished stones, in an open place, and someone there, either woman or goddess, was plying a great web
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ἢ θεὸς ἠὲ γυνή· τοὶ δὲ φθέγγοντο καλεῦντες.and singing clearly, and cried out and called her. She soon came out, opened the shiny doors, and called them in, and they all, in ignorance, followed, but I stayed behind, suspecting it was a trick. Then they all together disappeared, and none of them
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ἐξεφάνη· δηρὸν δὲ καθήμενος ἐσκοπίαζον.reappeared, though I sat and watched a long time.' “So said he. Then I slung a silver-studded sword over my shoulder, a big bronze one, and a bow about me, then ordered him to guide me back the same way. But he clasped my knees with both his hands and begged
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καί μʼ ὀλοφυρόμενος ἔπεα πτερόεντα προσηύδα·and, in lamentation, spoke winged words to me: 'Don't take me there against my will, Zeus-nurtured one, but leave me where I am, for I know you'll neither come yourself nor bring any other of your comrades. Let's flee quickly with those here, for we may still avoid the evil day!'
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ὣς ἔφατʼ, αὐτὰρ ἐγώ μιν ἀμειβόμενος προσέειπον·“So said he. Then I in answer said to him: 'Eurylochus, surely, stay where you are in this place, eating and drinking beside my hollow black ship, but I'm going, and have a mighty need to. “So saying, I went up from the ship and sea.
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ἀλλʼ ὅτε δὴ ἄρʼ ἔμελλον ἰὼν ἱερὰς ἀνὰ βήσσαςBut when, going up through the sacred glens, I was about to reach the great house of Circe of the many drugs, then Hermes of the golden wand met me as I was going toward the house, in the guise of a young man with his first beard, whose youthful manhood is most graceful.
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ἔν τʼ ἄρα μοι φῦ χειρί, ἔπος τʼ ἔφατʼ ἔκ τʼ ὀνόμαζε·He put his hand in mine, spoke my name, and said: 'Why now, wretched one, do you go alone through the hilltops, ignorant of the place as you are? Your comrades are confined there in Circe's home, like pigs with crowded hiding places. Are you coming here to free them? But I don't think that you'll
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αὐτὸν νοστήσειν, μενέεις δὲ σύ γʼ, ἔνθα περ ἄλλοι.return yourself, no, you'll stay there like the others. But come, I'll rescue you from evils and save you. Here, take this good drug and enter Circe's house. It might keep the evil day away from your head. Now I'll tell you all the malign designs of Circe.
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τεύξει τοι κυκεῶ, βαλέει δʼ ἐν φάρμακα σίτῳ.She'll make you a potion and throw drugs in your food, but won't be able so to enchant you, for the good drug I gave you won't permit it. Now I'll tell every thing. When Circe strikes you with her very long wand, draw your sharp sword then from beside your thigh
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Κίρκῃ ἐπαῖξαι, ὥς τε κτάμεναι μενεαίνων.and rush at Circe as if eager to kill her. She'll cower in fear and urge you sleep with her, and don't then afterwards reject the bed of the goddess, so she'll free your comrades and take care of you. But make her swear a great oath on the blessed ones
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μή τί τοι αὐτῷ πῆμα κακὸν βουλευσέμεν ἄλλοthat she won't plan another evil misery for you, lest she make you, stripped naked, unmanly and a coward.' “So saying, Argeiphontes gave me the drug, pulling it from the ground, and showed me its nature. It was black at the root, and its flower was like milk.
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μῶλυ δέ μιν καλέουσι θεοί· χαλεπὸν δέ τʼ ὀρύσσεινGods call it moly, and it's hard for mortal men to dig it up, but gods are able to do everything. “Then Hermes departed to tall Olympusthrough the wooded island, and I went to the house of Circe, and my heart was much troubled on my way.
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ἔστην δʼ εἰνὶ θύρῃσι θεᾶς καλλιπλοκάμοιο·I stood in the door of the fair-haired goddess. I stood there and shouted, and the goddess heard my voice. She soon came out, opened the shiny doors, and called me in, then I followed with grief in my heart. She brought me in and sat me on a silver-studded chair
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καλοῦ δαιδαλέου· ὑπὸ δὲ θρῆνυς ποσὶν ἦεν·beautiful, intricately worked. A foot-rest for my feet was under it. She made me a potion in a golden goblet, so I would drink, and threw a drug in, with evil intent in her heart. Then after she gave and I drank but it didn't enchant me, she struck me with her wand, called out my name, and said:
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ἔρχεο νῦν συφεόνδε, μετʼ ἄλλων λέξο ἑταίρων.'Go now to the pigsty, lie with the rest of your comrades!' “So said she, but I drew my sharp sword from beside my thigh and rushed at Circe as if eager to kill her. With a great cry she ran under, clasped my knees, and, wailing, spoke winged words to me:
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τίς πόθεν εἰς ἀνδρῶν; πόθι τοι πόλις ἠδὲ τοκῆες;'What man and from where are you? Where are your city and parents? Wonder holds me that you drank this drug but weren't at all enchanted, for no other man ever withstood this drug the first time he drank it and it passed his wall of teeth. In your chest you have some kind of mind that can't be charmed.
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ἦ σύ γʼ Ὀδυσσεύς ἐσσι πολύτροπος, ὅν τέ μοι αἰεὶSurely you're Odysseus, the wily one that Argeiphontes of the golden wand ever told me would come with a swift black ship on his way back from Troy. But come, put your sword in its sheath, and then let the two of us get in our bed, so, mixing
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εὐνῇ καὶ φιλότητι πεποίθομεν ἀλλήλοισιν.in making love and love, we'll get to trust each other.' “So said she. Then I in answer said to her: 'Circe, how can you bid me be gentle with you, who made my comrades pigs in your palace, and with a wily mind, since you have me here, bid me
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ἐς θάλαμόν τʼ ἰέναι καὶ σῆς ἐπιβήμεναι εὐνῆςgo into your bedroom and get in your bed, so you can make me, stripped naked, unmanly and a coward? And I won't be willing to get into your bed unless, goddess, you dare to swear a great oath to me, that you won't plan another evil misery for me.'
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ὣς ἐφάμην, ἡ δʼ αὐτίκʼ ἀπώμνυεν, ὡς ἐκέλευον.“So said I, and she at once swore as I'd bid her. Then after she'd sworn and completed the oath, right then I got into Circe's gorgeous bed. “Meanwhile, handmaids worked in the palace, four of them, who were the maidservants in her house.
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γίγνονται δʼ ἄρα ταί γʼ ἔκ τε κρηνέων ἀπό τʼ ἀλσέωνThey were born of springs, and of groves, and of sacred rivers that flow toward the sea. One of them threw fine purple blankets on the chairs, on top, then threw cloths under them below. The second one pulled silver tables in front of the chair
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ἀργυρέας, ἐπὶ δέ σφι τίθει χρύσεια κάνεια·and placed golden baskets on them. The third mixed sweet honey-hearted wine in a silver bowl and set out golden goblets. The fourth brought water and lit a big fire under a great tripod, and the water heated.
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αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ δὴ ζέσσεν ὕδωρ ἐνὶ ἤνοπι χαλκῷThe after the water boiled in the dazzling bronze, she sat me in a tub and bathed me from the great tripod, over my head and shoulders, once she'd mingled it to suit me, until she took the heart-wasting weariness from my limbs. Then after she bathed me and anointed me richly with olive oil
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ἀμφὶ δέ με χλαῖναν καλὴν βάλεν ἠδὲ χιτῶναhe threw a fine cloak and tunic about me, brought me in and sat me on a silver-studded chair, beautiful, intricately worked. A foot-rest for my feet was under it. A handmaid brought water for washing in a fine golden pitcher and poured it above a silver basin
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νίψασθαι· παρὰ δὲ ξεστὴν ἐτάνυσσε τράπεζαν.o we could wash, then pulled a polished table beside us. A venerable housekeeper brought bread and set it before us placing many foods on it, pleasing us from her stores, and bid us eat, but I was not pleased at heart, and I sat there, my mind on something else, my heart foreboding evil.
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Κίρκη δʼ ὡς ἐνόησεν ἔμʼ ἥμενον οὐδʼ ἐπὶ σίτῳ“Now Circe noticed, how I sat but did not throw my hands upon the food and how a mighty sorrow held me, then stood close by and spoke winged words to me: 'Why do you sit this way, Odysseus, like a mute, eating your heart but touching neither food nor drink?
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ἦ τινά που δόλον ἄλλον ὀίεαι· οὐδέ τί σε χρὴPerhaps you suspect another trick? You needn't fear at all, for I've sworn a mighty oath to you.' “So said she. Then I in answer said to her: 'Circe, what man who is right-minded would dare partake of food and drink
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πρὶν λύσασθʼ ἑτάρους καὶ ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖσιν ἰδέσθαι;before he freed his comrades and saw them in his eyes? but, if you bid me eat and drink in earnest, free them, so I can see my trusty comrades with my eyes.' “So said I, and Circe walked directly through her hall, holding her wand in her hand, opened the doors of the pigsty
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ἐκ δʼ ἔλασεν σιάλοισιν ἐοικότας ἐννεώροισιν.and drove them out, looking like hogs nine years old. Then they stood opposite, and she went through them and smeared on each another drug. From their limbs bristles flowed, the ones the ruinous drug that lady Circe'd given them made grow before
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ἄνδρες δʼ ἂψ ἐγένοντο νεώτεροι ἢ πάρος ἦσανand they soon became men. They were younger than before, and handsomer by far, and bigger to look at. They knew me, and each clasped my hands. A longing to weep came on us all, and about us the house echoed horribly. The goddess herself felt pity for us.
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ἡ δέ μευ ἄγχι στᾶσα προσηύδα δῖα θεάων·The goddess divine stood near and said to me: 'Zeus-born Laertiades, resourceful Odysseus, go now to your swift ship and sea's shore. First of all, haul your ship onto land, then stow all your goods and gear in caves
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αὐτὸς δʼ ἂψ ἰέναι καὶ ἄγειν ἐρίηρας ἑταίρους.then come back yourself and bring your trusty comrades.' “So said she. Then my manly heart obeyed, and I made my way to my swift ship and sea's shore. Then on my swift ship I found my trusty comrades, grieving pitiably, shedding thick tears.
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ὡς δʼ ὅτʼ ἂν ἄγραυλοι πόριες περὶ βοῦς ἀγελαίαςAs when calves in the barnyard all frisk opposite the cows of the herd, coming to the dunghill once they've had their fill of fodder, and the pens no longer hold them, but mooing constantly they run about their mothers, so they, when they saw me with their eyes
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δακρυόεντες ἔχυντο· δόκησε δʼ ἄρα σφίσι θυμὸςpoured over me in tears. Then it seemed they felt as if they'd reached their fatherland and the city itself of rugged Ithaca, where they were born and bred, and as they wept they spoke winged words to me: 'We rejoice as much at your returning, Zeus-nurtured one
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ὡς εἴ τʼ εἰς Ἰθάκην ἀφικοίμεθα πατρίδα γαῖαν·as if we'd reached our fatherland, Ithaca. But come, recount the destruction of the rest of our comrades!' “So said they. Then I spoke to them with words meant to win them: 'First of all, we'll haul our ship onto land, then we'll stow all our goods and gear in caves
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αὐτοὶ δʼ ὀτρύνεσθε ἐμοὶ ἅμα πάντες ἕπεσθαιthen all of you spur yourselves to follow me so you can see your comrades in Circe's sacred home, eating and drinking, for they have an abundance.' “So said I, and they quickly obeyed my words. Only Eurylochus held back all my comrades
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καί σφεας φωνήσας ἔπεα πτερόεντα προσηύδα·and, voicing winged words, he said to them: 'Ah, wretched ones, where are we going? Why are you eager for these evils, going down to the hall of Circe, who'll make each and every one of us either pigs or wolves or lions, to guard her big house under compulsion
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ὥς περ Κύκλωψ ἔρξʼ, ὅτε οἱ μέσσαυλον ἵκοντοeven as the Cyclops penned them, when our comrades went to his courtyard, and bold Odysseus followed with them, for by by this man's recklessness they perished!' “So said he, then I pondered in my mind drawing my sharp-edged sword from beside my thick thigh
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τῷ οἱ ἀποπλήξας κεφαλὴν οὖδάσδε πελάσσαιand cutting off his head with it to bring him to the ground though he was very close kin to me by marriage, but my comrades, from one place or another, restrained me with words meant to win me: 'Zeus-born, if you order it, we'll let this one stay where he is beside the ship and guard it.
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ἡμῖν δʼ ἡγεμόνευʼ ἱερὰ πρὸς δώματα Κίρκης.Then, guide us to Circe's sacred home.' “So saying, they went up from the ship and sea. And Eurylochus was not left beside the hollow ship, but followed, for he feared my vehement rebuke. “Meanwhile, with kind care, Circe bathed and richly anointed
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ἐνδυκέως λοῦσέν τε καὶ ἔχρισεν λίπʼ ἐλαίῳwith olive oil my other comrades in her house, then threw about them fleecy cloaks and tunics. We found them all dining well in her palace. When they saw and recognized each other face to face, they wept in lamentation, and the house echoed all around.
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ἡ δέ μευ ἄγχι στᾶσα προσηύδα δῖα θεάων·The goddess divine stood near and said to me: 'Zeus-nurtured Laertiades, resourceful Odysseus, raise loud lamentation no longer. I know myself how many sorrows you've suffered on the fishy sea and how much hostile men have harmed you on dry land
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ἀλλʼ ἄγετʼ ἐσθίετε βρώμην καὶ πίνετε οἶνονbut come, eat food and drink wine, so that in your chest you'll get again the heart you had when you first left your native land of rugged Ithaca. Now, you're withered and heartless, with hard wandering always on your mind, and your heart
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θυμὸς ἐν εὐφροσύνῃ, ἐπεὶ ἦ μάλα πολλὰ πέποσθε.is never in happiness, since you've surely suffered very much.' “So said she, and our manly spirit yielded in turn. There every day, until a year came to its end, we sat feasting on boundless meat and sweet wine. But when a year was over, and seasons turned around
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μηνῶν φθινόντων, περὶ δʼ ἤματα μακρὰ τελέσθηas the months passed, and long days brought about, right then my trusty comrades summoned me and said: 'Possessed one, remember now your fatherland, if it's ordained that you be saved and reach your well-built house and your fatherland.'
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ὣς ἔφαν, αὐτὰρ ἐμοί γʼ ἐπεπείθετο θυμὸς ἀγήνωρ.“So said they. Then my manly heart obeyed, So then all day until the sun went down, we sat feasting on boundless meat and sweet wine. When the sun went down and dusk came on, they lay down to sleep throughout the shadowy hall.
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αὐτὰρ ἐγὼ Κίρκης ἐπιβὰς περικαλλέος εὐνῆς“Then I climbed on Circe's gorgeous bed and entreated her by the knees. The goddess heard my voice, and, voicing winged words, I said to her: 'Circe, fulfill for me the promise that you promised, to send me home. My heart is eager now
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ἠδʼ ἄλλων ἑτάρων, οἵ μευ φθινύθουσι φίλον κῆρand my comrades' hearts as well, who make my dear heart pine, lamenting around me, when you're somewhere away.' “So said I, and the goddess divine immediately answered: 'Zeus-nurtured Laertiades, resourceful Odysseus, stay no longer in my house against your will.
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ἀλλʼ ἄλλην χρὴ πρῶτον ὁδὸν τελέσαι καὶ ἱκέσθαιBut, first you need to complete a different journey, and go to the house of Hades and dread Persephone, to consult the soul of Teiresias the Theban, the blind seer whose mind is intact. To him, even after dying, Persephone gave mind
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οἴῳ πεπνῦσθαι, τοὶ δὲ σκιαὶ ἀίσσουσιν.that he alone has wits, while others flit about as shadows.' “So said she. Then my dear heart was broken, and I sat weeping on the bed, and, truly, my heart no longer wished to live and see sun's light. Then after I'd had enough of weeping and writhing
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καὶ τότε δή μιν ἔπεσσιν ἀμειβόμενος προσέειπον·right then I said to her in answer: 'Circe, who'll guide us on this journey? No one's ever reached the house of Hades in a black ship!' “So said I, and the goddess divine immediately answered: 'Zeus-nurtured Laertiades, resourceful Odysseus
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μή τί τοι ἡγεμόνος γε ποθὴ παρὰ νηὶ μελέσθωdon't let the absence of a guide bother you beside your ship, but set up the mast, spread the white sails, and sit. North Wind's breath will bear her for you. But when you drive through Ocean with your ship, there will be a rough headland and groves of Persephone
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μακραί τʼ αἴγειροι καὶ ἰτέαι ὠλεσίκαρποιtall poplars and willows losing their fruit. Land your ship at that spot, by deep-eddying Ocean, but go yourself to the dank house of Hades. There Pyriphlegethus and Cocytus, which is a branch of the water of the Styx, flow into Acheron
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πέτρη τε ξύνεσίς τε δύω ποταμῶν ἐριδούπων·and there is a rock and the junction of two roaring rivers. Then draw near there, hero, as I bid you, and dig a pit a cubit's length this way and that, and pour a libation to all the dead about it, first with milk and honey, thereafter with sweet wine
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τὸ τρίτον αὖθʼ ὕδατι· ἐπὶ δʼ ἄλφιτα λευκὰ παλύνειν.a third time with water, then sprinkle white barley groats upon it. Entreat repeatedly the helpless heads of the dead, that when you get to Ithaca you'll offer a cow that's not yet calved, your best one, in your palace, and will fill the pyre with good things, and that you'll sacrifice separately, to Teiresias alone
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παμμέλανʼ, ὃς μήλοισι μεταπρέπει ὑμετέροισιν.a solid-black ram, that stands out among your sheep. Then after you've entreated the famous tribes of corpses with your prayers, offer sheep there, a ram and a black female, turning them toward Erebus, but turn yourself away and face the river's streams. There, many soul
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ψυχαὶ ἐλεύσονται νεκύων κατατεθνηώτων.of the dead who've died will come. Then at that moment urge and order your comrades to skin and burn the sheep that lie there slaughtered by ruthless bronze, and to pray to the gods, to mighty Hades and dread Persephone.
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αὐτὸς δὲ ξίφος ὀξὺ ἐρυσσάμενος παρὰ μηροῦYou yourself, draw your sharp sword from beside your thigh and sit, but don't let the helpless heads of the dead go close to the blood before you question Teiresias. Then soon the seer, the leader of men, will come to you, who'll tell you the way and stages of your journey
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νόστον θʼ, ὡς ἐπὶ πόντον ἐλεύσεαι ἰχθυόεντα.and of your return home, how you'll go upon the fishy sea.' “So said she, and golden-throned Dawn immediately came. She dressed a cloak and tunic about me as clothing, and the nymph herself put on a great white cloak, delicate and lovely, threw a fine golden girdle
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καλὴν χρυσείην, κεφαλῇ δʼ ἐπέθηκε καλύπτρην.around her waist, and put a veil on her head. Then I went throughout the house, and, going to each man, spurred on my comrades with words meant to win them: 'Sleep no longer now, drowsing in sweet sleep, but let's go, for lady Circe's shown me the way!'
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ὣς ἐφάμην, τοῖσιν δʼ ἐπεπείθετο θυμὸς ἀγήνωρ.“So said I, and their manly hearts were persuaded. But not even from there did I lead my comrades unharmed. The youngest was a certain Elpenor, none too brave in war or sound in mind, who'd lain down far away from my comrades, in Circe'
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ψύχεος ἱμείρων, κατελέξατο οἰνοβαρείων.acred home, wanting cool air and heavy with wine. He heard the noise and clamor of his comrades moving, got up suddenly, and in his mind completely forgot to go to the long ladder to come back down, so he fell straight down from the roof. His neck was broken
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ἀστραγάλων ἐάγη, ψυχὴ δʼ Ἄϊδόσδε κατῆλθεν.from the vertebrae and his soul went down to Hades. I said to them as they went on their way: 'Perhaps you think you're going home to your beloved fatherland, but Circe has ordained a different journey, to the house of Hades and dread Persephone
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ψυχῇ χρησομένους Θηβαίου Τειρεσίαο.to consult the soul of Teiresias the Theban.' “So said I, and their dear heart was broken, and sitting down where they were, they wept and pulled out their hair, but no good result came of their weeping. “But when we were going to our swift ship and sea's shore
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ᾔομεν ἀχνύμενοι θαλερὸν κατὰ δάκρυ χέοντεςin grief, letting our thick tears fall, Circe came then and tethered beside the black ship a ram and a black female sheep, passing by us easily. Who with his eyes can perceive a god unwilling going either here or there?”
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

21 results
1. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 28 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 11.27, 12.22-12.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.27. וַיַּעֲבֹר הָאֵבֶל וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד וַיַּאַסְפָהּ אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ וַתְּהִי־לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה וַתֵּלֶד לוֹ בֵּן וַיֵּרַע הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה דָוִד בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה׃ 12.22. וַיֹּאמֶר בְּעוֹד הַיֶּלֶד חַי צַמְתִּי וָאֶבְכֶּה כִּי אָמַרְתִּי מִי יוֹדֵעַ יחנני [וְחַנַּנִי] יְהוָה וְחַי הַיָּלֶד׃ 12.23. וְעַתָּה מֵת לָמָּה זֶּה אֲנִי צָם הַאוּכַל לַהֲשִׁיבוֹ עוֹד אֲנִי הֹלֵךְ אֵלָיו וְהוּא לֹא־יָשׁוּב אֵלָי׃ 11.27. And when the mourning was past, David sent and fetched her to his house, and she became his wife, and bore him a son. But the thing that David had done was evil in the eyes of the Lord." 12.22. And he said, While the child was yet alive, I fasted and wept: for I said, Who can tell? God may be gracious to me, and the child may live?" 12.23. But now he is dead, why should I fast? Can I bring him back again? I shall go to him, but he will not come back to me."
3. Homer, Iliad, 2.134-2.135, 21.203 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

2.134. /But allies there be out of many cities, men that wield the spear, who hinder me mightily, and for all that I am fain, suffer me not to sack the well-peopled citadel of Ilios. Already have nine years of great Zeus gone by 2.135. /and lo, our ships' timbers are rotted, and the tackling loosed; and our wives, I ween, and little children sit in our halls awaiting us; yet is our task wholly unaccomplished in furtherance whereof we came hither. Nay, come, even as I shall bid, let us all obey: 21.203. /He spake, and drew forth from the bank his spear of bronze, and left Asteropaeus where he was, when he had robbed him of his life, lying in the sands; and the dark water wetted him. With him then the eels and fishes dealt, plucking and tearing the fat about his kidneys;
4. Homer, Odyssey, 2.170-2.172, 5.43-5.261, 7.259-7.260, 9.39-9.61, 9.82-9.104, 10.1-10.76, 10.80-10.132, 10.134-10.574, 11.20-11.50, 12.159, 12.165-12.200, 12.260-12.402 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

5. Herodotus, Histories, 1.172, 2.35, 3.2, 3.137-3.138 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.172. I think the Caunians are aborigines of the soil, but they say that they came from Crete . Their speech has become like the Carian, or the Carian like theirs (for I cannot clearly decide), but in their customs they diverge widely from the Carians, as from all other men. Their chief pleasure is to assemble for drinking-bouts in groups according to their ages and friendships: men, women, and children. ,Certain foreign rites of worship were established among them; but afterwards, when they were inclined otherwise, and wanted to worship only the gods of their fathers, all Caunian men of full age put on their armor and went together as far as the boundaries of Calynda, striking the air with their spears and saying that they were casting out the alien gods. 2.35. It is sufficient to say this much concerning the Nile . But concerning Egypt, I am going to speak at length, because it has the most wonders, and everywhere presents works beyond description; therefore, I shall say the more concerning Egypt . ,Just as the Egyptians have a climate peculiar to themselves, and their river is different in its nature from all other rivers, so, too, have they instituted customs and laws contrary for the most part to those of the rest of mankind. Among them, the women buy and sell, the men stay at home and weave; and whereas in weaving all others push the woof upwards, the Egyptians push it downwards. ,Men carry burdens on their heads, women on their shoulders. Women pass water standing, men sitting. They ease their bowels indoors, and eat out of doors in the streets, explaining that things unseemly but necessary should be done alone in private, things not unseemly should be done openly. ,No woman is dedicated to the service of any god or goddess; men are dedicated to all deities male or female. Sons are not compelled against their will to support their parents, but daughters must do so though they be unwilling. 3.2. But the Egyptians, who say that Cambyses was the son of this daughter of Apries, claim him as one of theirs; they say that it was Cyrus who asked Amasis for his daughter, and not Cambyses. ,But what they say is false. They are certainly not unaware (for if any understand the customs of the Persians the Egyptians do) firstly, that it is not their custom for illegitimate offspring to rule when there are legitimate offspring; and secondly, that Cambyses was the son of Cassandane, the daughter of Pharnaspes, who was an Achaemenid, and not of the Egyptian woman. But they falsify the story, pretending to be related to the house of Cyrus. That is the truth of the matter. 3.137. The Persians sailed from Tarentum and pursued Democedes to Croton, where they found him in the marketplace and tried to seize him. ,Some Crotoniats, who feared the Persian power, would have given him up; but others resisted and beat the Persians with their sticks. “Men of Croton, watch what you do,” said the Persians; “you are harboring an escaped slave of the King's. ,How do you think King Darius will like this insolence? What good will it do you if he gets away from us? What city will we attack first here? Which will we try to enslave first?” ,But the men of Croton paid no attention to them; so the Persians lost Democedes and the galley with which they had come, and sailed back for Asia, making no attempt to visit and learn of the further parts of Hellas now that their guide was taken from them. ,But Democedes gave them a message as they were setting sail; they should tell Darius, he said, that Democedes was engaged to the daughter of Milon. For Darius held the name of Milon the wrestler in great honor; and, to my thinking, Democedes sought this match and paid a great sum for it to show Darius that he was a man of influence in his own country as well as in Persia . 3.138. The Persians then put out from Croton ; but their ships were wrecked on the coast of Iapygia, and they were made slaves in the country until Gillus, an exile from Tarentum, released and restored them to Darius, who was ready to give him whatever he wanted in return. ,Gillus chose to be restored to Tarentum and told the story of his misfortune; but, so as not to be the occasion of agitating Greece, if on his account a great expedition sailed against Italy, he said that it was enough that the Cnidians alone be his escort; for he supposed that the Tarentines would be the readier to receive him back as the Cnidians were their friends. ,Darius kept his word, and sent a messenger to the men of Cnidos, telling them to take Gillus back to Tarentum . They obeyed Darius; but they could not persuade the Tarentines, and were not able to apply force. ,This is what happened, and these Persians were the first who came from Asia into Hellas, and they came to view the country for this reason.
6. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 6.2.1 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

6.2.1. It was settled originally as follows, and the peoples that occupied it are these. The earliest inhabitants spoken of in any part of the country are the Cyclopes and Laestrygones; but I cannot tell of what race they were, or whence they came or whither they went, and must leave my readers to what the poets have said of them and to what may be generally known concerning them.
7. Aratus Solensis, Phaenomena, 298 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

298. ἥμεθʼ ἐπʼ αἰγιαλοὺς τετραμμένοι· οἱ δʼ ἔτι πόρσω
8. Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica, 4.659-4.663 (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.659. καρπαλίμως δʼ ἐνθένδε διὲξ ἁλὸς οἶδμα νέοντο 4.660. Αὐσονίης ἀκτὰς Τυρσηνίδας εἰσορόωντες· 4.661. ἷξον δʼ Αἰαίης λιμένα κλυτόν· ἐκ δʼ ἄρα νηὸς 4.662. πείσματʼ ἐπʼ ἠιόνων σχεδόθεν βάλον. ἔνθα δὲ Κίρκην 4.663. εὗρον ἁλὸς νοτίδεσσι κάρη ἐπιφαιδρύνουσαν·
9. Cicero, Letters, 2.13.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

10. Cicero, Letters, 2.13.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

11. Cicero, Letters, 2.13.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

12. Cicero, Letters, 2.13.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

13. Horace, Epodes, 10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

14. Strabo, Geography, 5.3.6 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5.3.6. At 290 stadia from Antium is Mount Circaion, insulated by the sea and marshes. They say that it contains numerous roots, but this perhaps is only to harmonize with the myth relating to Circe. It has a small city, together with a sanctuary to Circe and an altar to Minerva; they likewise say that a cup is shown which belonged to Ulysses. Between [Antium and Circaion] is the river Stura, which has a station for ships: the rest of the coast is exposed to the southwest wind, with the exception of this small harbour of Circaion. Above this, in the interior, is the Pomentine plain: the region next to this was formerly inhabited by the Ausonians, who likewise possessed Campania: next after these the Osci, who also held part of Campania; now, however, as we have remarked, the whole, as far as Sinuessa, belongs to the Latini. A peculiar fate has attended the Osci and Ausonians; for although the Osci have ceased to exist as a distinct tribe, their dialect is extant among the Romans, dramatic and burlesque pieces composed in it being still represented at certain games which were instituted in ancient times. And as for the Ausonians, although they never have dwelt by the sea of Sicily, it is named the Ausonian Sea. At 100 stadia from Circaion is Tarracina, formerly named Trachina, on account of its ruggedness; before it is a great marsh, formed by two rivers, the larger of which is called the Aufidus. This is the first place where the Via Appia approaches the sea. This road is paved from Rome to Brundusium, and has great traffic. of the maritime cities, these alone are situated on it; Tarracina, beyond it Formiae, Minturnae, Sinuessa, and towards its extremity Tarentum and Brundusium. Near to Tarracina, advancing in the direction of Rome, a canal runs by the side of the Via Appia, which is supplied at intervals by water from the marshes and rivers. Travellers generally sail up it by night, embarking in the evening, and landing in the morning to travel the rest of their journey by the way; however, during the day the passage boat is towed by mules. Beyond is Formiae, founded by the Lacedemonians, and formerly called Hormiae, on account of its excellent port. Between these [two cities], is a gulf which they have named Caiata, in fact all gulfs are called by the Lacedemonians Caietae: some, however, say that the gulf received this appellation from [Caieta], the nurse of Aeneas. From Tarracina to the promontory of Caiata is a length of 100 stadia. Here are opened vast caverns, which contain large and sumptuous mansions. From hence to Formiae is a distance of 40 stadia. Between this city and Sinuessa, at a distance of about 80 stadia from each, is Minturnae. The river Liris, formerly named the Clanis, flows through it. It descends from the Apennines, passes through the country of the Vescini, and by the village of Fregellae, (formerly a famous city,) and so into a sacred grove situated below the city, and held in great veneration by the people of Minturnae. There are two islands, named Pandataria and Pontia, lying in the high sea, and clearly discernible from the caverns. Although small, they are well inhabited, are not at any great distance from each other, and at 250 stadia from the mainland. Caecubum is situated on the gulf of Caiata, and next to it Fundi, a city on the Via Appia. All these places produce excellent wines; but those of Caecubum, Fundi, and Setia are most in repute, and so are the Falernian, Alban, and Statanian wines. Sinuessa is situated in a gulf from which it takes its name, sinus signifying [in Latin] a gulf. Near to it are some fine hot-baths, good for the cure of various maladies. Such are the maritime cities of Latium.
15. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.50-1.222, 1.302-1.304, 1.307-1.308, 3.384-3.387, 3.645-3.648, 6.359, 7.10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.50. Below th' horizon the Sicilian isle 1.51. just sank from view, as for the open sea 1.52. with heart of hope they sailed, and every ship 1.53. clove with its brazen beak the salt, white waves. 1.54. But Juno of her everlasting wound 1.55. knew no surcease, but from her heart of pain 1.56. thus darkly mused: “Must I, defeated, fail 1.57. of what I will, nor turn the Teucrian King 1.58. from Italy away? Can Fate oppose? 1.59. Had Pallas power to lay waste in flame 1.60. the Argive fleet and sink its mariners 1.61. revenging but the sacrilege obscene 1.62. by Ajax wrought, Oileus' desperate son? 1.63. She, from the clouds, herself Jove's lightning threw 1.64. cattered the ships, and ploughed the sea with storms. 1.65. Her foe, from his pierced breast out-breathing fire 1.66. in whirlwind on a deadly rock she flung. 1.67. But I, who move among the gods a queen 1.68. Jove's sister and his spouse, with one weak tribe 1.69. make war so long! Who now on Juno calls? 1.71. So, in her fevered heart complaining still 1.72. unto the storm-cloud land the goddess came 1.73. a region with wild whirlwinds in its womb 1.74. Aeolia named, where royal Aeolus 1.75. in a high-vaulted cavern keeps control 1.76. o'er warring winds and loud concourse of storms. 1.77. There closely pent in chains and bastions strong 1.78. they, scornful, make the vacant mountain roar 1.79. chafing against their bonds. But from a throne 1.80. of lofty crag, their king with sceptred hand 1.81. allays their fury and their rage confines. 1.82. Did he not so, our ocean, earth, and sky 1.83. were whirled before them through the vast ie. 1.84. But over-ruling Jove, of this in fear 1.85. hid them in dungeon dark: then o'er them piled 1.86. huge mountains, and ordained a lawful king 1.87. to hold them in firm sway, or know what time 1.88. with Jove's consent, to loose them o'er the world. 1.90. “Thou in whose hands the Father of all gods 1.91. and Sovereign of mankind confides the power 1.92. to calm the waters or with winds upturn 1.93. great Aeolus! a race with me at war 1.94. now sails the Tuscan main towards Italy 1.95. bringing their Ilium and its vanquished powers. 1.96. Uprouse thy gales. Strike that proud navy down! 1.97. Hurl far and wide, and strew the waves with dead! 1.98. Twice seven nymphs are mine, of rarest mould; 1.99. of whom Deiopea, the most fair 1.100. I give thee in true wedlock for thine own 1.101. to mate thy noble worth; she at thy side 1.102. hall pass long, happy years, and fruitful bring 1.104. Then Aeolus: “'T is thy sole task, O Queen 1.105. to weigh thy wish and will. My fealty 1.106. thy high behest obeys. This humble throne 1.107. is of thy gift. Thy smiles for me obtain 1.108. authority from Jove. Thy grace concedes 1.109. my station at your bright Olympian board 1.111. Replying thus, he smote with spear reversed 1.112. the hollow mountain's wall; then rush the winds 1.113. through that wide breach in long, embattled line 1.114. and sweep tumultuous from land to land: 1.115. with brooding pinions o'er the waters spread 1.116. east wind and south, and boisterous Afric gale 1.117. upturn the sea; vast billows shoreward roll; 1.118. the shout of mariners, the creak of cordage 1.119. follow the shock; low-hanging clouds conceal 1.120. from Trojan eyes all sight of heaven and day; 1.121. night o'er the ocean broods; from sky to sky 1.122. the thunders roll, the ceaseless lightnings glare; 1.123. and all things mean swift death for mortal man. 1.124. Straightway Aeneas, shuddering with amaze 1.125. groaned loud, upraised both holy hands to Heaven 1.126. and thus did plead: “O thrice and four times blest 1.127. ye whom your sires and whom the walls of Troy 1.128. looked on in your last hour! O bravest son 1.129. Greece ever bore, Tydides! O that I 1.130. had fallen on Ilian fields, and given this life 1.131. truck down by thy strong hand! where by the spear 1.132. of great Achilles, fiery Hector fell 1.133. and huge Sarpedon; where the Simois 1.134. in furious flood engulfed and whirled away 1.136. While thus he cried to Heaven, a shrieking blast 1.137. mote full upon the sail. Up surged the waves 1.138. to strike the very stars; in fragments flew 1.139. the shattered oars; the helpless vessel veered 1.140. and gave her broadside to the roaring flood 1.141. where watery mountains rose and burst and fell. 1.142. Now high in air she hangs, then yawning gulfs 1.143. lay bare the shoals and sands o'er which she drives. 1.144. Three ships a whirling south wind snatched and flung 1.145. on hidden rocks,—altars of sacrifice 1.146. Italians call them, which lie far from shore 1.147. a vast ridge in the sea; three ships beside 1.148. an east wind, blowing landward from the deep 1.149. drove on the shallows,—pitiable sight,— 1.150. and girdled them in walls of drifting sand. 1.151. That ship, which, with his friend Orontes, bore 1.152. the Lycian mariners, a great, plunging wave 1.153. truck straight astern, before Aeneas' eyes. 1.154. Forward the steersman rolled and o'er the side 1.155. fell headlong, while three times the circling flood 1.156. pun the light bark through swift engulfing seas. 1.157. Look, how the lonely swimmers breast the wave! 1.158. And on the waste of waters wide are seen 1.159. weapons of war, spars, planks, and treasures rare 1.160. once Ilium 's boast, all mingled with the storm. 1.161. Now o'er Achates and Ilioneus 1.162. now o'er the ship of Abas or Aletes 1.163. bursts the tempestuous shock; their loosened seams 1.165. Meanwhile how all his smitten ocean moaned 1.166. and how the tempest's turbulent assault 1.167. had vexed the stillness of his deepest cave 1.168. great Neptune knew; and with indigt mien 1.169. uplifted o'er the sea his sovereign brow. 1.170. He saw the Teucrian navy scattered far 1.171. along the waters; and Aeneas' men 1.172. o'erwhelmed in mingling shock of wave and sky. 1.173. Saturnian Juno's vengeful stratagem 1.174. her brother's royal glance failed not to see; 1.175. and loud to eastward and to westward calling 1.176. he voiced this word: “What pride of birth or power 1.177. is yours, ye winds, that, reckless of my will 1.178. audacious thus, ye ride through earth and heaven 1.179. and stir these mountain waves? Such rebels I— 1.180. nay, first I calm this tumult! But yourselves 1.181. by heavier chastisement shall expiate 1.182. hereafter your bold trespass. Haste away 1.183. and bear your king this word! Not unto him 1.184. dominion o'er the seas and trident dread 1.185. but unto me, Fate gives. Let him possess 1.186. wild mountain crags, thy favored haunt and home 1.187. O Eurus! In his barbarous mansion there 1.188. let Aeolus look proud, and play the king 1.190. He spoke, and swiftlier than his word subdued 1.191. the swelling of the floods; dispersed afar 1.192. th' assembled clouds, and brought back light to heaven. 1.193. Cymothoe then and Triton, with huge toil 1.194. thrust down the vessels from the sharp-edged reef; 1.195. while, with the trident, the great god's own hand 1.196. assists the task; then, from the sand-strewn shore 1.197. out-ebbing far, he calms the whole wide sea 1.198. and glides light-wheeled along the crested foam. 1.199. As when, with not unwonted tumult, roars 1.200. in some vast city a rebellious mob 1.201. and base-born passions in its bosom burn 1.202. till rocks and blazing torches fill the air 1.203. (rage never lacks for arms)—if haply then 1.204. ome wise man comes, whose reverend looks attest 1.205. a life to duty given, swift silence falls; 1.206. all ears are turned attentive; and he sways 1.207. with clear and soothing speech the people's will. 1.208. So ceased the sea's uproar, when its grave Sire 1.209. looked o'er th' expanse, and, riding on in light 1.211. Aeneas' wave-worn crew now landward made 1.212. and took the nearest passage, whither lay 1.213. the coast of Libya . A haven there 1.214. walled in by bold sides of a rocky isle 1.215. offers a spacious and secure retreat 1.216. where every billow from the distant main 1.217. breaks, and in many a rippling curve retires. 1.218. Huge crags and two confronted promontories 1.219. frown heaven-high, beneath whose brows outspread 1.220. the silent, sheltered waters; on the heights 1.221. the bright and glimmering foliage seems to show 1.222. a woodland amphitheatre; and yet higher 1.302. and nations populous from shore to shore 1.303. paused on the peak of heaven, and fixed his gaze 1.304. on Libya . But while he anxious mused 1.307. and thus complained: “O thou who dost control 1.308. things human and divine by changeless laws 3.384. on fierce Ulysses' hearth and native land. 3.385. nigh hoar Leucate's clouded crest we drew 3.386. where Phoebus' temple, feared by mariners 3.387. loomed o'er us; thitherward we steered and reached 3.645. Then gifts he bade be brought of heavy gold 3.646. and graven ivory, which to our ships 3.647. he bade us bear; each bark was Ioaded full 3.648. with messy silver and Dodona 's pride 6.359. When Jove has mantled all his heaven in shade 7.10. Freshly the night-winds breathe; the cloudless moon
16. Juvenal, Satires, 3.305-3.308, 12.58-12.59 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17. Persius, Satires, 1.88-1.89 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Persius, Saturae, 1.88-1.89 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Plutarch, Camillus, 22 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Seneca The Younger, Medea, 306-308, 305 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Suetonius, Iulius, 44.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
absalom Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 375
achaemenides Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
adultery Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 375
adventure Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87, 94
aeneas Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87, 94
aeolus, king of the winds Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
africa Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
aiaia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
alcinous Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
alexander the great, and rome Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
alexander the great, writings on Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
ancient gods Ferrándiz, Shipwrecks, Legal Landscapes and Mediterranean Paradigms: Gone Under Sea (2022) 11
apollonios of perge Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
bathsheba, her first child Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 375
bathsheba Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 375
bird Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 370
bothros (gr. technique in consulting the dead) Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 375
calypso Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
campania Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
carthage Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87, 94
caunians Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 92
cicero (marcus tullius cicero Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
circe Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94; Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
circe (gr. kirkē) Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 370, 375
circei Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
conquest, roman Ferrándiz, Shipwrecks, Legal Landscapes and Mediterranean Paradigms: Gone Under Sea (2022) 146
cultural-environmental process Ferrándiz, Shipwrecks, Legal Landscapes and Mediterranean Paradigms: Gone Under Sea (2022) 146
cyclops Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
david, as fasting Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 375
david Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 375
death, by drowning Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
dido Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
dufner, c.m. Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 92
egypt, egyptians Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 92
ethnography Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 92
euboea Ferrándiz, Shipwrecks, Legal Landscapes and Mediterranean Paradigms: Gone Under Sea (2022) 146
fishing, fishermen Ferrándiz, Shipwrecks, Legal Landscapes and Mediterranean Paradigms: Gone Under Sea (2022) 146
flora Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
gallic invasion Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
greek, language Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 370
hebrew language Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 375
heracles Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 375
hero Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
hesiod Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
history Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
homer, ancient scholarship Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
horace Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
hunter, r.l. Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 92
imperial integration Ferrándiz, Shipwrecks, Legal Landscapes and Mediterranean Paradigms: Gone Under Sea (2022) 146
incarnation Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 370
intentions Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
israelites Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 375
italy (italia) Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
ithaca Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87, 94
jupiter Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
laestrygonians Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
latium Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
legal pluralism Ferrándiz, Shipwrecks, Legal Landscapes and Mediterranean Paradigms: Gone Under Sea (2022) 146
localism, mentality Ferrándiz, Shipwrecks, Legal Landscapes and Mediterranean Paradigms: Gone Under Sea (2022) 146
magic Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 92
magistrates, provincial Ferrándiz, Shipwrecks, Legal Landscapes and Mediterranean Paradigms: Gone Under Sea (2022) 146
malea, cape Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
mercury Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
mode, historiographical' Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 92
mossynoecians Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 92
murder Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 375
narrators, aeneid Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
nathan Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 375
odysseus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87; Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 92; Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143; Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 370, 375
odyssey, homers Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 92
ogygia Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
penelope (gr. pēnelopē) Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 375
phaeacians Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
phorcys Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
piracy Ferrándiz, Shipwrecks, Legal Landscapes and Mediterranean Paradigms: Gone Under Sea (2022) 146
poetry, poet, poetic Ferrándiz, Shipwrecks, Legal Landscapes and Mediterranean Paradigms: Gone Under Sea (2022) 11
polyphemus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
pomptine marsh Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
poseidon Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
prophecy Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 375
provincial governors Ferrándiz, Shipwrecks, Legal Landscapes and Mediterranean Paradigms: Gone Under Sea (2022) 146
queen (regina, potnia) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
res nullius Ferrándiz, Shipwrecks, Legal Landscapes and Mediterranean Paradigms: Gone Under Sea (2022) 11
roman law, and law of the provinces Ferrándiz, Shipwrecks, Legal Landscapes and Mediterranean Paradigms: Gone Under Sea (2022) 146
samuel Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 375
saul, king of israel Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 375
scheria Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
scylla and charybdis Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
sicily Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
slave, slavery Ferrándiz, Shipwrecks, Legal Landscapes and Mediterranean Paradigms: Gone Under Sea (2022) 11
storm Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87, 94
symbolism and significance (of the sea) Ferrándiz, Shipwrecks, Legal Landscapes and Mediterranean Paradigms: Gone Under Sea (2022) 11
telepylus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
thalassocracy Ferrándiz, Shipwrecks, Legal Landscapes and Mediterranean Paradigms: Gone Under Sea (2022) 11
theophrastus of eresos Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
thessaly Ferrándiz, Shipwrecks, Legal Landscapes and Mediterranean Paradigms: Gone Under Sea (2022) 146
time, synchronism Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
time Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
transition to empire Ferrándiz, Shipwrecks, Legal Landscapes and Mediterranean Paradigms: Gone Under Sea (2022) 146
trojan war Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87; Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 370
trojans Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87, 94
troy Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
ulysses Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
uriah the hittite Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 375
wandering Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 87
warfare Ferrándiz, Shipwrecks, Legal Landscapes and Mediterranean Paradigms: Gone Under Sea (2022) 11
winds Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 94
xenophon Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 92
ʾōb (heb. technique in consulting the dead) Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 375