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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6678
Homer, Odyssey, 1.1-1.95


nanBOOK 1 Tell me, Muse, about the wily man who wandered long and far after he sacked the sacred citadel of Troy. He saw the cities and knew the minds of many men, but suffered at sea many sorrows in his heart


ἄνδρα μοι ἔννεπε, μοῦσα, πολύτροπον, ὃς μάλα πολλὰBOOK 1 Tell me, Muse, about the wily man who wandered long and far after he sacked the sacred citadel of Troy. He saw the cities and knew the minds of many men, but suffered at sea many sorrows in his heart


τῶν ἁμόθεν γε, θεά, θύγατερ Διός, εἰπὲ καὶ ἡμῖν.Tell us also, goddess, daughter of Zeus, of sundry things. Then all the rest, all who had escaped sheer destruction, were home and had escaped both war and sea. Him only, yearning for his wife and return home, the nymph, lady Calypso, a goddess divine
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ἐν σπέσσι γλαφυροῖσι, λιλαιομένη πόσιν εἶναι.detained in hollow caves, eager that he be her husband. But as the years went round, there came a year at last when the gods spun his destiny to return home to Ithaca, but he wasn't safe from trials there, even among his loved ones. All the gods felt pity for him
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νόσφι Ποσειδάωνος· ὁ δʼ ἀσπερχὲς μενέαινενexcept Poseidon. He was incessantly incensed at godlike Odysseus until he reached his own land. But Poseidon had gone to visit the far-off Ethiopians, the Ethiopians, most remote of men, who are divided in two, some at Hyperion's setting, others at his rising
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ἀντιόων ταύρων τε καὶ ἀρνειῶν ἑκατόμβης.to partake of a hecatomb of bulls and rams. He sat there enjoying himself at the feast. The others by now were together in the halls of Olympian Zeus. The father of men and gods began speaking to them, for in his heart he recalled noble Aegisthus
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τόν ῥʼ Ἀγαμεμνονίδης τηλεκλυτὸς ἔκτανʼ Ὀρέστης·whom far-famed Orestes Agamemnonides had slain. Remembering him, he addressed these words to the immortals: “Humph! How mortals now blame gods, for they say that evils are from us. Yet they themselves have woes beyond their lot by their own recklessness
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ὡς καὶ νῦν Αἴγισθος ὑπὲρ μόρον Ἀτρεΐδαοas even now, beyond his lot, Aegisthusmarried Atreides' wedded wife and killed him when he came home, sure of sheer destruction, after we told him beforehand, sending Hermes, sharp-sighted Argeiphontes, to neither woo his wife nor kill him
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ἐκ γὰρ Ὀρέσταο τίσις ἔσσεται Ἀτρεΐδαοfor there'd be revenge, from Atreides' son Orestes, when he came of age and longed for his own land. So Hermes said, but he didn't win over the mind of Aegisthus, though he meant well. Now he's paid for it all all together.” Then bright-eyed goddess Athena answered him:
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ὦ πάτερ ἡμέτερε Κρονίδη, ὕπατε κρειόντων“Our father Cronides, your highness most supreme, just as that one lies in fitting destruction, may also any other one who does such things so perish! But my heart is troubled about skilled Odysseus, the ill-fated one, who, away from his loved ones a long time already, suffers misery
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ἀρνύμενος ἥν τε ψυχὴν καὶ νόστον ἑταίρων.truggling for his life and comrades' return home. But he didn't save his comrades, much though he wanted to, for by their own recklessness they perished, childish fools, who devoured the cattle of the Sun, Hyperion, who then deprived them of their homecoming day.


νήσῳ ἐν ἀμφιρύτῃ, ὅθι τʼ ὀμφαλός ἐστι θαλάσσης.on a sea-girt island, where the sea's navel is. The island is forested, and on it a goddess makes her home, the daughter of malign Atlas, he who knows the depths of every sea and by himself holds the tall pillars that hold apart heaven and earth.
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τοῦ θυγάτηρ δύστηνον ὀδυρόμενον κατερύκειHis daughter detains the unfortunate lamenter, and ever with soft and wheedling words enchants him in such a way that he'll forget Ithaca. But Odysseus, eager for even the sight of smoke rising from his land, longs to die. But there's now no care at all for him
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ἐντρέπεται φίλον ἦτορ, Ὀλύμπιε. οὔ νύ τʼ Ὀδυσσεὺςin your dear heart, Olympian. Did not Odysseusplease you he when he offered sacrifice beside the Argive ships in wide Troy? Why now, Zeus, are you so incensed with him?” Cloud-gatherer Zeus said to her in reply: “My child, what kind of talk has fled your wall of teeth?
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πῶς ἂν ἔπειτʼ Ὀδυσῆος ἐγὼ θείοιο λαθοίμηνHow could I ever forget godlike Odysseus, who is superior among mortals in mind and in giving sacrifice to the immortal gods who hold wide heaven? But earth-embracing Poseidon is ever relentless in his rage because of the Cyclops whose eye Odysseus blinded
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ἀντίθεον Πολύφημον, ὅου κράτος ἐστὶ μέγιστονgodlike Polyphemus, whose strength is greatest of all Cyclops. The nymph Thoosa bore him. Daughter of Phorkys, ruler of the barren sea, she joined in hollow caves with Poseidon. Earth-shaker Poseidon does not kill Odysseus on his account
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οὔ τι κατακτείνει, πλάζει δʼ ἀπὸ πατρίδος αἴης.but does drive him away from his father's land. But come, let all of us contrive his return for him, as he wishes. Poseidon will let go of his anger, for he'll no way be able to contend alone, opposed to all immortals, against the will of the gods.”
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τὸν δʼ ἠμείβετʼ ἔπειτα θεά, γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη·Then bright-eyed goddess Athena answered him: “Our father Cronides, your highness most supreme, if this is now pleasing to the blessed gods, that ingenious Odysseus would return to his home, then let's dispatch Hermes, the runner Argeiphontes
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νῆσον ἐς Ὠγυγίην ὀτρύνομεν, ὄφρα τάχισταto the island of Ogygia, to clearly speak most quickly to the fair-haired nymph our will, the return home of steadfast Odysseus, so that he may go. Then I'll go to Ithaca, to spur his son on more, and I'll put the courage in his heart
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εἰς ἀγορὴν καλέσαντα κάρη κομόωντας Ἀχαιοὺςto call the hairy-headed Achaeans to assembly and speak out to all the suitors, who are always slaughtering his thick-thronging sheep and shambling curved-horned cattle. I'll send him to Sparta and to sandy Pylos, to learn of his dear father's return home, in hope he'll somehow hear
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ἠδʼ ἵνα μιν κλέος ἐσθλὸν ἐν ἀνθρώποισιν ἔχῃσιν.and so he'll have good repute among men.” So saying, beneath her feet she tied fine sandals, ambrosial, golden ones, that bore her, over water and boundless land, with the breezes of the wind. She grabbed a sharp spear, edged with sharp bronze


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

50 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 16.4, 16.14, 16.20-16.21, 16.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.4. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה הִנְנִי מַמְטִיר לָכֶם לֶחֶם מִן־הַשָּׁמָיִם וְיָצָא הָעָם וְלָקְטוּ דְּבַר־יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ לְמַעַן אֲנַסֶּנּוּ הֲיֵלֵךְ בְּתוֹרָתִי אִם־לֹא׃ 16.14. וַתַּעַל שִׁכְבַת הַטָּל וְהִנֵּה עַל־פְּנֵי הַמִּדְבָּר דַּק מְחֻסְפָּס דַּק כַּכְּפֹר עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 16.21. וַיִּלְקְטוּ אֹתוֹ בַּבֹּקֶר בַּבֹּקֶר אִישׁ כְּפִי אָכְלוֹ וְחַם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְנָמָס׃ 16.31. וַיִּקְרְאוּ בֵית־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־שְׁמוֹ מָן וְהוּא כְּזֶרַע גַּד לָבָן וְטַעְמוֹ כְּצַפִּיחִת בִּדְבָשׁ׃ 16.4. Then said the LORD unto Moses: ‘Behold, I will cause to rain bread from heaven for you; and the people shall go out and gather a day’s portion every day, that I may prove them, whether they will walk in My law, or not." 16.14. And when the layer of dew was gone up, behold upon the face of the wilderness a fine, scale-like thing, fine as the hoar-frost on the ground." 16.20. Notwithstanding they hearkened not unto Moses; but some of them left of it until the morning, and it bred worms, and rotted; and Moses was wroth with them." 16.21. And they gathered it morning by morning, every man according to his eating; and as the sun waxed hot, it melted." 16.31. And the house of Israel called the name thereof Manna; and it was like coriander seed, white; and the taste of it was like wafers made with honey."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 50.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

50.20. And as for you, ye meant evil against me; but God meant it for good, to bring to pass, as it is this day, to save much people alive."
3. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 11.7-11.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.7. וְהַמָּן כִּזְרַע־גַּד הוּא וְעֵינוֹ כְּעֵין הַבְּדֹלַח׃ 11.8. שָׁטוּ הָעָם וְלָקְטוּ וְטָחֲנוּ בָרֵחַיִם אוֹ דָכוּ בַּמְּדֹכָה וּבִשְּׁלוּ בַּפָּרוּר וְעָשׂוּ אֹתוֹ עֻגוֹת וְהָיָה טַעְמוֹ כְּטַעַם לְשַׁד הַשָּׁמֶן׃ 11.9. וּבְרֶדֶת הַטַּל עַל־הַמַּחֲנֶה לָיְלָה יֵרֵד הַמָּן עָלָיו׃ 11.7. Now the manna was like coriander seed, and the appearance thereof as the appearance of bdellium." 11.8. The people went about, and gathered it, and ground it in mills, or beat it in mortars, and seethed it in pots, and made cakes of it; and the taste of it was as the taste of a cake baked with oil." 11.9. And when the dew fell upon the camp in the night, the manna fell upon it.—"
4. Hesiod, Works And Days, 225-226, 10 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

10. For, Perses, I would tell the truth to you.
5. Hesiod, Theogony, 232, 26-28, 400, 63-74, 77-78, 784, 79, 793-806, 231 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

231. He labelled Titans for they used huge strain
6. Homer, Iliad, 1.1-1.7, 1.233-1.240, 1.245-1.248, 2.26, 2.259, 2.485-2.486, 2.492, 2.816, 7.213, 9.312-9.314, 9.379-9.387, 9.410-9.416, 11.57, 16.119, 16.168-16.170, 16.387-16.388, 19.217-19.219, 24.525-24.533 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

1.1. /The wrath sing, goddess, of Peleus' son, Achilles, that destructive wrath which brought countless woes upon the Achaeans, and sent forth to Hades many valiant souls of heroes, and made them themselves spoil for dogs and every bird; thus the plan of Zeus came to fulfillment 1.2. /The wrath sing, goddess, of Peleus' son, Achilles, that destructive wrath which brought countless woes upon the Achaeans, and sent forth to Hades many valiant souls of heroes, and made them themselves spoil for dogs and every bird; thus the plan of Zeus came to fulfillment 1.3. /The wrath sing, goddess, of Peleus' son, Achilles, that destructive wrath which brought countless woes upon the Achaeans, and sent forth to Hades many valiant souls of heroes, and made them themselves spoil for dogs and every bird; thus the plan of Zeus came to fulfillment 1.4. /The wrath sing, goddess, of Peleus' son, Achilles, that destructive wrath which brought countless woes upon the Achaeans, and sent forth to Hades many valiant souls of heroes, and made them themselves spoil for dogs and every bird; thus the plan of Zeus came to fulfillment 1.5. /The wrath sing, goddess, of Peleus' son, Achilles, that destructive wrath which brought countless woes upon the Achaeans, and sent forth to Hades many valiant souls of heroes, and made them themselves spoil for dogs and every bird; thus the plan of Zeus came to fulfillment 1.5. /from the time when first they parted in strife Atreus' son, king of men, and brilliant Achilles.Who then of the gods was it that brought these two together to contend? The son of Leto and Zeus; for he in anger against the king roused throughout the host an evil pestilence, and the people began to perish 1.6. /from the time when first they parted in strife Atreus' son, king of men, and brilliant Achilles.Who then of the gods was it that brought these two together to contend? The son of Leto and Zeus; for he in anger against the king roused throughout the host an evil pestilence, and the people began to perish 1.7. /from the time when first they parted in strife Atreus' son, king of men, and brilliant Achilles.Who then of the gods was it that brought these two together to contend? The son of Leto and Zeus; for he in anger against the king roused throughout the host an evil pestilence, and the people began to perish 1.233. /People-devouring king, since you rule over nobodies; else, son of Atreus, this would be your last piece of insolence. But I will speak out to you, and will swear thereto a mighty oath: by this staff, that shall never more put forth leaves or shoots since first it left its stump among the mountains 1.234. /People-devouring king, since you rule over nobodies; else, son of Atreus, this would be your last piece of insolence. But I will speak out to you, and will swear thereto a mighty oath: by this staff, that shall never more put forth leaves or shoots since first it left its stump among the mountains 1.235. /nor shall it again grow green, for the bronze has stripped it on all sides of leaves and bark, and now the sons of the Achaeans carry it in their hands when they act as judges, those who guard the ordices that come from Zeus; and this shall be for you a mighty oath. Surely some day a longing for Achilles will come upon the sons of the Achaeans 1.236. /nor shall it again grow green, for the bronze has stripped it on all sides of leaves and bark, and now the sons of the Achaeans carry it in their hands when they act as judges, those who guard the ordices that come from Zeus; and this shall be for you a mighty oath. Surely some day a longing for Achilles will come upon the sons of the Achaeans 1.237. /nor shall it again grow green, for the bronze has stripped it on all sides of leaves and bark, and now the sons of the Achaeans carry it in their hands when they act as judges, those who guard the ordices that come from Zeus; and this shall be for you a mighty oath. Surely some day a longing for Achilles will come upon the sons of the Achaeans 1.238. /nor shall it again grow green, for the bronze has stripped it on all sides of leaves and bark, and now the sons of the Achaeans carry it in their hands when they act as judges, those who guard the ordices that come from Zeus; and this shall be for you a mighty oath. Surely some day a longing for Achilles will come upon the sons of the Achaeans 1.239. /nor shall it again grow green, for the bronze has stripped it on all sides of leaves and bark, and now the sons of the Achaeans carry it in their hands when they act as judges, those who guard the ordices that come from Zeus; and this shall be for you a mighty oath. Surely some day a longing for Achilles will come upon the sons of the Achaeans 1.240. /one and all, and on that day you will not be able to help them at all, for all your grief, when many shall fall dying before man-slaying Hector. But you will gnaw the heart within you, in anger that you did no honour to the best of the Achaeans. 1.245. /the staff studded with golden nails, and himself sat down, while over against him the son of Atreus continued to vent his wrath. Then among them arose Nestor, sweet of speech, the clear-voiced orator of the Pylians, from whose tongue flowed speech sweeter than honey. Two generations of mortal men had passed away in his lifetime 1.246. /the staff studded with golden nails, and himself sat down, while over against him the son of Atreus continued to vent his wrath. Then among them arose Nestor, sweet of speech, the clear-voiced orator of the Pylians, from whose tongue flowed speech sweeter than honey. Two generations of mortal men had passed away in his lifetime 1.247. /the staff studded with golden nails, and himself sat down, while over against him the son of Atreus continued to vent his wrath. Then among them arose Nestor, sweet of speech, the clear-voiced orator of the Pylians, from whose tongue flowed speech sweeter than honey. Two generations of mortal men had passed away in his lifetime 1.248. /the staff studded with golden nails, and himself sat down, while over against him the son of Atreus continued to vent his wrath. Then among them arose Nestor, sweet of speech, the clear-voiced orator of the Pylians, from whose tongue flowed speech sweeter than honey. Two generations of mortal men had passed away in his lifetime 2.26. /to whom a host is entrusted, and upon whom rest so many cares. But now, hearken thou quickly unto me, for I am a messenger to thee from Zeus, who, far away though he be, hath exceeding care for thee and pity. He biddeth thee arm the long-haired Achaeans with all speed, since now thou mayest take the broad-wayed city of the Trojans. 2.259. /for that the Danaan warriors give him gifts full many; whereas thou pratest on with railings. But I will speak out to thee, and this word shall verily be brought to pass: if I find thee again playing the fool, even as now thou dost, then may the head of Odysseus abide no more upon his shoulders 2.485. /for ye are goddesses and are at hand and know all things, whereas we hear but a rumour and know not anything—who were the captains of the Danaans and their lords. But the common folk I could not tell nor name, nay, not though ten tongues were mine and ten mouths 2.486. /for ye are goddesses and are at hand and know all things, whereas we hear but a rumour and know not anything—who were the captains of the Danaans and their lords. But the common folk I could not tell nor name, nay, not though ten tongues were mine and ten mouths 2.492. /and a voice unwearying, and though the heart within me were of bronze, did not the Muses of Olympus, daughters of Zeus that beareth the aegis, call to my mind all them that came beneath Ilios. Now will I tell the captains of the ships and the ships in their order.of the Boeotians Peneleos and Leïtus were captains 2.816. /There on this day did the Trojans and their allies separate their companies.The Trojans were led by great Hector of the flashing helm, the son of Priam, and with him were marshalled the greatest hosts by far and the goodliest, raging with the spear. 9.312. /and as it shall be brought to pass, that ye sit not by me here on this side and on that and prate endlessly. For hateful in my eyes, even as the gates of Hades, is that man that hideth one thing in his mind and sayeth another. Nay, I will speak what seemeth to me to be best. 9.313. /and as it shall be brought to pass, that ye sit not by me here on this side and on that and prate endlessly. For hateful in my eyes, even as the gates of Hades, is that man that hideth one thing in his mind and sayeth another. Nay, I will speak what seemeth to me to be best. 9.314. /and as it shall be brought to pass, that ye sit not by me here on this side and on that and prate endlessly. For hateful in my eyes, even as the gates of Hades, is that man that hideth one thing in his mind and sayeth another. Nay, I will speak what seemeth to me to be best. 9.379. /for utterly hath he deceived me and sinned against me. Never again shall he beguile me with words; the past is enough for him. Nay, let him go to his ruin in comfort, seeing that Zeus the counsellor hath utterly robbed him of his wits. Hateful in my eyes are his gifts, I count them at a hair's worth. Not though he gave me ten times, aye twenty times all that now he hath 9.380. /and if yet other should be added thereto I care not whence, not though it were all the wealth that goeth in to Orchomenus, or to Thebes of Egypt, where treasures in greatest store are laid up in men's houses,—Thebes which is a city of an hundred gates wherefrom sally forth through each two hundred warriors with horses and cars; 9.381. /and if yet other should be added thereto I care not whence, not though it were all the wealth that goeth in to Orchomenus, or to Thebes of Egypt, where treasures in greatest store are laid up in men's houses,—Thebes which is a city of an hundred gates wherefrom sally forth through each two hundred warriors with horses and cars; 9.382. /and if yet other should be added thereto I care not whence, not though it were all the wealth that goeth in to Orchomenus, or to Thebes of Egypt, where treasures in greatest store are laid up in men's houses,—Thebes which is a city of an hundred gates wherefrom sally forth through each two hundred warriors with horses and cars; 9.383. /and if yet other should be added thereto I care not whence, not though it were all the wealth that goeth in to Orchomenus, or to Thebes of Egypt, where treasures in greatest store are laid up in men's houses,—Thebes which is a city of an hundred gates wherefrom sally forth through each two hundred warriors with horses and cars; 9.384. /and if yet other should be added thereto I care not whence, not though it were all the wealth that goeth in to Orchomenus, or to Thebes of Egypt, where treasures in greatest store are laid up in men's houses,—Thebes which is a city of an hundred gates wherefrom sally forth through each two hundred warriors with horses and cars; 9.385. /—nay, not though he gave gifts in number as sand and dust; not even so shall Agamemnon any more persuade my soul, until he hath paid the full price of all the despite that stings my heart. And the daughter of Agamemnon, son of Atreus, will I not wed, not though she vied in beauty with golden Aphrodite 9.386. /—nay, not though he gave gifts in number as sand and dust; not even so shall Agamemnon any more persuade my soul, until he hath paid the full price of all the despite that stings my heart. And the daughter of Agamemnon, son of Atreus, will I not wed, not though she vied in beauty with golden Aphrodite 9.387. /—nay, not though he gave gifts in number as sand and dust; not even so shall Agamemnon any more persuade my soul, until he hath paid the full price of all the despite that stings my heart. And the daughter of Agamemnon, son of Atreus, will I not wed, not though she vied in beauty with golden Aphrodite 9.410. /For my mother the goddess, silver-footed Thetis, telleth me that twofold fates are bearing me toward the doom of death: if I abide here and war about the city of the Trojans, then lost is my home-return, but my renown shall be imperishable; but if I return home to my dear native land 9.411. /For my mother the goddess, silver-footed Thetis, telleth me that twofold fates are bearing me toward the doom of death: if I abide here and war about the city of the Trojans, then lost is my home-return, but my renown shall be imperishable; but if I return home to my dear native land 9.412. /For my mother the goddess, silver-footed Thetis, telleth me that twofold fates are bearing me toward the doom of death: if I abide here and war about the city of the Trojans, then lost is my home-return, but my renown shall be imperishable; but if I return home to my dear native land 9.413. /For my mother the goddess, silver-footed Thetis, telleth me that twofold fates are bearing me toward the doom of death: if I abide here and war about the city of the Trojans, then lost is my home-return, but my renown shall be imperishable; but if I return home to my dear native land 9.414. /For my mother the goddess, silver-footed Thetis, telleth me that twofold fates are bearing me toward the doom of death: if I abide here and war about the city of the Trojans, then lost is my home-return, but my renown shall be imperishable; but if I return home to my dear native land 9.415. /lost then is my glorious renown, yet shall my life long endure, neither shall the doom of death come soon upon me. 9.416. /lost then is my glorious renown, yet shall my life long endure, neither shall the doom of death come soon upon me. 11.57. /to send forth to Hades many a valiant head.And the Trojans over against them on the rising ground of the plain mustered about great Hector and peerless Polydamas and Aeneas that was honoured of the folk of the Trojans even as a god, and the three sons of Antenor, Polybus and goodly Agenor 16.119. /and smote his ashen spear with his great sword hard by the socket, at the base ot the point, and shore it clean away, so that Telamonian Aias brandished all vainly a pointless spear, and far from him the head of bronze fell ringing to the ground. And Aias knew in his noble heart, and shuddered 16.168. /round about the valiant squire of the swift-footed son of Aeacus. And among them all stood warlike Achilles, urging on both horses and men that bear the shield.Fifty were the swift ships which Achilles, dear to Zeus, led to Troy 16.169. /round about the valiant squire of the swift-footed son of Aeacus. And among them all stood warlike Achilles, urging on both horses and men that bear the shield.Fifty were the swift ships which Achilles, dear to Zeus, led to Troy 16.170. /and in each ship at the thole-pins were fifty men, his comrades; and five leaders had he appointed in whom he trusted to give command, and himself in his great might was king over all. The one rank was led by Menesthius of the flashing corselet, son of Spercheius, the heaven-fed river. 16.387. /on a day in harvest-time, when Zeus poureth forth rain most violently, whenso in anger he waxeth wroth against men that by violence give crooked judgments in the place of gathering, and drive justice out, recking not of the vengeance of the gods; and all their rivers flow in flood 16.388. /on a day in harvest-time, when Zeus poureth forth rain most violently, whenso in anger he waxeth wroth against men that by violence give crooked judgments in the place of gathering, and drive justice out, recking not of the vengeance of the gods; and all their rivers flow in flood 19.217. /Then Odysseus of many wiles answered him, and said:O Achilles, son of Peleus, far the mightiest of the Achaeans, better art thou than I and mightier not a little with the spear, howbeit in counsel might I surpass thee by far, seeing I am the elder-born and know the more; 19.218. /Then Odysseus of many wiles answered him, and said:O Achilles, son of Peleus, far the mightiest of the Achaeans, better art thou than I and mightier not a little with the spear, howbeit in counsel might I surpass thee by far, seeing I am the elder-born and know the more; 19.219. /Then Odysseus of many wiles answered him, and said:O Achilles, son of Peleus, far the mightiest of the Achaeans, better art thou than I and mightier not a little with the spear, howbeit in counsel might I surpass thee by far, seeing I am the elder-born and know the more; 24.525. /For on this wise have the gods spun the thread for wretched mortals, that they should live in pain; and themselves are sorrowless. For two urns are set upon the floor of Zeus of gifts that he giveth, the one of ills, the other of blessings. To whomsoever Zeus, that hurleth the thunderbolt, giveth a mingled lot 24.526. /For on this wise have the gods spun the thread for wretched mortals, that they should live in pain; and themselves are sorrowless. For two urns are set upon the floor of Zeus of gifts that he giveth, the one of ills, the other of blessings. To whomsoever Zeus, that hurleth the thunderbolt, giveth a mingled lot 24.527. /For on this wise have the gods spun the thread for wretched mortals, that they should live in pain; and themselves are sorrowless. For two urns are set upon the floor of Zeus of gifts that he giveth, the one of ills, the other of blessings. To whomsoever Zeus, that hurleth the thunderbolt, giveth a mingled lot 24.528. /For on this wise have the gods spun the thread for wretched mortals, that they should live in pain; and themselves are sorrowless. For two urns are set upon the floor of Zeus of gifts that he giveth, the one of ills, the other of blessings. To whomsoever Zeus, that hurleth the thunderbolt, giveth a mingled lot 24.529. /For on this wise have the gods spun the thread for wretched mortals, that they should live in pain; and themselves are sorrowless. For two urns are set upon the floor of Zeus of gifts that he giveth, the one of ills, the other of blessings. To whomsoever Zeus, that hurleth the thunderbolt, giveth a mingled lot 24.530. /that man meeteth now with evil, now with good; but to whomsoever he giveth but of the baneful, him he maketh to be reviled of man, and direful madness driveth him over the face of the sacred earth, and he wandereth honoured neither of gods nor mortals. Even so unto Peleus did the gods give glorious gifts 24.531. /that man meeteth now with evil, now with good; but to whomsoever he giveth but of the baneful, him he maketh to be reviled of man, and direful madness driveth him over the face of the sacred earth, and he wandereth honoured neither of gods nor mortals. Even so unto Peleus did the gods give glorious gifts 24.532. /that man meeteth now with evil, now with good; but to whomsoever he giveth but of the baneful, him he maketh to be reviled of man, and direful madness driveth him over the face of the sacred earth, and he wandereth honoured neither of gods nor mortals. Even so unto Peleus did the gods give glorious gifts 24.533. /that man meeteth now with evil, now with good; but to whomsoever he giveth but of the baneful, him he maketh to be reviled of man, and direful madness driveth him over the face of the sacred earth, and he wandereth honoured neither of gods nor mortals. Even so unto Peleus did the gods give glorious gifts
7. Homer, Odyssey, 1.2-1.95, 1.338, 1.346-1.352, 4.605-4.608, 5.135-5.136, 5.203-5.213, 7.255-7.258, 8.63, 8.73, 8.266, 8.480-8.481, 8.488, 9.12-9.18, 10.138, 10.330, 10.519-10.529, 10.537-10.540, 11.23-11.50, 11.89, 11.130-11.132, 18.235-18.242, 19.395-19.398, 21.406, 21.411, 22.8-22.21, 22.42, 22.44-22.64, 22.345-22.349, 23.277-23.279, 23.334-23.337, 24.36-24.94 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

8. Homeric Hymns, To Apollo And The Muses, 1 (8th cent. BCE - 8th cent. BCE)

1. Apollo, the Far-Shooter, I’ll recall
9. Parmenides, Fragments, None (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10. Theognis, Elegies, 214, 213 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11. Xenophanes, Fragments, None (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12. Xenophanes, Fragments, None (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

13. Xenophanes, Fragments, None (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

14. Antisthenes, Fragments, 51, 195 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

15. Antisthenes, Fragments, 51, 195 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

16. Aristophanes, Clouds, 628-803, 816-828, 830, 833, 844-846, 862, 882-888, 627 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

627. μὰ τὴν ̓Αναπνοὴν μὰ τὸ Χάος μὰ τὸν ̓Αέρα
17. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 9.15 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.15. וְלֶחֶם מִשָּׁמַיִם נָתַתָּה לָהֶם לִרְעָבָם וּמַיִם מִסֶּלַע הוֹצֵאתָ לָהֶם לִצְמָאָם וַתֹּאמֶר לָהֶם לָבוֹא לָרֶשֶׁת אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־נָשָׂאתָ אֶת־יָדְךָ לָתֵת לָהֶם׃ 9.15. and gavest them bread from heaven for their hunger, and broughtest forth water for them out of the rock for their thirst, and didst command them that they should go in to possess the land which Thou hadst lifted up Thy hand to give them."
18. Herodotus, Histories, 1.1-1.5, 1.20, 1.23-1.24, 1.27, 1.30, 1.30.2, 1.59, 1.74-1.75, 1.170, 3.48-3.53, 4.76, 5.92 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.1. The Persian learned men say that the Phoenicians were the cause of the dispute. These (they say) came to our seas from the sea which is called Red, and having settled in the country which they still occupy, at once began to make long voyages. Among other places to which they carried Egyptian and Assyrian merchandise, they came to Argos, ,which was at that time preeminent in every way among the people of what is now called Hellas . The Phoenicians came to Argos, and set out their cargo. ,On the fifth or sixth day after their arrival, when their wares were almost all sold, many women came to the shore and among them especially the daughter of the king, whose name was Io (according to Persians and Greeks alike), the daughter of Inachus. ,As these stood about the stern of the ship bargaining for the wares they liked, the Phoenicians incited one another to set upon them. Most of the women escaped: Io and others were seized and thrown into the ship, which then sailed away for Egypt . 1.2. In this way, the Persians say (and not as the Greeks), was how Io came to Egypt, and this, according to them, was the first wrong that was done. Next, according to their story, some Greeks (they cannot say who) landed at Tyre in Phoenicia and carried off the king's daughter Europa. These Greeks must, I suppose, have been Cretans. So far, then, the account between them was balanced. But after this (they say), it was the Greeks who were guilty of the second wrong. ,They sailed in a long ship to Aea, a city of the Colchians, and to the river Phasis : and when they had done the business for which they came, they carried off the king's daughter Medea. ,When the Colchian king sent a herald to demand reparation for the robbery and restitution of his daughter, the Greeks replied that, as they had been refused reparation for the abduction of the Argive Io, they would not make any to the Colchians. 1.3. Then (they say), in the second generation after this, Alexandrus, son of Priam, who had heard this tale, decided to get himself a wife from Hellas by capture; for he was confident that he would not suffer punishment. ,So he carried off Helen. The Greeks first resolved to send messengers demanding that Helen be restored and atonement made for the seizure; but when this proposal was made, the Trojans pleaded the seizure of Medea, and reminded the Greeks that they asked reparation from others, yet made none themselves, nor gave up the booty when asked. 1.4. So far it was a matter of mere seizure on both sides. But after this (the Persians say), the Greeks were very much to blame; for they invaded Asia before the Persians attacked Europe . ,“We think,” they say, “that it is unjust to carry women off. But to be anxious to avenge rape is foolish: wise men take no notice of such things. For plainly the women would never have been carried away, had they not wanted it themselves. ,We of Asia did not deign to notice the seizure of our women; but the Greeks, for the sake of a Lacedaemonian woman, recruited a great armada, came to Asia, and destroyed the power of Priam. ,Ever since then we have regarded Greeks as our enemies.” For the Persians claim Asia for their own, and the foreign peoples that inhabit it; Europe and the Greek people they consider to be separate from them. 1.5. Such is the Persian account; in their opinion, it was the taking of Troy which began their hatred of the Greeks. ,But the Phoenicians do not tell the same story about Io as the Persians. They say that they did not carry her off to Egypt by force. She had intercourse in Argos with the captain of the ship. Then, finding herself pregt, she was ashamed to have her parents know it, and so, lest they discover her condition, she sailed away with the Phoenicians of her own accord. ,These are the stories of the Persians and the Phoenicians. For my part, I shall not say that this or that story is true, but I shall identify the one who I myself know did the Greeks unjust deeds, and thus proceed with my history, and speak of small and great cities of men alike. ,For many states that were once great have now become small; and those that were great in my time were small before. Knowing therefore that human prosperity never continues in the same place, I shall mention both alike. 1.20. I know this much to be so because the Delphians told me. The Milesians add that Periander son of Cypselus, a close friend of the Thrasybulus who then was sovereign of Miletus, learned what reply the oracle had given to Alyattes, and sent a messenger to tell Thrasybulus so that his friend, forewarned, could make his plans accordingly. 1.23. Periander, who disclosed the oracle's answer to Thrasybulus, was the son of Cypselus, and sovereign of Corinth . The Corinthians say (and the Lesbians agree) that the most marvellous thing that happened to him in his life was the landing on Taenarus of Arion of Methymna, brought there by a dolphin. This Arion was a lyre-player second to none in that age; he was the first man whom we know to compose and name the dithyramb which he afterwards taught at Corinth . 1.24. They say that this Arion, who spent most of his time with Periander, wished to sail to Italy and Sicily, and that after he had made a lot of money there he wanted to come back to Corinth . ,Trusting none more than the Corinthians, he hired a Corinthian vessel to carry him from Tarentum . But when they were out at sea, the crew plotted to take Arion's money and cast him overboard. Discovering this, he earnestly entreated them, asking for his life and offering them his money. ,But the crew would not listen to him, and told him either to kill himself and so receive burial on land or else to jump into the sea at once. ,Abandoned to this extremity, Arion asked that, since they had made up their minds, they would let him stand on the half-deck in all his regalia and sing; and he promised that after he had sung he would do himself in. ,The men, pleased at the thought of hearing the best singer in the world, drew away toward the waist of the vessel from the stern. Arion, putting on all his regalia and taking his lyre, stood up on the half-deck and sang the “Stirring Song,” and when the song was finished he threw himself into the sea, as he was with all his regalia. ,So the crew sailed away to Corinth ; but a dolphin (so the story goes) took Arion on his back and bore him to Taenarus. Landing there, he went to Corinth in his regalia, and when he arrived, he related all that had happened. ,Periander, skeptical, kept him in confinement, letting him go nowhere, and waited for the sailors. When they arrived, they were summoned and asked what news they brought of Arion. While they were saying that he was safe in Italy and that they had left him flourishing at Tarentum, Arion appeared before them, just as he was when he jumped from the ship; astonished, they could no longer deny what was proved against them. ,This is what the Corinthians and Lesbians say, and there is a little bronze memorial of Arion on Taenarus, the figure of a man riding upon a dolphin. 1.27. Then, when he had subjugated all the Asiatic Greeks of the mainland and made them tributary to him, he planned to build ships and attack the islanders; ,but when his preparations for shipbuilding were underway, either Bias of Priene or Pittacus of Mytilene (the story is told of both) came to Sardis and, asked by Croesus for news about Hellas, put an end to the shipbuilding by giving the following answer: ,“O King, the islanders are buying ten thousand horse, intending to march to Sardis against you.” Croesus, thinking that he spoke the truth, said: “Would that the gods would put this in the heads of the islanders, to come on horseback against the sons of the Lydians!” Then the other answered and said: ,“O King, you appear to me earnestly to wish to catch the islanders riding horses on the mainland, a natural wish. And what else do you suppose the islanders wished, as soon as they heard that you were building ships to attack them, than to catch Lydians on the seas, so as to be revenged on you for the Greeks who dwell on the mainland, whom you enslaved?” ,Croesus was quite pleased with this conclusion, for he thought the man spoke reasonably and, heeding him, stopped building ships. Thus he made friends with the Ionians inhabiting the islands. 1.30. So for that reason, and to see the world, Solon went to visit Amasis in Egypt and then to Croesus in Sardis . When he got there, Croesus entertained him in the palace, and on the third or fourth day Croesus told his attendants to show Solon around his treasures, and they pointed out all those things that were great and blest. ,After Solon had seen everything and had thought about it, Croesus found the opportunity to say, “My Athenian guest, we have heard a lot about you because of your wisdom and of your wanderings, how as one who loves learning you have traveled much of the world for the sake of seeing it, so now I desire to ask you who is the most fortunate man you have seen.” ,Croesus asked this question believing that he was the most fortunate of men, but Solon, offering no flattery but keeping to the truth, said, “O King, it is Tellus the Athenian.” ,Croesus was amazed at what he had said and replied sharply, “In what way do you judge Tellus to be the most fortunate?” Solon said, “Tellus was from a prosperous city, and his children were good and noble. He saw children born to them all, and all of these survived. His life was prosperous by our standards, and his death was most glorious: ,when the Athenians were fighting their neighbors in Eleusis, he came to help, routed the enemy, and died very finely. The Athenians buried him at public expense on the spot where he fell and gave him much honor.” 1.30.2. After Solon had seen everything and had thought about it, Croesus found the opportunity to say, “My Athenian guest, we have heard a lot about you because of your wisdom and of your wanderings, how as one who loves learning you have traveled much of the world for the sake of seeing it, so now I desire to ask you who is the most fortunate man you have seen.” 1.59. Now of these two peoples, Croesus learned that the Attic was held in subjection and divided into factions by Pisistratus, son of Hippocrates, who at that time was sovereign over the Athenians. This Hippocrates was still a private man when a great marvel happened to him when he was at Olympia to see the games: when he had offered the sacrifice, the vessels, standing there full of meat and water, boiled without fire until they boiled over. ,Chilon the Lacedaemonian, who happened to be there and who saw this marvel, advised Hippocrates not to take to his house a wife who could bear children, but if he had one already, then to send her away, and if he had a son, to disown him. ,Hippocrates refused to follow the advice of Chilon; and afterward there was born to him this Pisistratus, who, when there was a feud between the Athenians of the coast under Megacles son of Alcmeon and the Athenians of the plain under Lycurgus son of Aristolaides, raised up a third faction, as he coveted the sovereign power. He collected partisans and pretended to champion the uplanders, and the following was his plan. ,Wounding himself and his mules, he drove his wagon into the marketplace, with a story that he had escaped from his enemies, who would have killed him (so he said) as he was driving into the country. So he implored the people to give him a guard: and indeed he had won a reputation in his command of the army against the Megarians, when he had taken Nisaea and performed other great exploits. ,Taken in, the Athenian people gave him a guard of chosen citizens, whom Pisistratus made clubmen instead of spearmen: for the retinue that followed him carried wooden clubs. ,These rose with Pisistratus and took the Acropolis; and Pisistratus ruled the Athenians, disturbing in no way the order of offices nor changing the laws, but governing the city according to its established constitution and arranging all things fairly and well. 1.74. After this, since Alyattes would not give up the Scythians to Cyaxares at his demand, there was war between the Lydians and the Medes for five years; each won many victories over the other, and once they fought a battle by night. ,They were still warring with equal success, when it happened, at an encounter which occurred in the sixth year, that during the battle the day was suddenly turned to night. Thales of Miletus had foretold this loss of daylight to the Ionians, fixing it within the year in which the change did indeed happen. ,So when the Lydians and Medes saw the day turned to night, they stopped fighting, and both were the more eager to make peace. Those who reconciled them were Syennesis the Cilician and Labynetus the Babylonian; ,they brought it about that there should be a sworn agreement and a compact of marriage between them: they judged that Alyattes should give his daughter Aryenis to Astyages, son of Cyaxares; for without strong constraint agreements will not keep their force. ,These nations make sworn compacts as do the Greeks; and besides, when they cut the skin of their arms, they lick each other's blood. 1.75. Cyrus had subjugated this Astyages, then, Cyrus' own mother's father, for the reason which I shall presently disclose. ,Having this reason to quarrel with Cyrus, Croesus sent to ask the oracles if he should march against the Persians; and when a deceptive answer came he thought it to be favorable to him, and so led his army into the Persian territory. ,When he came to the river Halys, he transported his army across it—by the bridges which were there then, as I maintain; but the general belief of the Greeks is that Thales of Miletus got the army across. ,The story is that, as Croesus did not know how his army could pass the river (as the aforesaid bridges did not yet exist then), Thales, who was in the encampment, made the river, which flowed on the left of the army, also flow on the right, in the following way. ,Starting from a point on the river upstream from the camp, he dug a deep semi-circular trench, so that the stream, turned from its ancient course, would flow in the trench to the rear of the camp and, passing it, would issue into its former bed, with the result that as soon as the river was thus divided into two, both channels could be forded. ,Some even say that the ancient channel dried up altogether. But I do not believe this; for in that case, how did they pass the river when they were returning? 1.170. When the Ionians, despite their evil plight, nonetheless assembled at the Panionion, Bias of Priene, I have learned, gave them very useful advice, and had they followed it they might have been the most prosperous of all Greeks: ,for he advised them to put out to sea and sail all together to Sardo and then found one city for all Ionians: thus, possessing the greatest island in the world and ruling others, they would be rid of slavery and have prosperity; but if they stayed in Ionia he could see (he said) no hope of freedom for them. ,This was the advice which Bias of Priene gave after the destruction of the Ionians; and that given before the destruction by Thales of Miletus, a Phoenician by descent, was good too; he advised that the Ionians have one place of deliberation, and that it be in Teos (for that was the center of Ionia ), and that the other cities be considered no more than demes.Thus Bias and Thales advised. 3.48. The Corinthians also enthusiastically helped to further the expedition against Samos . For an outrage had been done them by the Samians a generation before this expedition, about the time of the robbery of the bowl. ,Periander son of Cypselus sent to Alyattes at Sardis three hundred boys, sons of notable men in Corcyra, to be made eunuchs. The Corinthians who brought the boys put in at Samos ; and when the Samians heard why the boys were brought, first they instructed them to take sanctuary in the temple of Artemis, ,then they would not allow the suppliants to be dragged from the temple; and when the Corinthians tried to starve the boys out, the Samians held a festival which they still celebrate in the same fashion; throughout the time that the boys were seeking asylum, they held nightly dances of young men and women to which it was made a custom to bring cakes of sesame and honey, so that the Corcyraean boys might snatch these and have food. ,This continued to be done until the Corinthian guards left their charge and departed; then the Samians took the boys back to Corcyra . 3.49. If after the death of Periander, the Corinthians had been friendly towards the Corcyraeans, they would not have taken part in the expedition against Samos for this reason. But as it was, ever since the island was colonized, they have been at odds with each other, despite their kinship. ,For these reasons then the Corinthians bore a grudge against the Samians. Periander chose the sons of the notable Corcyraeans and sent them to Sardis to be made eunuchs as an act of vengeance; for the Corcyraeans had first begun the quarrel by committing a terrible crime against him. 3.50. For after killing his own wife Melissa, Periander suffered yet another calamity on top of what he had already suffered. He had two sons by Melissa, one seventeen and one eighteen years old. ,Their mother's father, Procles, the sovereign of Epidaurus, sent for the boys and treated them affectionately, as was natural, seeing that they were his own daughter's sons. When they left him, he said as he sent them forth: ,“Do you know, boys, who killed your mother?” The elder of them paid no attention to these words; but the younger, whose name was Lycophron, was struck with such horror when he heard them that when he came to Corinth he would not speak to his father, his mother's murderer, nor would he answer him when addressed nor reply to his questions. At last Periander was so angry that he drove the boy from his house. 3.51. Having driven this one away, he asked the elder son what their grandfather had said to them. The boy told him that Procles had treated them kindly, but did not mention what he had said at parting; for he had paid no attention. Periander said that by no means could Procles not have dropped some hint, and interrogated him persistently; ,until the boy remembered, and told him. And Periander, comprehending, and wishing to show no weakness, sent a message to those with whom his banished son was living and forbade them to keep him. ,So when the boy, driven out, would go to another house, he would be driven from this also, since Periander threatened all who received him and ordered them to shut him out; so when driven forth, he would go to some other house of his friends, and they, although he was the son of Periander, and although they were afraid, nonetheless took him in. 3.52. In the end Periander made a proclamation, that whoever sheltered the boy in his house or spoke to him, would owe a fine to Apollo, and he set the amount. ,In view of this proclamation no one wished to address or receive the boy into his house; and besides, the boy himself did not think it right to attempt what was forbidden, but accepting it slept in the open. ,On the fourth day, when Periander saw him starved and unwashed, he took pity on him, and his anger being softened, he came near and said: “My son, which is preferable—to follow your present way of life, or by being well-disposed toward your father to inherit my power and the goods which I now possess? ,Though my son and a prince of prosperous Corinth, you prefer the life of a vagrant, by opposing and being angry with me with whom you least ought to be. For if something has happened as a result of which you have a suspicion about me, it has happened to my disadvantage and I bear the brunt of it, inasmuch as I am the cause. ,But bearing in mind how much better it is to be envied than to be pitied, and at the same time what sort of thing it is to be angry with your parents and with those that are stronger than you, come back to the house.” ,With these words Periander tried to move his son, but he said nothing else to his father, only told him that because he had conversed with him he owed the fine to Apollo. When Periander saw that his son's stubbornness could not be got around or overcome, he sent him away out of his sight in a ship to Corcyra ; for Corcyra too was subject to him. ,And when he had sent him away, he sent an army against Procles his father-in-law, since he was most to blame for his present troubles; and he took Epidaurus, captured Procles, and imprisoned him. 3.53. As time went on, Periander, now grown past his prime and aware that he could no longer oversee and direct all his affairs, sent to Corcyra inviting Lycophron to be sovereign; for he saw no hope in his eldest son, who seemed to him to be slow-witted. ,Lycophron did not dignify the invitation with a reply. Then Periander, pressing the young man, sent to him (as the next best way) his daughter, the boy's sister, thinking that he would listen to her. ,She came and said, “Child, would you want the power to fall to others, and our father's house destroyed, rather than to return and have it yourself? Come home and stop punishing yourself. ,Pride is an unhappy possession. Do not cure evil by evil. Many place the more becoming thing before the just; and many pursuing their mother's business have lost their father's. Power is a slippery thing; many want it, and our father is now old and past his prime; do not lose what is yours to others.” ,So she spoke communicating their father's inducements. But he answered that he would never come to Corinth as long as he knew his father was alive. ,When she brought this answer back, Periander sent a third messenger, through whom he proposed that he should go to Corcyra, and that the boy should return to Corinth and be the heir of his power. ,The son consented to this; Periander got ready to go to Corcyra and Lycophron to go to Corinth ; but when the Corcyraeans learned of all these matters, they put the young man to death so that Periander would not come to their country. It was for this that Periander desired vengeance on the Corcyraeans. 4.76. But as regards foreign customs, the Scythians (like others) very much shun practising those of any other country, and particularly of Hellas, as was proved in the case of Anacharsis and also of Scyles. ,For when Anacharsis was coming back to the Scythian country after having seen much of the world in his travels and given many examples of his wisdom, he sailed through the Hellespont and put in at Cyzicus; ,where, finding the Cyzicenes celebrating the feast of the Mother of the Gods with great ceremony, he vowed to this same Mother that if he returned to his own country safe and sound he would sacrifice to her as he saw the Cyzicenes doing, and establish a nightly rite of worship. ,So when he came to Scythia, he hid himself in the country called Woodland (which is beside the Race of Achilles, and is all overgrown with every kind of timber); hidden there, Anacharsis celebrated the goddess' ritual with exactness, carrying a small drum and hanging images about himself. ,Then some Scythian saw him doing this and told the king, Saulius; who, coming to the place himself and seeing Anacharsis performing these rites, shot an arrow at him and killed him. And now the Scythians, if they are asked about Anacharsis, say they have no knowledge of him; this is because he left his country for Hellas and followed the customs of strangers. ,But according to what I heard from Tymnes, the deputy for Ariapithes, Anacharsis was an uncle of Idanthyrsus king of Scythia, and he was the son of Gnurus, son of Lycus, son of Spargapithes. Now if Anacharsis was truly of this family, then let him know he was slain by his own brother; for Idanthyrsus was the son of Saulius, and it was Saulius who killed Anacharsis. 5.92. These were the words of the Lacedaemonians, but their words were ill-received by the greater part of their allies. The rest then keeping silence, Socles, a Corinthian, said, ,“In truth heaven will be beneath the earth and the earth aloft above the heaven, and men will dwell in the sea and fishes where men dwelt before, now that you, Lacedaemonians, are destroying the rule of equals and making ready to bring back tyranny into the cities, tyranny, a thing more unrighteous and bloodthirsty than anything else on this earth. ,If indeed it seems to you to be a good thing that the cities be ruled by tyrants, set up a tyrant among yourselves first and then seek to set up such for the rest. As it is, however, you, who have never made trial of tyrants and take the greatest precautions that none will arise at Sparta, deal wrongfully with your allies. If you had such experience of that thing as we have, you would be more prudent advisers concerning it than you are now.” ,The Corinthian state was ordered in such manner as I will show.There was an oligarchy, and this group of men, called the Bacchiadae, held sway in the city, marrying and giving in marriage among themselves. Now Amphion, one of these men, had a crippled daughter, whose name was Labda. Since none of the Bacchiadae would marry her, she was wedded to Eetion son of Echecrates, of the township of Petra, a Lapith by lineage and of the posterity of Caeneus. ,When no sons were born to him by this wife or any other, he set out to Delphi to enquire concerning the matter of acquiring offspring. As soon as he entered, the Pythian priestess spoke these verses to him: quote type="oracle" l met="dact" Eetion,worthy of honor, no man honors you. /l l Labda is with child, and her child will be a millstone /l lWhich will fall upon the rulers and will bring justice to Corinth. /l /quote ,This oracle which was given to Eetion was in some way made known to the Bacchiadae. The earlier oracle sent to Corinth had not been understood by them, despite the fact that its meaning was the same as the meaning of the oracle of Eetion, and it read as follows: quote type="oracle" l met="dact"An eagle in the rocks has conceived, and will bring forth a lion, /l lStrong and fierce. The knees of many will it loose. /l lThis consider well, Corinthians, /l lYou who dwell by lovely Pirene and the overhanging heights of Corinth. /l /quote ,This earlier prophecy had been unintelligible to the Bacchiadae, but as soon as they heard the one which was given to Eetion, they understood it at once, recognizing its similarity with the oracle of Eetion. Now understanding both oracles, they kept quiet but resolved to do away with the offspring of Eetion. Then, as soon as his wife had given birth, they sent ten men of their clan to the township where Eetion dwelt to kill the child. ,These men came to Petra and passing into Eetion's courtyard, asked for the child. Labda, knowing nothing of the purpose of their coming and thinking that they wished to see the baby out of affection for its father, brought it and placed it into the hands of one of them. Now they had planned on their way that the first of them who received the child should dash it to the ground. ,When, however, Labda brought and handed over the child, by divine chance it smiled at the man who took it. This he saw, and compassion prevented him from killing it. Filled with pity, he handed it to a second, and this man again to a third.In fact it passed from hand to hand to each of the ten, for none would make an end of it. ,They then gave the child back to its mother, and after going out, they stood before the door reproaching and upbraiding one another, but chiefly him who had first received it since he had not acted in accordance with their agreement. Finally they resolved to go in again and all have a hand in the killing. ,Fate, however, had decreed that Eetion's offspring should be the source of ills for Corinth, for Labda, standing close to this door, heard all this. Fearing that they would change their minds and that they would take and actually kill the child, she took it away and hid it where she thought it would be hardest to find, in a chest, for she knew that if they returned and set about searching they would seek in every place—which in fact they did. ,They came and searched, but when they did not find it, they resolved to go off and say to those who had sent them that they had carried out their orders. They then went away and said this. ,Eetion's son, however, grew up, and because of his escape from that danger, he was called Cypselus, after the chest. When he had reached manhood and was seeking a divination, an oracle of double meaning was given him at Delphi. Putting faith in this, he made an attempt on Corinth and won it. ,The oracle was as follows: quote type="oracle" l met="dact"That man is fortunate who steps into my house, /l l Cypselus, son of Eetion, the king of noble Corinth, /l lHe himself and his children, but not the sons of his sons. /l /quote Such was the oracle. Cypselus, however, when he had gained the tyranny, conducted himself in this way: many of the Corinthians he drove into exile, many he deprived of their wealth, and by far the most he had killed. ,After a reign of thirty years, he died in the height of prosperity, and was succeeded by his son Periander. Now Periander was to begin with milder than his father, but after he had held converse by messenger with Thrasybulus the tyrant of Miletus, he became much more bloodthirsty than Cypselus. ,He had sent a herald to Thrasybulus and inquired in what way he would best and most safely govern his city. Thrasybulus led the man who had come from Periander outside the town, and entered into a sown field. As he walked through the corn, continually asking why the messenger had come to him from Corinth, he kept cutting off all the tallest ears of wheat which he could see, and throwing them away, until he had destroyed the best and richest part of the crop. ,Then, after passing through the place and speaking no word of counsel, he sent the herald away. When the herald returned to Corinth, Periander desired to hear what counsel he brought, but the man said that Thrasybulus had given him none. The herald added that it was a strange man to whom he had been sent, a madman and a destroyer of his own possessions, telling Periander what he had seen Thrasybulus do. ,Periander, however, understood what had been done, and perceived that Thrasybulus had counselled him to slay those of his townsmen who were outstanding in influence or ability; with that he began to deal with his citizens in an evil manner. Whatever act of slaughter or banishment Cypselus had left undone, that Periander brought to accomplishment. In a single day he stripped all the women of Corinth naked, because of his own wife Melissa. ,Periander had sent messengers to the Oracle of the Dead on the river Acheron in Thesprotia to enquire concerning a deposit that a friend had left, but Melissa, in an apparition, said that she would tell him nothing, nor reveal where the deposit lay, for she was cold and naked. The garments, she said, with which Periander had buried with her had never been burnt, and were of no use to her. Then, as evidence for her husband that she spoke the truth, she added that Periander had put his loaves into a cold oven. ,When this message was brought back to Periander (for he had had intercourse with the dead body of Melissa and knew her token for true), immediately after the message he made a proclamation that all the Corinthian women should come out into the temple of Hera. They then came out as to a festival, wearing their most beautiful garments, and Periander set his guards there and stripped them all alike, ladies and serving-women, and heaped all the clothes in a pit, where, as he prayed to Melissa, he burnt them. ,When he had done this and sent a second message, the ghost of Melissa told him where the deposit of the friend had been laid. “This, then, Lacedaimonians, is the nature of tyranny, and such are its deeds. ,We Corinthians marvelled greatly when we saw that you were sending for Hippias, and now we marvel yet more at your words to us. We entreat you earnestly in the name of the gods of Hellas not to establish tyranny in the cities, but if you do not cease from so doing and unrighteously attempt to bring Hippias back, be assured that you are proceeding without the Corinthians' consent.”
19. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

259c. that they sang and sang, forgetting food and drink, until at last unconsciously they died. From them the locust tribe afterwards arose, and they have this gift from the Muses, that from the time of their birth they need no sustece, but sing continually, without food or drink, until they die, when they go to the Muses and report who honors each of them on earth. They tell Terpsichore of those who have honored her in dances, and make them dearer to her;
20. Plato, Theaetetus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

21. Xenophon, Memoirs, 4.6 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

22. Xenophon, Symposium, 4.64 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

4.64. It is the witnessing of your talent at achieving such a result that makes me judge you an excellent go-between. For the man who can recognize those who are fitted to be mutually helpful and can make them desire one another’s acquaintance, that man, in my opinion, could also create friendship between cities and arrange suitable marriages, and would be a very valuable acquisition as friend or ally for both states and individuals. But you got indigt, as if you had received an affront, when I said that you were a good go-between. But, indeed, that is all over now, he replied; for with this power mine I shall find my soul chock-full of riches. And so this round of discourse was brought to a close.
23. Aeschines, Letters, 1.173 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

24. Aristotle, Poetics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

25. Antisthenes of Rhodes, Fragments, 51, 195 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

26. Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica, 1.2-1.4, 3.3-3.5 (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. μνήσομαι, οἳ Πόντοιο κατὰ στόμα καὶ διὰ πέτρας 1.3. Κυανέας βασιλῆος ἐφημοσύνῃ Πελίαο 1.4. χρύσειον μετὰ κῶας ἐύζυγον ἤλασαν Ἀργώ.
27. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 3.4, 15.3, 16.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.4. For though in the sight of men they were punished,their hope is full of immortality. 15.3. For to know thee is complete righteousness,and to know thy power is the root of immortality. 16.20. Instead of these things thou didst give thy people food of angels,and without their toil thou didst supply them from heaven with bread ready to eat,providing every pleasure and suited to every taste.
28. Catullus, Poems, 101.1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

29. Horace, Odes, 1.3 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.3. I have proposed to myself, for the sake of such as live under the government of the Romans, to translate those books into the Greek tongue, which I formerly composed in the language of our country, and sent to the Upper Barbarians; I, Joseph, the son of Matthias, by birth a Hebrew, a priest also, and one who at first fought against the Romans myself, and was forced to be present at what was done afterward [am the author of this work]. 1.3. 12. I have comprehended all these things in seven books, and have left no occasion for complaint or accusation to such as have been acquainted with this war; and I have written it down for the sake of those that love truth, but not for those that please themselves [with fictitious relations]. And I will begin my account of these things with what I call my First Chapter. 1.3. When Antigonus heard of this, he sent some of his party with orders to hinder, and lay ambushes for these collectors of corn. This command was obeyed, and a great multitude of armed men were gathered together about Jericho, and lay upon the mountains, to watch those that brought the provisions.
30. Horace, Letters, 1.2.6-1.2.26 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

31. Ovid, Amores, 1.1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

32. Propertius, Elegies, 2.34.66 (1st cent. BCE

33. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.1-1.756, 3.294-3.295, 5.630, 5.704, 6.692-6.693, 7.1, 7.37-7.40, 9.525-9.527, 11.246-11.247 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.1. Arms and the man I sing, who first made way 1.2. predestined exile, from the Trojan shore 1.3. to Italy, the blest Lavinian strand. 1.4. Smitten of storms he was on land and sea 1.5. by violence of Heaven, to satisfy 1.6. tern Juno's sleepless wrath; and much in war 1.7. he suffered, seeking at the last to found 1.8. the city, and bring o'er his fathers' gods 1.9. to safe abode in Latium ; whence arose 1.10. the Latin race, old Alba's reverend lords 1.12. O Muse, the causes tell! What sacrilege 1.13. or vengeful sorrow, moved the heavenly Queen 1.14. to thrust on dangers dark and endless toil 1.15. a man whose largest honor in men's eyes 1.17. In ages gone an ancient city stood— 1.18. Carthage, a Tyrian seat, which from afar 1.19. made front on Italy and on the mouths 1.20. of Tiber 's stream; its wealth and revenues 1.21. were vast, and ruthless was its quest of war. 1.22. 'T is said that Juno, of all lands she loved 1.23. most cherished this,—not Samos ' self so dear. 1.24. Here were her arms, her chariot; even then 1.25. a throne of power o'er nations near and far 1.26. if Fate opposed not, 't was her darling hope 1.27. to 'stablish here; but anxiously she heard 1.28. that of the Trojan blood there was a breed 1.29. then rising, which upon the destined day 1.30. hould utterly o'erwhelm her Tyrian towers 1.31. a people of wide sway and conquest proud 1.32. hould compass Libya 's doom;—such was the web 1.33. the Fatal Sisters spun. Such was the fear 1.34. of Saturn's daughter, who remembered well 1.35. what long and unavailing strife she waged 1.36. for her loved Greeks at Troy . Nor did she fail 1.37. to meditate th' occasions of her rage 1.38. and cherish deep within her bosom proud 1.39. its griefs and wrongs: the choice by Paris made; 1.40. her scorned and slighted beauty; a whole race 1.41. rebellious to her godhead; and Jove's smile 1.42. that beamed on eagle-ravished Ganymede. 1.43. With all these thoughts infuriate, her power 1.44. pursued with tempests o'er the boundless main 1.45. the Trojans, though by Grecian victor spared 1.46. and fierce Achilles; so she thrust them far 1.47. from Latium ; and they drifted, Heaven-impelled 1.48. year after year, o'er many an unknown sea— 1.50. Below th' horizon the Sicilian isle 1.51. just sank from view, as for the open sea 1.52. with heart of hope they sailed, and every ship 1.53. clove with its brazen beak the salt, white waves. 1.54. But Juno of her everlasting wound 1.55. knew no surcease, but from her heart of pain 1.56. thus darkly mused: “Must I, defeated, fail 1.57. of what I will, nor turn the Teucrian King 1.58. from Italy away? Can Fate oppose? 1.59. Had Pallas power to lay waste in flame 1.60. the Argive fleet and sink its mariners 1.61. revenging but the sacrilege obscene 1.62. by Ajax wrought, Oileus' desperate son? 1.63. She, from the clouds, herself Jove's lightning threw 1.64. cattered the ships, and ploughed the sea with storms. 1.65. Her foe, from his pierced breast out-breathing fire 1.66. in whirlwind on a deadly rock she flung. 1.67. But I, who move among the gods a queen 1.68. Jove's sister and his spouse, with one weak tribe 1.69. make war so long! Who now on Juno calls? 1.71. So, in her fevered heart complaining still 1.72. unto the storm-cloud land the goddess came 1.73. a region with wild whirlwinds in its womb 1.74. Aeolia named, where royal Aeolus 1.75. in a high-vaulted cavern keeps control 1.76. o'er warring winds and loud concourse of storms. 1.77. There closely pent in chains and bastions strong 1.78. they, scornful, make the vacant mountain roar 1.79. chafing against their bonds. But from a throne 1.80. of lofty crag, their king with sceptred hand 1.81. allays their fury and their rage confines. 1.82. Did he not so, our ocean, earth, and sky 1.83. were whirled before them through the vast ie. 1.84. But over-ruling Jove, of this in fear 1.85. hid them in dungeon dark: then o'er them piled 1.86. huge mountains, and ordained a lawful king 1.87. to hold them in firm sway, or know what time 1.88. with Jove's consent, to loose them o'er the world. 1.90. “Thou in whose hands the Father of all gods 1.91. and Sovereign of mankind confides the power 1.92. to calm the waters or with winds upturn 1.93. great Aeolus! a race with me at war 1.94. now sails the Tuscan main towards Italy 1.95. bringing their Ilium and its vanquished powers. 1.96. Uprouse thy gales. Strike that proud navy down! 1.97. Hurl far and wide, and strew the waves with dead! 1.98. Twice seven nymphs are mine, of rarest mould; 1.99. of whom Deiopea, the most fair 1.100. I give thee in true wedlock for thine own 1.101. to mate thy noble worth; she at thy side 1.102. hall pass long, happy years, and fruitful bring 1.104. Then Aeolus: “'T is thy sole task, O Queen 1.105. to weigh thy wish and will. My fealty 1.106. thy high behest obeys. This humble throne 1.107. is of thy gift. Thy smiles for me obtain 1.108. authority from Jove. Thy grace concedes 1.109. my station at your bright Olympian board 1.111. Replying thus, he smote with spear reversed 1.112. the hollow mountain's wall; then rush the winds 1.113. through that wide breach in long, embattled line 1.114. and sweep tumultuous from land to land: 1.115. with brooding pinions o'er the waters spread 1.116. east wind and south, and boisterous Afric gale 1.117. upturn the sea; vast billows shoreward roll; 1.118. the shout of mariners, the creak of cordage 1.119. follow the shock; low-hanging clouds conceal 1.120. from Trojan eyes all sight of heaven and day; 1.121. night o'er the ocean broods; from sky to sky 1.122. the thunders roll, the ceaseless lightnings glare; 1.123. and all things mean swift death for mortal man. 1.124. Straightway Aeneas, shuddering with amaze 1.125. groaned loud, upraised both holy hands to Heaven 1.126. and thus did plead: “O thrice and four times blest 1.127. ye whom your sires and whom the walls of Troy 1.128. looked on in your last hour! O bravest son 1.129. Greece ever bore, Tydides! O that I 1.130. had fallen on Ilian fields, and given this life 1.131. truck down by thy strong hand! where by the spear 1.132. of great Achilles, fiery Hector fell 1.133. and huge Sarpedon; where the Simois 1.134. in furious flood engulfed and whirled away 1.136. While thus he cried to Heaven, a shrieking blast 1.137. mote full upon the sail. Up surged the waves 1.138. to strike the very stars; in fragments flew 1.139. the shattered oars; the helpless vessel veered 1.140. and gave her broadside to the roaring flood 1.141. where watery mountains rose and burst and fell. 1.142. Now high in air she hangs, then yawning gulfs 1.143. lay bare the shoals and sands o'er which she drives. 1.144. Three ships a whirling south wind snatched and flung 1.145. on hidden rocks,—altars of sacrifice 1.146. Italians call them, which lie far from shore 1.147. a vast ridge in the sea; three ships beside 1.148. an east wind, blowing landward from the deep 1.149. drove on the shallows,—pitiable sight,— 1.150. and girdled them in walls of drifting sand. 1.151. That ship, which, with his friend Orontes, bore 1.152. the Lycian mariners, a great, plunging wave 1.153. truck straight astern, before Aeneas' eyes. 1.154. Forward the steersman rolled and o'er the side 1.155. fell headlong, while three times the circling flood 1.156. pun the light bark through swift engulfing seas. 1.157. Look, how the lonely swimmers breast the wave! 1.158. And on the waste of waters wide are seen 1.159. weapons of war, spars, planks, and treasures rare 1.160. once Ilium 's boast, all mingled with the storm. 1.161. Now o'er Achates and Ilioneus 1.162. now o'er the ship of Abas or Aletes 1.163. bursts the tempestuous shock; their loosened seams 1.165. Meanwhile how all his smitten ocean moaned 1.166. and how the tempest's turbulent assault 1.167. had vexed the stillness of his deepest cave 1.168. great Neptune knew; and with indigt mien 1.169. uplifted o'er the sea his sovereign brow. 1.170. He saw the Teucrian navy scattered far 1.171. along the waters; and Aeneas' men 1.172. o'erwhelmed in mingling shock of wave and sky. 1.173. Saturnian Juno's vengeful stratagem 1.174. her brother's royal glance failed not to see; 1.175. and loud to eastward and to westward calling 1.176. he voiced this word: “What pride of birth or power 1.177. is yours, ye winds, that, reckless of my will 1.178. audacious thus, ye ride through earth and heaven 1.179. and stir these mountain waves? Such rebels I— 1.180. nay, first I calm this tumult! But yourselves 1.181. by heavier chastisement shall expiate 1.182. hereafter your bold trespass. Haste away 1.183. and bear your king this word! Not unto him 1.184. dominion o'er the seas and trident dread 1.185. but unto me, Fate gives. Let him possess 1.186. wild mountain crags, thy favored haunt and home 1.187. O Eurus! In his barbarous mansion there 1.188. let Aeolus look proud, and play the king 1.190. He spoke, and swiftlier than his word subdued 1.191. the swelling of the floods; dispersed afar 1.192. th' assembled clouds, and brought back light to heaven. 1.193. Cymothoe then and Triton, with huge toil 1.194. thrust down the vessels from the sharp-edged reef; 1.195. while, with the trident, the great god's own hand 1.196. assists the task; then, from the sand-strewn shore 1.197. out-ebbing far, he calms the whole wide sea 1.198. and glides light-wheeled along the crested foam. 1.199. As when, with not unwonted tumult, roars 1.200. in some vast city a rebellious mob 1.201. and base-born passions in its bosom burn 1.202. till rocks and blazing torches fill the air 1.203. (rage never lacks for arms)—if haply then 1.204. ome wise man comes, whose reverend looks attest 1.205. a life to duty given, swift silence falls; 1.206. all ears are turned attentive; and he sways 1.207. with clear and soothing speech the people's will. 1.208. So ceased the sea's uproar, when its grave Sire 1.209. looked o'er th' expanse, and, riding on in light 1.211. Aeneas' wave-worn crew now landward made 1.212. and took the nearest passage, whither lay 1.213. the coast of Libya . A haven there 1.214. walled in by bold sides of a rocky isle 1.215. offers a spacious and secure retreat 1.216. where every billow from the distant main 1.217. breaks, and in many a rippling curve retires. 1.218. Huge crags and two confronted promontories 1.219. frown heaven-high, beneath whose brows outspread 1.220. the silent, sheltered waters; on the heights 1.221. the bright and glimmering foliage seems to show 1.222. a woodland amphitheatre; and yet higher 1.223. rises a straight-stemmed grove of dense, dark shade. 1.224. Fronting on these a grotto may be seen 1.225. o'erhung by steep cliffs; from its inmost wall 1.226. clear springs gush out; and shelving seats it has 1.227. of unhewn stone, a place the wood-nymphs love. 1.228. In such a port, a weary ship rides free 1.230. Hither Aeneas of his scattered fleet 1.231. aving but seven, into harbor sailed; 1.232. with passionate longing for the touch of land 1.233. forth leap the Trojans to the welcome shore 1.234. and fling their dripping limbs along the ground. 1.235. Then good Achates smote a flinty stone 1.236. ecured a flashing spark, heaped on light leaves 1.237. and with dry branches nursed the mounting flame. 1.238. Then Ceres' gift from the corrupting sea 1.239. they bring away; and wearied utterly 1.240. ply Ceres' cunning on the rescued corn 1.241. and parch in flames, and mill 'twixt two smooth stones. 1.242. Aeneas meanwhile climbed the cliffs, and searched 1.243. the wide sea-prospect; haply Antheus there 1.244. torm-buffeted, might sail within his ken 1.245. with biremes, and his Phrygian mariners 1.246. or Capys or Caicus armor-clad 1.247. upon a towering deck. No ship is seen; 1.248. but while he looks, three stags along the shore 1.249. come straying by, and close behind them comes 1.250. the whole herd, browsing through the lowland vale 1.251. in one long line. Aeneas stopped and seized 1.252. his bow and swift-winged arrows, which his friend 1.253. trusty Achates, close beside him bore. 1.254. His first shafts brought to earth the lordly heads 1.255. of the high-antlered chiefs; his next assailed 1.256. the general herd, and drove them one and all 1.257. in panic through the leafy wood, nor ceased 1.258. the victory of his bow, till on the ground 1.259. lay seven huge forms, one gift for every ship. 1.260. Then back to shore he sped, and to his friends 1.261. distributed the spoil, with that rare wine 1.262. which good Acestes while in Sicily 1.263. had stored in jars, and prince-like sent away 1.264. with his Ioved guest;—this too Aeneas gave; 1.266. “Companions mine, we have not failed to feel 1.267. calamity till now. O, ye have borne 1.268. far heavier sorrow: Jove will make an end 1.269. also of this. Ye sailed a course hard by 1.270. infuriate Scylla's howling cliffs and caves. 1.271. Ye knew the Cyclops' crags. Lift up your hearts! 1.272. No more complaint and fear! It well may be 1.273. ome happier hour will find this memory fair. 1.274. Through chance and change and hazard without end 1.275. our goal is Latium ; where our destinies 1.276. beckon to blest abodes, and have ordained 1.277. that Troy shall rise new-born! Have patience all! 1.279. Such was his word, but vexed with grief and care 1.280. feigned hopes upon his forehead firm he wore 1.281. and locked within his heart a hero's pain. 1.282. Now round the welcome trophies of his chase 1.283. they gather for a feast. Some flay the ribs 1.284. and bare the flesh below; some slice with knives 1.285. and on keen prongs the quivering strips impale 1.286. place cauldrons on the shore, and fan the fires. 1.287. Then, stretched at ease on couch of simple green 1.288. they rally their lost powers, and feast them well 1.289. on seasoned wine and succulent haunch of game. 1.290. But hunger banished and the banquet done 1.291. in long discourse of their lost mates they tell 1.292. 'twixt hopes and fears divided; for who knows 1.293. whether the lost ones live, or strive with death 1.294. or heed no more whatever voice may call? 1.295. Chiefly Aeneas now bewails his friends 1.296. Orontes brave and fallen Amycus 1.297. or mourns with grief untold the untimely doom 1.299. After these things were past, exalted Jove 1.300. from his ethereal sky surveying clear 1.301. the seas all winged with sails, lands widely spread 1.302. and nations populous from shore to shore 1.303. paused on the peak of heaven, and fixed his gaze 1.304. on Libya . But while he anxious mused 1.305. near him, her radiant eyes all dim with tears 1.306. nor smiling any more, Venus approached 1.307. and thus complained: “O thou who dost control 1.308. things human and divine by changeless laws 1.309. enthroned in awful thunder! What huge wrong 1.310. could my Aeneas and his Trojans few 1.311. achieve against thy power? For they have borne 1.312. unnumbered deaths, and, failing Italy 1.313. the gates of all the world against them close. 1.314. Hast thou not given us thy covet 1.315. that hence the Romans when the rolling years 1.316. have come full cycle, shall arise to power 1.317. from Troy 's regenerate seed, and rule supreme 1.318. the unresisted lords of land and sea? 1.319. O Sire, what swerves thy will? How oft have I 1.320. in Troy 's most lamentable wreck and woe 1.321. consoled my heart with this, and balanced oft 1.322. our destined good against our destined ill! 1.323. But the same stormful fortune still pursues 1.324. my band of heroes on their perilous way. 1.325. When shall these labors cease, O glorious King? 1.326. Antenor, though th' Achaeans pressed him sore 1.327. found his way forth, and entered unassailed 1.328. Illyria 's haven, and the guarded land 1.329. of the Liburni. Straight up stream he sailed 1.330. where like a swollen sea Timavus pours 1.331. a nine-fold flood from roaring mountain gorge 1.332. and whelms with voiceful wave the fields below. 1.333. He built Patavium there, and fixed abodes 1.334. for Troy 's far-exiled sons; he gave a name 1.335. to a new land and race; the Trojan arms 1.336. were hung on temple walls; and, to this day 1.337. lying in perfect peace, the hero sleeps. 1.338. But we of thine own seed, to whom thou dost 1.339. a station in the arch of heaven assign 1.340. behold our navy vilely wrecked, because 1.341. a single god is angry; we endure 1.342. this treachery and violence, whereby 1.343. wide seas divide us from th' Hesperian shore. 1.344. Is this what piety receives? Or thus 1.346. Smiling reply, the Sire of gods and men 1.347. with such a look as clears the skies of storm 1.348. chastely his daughter kissed, and thus spake on: 1.349. “Let Cytherea cast her fears away! 1.350. Irrevocably blest the fortunes be 1.351. of thee and thine. Nor shalt thou fail to see 1.352. that City, and the proud predestined wall 1.353. encompassing Lavinium . Thyself 1.354. hall starward to the heights of heaven bear 1.355. Aeneas the great-hearted. Nothing swerves 1.356. my will once uttered. Since such carking cares 1.357. consume thee, I this hour speak freely forth 1.358. and leaf by leaf the book of fate unfold. 1.359. Thy son in Italy shall wage vast war 1.360. and, quell its nations wild; his city-wall 1.361. and sacred laws shall be a mighty bond 1.362. about his gathered people. Summers three 1.363. hall Latium call him king; and three times pass 1.364. the winter o'er Rutulia's vanquished hills. 1.365. His heir, Ascanius, now Iulus called 1.366. (Ilus it was while Ilium 's kingdom stood) 1.367. full thirty months shall reign, then move the throne 1.368. from the Lavinian citadel, and build 1.370. Here three full centuries shall Hector's race 1.371. have kingly power; till a priestess queen 1.372. by Mars conceiving, her twin offspring bear; 1.373. then Romulus, wolf-nursed and proudly clad 1.374. in tawny wolf-skin mantle, shall receive 1.375. the sceptre of his race. He shall uprear 1.376. and on his Romans his own name bestow. 1.377. To these I give no bounded times or power 1.378. but empire without end. Yea, even my Queen 1.379. Juno, who now chastiseth land and sea 1.380. with her dread frown, will find a wiser way 1.381. and at my sovereign side protect and bless 1.382. the Romans, masters of the whole round world 1.383. who, clad in peaceful toga, judge mankind. 1.384. Such my decree! In lapse of seasons due 1.385. the heirs of Ilium 's kings shall bind in chains 1.386. Mycenae 's glory and Achilles' towers 1.387. and over prostrate Argos sit supreme. 1.388. of Trojan stock illustriously sprung 1.389. lo, Caesar comes! whose power the ocean bounds 1.390. whose fame, the skies. He shall receive the name 1.391. Iulus nobly bore, great Julius, he. 1.392. Him to the skies, in Orient trophies dress 1.393. thou shalt with smiles receive; and he, like us 1.394. hall hear at his own shrines the suppliant vow. 1.395. Then will the world grow mild; the battle-sound 1.396. will be forgot; for olden Honor then 1.397. with spotless Vesta, and the brothers twain 1.398. Remus and Romulus, at strife no more 1.399. will publish sacred laws. The dreadful gates 1.400. whence issueth war, shall with close-jointed steel 1.401. be barred impregnably; and prisoned there 1.402. the heaven-offending Fury, throned on swords 1.403. and fettered by a hundred brazen chains 1.405. These words he gave, and summoned Maia's son 1.406. the herald Mercury, who earthward flying 1.407. hould bid the Tyrian realms and new-built towers 1.408. welcome the Trojan waifs; lest Dido, blind 1.409. to Fate's decree, should thrust them from the land. 1.410. He takes his flight, with rhythmic stroke of wing 1.411. across th' abyss of air, and soon draws near 1.412. unto the Libyan mainland. He fulfils 1.413. his heavenly task; the Punic hearts of stone 1.414. grow soft beneath the effluence divine; 1.415. and, most of all, the Queen, with heart at ease 1.417. But good Aeneas, pondering all night long 1.418. his many cares, when first the cheerful dawn 1.419. upon him broke, resolved to take survey 1.420. of this strange country whither wind and wave 1.421. had driven him,—for desert land it seemed,— 1.422. to learn what tribes of man or beast possess 1.423. a place so wild, and careful tidings bring 1.424. back to his friends. His fleet of ships the while 1.425. where dense, dark groves o'er-arch a hollowed crag 1.426. he left encircled in far-branching shade. 1.427. Then with no followers save his trusty friend 1.428. Achates, he went forth upon his way 1.429. two broad-tipped javelins poising in his hand. 1.430. Deep to the midmost wood he went, and there 1.431. his Mother in his path uprose; she seemed 1.432. in garb and countece a maid, and bore 1.433. like Spartan maids, a weapon; in such guise 1.434. Harpalyce the Thracian urges on 1.435. her panting coursers and in wild career 1.436. outstrips impetuous Hebrus as it flows. 1.437. Over her lovely shoulders was a bow 1.438. lender and light, as fits a huntress fair; 1.439. her golden tresses without wimple moved 1.440. in every wind, and girded in a knot 1.441. her undulant vesture bared her marble knees. 1.442. She hailed them thus: “Ho, sirs, I pray you tell 1.443. if haply ye have noted, as ye came 1.444. one of my sisters in this wood astray? 1.445. She bore a quiver, and a lynx's hide 1.446. her spotted mantle was; perchance she roused 1.448. So Venus spoke, and Venus' son replied: 1.449. “No voice or vision of thy sister fair 1.450. has crossed my path, thou maid without a name! 1.451. Thy beauty seems not of terrestrial mould 1.452. nor is thy music mortal! Tell me, goddess 1.453. art thou bright Phoebus' sister? Or some nymph 1.454. the daughter of a god? Whate'er thou art 1.455. thy favor we implore, and potent aid 1.456. in our vast toil. Instruct us of what skies 1.457. or what world's end, our storm-swept lives have found! 1.458. Strange are these lands and people where we rove 1.459. compelled by wind and wave. Lo, this right hand 1.461. Then Venus: “Nay, I boast not to receive 1.462. honors divine. We Tyrian virgins oft 1.463. bear bow and quiver, and our ankles white 1.464. lace up in purple buskin. Yonder lies 1.465. the Punic power, where Tyrian masters hold 1.466. Agenor's town; but on its borders dwell 1.467. the Libyans, by battles unsubdued. 1.468. Upon the throne is Dido, exiled there 1.469. from Tyre, to flee th' unnatural enmity 1.470. of her own brother. 'T was an ancient wrong; 1.471. too Iong the dark and tangled tale would be; 1.472. I trace the larger outline of her story: 1.473. Sichreus was her spouse, whose acres broad 1.474. no Tyrian lord could match, and he was-blessed 1.475. by his ill-fated lady's fondest love 1.476. whose father gave him her first virgin bloom 1.477. in youthful marriage. But the kingly power 1.478. among the Tyrians to her brother came 1.479. Pygmalion, none deeper dyed in crime 1.480. in all that land. Betwixt these twain there rose 1.481. a deadly hatred,—and the impious wretch 1.482. blinded by greed, and reckless utterly 1.483. of his fond sister's joy, did murder foul 1.484. upon defenceless and unarmed Sichaeus 1.485. and at the very altar hewed him down. 1.486. Long did he hide the deed, and guilefully 1.487. deceived with false hopes, and empty words 1.488. her grief and stricken love. But as she slept 1.489. her husband's tombless ghost before her came 1.490. with face all wondrous pale, and he laid bare 1.491. his heart with dagger pierced, disclosing so 1.492. the blood-stained altar and the infamy 1.493. that darkened now their house. His counsel was 1.494. to fly, self-banished, from her ruined land 1.495. and for her journey's aid, he whispered where 1.496. his buried treasure lay, a weight unknown 1.497. of silver and of gold. Thus onward urged 1.498. Dido, assembling her few trusted friends 1.499. prepared her flight. There rallied to her cause 1.500. all who did hate and scorn the tyrant king 1.501. or feared his cruelty. They seized his ships 1.502. which haply rode at anchor in the bay 1.503. and loaded them with gold; the hoarded wealth 1.504. of vile and covetous Pygmalion 1.505. they took to sea. A woman wrought this deed. 1.506. Then came they to these lands where now thine eyes 1.507. behold yon walls and yonder citadel 1.508. of newly rising Carthage . For a price 1.509. they measured round so much of Afric soil 1.510. as one bull's hide encircles, and the spot 1.511. received its name, the Byrsa. But, I pray 1.512. what men are ye? from what far land arrived 1.513. and whither going?” When she questioned thus 1.514. her son, with sighs that rose from his heart's depths 1.516. “Divine one, if I tell 1.517. my woes and burdens all, and thou could'st pause 1.518. to heed the tale, first would the vesper star 1.519. th' Olympian portals close, and bid the day 1.520. in slumber lie. of ancient Troy are we— 1.521. if aught of Troy thou knowest! As we roved 1.522. from sea to sea, the hazard of the storm 1.523. cast us up hither on this Libyan coast. 1.524. I am Aeneas, faithful evermore 1.525. to Heaven's command; and in my ships I bear 1.526. my gods ancestral, which I snatched away 1.527. from peril of the foe. My fame is known 1.528. above the stars. I travel on in quest 1.529. of Italy, my true home-land, and I 1.530. from Jove himself may trace my birth divine. 1.531. With twice ten ships upon the Phryglan main 1.532. I launched away. My mother from the skies 1.533. gave guidance, and I wrought what Fate ordained. 1.534. Yet now scarce seven shattered ships survive 1.535. the shock of wind and wave; and I myself 1.536. friendless, bereft, am wandering up and down 1.537. this Libyan wilderness! Behold me here 1.538. from Europe and from Asia exiled still!” 1.539. But Venus could not let him longer plain 1.541. “Whoe'er thou art 1.542. I deem that not unblest of heavenly powers 1.543. with vital breath still thine, thou comest hither 1.544. unto our Tyrian town. Go steadfast on 1.545. and to the royal threshold make thy way! 1.546. I bring thee tidings that thy comrades all 1.547. are safe at land; and all thy ships, conveyed 1.548. by favoring breezes, safe at anchor lie; 1.549. or else in vain my parents gave me skill 1.550. to read the skies. Look up at yonder swans! 1.551. A flock of twelve, whose gayly fluttering file 1.552. erst scattered by Jove's eagle swooping down 1.553. from his ethereal haunt, now form anew 1.554. their long-drawn line, and make a landing-place 1.555. or, hovering over, scan some chosen ground 1.556. or soaring high, with whir of happy wings 1.557. re-circle heaven in triumphant song: 1.558. likewise, I tell thee, thy Iost mariners 1.559. are landed, or fly landward at full sail. 1.561. She ceased and turned away. A roseate beam 1.562. from her bright shoulder glowed; th' ambrosial hair 1.563. breathed more than mortal sweetness, while her robes 1.564. fell rippling to her feet. Each step revealed 1.565. the veritable goddess. Now he knew 1.566. that vision was his mother, and his words 1.567. pursued the fading phantom as it fled: 1.568. “Why is thy son deluded o'er and o'er 1.569. with mocking dreams,—another cruel god? 1.570. Hast thou no hand-clasp true, nor interchange 1.571. of words unfeigned betwixt this heart and thine?” 1.572. Such word of blame he spoke, and took his way 1.573. toward the city's rampart. Venus then 1.574. o'erveiled them as they moved in darkened air,— 1.575. a liquid mantle of thick cloud divine,— 1.576. that viewless they might pass, nor would any 1.577. obstruct, delay, or question why they came. 1.578. To Paphos then she soared, her Ioved abode 1.579. where stands her temple, at whose hundred shrines 1.580. garlands of myrtle and fresh roses breathe 1.582. Meanwhile the wanderers swiftly journey on 1.583. along the clear-marked road, and soon they climb 1.584. the brow of a high hill, which close in view 1.585. o'er-towers the city's crown. The vast exploit 1.586. where lately rose but Afric cabins rude 1.587. Aeneas wondered at: the smooth, wide ways; 1.588. the bastioned gates; the uproar of the throng. 1.589. The Tyrians toil unwearied; some up-raise 1.590. a wall or citadel, from far below 1.591. lifting the ponderous stone; or with due care 1.592. choose where to build, and close the space around 1.593. with sacred furrow; in their gathering-place 1.594. the people for just governors, just laws 1.595. and for their reverend senate shout acclaim. 1.596. Some clear the harbor mouth; some deeply lay 1.597. the base of a great theatre, and carve out 1.598. proud columns from the mountain, to adorn 1.599. their rising stage with lofty ornament. 1.600. o busy bees above a field of flowers 1.601. in early summer amid sunbeams toil 1.602. leading abroad their nation's youthful brood; 1.603. or with the flowing honey storing close 1.604. the pliant cells, until they quite run o'er 1.605. with nectared sweet; while from the entering swarm 1.606. they take their little loads; or lined for war 1.607. rout the dull drones, and chase them from the hive; 1.608. brisk is the task, and all the honeyed air 1.609. breathes odors of wild thyme. “How blest of Heaven. 1.610. These men that see their promised ramparts rise!” 1.611. Aeneas sighed; and swift his glances moved 1.612. from tower to tower; then on his way he fared 1.613. veiled in the wonder-cloud, whence all unseen 1.614. of human eyes,—O strange the tale and true!— 1.616. Deep in the city's heart there was a grove 1.617. of beauteous shade, where once the Tyrians 1.618. cast here by stormful waves, delved out of earth 1.619. that portent which Queen Juno bade them find,— 1.620. the head of a proud horse,—that ages long 1.621. their boast might be wealth, luxury and war. 1.622. Upon this spot Sidonian Dido raised 1.623. a spacious fane to Juno, which became 1.624. plendid with gifts, and hallowed far and wide 1.625. for potency divine. Its beams were bronze 1.626. and on loud hinges swung the brazen doors. 1.627. A rare, new sight this sacred grove did show 1.628. which calmed Aeneas' fears, and made him bold 1.629. to hope for safety, and with lifted heart 1.630. from his low-fallen fortunes re-aspire. 1.631. For while he waits the advent of the Queen 1.632. he scans the mighty temple, and admires 1.633. the city's opulent pride, and all the skill 1.634. its rival craftsmen in their work approve. 1.635. Behold! he sees old Ilium 's well-fought fields 1.636. in sequent picture, and those famous wars 1.637. now told upon men's lips the whole world round. 1.638. There Atreus' sons, there kingly Priam moved 1.639. and fierce Pelides pitiless to both. 1.640. Aeneas paused, and, weeping, thus began: 1.641. “Alas, Achates, what far region now 1.642. what land in all the world knows not our pain? 1.648. So saying, he received into his heart 1.649. that visionary scene, profoundly sighed 1.650. and let his plenteous tears unheeded flow. 1.651. There he beheld the citadel of Troy 1.652. girt with embattled foes; here, Greeks in flight 1.653. ome Trojan onset 'scaped; there, Phrygian bands 1.654. before tall-plumed Achilles' chariot sped. 1.655. The snowy tents of Rhesus spread hard by 1.657. in night's first watch burst o'er them unawares 1.658. with bloody havoc and a host of deaths; 1.659. then drove his fiery coursers o'er the plain 1.660. before their thirst or hunger could be stayed 1.661. on Trojan corn or Xanthus ' cooling stream. 1.662. Here too was princely Troilus, despoiled 1.663. routed and weaponless, O wretched boy! 1.664. Ill-matched against Achilles! His wild steeds 1.665. bear him along, as from his chariot's rear 1.666. he falls far back, but clutches still the rein; 1.667. his hair and shoulders on the ground go trailing 1.668. and his down-pointing spear-head scrawls the dust. 1.669. Elsewhere, to Pallas' ever-hostile shrine 1.670. daughters of Ilium, with unsnooded hair 1.671. and lifting all in vain her hallowed pall 1.672. walked suppliant and sad, beating their breasts 1.673. with outspread palms. But her unswerving eyes 1.674. the goddess fixed on earth, and would not see. 1.675. Achilles round the Trojan rampart thrice 1.676. had dragged the fallen Hector, and for gold 1.677. was making traffic of the lifeless clay. 1.678. Aeneas groaned aloud, with bursting heart 1.679. to see the spoils, the car, the very corpse 1.680. of his lost friend,—while Priam for the dead 1.681. tretched forth in piteous prayer his helpless hands. 1.682. There too his own presentment he could see 1.683. urrounded by Greek kings; and there were shown 1.684. hordes from the East, and black-browed Memnon's arms; 1.685. her band of Amazons, with moon-shaped shields 1.686. Penthesilea led; her martial eye 1.687. flamed on from troop to troop; a belt of gold 1.688. beneath one bare, protruded breast she bound— 1.690. While on such spectacle Aeneas' eyes 1.691. looked wondering, while mute and motionless 1.692. he stood at gaze, Queen Dido to the shrine 1.693. in lovely majesty drew near; a throng 1.694. of youthful followers pressed round her way. 1.695. So by the margin of Eurotas wide 1.696. or o'er the Cynthian steep, Diana leads 1.697. her bright processional; hither and yon 1.698. are visionary legions numberless 1.699. of Oreads; the regt goddess bears 1.700. a quiver on her shoulders, and is seen 1.701. emerging tallest of her beauteous train; 1.702. while joy unutterable thrills the breast 1.703. of fond Latona: Dido not less fair 1.704. amid her subjects passed, and not less bright 1.705. her glow of gracious joy, while she approved 1.706. her future kingdom's pomp and vast emprise. 1.707. Then at the sacred portal and beneath 1.708. the temple's vaulted dome she took her place 1.709. encompassed by armed men, and lifted high 1.710. upon a throne; her statutes and decrees 1.711. the people heard, and took what lot or toil 1.712. her sentence, or impartial urn, assigned. 1.713. But, lo! Aeneas sees among the throng 1.714. Antheus, Sergestus, and Cloanthus bold 1.715. with other Teucrians, whom the black storm flung 1.716. far o'er the deep and drove on alien shores. 1.717. Struck dumb was he, and good Achates too 1.718. half gladness and half fear. Fain would they fly 1.719. to friendship's fond embrace; but knowing not 1.720. what might befall, their hearts felt doubt and care. 1.721. Therefore they kept the secret, and remained 1.722. forth-peering from the hollow veil of cloud 1.723. haply to learn what their friends' fate might be 1.724. or where the fleet was landed, or what aim 1.725. had brought them hither; for a chosen few 1.726. from every ship had come to sue for grace 1.729. and leave to speak, revered Ilioneus 1.730. with soul serene these lowly words essayed: 1.731. “O Queen, who hast authority of Jove 1.732. to found this rising city, and subdue 1.733. with righteous goverce its people proud 1.734. we wretched Trojans, blown from sea to sea 1.735. beseech thy mercy; keep the curse of fire 1.736. from our poor ships! We pray thee, do no wrong 1.737. unto a guiltless race. But heed our plea! 1.738. No Libyan hearth shall suffer by our sword 1.739. nor spoil and plunder to our ships be borne; 1.740. uch haughty violence fits not the souls 1.741. of vanquished men. We journey to a land 1.742. named, in Greek syllables, Hesperia : 1.743. a storied realm, made mighty by great wars 1.744. and wealth of fruitful land; in former days 1.745. Oenotrians had it, and their sons, 't is said 1.746. have called it Italy, a chieftain's name 1.747. to a whole region given. Thitherward 1.748. our ships did fare; but with swift-rising flood 1.749. the stormful season of Orion's star 1.750. drove us on viewless shoals; and angry gales 1.751. dispersed us, smitten by the tumbling surge 1.752. among innavigable rocks. Behold 1.753. we few swam hither, waifs upon your shore! 1.754. What race of mortals this? What barbarous land 1.755. that with inhospitable laws ye thrust 1.756. a stranger from your coasts, and fly to arms 3.294. or ken our way. Three days of blinding dark 3.295. three nights without a star, we roved the seas; 5.630. Forthwith Aeneas summons all who will 5.704. of game and contest, summoned to his side 6.693. While thus they talked, the crimsoned car of Morn 7.1. One more immortal name thy death bequeathed 7.37. Then, gazing from the deep, Aeneas saw 7.38. a stretch of groves, whence Tiber 's smiling stream 7.39. its tumbling current rich with yellow sands 7.40. burst seaward forth: around it and above 9.526. was all of tangled brush and blinding shade 11.246. all ancient ritual. The fuming fires 11.247. burned from beneath, till highest heaven was hid
34. Vergil, Eclogues, 6.3, 6.7 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6.3. the woods to house her. When I sought to tell 6.7. but sing a slender song.” Now, Varus, I—
35. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.6-1.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.6. And indeed I did formerly intend, when I wrote of the war, to explain who the Jews originally were,—what fortunes they had been subject to,—and by what legislator they had been instructed in piety, and the exercise of other virtues,—what wars also they had made in remote ages, till they were unwillingly engaged in this last with the Romans: 1.6. 2. And when Cain had traveled over many countries, he, with his wife, built a city, named Nod, which is a place so called, and there he settled his abode; where also he had children. However, he did not accept of his punishment in order to amendment, but to increase his wickedness; for he only aimed to procure every thing that was for his own bodily pleasure, though it obliged him to be injurious to his neighbors. 1.7. but because this work would take up a great compass, I separated it into a set treatise by itself, with a beginning of its own, and its own conclusion; but in process of time, as usually happens to such as undertake great things, I grew weary and went on slowly, it being a large subject, and a difficult thing to translate our history into a foreign, and to us unaccustomed, language. 1.7. And that their inventions might not be lost before they were sufficiently known, upon Adam’s prediction that the world was to be destroyed at one time by the force of fire, and at another time by the violence and quantity of water, they made two pillars, the one of brick, the other of stone: they inscribed their discoveries on them both
36. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.450-2.457 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.451. The others readily complied with their petition, sent to them Gorion, the son of Nicodemus, and Aias, the son of Sadduk, and Judas, the son of Jonathan, that they might give them the security of their right hands, and of their oaths; after which Metilius brought down his soldiers; 2.452. which soldiers, while they were in arms, were not meddled with by any of the seditious, nor was there any appearance of treachery; but as soon as, according to the articles of capitulation, they had all laid down their shields and their swords, and were under no further suspicion of any harm, but were going away 2.453. Eleazar’s men attacked them after a violent manner, and encompassed them round, and slew them, while they neither defended themselves, nor entreated for mercy, but only cried out upon the breach of their articles of capitulation and their oaths. 2.454. And thus were all these men barbarously murdered, excepting Metilius; for when he entreated for mercy, and promised that he would turn Jew, and be circumcised, they saved him alive, but none else. This loss to the Romans was but light, there being no more than a few slain out of an immense army; but still it appeared to be a prelude to the Jews’ own destruction 2.455. while men made public lamentation when they saw that such occasions were afforded for a war as were incurable; that the city was all over polluted with such abominations, from which it was but reasonable to expect some vengeance, even though they should escape revenge from the Romans; so that the city was filled with sadness, and every one of the moderate men in it were under great disturbance, as likely themselves to undergo punishment for the wickedness of the seditious; 2.456. for indeed it so happened that this murder was perpetrated on the Sabbath day, on which day the Jews have a respite from their works on account of Divine worship. 2.457. 1. Now the people of Caesarea had slain the Jews that were among them on the very same day and hour [when the soldiers were slain], which one would think must have come to pass by the direction of Providence; insomuch that in one hour’s time above twenty thousand Jews were killed, and all Caesarea was emptied of its Jewish inhabitants; for Florus caught such as ran away, and sent them in bonds to the galleys.
37. Longinus, On The Sublime, 9.11-9.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

38. Lucan, Pharsalia, 1.1-1.7, 5.476-5.498, 5.504-5.677, 5.680-5.699 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

39. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 9.19-9.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.19. For though I was free fromall, I brought myself under bondage to all, that I might gain the more. 9.20. To the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain Jews; to thosewho are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain those whoare under the law; 9.21. to those who are without law, as without law(not being without law toward God, but under law toward Christ), that Imight win those who are without law. 9.22. To the weak I became asweak, that I might gain the weak. I have become all things to all men,that I may by all means save some. 9.23. Now I do this for thegospel's sake, that I may be a joint partaker of it.
40. New Testament, John, 6.31-6.35, 6.51 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.31. Our fathers ate the manna in the wilderness. As it is written, 'He gave them bread out of heaven to eat.' 6.32. Jesus therefore said to them, "Most assuredly, I tell you, it wasn't Moses who gave you the bread out of heaven, but my Father gives you the true bread out of heaven. 6.33. For the bread of God is that which comes down out of heaven, and gives life to the world. 6.34. They said therefore to him, "Lord, always give us this bread. 6.35. Jesus said to them. "I am the bread of life. He who comes to me will not be hungry, and he who believes in me will never be thirsty. 6.51. I am the living bread which came down out of heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. Yes, the bread which I will give for the life of the world is my flesh.
41. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 5.70 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

42. Plutarch, Solon, 5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

43. Silius Italicus, Punica, 13.791, 17.651 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

44. Apuleius, The Golden Ass, 1.1.1-1.1.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

45. Ausonius, Cupido Cruciatus (Edyll. Vi), 1 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

46. Nonnus, Dionysiaca, 25.265 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

47. Musaeus, Hero Et Leander, 1 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

48. Aeschines, Or., 1.173

49. Photius, Bibliotheca (Library, Bibl.), 129

50. Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica, 1.1-1.4



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
absence Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 53, 54
achilles, and agamemnon Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 33
achilles, returns to battle Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 51
achilles, successors, aeneas Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 51
achilles Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 51; Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 42; Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 359; Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 54
aemulatio Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 192, 202
aeneas, in iliad Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 192
aeneas Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 295
aeneas and odysseus, odyssey and iliad Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 202
aeneas and odysseus Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 88, 191, 192
aeneid and odyssey Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 88, 190, 191, 192
aetia, books 1 and 2, muses in Acosta-Hughes Lehnus and Stephens, Brill's Companion to Callimachus (2011) 343
agamemnon, and achilles Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 33
agamemnon Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 54; Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 34
ajax Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 295
alcinous Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 30
allegory/allegorization Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 145
anchoring allusions Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 42, 43
angels Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 359
antinous Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 53
antiphon, antisthenes Hesk, Deception and Democracy in Classical Athens (2000) 35
antisthenes Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 145; Sommerstein and Torrance, Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece (2014) 367
apollo (god) Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 161
apollonius rhodius Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 135
aporia Blum and Biggs, The Epic Journey in Greek and Roman Literature (2019) 111
approximation to the divine (in homeric and hesiodic poetry) Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 264
argo Blum and Biggs, The Epic Journey in Greek and Roman Literature (2019) 130
argonautica Acosta-Hughes Lehnus and Stephens, Brill's Companion to Callimachus (2011) 343
aristotle Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 117; Hunter, The Measure of Homer: The Ancient Reception of the Iliad (2018) 191
armament Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 145
arms (arma) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 44, 45, 51, 117
aseneth Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 47
asinus aureus, as translation Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 46, 47
asinus aureus, titles of Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 46
athena, and odysseus Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 34
athena Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 53, 54
athena (goddess) Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 161
athens, and identity Hesk, Deception and Democracy in Classical Athens (2000) 35
aural signals Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 191
authority, narrative Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 117
authority, narrators Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 43
battle Maciver, Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica: Engaging Homer in Late Antiquity (2012) 28
beginnings, importance of Goldhill, Preposterous Poetics: The Politics and Aesthetics of Form in Late Antiquity (2020) 71
beginnings, in epic Goldhill, Preposterous Poetics: The Politics and Aesthetics of Form in Late Antiquity (2020) 71
beginnings Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 43
black sea Blum and Biggs, The Epic Journey in Greek and Roman Literature (2019) 130
bravery Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 145
caesar, julius, as anti-odyssean Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 212, 213
caesar, julius, commentarii de bello civili Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 213
caesarea Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 113
callimachus, and the muses Acosta-Hughes Lehnus and Stephens, Brill's Companion to Callimachus (2011) 343
callimachus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 117
calliope Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 135
calypso/kalypso Blum and Biggs, The Epic Journey in Greek and Roman Literature (2019) 112
calypso Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 33
camena Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 46, 47; Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 43
cameron, alan Greensmith, The Resurrection of Homer in Imperial Greek Epic: Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica and the Poetics of Impersonation (2021) 109
chance Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 359
charicleia Repath and Whitmarsh, Reading Heliodorus' Aethiopica (2022) 124
child(ren) Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 145
cicero, de republica Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 88
cicero Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 113
cleopatra Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 88
colonization Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 53
competitive oaths Sommerstein and Torrance, Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece (2014) 369
concord Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 88, 190
concordia augusta Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 88
contests, athletic Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 53, 54
correction Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 191
croesus Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 241
cynic, philosophy, view of odysseus Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 88, 190
cynic, philosophy Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 190
cypria Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 117
death Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 45
deception, opposed to hoplitism Hesk, Deception and Democracy in Classical Athens (2000) 35
democracy, athenian, thucydides depiction of Hesk, Deception and Democracy in Classical Athens (2000) 35
demodocus Hunter, The Measure of Homer: The Ancient Reception of the Iliad (2018) 201
diaspora\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 82
diomedes Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 117
dion (plato) Sommerstein and Torrance, Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece (2014) 367
dionysus Hunter, The Measure of Homer: The Ancient Reception of the Iliad (2018) 201; Maciver, Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica: Engaging Homer in Late Antiquity (2012) 28
dissoi logoi Pucci, Euripides' Revolution Under Cover: An Essay (2016) 31
divination, the delphic oracle Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 265
dodds, e.r. Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 264
drink Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 47
duplicity Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 145
education/paideia\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 82
egypt, egyptians Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 43
egypt Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 359
egyptian thebes Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 54
emotions, anger, wrath (ira, mênis) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 10, 44, 51
emotions Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 44
epic Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 10, 44, 45, 51, 117; Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 135; Mawford and Ntanou, Ancient Memory: Remembrance and Commemoration in Graeco-Roman Literature (2021) 5
epic cycle Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 117
epic narrative Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 161
epic tradition Maciver, Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica: Engaging Homer in Late Antiquity (2012) 28
epicureanism Hunter, The Measure of Homer: The Ancient Reception of the Iliad (2018) 126
epimenides Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 148
epithets Greensmith, The Resurrection of Homer in Imperial Greek Epic: Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica and the Poetics of Impersonation (2021) 109
epyllion Verhelst and Scheijnens, Greek and Latin Poetry of Late Antiquity: Form, Tradition, and Context (2022) 142
erato Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 135
eratosthenes Hunter, The Measure of Homer: The Ancient Reception of the Iliad (2018) 201
ethical qualities, anger, wrath (ira, mênis) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 10, 44
ethics\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 82
etymology Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 135
euripides, supplices Hesk, Deception and Democracy in Classical Athens (2000) 35
euripides Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 145
eustathius Hunter, The Measure of Homer: The Ancient Reception of the Iliad (2018) 200, 201
exile Blum and Biggs, The Epic Journey in Greek and Roman Literature (2019) 130
fate, fates Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 44
fehling, d. Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 43
feminist theory Blum and Biggs, The Epic Journey in Greek and Roman Literature (2019) 130
flesh Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 47
food Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 53, 54; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 47
formulae Greensmith, The Resurrection of Homer in Imperial Greek Epic: Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica and the Poetics of Impersonation (2021) 109
genre, viii- Blum and Biggs, The Epic Journey in Greek and Roman Literature (2019) 130, 212
germanicus Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 46
gifts Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 54
gods Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 10, 44, 45, 117; Maciver, Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica: Engaging Homer in Late Antiquity (2012) 28
hades Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 30
heaven Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 47
hecaleius, muses in Acosta-Hughes Lehnus and Stephens, Brill's Companion to Callimachus (2011) 343
hecataeus Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 148
hector Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 295; Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 42
helen Mawford and Ntanou, Ancient Memory: Remembrance and Commemoration in Graeco-Roman Literature (2021) 5
helios (personification of the sun) Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 161
helios and heliades Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 264
heracleides of maroneia Sommerstein and Torrance, Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece (2014) 367
heracles Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 44; Hunter, The Measure of Homer: The Ancient Reception of the Iliad (2018) 201
heraclitus Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 33; Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 265
hermes Hesk, Deception and Democracy in Classical Athens (2000) 35; Sommerstein and Torrance, Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece (2014) 223
hero Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 44, 45
herod\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 82
heroic ideal Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 54
hesiod Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 135
hippias minor (plato) Greensmith, The Resurrection of Homer in Imperial Greek Epic: Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica and the Poetics of Impersonation (2021) 109
homecoming Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 44
homecomings (nostoi) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 117
homer, ancient scholarship Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 44
homer, as ocean Hunter, The Measure of Homer: The Ancient Reception of the Iliad (2018) 191
homer, as sun Hunter, The Measure of Homer: The Ancient Reception of the Iliad (2018) 191
homer, authorial voice in Sommerstein and Torrance, Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece (2014) 369
homer, iliad Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 161; Verhelst and Scheijnens, Greek and Latin Poetry of Late Antiquity: Form, Tradition, and Context (2022) 142
homer, model / anti-model for lucan Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 42, 43, 212, 213
homer, odyssey Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 161; Verhelst and Scheijnens, Greek and Latin Poetry of Late Antiquity: Form, Tradition, and Context (2022) 142
homer, odyssey as epilogue to iliad Hunter, The Measure of Homer: The Ancient Reception of the Iliad (2018) 191
homer, relative chronology of poems Hunter, The Measure of Homer: The Ancient Reception of the Iliad (2018) 191
homer, style of odyssey Hunter, The Measure of Homer: The Ancient Reception of the Iliad (2018) 191
homer Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 113; Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 135; Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 53, 54
homeric epics, ancient comparisons, concord/discord in Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 190
homeric hymns' "758.0_343@hymn '4 to delos, muses in" Acosta-Hughes Lehnus and Stephens, Brill's Companion to Callimachus (2011) 343
horace Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 88; Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 44, 117
humanism Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 135
hymn 6 to demeter, muses in Acosta-Hughes Lehnus and Stephens, Brill's Companion to Callimachus (2011) 343
identity Blum and Biggs, The Epic Journey in Greek and Roman Literature (2019) 130, 212
iliad Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 117; Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 359; Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 33
illness of perdica Verhelst and Scheijnens, Greek and Latin Poetry of Late Antiquity: Form, Tradition, and Context (2022) 142
immortality Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 53, 54; Maciver, Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica: Engaging Homer in Late Antiquity (2012) 28; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 47
ingestion Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 47
inspiration Maciver, Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica: Engaging Homer in Late Antiquity (2012) 28
intentionality Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 53, 54
intertextuality, allusion, combinatory Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 51
intertextuality, allusion, two-tier intertextuality, model Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 44
intertextuality, allusion Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 10
intertextuality, combination (contaminatio) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 10, 117
intertextuality, imitation Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 10, 44, 45
intertextuality, metrical Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 45
intertextuality Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 10, 117
irus Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 53
israel Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 47
italy Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 44, 117
ithaca Blum and Biggs, The Epic Journey in Greek and Roman Literature (2019) 31, 112; Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 53, 54
ithaka Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 33
jaeger, werner Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 33
james, alan Greensmith, The Resurrection of Homer in Imperial Greek Epic: Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica and the Poetics of Impersonation (2021) 109
jerusalem Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 113
jerusalem\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 82
jesus/christ Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 113
jesus Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 47
job, book of Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 34
josephus, flavius Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 113
judaean/jewish Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 113
judaean (or jewish) war\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 82
julian, emperor, and odysseus Blum and Biggs, The Epic Journey in Greek and Roman Literature (2019) 212
juno Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 202; Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 44, 51
justice Pucci, Euripides' Revolution Under Cover: An Essay (2016) 31
kingship, and concord Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 88
kleinepos Verhelst and Scheijnens, Greek and Latin Poetry of Late Antiquity: Form, Tradition, and Context (2022) 142
knowledge, and character Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 33
knowledge\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 82
language, polyneices on truth and justice, in phoenician women Pucci, Euripides' Revolution Under Cover: An Essay (2016) 31
lee, kevin Greensmith, The Resurrection of Homer in Imperial Greek Epic: Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica and the Poetics of Impersonation (2021) 109
library Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 107
liternum Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 295
livius andronicus Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 42, 43
longinus, on the sublime Hunter, The Measure of Homer: The Ancient Reception of the Iliad (2018) 191
looking through, aeneid through odyssey to iliad Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 202
loukios of patrae Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 46
lucian Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 241
ma ton dia oaths Sommerstein and Torrance, Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece (2014) 367
magic Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 46
manna Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 47
marks of scripture Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 107
marriage Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 53, 54
memory, remembering, etc. Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 117
memory, social function of Mawford and Ntanou, Ancient Memory: Remembrance and Commemoration in Graeco-Roman Literature (2021) 5
menecrates Hunter, The Measure of Homer: The Ancient Reception of the Iliad (2018) 191
metamorphoseis, possible prologue of Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 46, 47
metamorphoseis, title of Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 46, 47
milesian, the philosophers, anaximander Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 148
milesian, the philosophers, thales Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 148
mimesis Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 53
mode, historiographical Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 43
moros Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 34
moses Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 47
mourelatos, a.p.d. Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 264
musaeus, hero and leander Verhelst and Scheijnens, Greek and Latin Poetry of Late Antiquity: Form, Tradition, and Context (2022) 142
muse Maciver, Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica: Engaging Homer in Late Antiquity (2012) 28; Verhelst and Scheijnens, Greek and Latin Poetry of Late Antiquity: Form, Tradition, and Context (2022) 142
musea Acosta-Hughes Lehnus and Stephens, Brill's Companion to Callimachus (2011) 343
muses, as goddesses of learning Acosta-Hughes Lehnus and Stephens, Brill's Companion to Callimachus (2011) 343
muses, callimachus and Acosta-Hughes Lehnus and Stephens, Brill's Companion to Callimachus (2011) 343
muses, invocation of Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 10
muses, the Hunter, The Measure of Homer: The Ancient Reception of the Iliad (2018) 200, 201
muses Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 44, 117; Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 135; Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 43
muses (goddesses) Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 161
museum of alexandria, and the muses Acosta-Hughes Lehnus and Stephens, Brill's Companion to Callimachus (2011) 343
myth, and geography Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 53, 54
myth/mythology, transmission Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 161
narrative, battle, in the aeneid Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 51
narrative, battle, in the iliad Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 51
narrative, travel narrative Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 82
narrative and oaths Sommerstein and Torrance, Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece (2014) 369
narratives, violent/of violence Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 113
narratives Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 117
narrators, aeneid Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 117
narrators, rival, juno Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 51
nestor, in hippias minor (plato) Greensmith, The Resurrection of Homer in Imperial Greek Epic: Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica and the Poetics of Impersonation (2021) 109
nestor Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 295; Hunter, The Measure of Homer: The Ancient Reception of the Iliad (2018) 191, 201; Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 30; Sommerstein and Torrance, Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece (2014) 367
nonnus, dionysiaca Verhelst and Scheijnens, Greek and Latin Poetry of Late Antiquity: Form, Tradition, and Context (2022) 142
nonnus Maciver, Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica: Engaging Homer in Late Antiquity (2012) 28
norden, eduard Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 145
nostos, as master-trope explored by lucan Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 212, 213
nostos Blum and Biggs, The Epic Journey in Greek and Roman Literature (2019) 111, 112
nottingham oath database Sommerstein and Torrance, Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece (2014) 223
odysseus, and athena Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 34
odysseus, and gods Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 34
odysseus, and suffering Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 34
odysseus, as model Blum and Biggs, The Epic Journey in Greek and Roman Literature (2019) 212
odysseus, as polytropos Greensmith, The Resurrection of Homer in Imperial Greek Epic: Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica and the Poetics of Impersonation (2021) 109
odysseus, character of Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 33, 34
odysseus, in homer Hesk, Deception and Democracy in Classical Athens (2000) 35
odysseus, name Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 34
odysseus Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 295; Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 113; Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 10; Hunter, The Measure of Homer: The Ancient Reception of the Iliad (2018) 126, 200, 201; Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 42, 43, 212, 213; Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 53, 54; Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 145; Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 30; Sommerstein and Torrance, Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece (2014) 367
odysseus (mythological hero) Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 161
odyssey, epithets Greensmith, The Resurrection of Homer in Imperial Greek Epic: Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica and the Poetics of Impersonation (2021) 109
odyssey Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 359; Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 33, 34
odyssey\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 82
onos, as epitome Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 47
onos, as parody Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 47
onos, title of Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 47
oral tellings Mawford and Ntanou, Ancient Memory: Remembrance and Commemoration in Graeco-Roman Literature (2021) 5
ornamentality Greensmith, The Resurrection of Homer in Imperial Greek Epic: Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica and the Poetics of Impersonation (2021) 109
ovid, as model and anti-model for lucan Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 42
palatine hill Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 117
panhellenism Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 53, 54
paris Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 117
parmenides, and becoming like god Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 264, 265
parmenides, and oracles Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 265
parmenides, and the odyssey Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 264, 265
parmenides, his homeric language Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 264
parmenides, the proem Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 264, 265
patrizi, francesco Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 135
patroclus, funeral games for, the Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 53
patroclus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 10; Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 53, 54
patroklos Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 33
penelope Blum and Biggs, The Epic Journey in Greek and Roman Literature (2019) 112; Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 53, 54; Sommerstein and Torrance, Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece (2014) 223
pericles, on deceit Hesk, Deception and Democracy in Classical Athens (2000) 35
persephone Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 30
persia, persians Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 43
phaeacia Blum and Biggs, The Epic Journey in Greek and Roman Literature (2019) 31, 212
phoenician women Pucci, Euripides' Revolution Under Cover: An Essay (2016) 31
phoenicians Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 43
photius Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 46, 47
pilgrimage\u2002, jewish Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 82
piyut Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 359
plato, hippias minor Greensmith, The Resurrection of Homer in Imperial Greek Epic: Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica and the Poetics of Impersonation (2021) 109
plato Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 135; Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 241
plausible lie Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 53, 54
pleasure Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 145
plots Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 51, 117
poetic inspiration Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 265
poetics Maciver, Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica: Engaging Homer in Late Antiquity (2012) 28
poetry, and aristocratic power Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 53, 54
polyphemos Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 34
polytropos Greensmith, The Resurrection of Homer in Imperial Greek Epic: Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica and the Poetics of Impersonation (2021) 109
pompey Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 43
pompē Blum and Biggs, The Epic Journey in Greek and Roman Literature (2019) 31
populus romanus, as central character in the pharsalia Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 42, 43
porphyry Sommerstein and Torrance, Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece (2014) 367
poseidon Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 34; Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 30