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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6471
Hesiod, Works And Days, 620-776


φεύγουσαι πίπτωσιν ἐς ἠεροειδέα πόντονRise early to secure your food supply.


δὴ τότε παντοίων ἀνέμων θυίουσιν ἀῆται·For Dawn will cut your labour by a third


καὶ τότε μηκέτι νῆας ἔχειν ἐνὶ οἴνοπι πόντῳWho aids your journey and you toil, through whom


γῆν ἐργάζεσθαι μεμνημένος, ὥς σε κελεύω.Men find the road and put on many a herd


νῆα δʼ ἐπʼ ἠπείρου ἐρύσαι πυκάσαι τε λίθοισιOf oxen many a yoke. When thistles bloom


πάντοθεν, ὄφρʼ ἴσχωσʼ ἀνέμων μένος ὑγρὸν ἀέντωνAnd shrill cicadas chirp up in the tree


χείμαρον ἐξερύσας, ἵνα μὴ πύθῃ Διὸς ὄμβρος.Nonstop beneath their wings, into our view


ὅπλα δʼ ἐπάρμενα πάντα τεῷ ἐγκάτθεο οἴκῳComes summer, harbinger of drudgery


εὐκόσμως στολίσας νηὸς πτερὰ ποντοπόροιο·Goats at their fattest, wine its choicest, too


πηδάλιον δʼ ἐυεργὲς ὑπὲρ καπνοῦ κρεμάσασθαι.The women at their lustiest, though men


αὐτὸς δʼ ὡραῖον μίμνειν πλόον, εἰσόκεν ἔλθῃ·Are at their very weakest, head and knee


καὶ τότε νῆα θοὴν ἅλαδʼ ἑλκέμεν, ἐν δέ τε φόρτονBeing dried up by Sirius, for then


ἄρμενον ἐντύνασθαι, ἵνʼ οἴκαδε κέρδος ἄρηαιTheir skin is parched. It is at times like these


ὥς περ ἐμός τε πατὴρ καὶ σός, μέγα νήπιε ΠέρσῃI crave some rocky shade and Bibline wine


πλωίζεσκʼ ἐν νηυσί, βίου κεχρημένος ἐσθλοῦ·A hunk of cheese, goat’s milk, meat from a beast


ὅς ποτε καὶ τῇδʼ ἦλθε, πολὺν διὰ πόντον ἀνύσσαςThat’s pasture-fed, uncalved, or else I pine


Κύμην Αἰολίδα προλιπών, ἐν νηὶ μελαίνῃ·For new-born kids. Contented with my feast


οὐκ ἄφενος φεύγων οὐδὲ πλοῦτόν τε καὶ ὄλβονI sit and drink the wine, so sparkling


ἀλλὰ κακὴν πενίην, τὴν Ζεὺς ἄνδρεσσι δίδωσιν·Facing the strong west wind, there in the shade


νάσσατο δʼ ἄγχʼ Ἑλικῶνος ὀιζυρῇ ἐνὶ κώμῃAnd pour three-fourths of water from the spring


Ἄσκρῃ, χεῖμα κακῇ, θέρει ἀργαλέῃ, οὐδέ ποτʼ ἐσθλῇ.A spring untroubled that will never fade


τύνη δʼ, ὦ Πέρση, ἔργων μεμνημένος εἶναιThen urge your men to sift the holy corn


ὡραίων πάντων, περὶ ναυτιλίης δὲ μάλιστα.Of Demeter, when Orion first we see


νῆʼ ὀλίγην αἰνεῖν, μεγάλῃ δʼ ἐνὶ φορτία θέσθαι.In all his strength, upon the windy, worn


μείζων μὲν φόρτος, μεῖζον δʼ ἐπὶ κέρδεϊ κέρδοςThreshing-floor. Then measure well the quantity


ἔσσεται, εἴ κʼ ἄνεμοί γε κακὰς ἀπέχωσιν ἀήτας.And take it home in urns. Now I urge you


εὖτʼ ἂν ἐπʼ ἐμπορίην τρέψας ἀεσίφρονα θυμὸνTo stockpile all your year’s supplies inside.


βούληαι χρέα τε προφυγεῖν καὶ λιμὸν ἀτερπέαDismiss your hired man and then in lieu


δείξω δή τοι μέτρα πολυφλοίσβοιο θαλάσσηςSeek out a childless maid (you won’t abide


οὔτε τι ναυτιλίης σεσοφισμένος οὔτε τι νηῶν.One who is nursing). You must take good care


οὐ γάρ πώ ποτε νηί γʼ ἐπέπλων εὐρέα πόντονOf your sharp-toothed dog; do not scant his meat


εἰ μὴ ἐς Εὔβοιαν ἐξ Αὐλίδος, ᾗ ποτʼ ἈχαιοὶIn case The One Who Sleeps by Day should dare


μείναντες χειμῶνα πολὺν σὺν λαὸν ἄγειρανTo steal your goods. Let there be lots to eat


Ἑλλάδος ἐξ ἱερῆς Τροίην ἐς καλλιγύναικα.For both oxen and mules, and litter, too.


ἔνθα δʼ ἐγὼν ἐπʼ ἄεθλα δαΐφρονος ἈμφιδάμαντοςUnyoke your team and grant a holiday.


Χαλκίδα τʼ εἲς ἐπέρησα· τὰ δὲ προπεφραδμένα πολλὰWhen rosy-fingered Dawn first gets a view


ἄεθλʼ ἔθεσαν παῖδες μεγαλήτορος· ἔνθα μέ φημιOf Arcturus and across the sky halfway


ὕμνῳ νικήσαντα φέρειν τρίποδʼ ὠτώεντα.Come Sirius and Orion, pluck your store


τὸν μὲν ἐγὼ Μούσῃς Ἑλικωνιάδεσσʼ ἀνέθηκαOf grapes and bring them home; then to the sun


ἔνθα με τὸ πρῶτον λιγυρῆς ἐπέβησαν ἀοιδῆς.Expose them for ten days, then for five more


τόσσον τοι νηῶν γε πεπείρημαι πολυγόμφων·Conceal them in the dark; when this is done


ἀλλὰ καὶ ὣς ἐρέω Ζηνὸς νόον αἰγιόχοιο·Upon the sixth begin to pour in jar


Μοῦσαι γάρ μʼ ἐδίδαξαν ἀθέσφατον ὕμνον ἀείδειν.Glad Bacchus’ gift. When strong Orion’s set


ἤματα πεντήκοντα μετὰ τροπὰς ἠελίοιοAnd back into the sea decline the star


ἐς τέλος ἐλθόντος θέρεος καματώδεος ὥρηςPleiades and Hyades, it’s time to get


ὡραῖος πέλεται θνητοῖς πλόος· οὔτε κε νῆαYour plough out, Perses. Then, as it should be


καυάξαις οὔτʼ ἄνδρας ἀποφθείσειε θάλασσαThe year is finished. If on stormy sea


εἰ δὴ μὴ πρόφρων γε Ποσειδάων ἐνοσίχθωνYou long to sail, when into the dark


ἢ Ζεὺς ἀθανάτων βασιλεὺς ἐθέλῃσιν ὀλέσσαι·To flee Orion’s rain, the Pleiade


ἐν τοῖς γὰρ τέλος ἐστὶν ὁμῶς ἀγαθῶν τε κακῶν τε.Descend, abundant winds will blow: forbear


τῆμος δʼ εὐκρινέες τʼ αὖραι καὶ πόντος ἀπήμων·To keep at that time on the wine-dark sea


εὔκηλος τότε νῆα θοὴν ἀνέμοισι πιθήσαςYour ships, but work your land with earnest care


ἑλκέμεν ἐς πόντον φόρτον τʼ ἐς πάντα τίθεσθαιAs I ordain. So that the potency


σπεύδειν δʼ ὅττι τάχιστα πάλιν οἶκόνδε νέεσθαι·Of the wet winds may not affect your craft


μηδὲ μένειν οἶνόν τε νέον καὶ ὀπωρινὸν ὄμβρονYou must protect it on dry land, and tamp


καὶ χειμῶνʼ ἐπιόντα Νότοιό τε δεινὰς ἀήταςIt tight with stones on both sides, fore and aft.


ὅστʼ ὤρινε θάλασσαν ὁμαρτήσας Διὸς ὄμβρῳTake out the plug that Zeus’s rain won’t damp


πολλῷ ὀπωρινῷ, χαλεπὸν δέ τε πόντον ἔθηκεν.And rot the wood. The tackle store inside


ἄλλος δʼ εἰαρινὸς πέλεται πλόος ἀνθρώποισιν·And neatly fold the sails and then suspend


ἦμος δὴ τὸ πρῶτον, ὅσον τʼ ἐπιβᾶσα κορώνηThe well-made rudder over smoke, then bide


ἴχνος ἐποίησεν, τόσσον πέταλʼ ἀνδρὶ φανείῃYour time until the season’s at an end


ἐν κράδῃ ἀκροτάτῃ, τότε δʼ ἄμβατός ἐστι θάλασσα·And you may sail. Then take down to the sea


εἰαρινὸς δʼ οὗτος πέλεται πλόος. οὔ μιν ἔγωγεYour speedy ship and then prepare the freight


αἴνημʼ· οὐ γὰρ ἐμῷ θυμῷ κεχαρισμένος ἐστίν·To guarantee a gain, as formerly


ἁρπακτός· χαλεπῶς κε φύγοις κακόν· ἀλλά νυ καὶ τὰOur father would his vessels navigate.


ἄνθρωποι ῥέζουσιν ἀιδρείῃσι νόοιο·In earnest, foolish Perses, to posse


χρήματα γὰρ ψυχὴ πέλεται δειλοῖσι βροτοῖσιν.Great riches, once he journeyed to this place


δεινὸν δʼ ἐστὶ θανεῖν μετὰ κύμασιν. ἀλλά σʼ ἄνωγαFrom Cyme, fleeing not wealth or succe


φράζεσθαι τάδε πάντα μετὰ φρεσίν, ὡς ἀγορεύω.But grinding poverty, which many face


μηδʼ ἐν νηυσὶν ἅπαντα βίον κοΐλῃσι τίθεσθαι·At Zeus’s hands. Near Helicon he dwelt


ἀλλὰ πλέω λείπειν, τὰ δὲ μείονα φορτίζεσθαι.In a wretched village, Ascra, most severe


δεινὸν γὰρ πόντου μετὰ κύμασι πήματι κύρσαι.In winter, though an equal woe one felt


δεινὸν δʼ, εἴ κʼ ἐπʼ ἄμαξαν ὑπέρβιον ἄχθος ἀείραςIn summer, goods at no time. Perses, hear


ἄξονα. καυάξαις καὶ φορτία μαυρωθείη.My words – of every season’s toil take care


μέτρα φυλάσσεσθαι· καιρὸς δʼ ἐπὶ πᾶσιν ἄριστος.Particularly sailing. Sure, approve


ὡραῖος δὲ γυναῖκα τεὸν ποτὶ οἶκον ἄγεσθαιA little ship but let a large one bear


μήτε τριηκόντων ἐτέων μάλα πόλλʼ ἀπολείπωνYour merchandise – the more of this you move


μήτʼ ἐπιθεὶς μάλα πολλά· γάμος δέ τοι ὥριος οὗτος·The greater gain you make so long as you


ἡ δὲ γυνὴ τέτορʼ ἡβώοι, πέμπτῳ δὲ γαμοῖτο.Avoid strong winds. When you have turned to trade


παρθενικὴν δὲ γαμεῖν, ὥς κʼ ἤθεα κεδνὰ διδάξῃς.Your foolish mind, in earnest to eschew


τὴν δὲ μάλιστα γαμεῖν, ἥ τις σέθεν ἐγγύθι ναίειDistressful want and debits yet unpaid


πάντα μάλʼ ἀμφιιδών, μὴ γείτοσι χάρματα γήμῃς.The stretches of the loud-resounding sea


οὐ μὲν γάρ τι γυναικὸς ἀνὴρ ληίζετʼ ἄμεινονI’ll teach you, though of everything marine


τῆς ἀγαθῆς, τῆς δʼ αὖτε κακῆς οὐ ῥίγιον ἄλλοI am unlearned: yet on no odyssey


δειπνολόχης· ἥτʼ ἄνδρα καὶ ἴφθιμόν περ ἐόνταUpon the spacious ocean have I been –


εὕει ἄτερ δαλοῖο καὶ ὠμῷ γήραϊ δῶκεν.Just to Euboea from Aulis (the great host


εὖ δʼ ὄπιν ἀθανάτων μακάρων πεφυλαγμένος εἶναι.Of Greeks here waited out the stormy gale


μηδὲ κασιγνήτῳ ἶσον ποιεῖσθαι ἑταῖρον·Who went from holy Greece to Troy, whose boast


εἰ δέ κε ποιήσῃς, μή μιν πρότερος κακὸν ἔρξῃς.Is comely women). I myself took sail


μηδὲ ψεύδεσθαι γλώσσης χάριν· εἰ δὲ σέ γʼ ἄρχῃTo Chalchis for the games of the geniu


ἤ τι ἔπος εἰπὼν ἀποθύμιον ἠὲ καὶ ἔρξαςArchidamas: for many games had been


δὶς τόσα τίνυσθαι μεμνημένος· εἰ δὲ σέ γʼ αὖτιςArranged by children of that glorious


ἡγῆτʼ ἐς φιλότητα, δίκην δʼ ἐθέλῃσι παρασχεῖνGreat man and advertised. I scored a win


δέξασθαι· δειλός τοι ἀνὴρ φίλον ἄλλοτε ἄλλονFor song and brought back home my accolade


ποιεῖται, σὲ δὲ μή τι νόον κατελεγχέτω εἶδος.A two-eared tripod which I dedicated


μηδὲ πολύξεινον μηδʼ ἄξεινον καλέεσθαιTo the Muses there in Helicon (I made


μηδὲ κακῶν ἕταρον μηδʼ ἐσθλῶν νεικεστῆρα.My debut there when I participated


μηδέ ποτʼ οὐλομένην πενίην θυμοφθόρον ἀνδρὶIn lovely song). Familiarity


τέτλαθʼ ὀνειδίζειν, μακάρων δόσιν αἰὲν ἐόντων.With ships for me to this has been confined.


γλώσσης τοι θησαυρὸς ἐν ἀνθρώποισιν ἄριστοςBut since the Muses taught singing to me


φειδωλῆς, πλείστη δὲ χάρις κατὰ μέτρον ἰούσης.I’ll tell you aegis-bearing Zeus’s mind.


εἰ δὲ κακὸν εἴποις, τάχα κʼ αὐτὸς μεῖζον ἀκούσαις.When fifty days beyond the solstice go


μηδὲ πολυξείνου δαιτὸς δυσπέμφελος εἶναιAnd toilsome summer’s ending, mortals can


ἐκ κοινοῦ· πλείστη δὲ χάρις, δαπάνη τʼ ὀλιγίστη.Set sail upon the ocean, which will no


μηδέ ποτʼ ἐξ ἠοῦς Διὶ λειβέμεν αἴθοπα οἶνονSeafarers slaughter, nor will any man


χερσὶν ἀνίπτοισιν μηδʼ ἄλλοις ἀθανάτοισιν·Shatter his ship, unless such is the will


οὐ γὰρ τοί γε κλύουσιν, ἀποπτύουσι δέ τʼ ἀράς.Of earth-shaking Poseidon or our king


μηδʼ ἄντʼ ἠελίου τετραμμένος ὀρθὸς ὀμιχεῖν·Lord Zeus, who always judge both good and ill.


αὐτὰρ ἐπεί κε δύῃ, μεμνημένος, ἔς τʼ ἀνιόντα·The sea is tranquil then, unwavering


μήτʼ ἐν ὁδῷ μήτʼ ἐκτὸς ὁδοῦ προβάδην οὐρήσῃςThe winds. Trust these and drag down to the sea


μηδʼ ἀπογυμνωθείς· μακάρων τοι νύκτες ἔασιν·Your ship with confidence and place all freight


ἑζόμενος δʼ ὅ γε θεῖος ἀνήρ, πεπνυμένα εἰδώςOn board and then as swiftly as may be


ἢ ὅ γε πρὸς τοῖχον πελάσας ἐυερκέος αὐλῆς.Sail home and for the autumn rain don’t wait


μηδʼ αἰδοῖα γονῇ πεπαλαγμένος ἔνδοθι οἴκουOr fast-approaching blizzards, new-made wine


ἱστίῃ ἐμπελαδὸν παραφαινέμεν, ἀλλʼ ἀλέασθαι.The South Wind’s dreadful blasts – he stirs the sea


μηδʼ ἀπὸ δυσφήμοιο τάφου ἀπονοστήσανταAnd brings downpours in spring and makes the brine


σπερμαίνειν γενεήν, ἀλλʼ ἀθανάτων ἀπὸ δαιτός.Inclement. Spring, too, grants humanity


μηδέ ποτʼ αἰενάων ποταμῶν καλλίρροον ὕδωρThe chance to sail. When first some leaves are seen


ποσσὶ περᾶν, πρίν γʼ εὔξῃ ἰδὼν ἐς καλὰ ῥέεθραOn fig-tree-tops, as tiny as the mark


χεῖρας νιψάμενος πολυηράτῳ ὕδατι λευκῷ.A raven leaves, the sea becomes serene


ὃς ποταμὸν διαβῇ κακότητʼ ἰδὲ χεῖρας ἄνιπτοςFor sailing. Though spring bids you to embark


τῷ δὲ θεοὶ νεμεσῶσι καὶ ἄλγεα δῶκαν ὀπίσσω.I’ll not praise it – it does not gladden me.


μηδʼ ἀπὸ πεντόζοιο θεῶν ἐν δαιτὶ θαλείῃIt’s hazardous, for you’ll avoid distre


αὖον ἀπὸ χλωροῦ τάμνειν αἴθωνι σιδήρῳ.With difficulty thus. Imprudently


μηδέ ποτʼ οἰνοχόην τιθέμεν κρητῆρος ὕπερθεDo men sail at that time – covetousne


πινόντων· ὀλοὴ γὰρ ἐπʼ αὐτῷ μοῖρα τέτυκται.Is their whole life, the wretches. For the sea


μηδὲ δόμον ποιῶν ἀνεπίξεστον καταλείπεινTo take your life is dire. Listen to me:


μή τοι ἐφεζομένη κρώξῃ λακέρυζα κορώνη.Don’t place aboard all your commodities –


μηδʼ ἀπὸ χυτροπόδων ἀνεπιρρέκτων ἀνελόνταLeave most behind, place a small quantity


ἔσθειν μηδὲ λόεσθαι· ἐπεὶ καὶ τοῖς ἔνι ποινή.Aboard. To tax your cart too much and break


μηδʼ ἐπʼ ἀκινήτοισι καθιζέμεν, οὐ γὰρ ἄμεινονAn axle, losing all, will bring distress.


παῖδα δυωδεκαταῖον, ὅτʼ ἀνέρʼ ἀνήνορα ποιεῖBe moderate, for everyone should take


μηδὲ δυωδεκάμηνον· ἴσον καὶ τοῦτο τέτυκται.An apt approach. When you’re in readiness


μηδὲ γυναικείῳ λουτρῷ χρόα φαιδρύνεσθαιGet married. Thirty years, or very near


ἀνέρα· λευγαλέη γὰρ ἐπὶ χρόνον ἔστʼ ἐπὶ καὶ τῷIs apt for marriage. Now, past puberty


ποινή. μηδʼ ἱεροῖσιν ἐπʼ αἰθομένοισι κυρήσαςYour bride should go four years: in the fifth year


μωμεύειν ἀίδηλα· θεός νύ τι καὶ τὰ νεμεσσᾷ.Wed her. That you may teach her modesty


μηδέ ποτʼ ἐν προχοῇς ποταμῶν ἅλαδε προρεόντωνMarry a maid. The best would be one who


μηδʼ ἐπὶ κρηνάων οὐρεῖν, μάλα δʼ ἐξαλέασθαι·Lives near you, but you must with care look round


μηδʼ ἐναποψύχειν· τὸ γὰρ οὔ τοι λώιόν ἐστιν.Lest neighbours make a laughingstock of you.


ὧδʼ ἔρδειν· δεινὴν δὲ βροτῶν ὑπαλεύεο φήμην.A better choice for men cannot be found


φήμη γάρ τε κακὴ πέλεται, κούφη μὲν ἀεῖραιThan a good woman, nor a worse one than


ῥεῖα μάλʼ, ἀργαλέη δὲ φέρειν, χαλεπὴ δʼ ἀποθέσθαι.One who’s unworthy, say a sponging mare


φήμη δʼ οὔτις πάμπαν ἀπόλλυται, ἥν τινα πολλοὶWho will, without a torch, burn up a man


λαοὶ φημίξωσι· θεός νύ τίς ἐστι καὶ αὐτή.And bring him to a raw old age. Beware


Ἤματα δʼ ἐκ Διόθεν πεφυλαγμένος εὖ κατὰ μοῖρανOf angering the blessed ones – your friend


πεφραδέμεν δμώεσσι· τριηκάδα μηνὸς ἀρίστηνIs not your brother – treat them differently.


ἔργα τʼ ἐποπτεύειν ἠδʼ ἁρμαλιὴν δατέασθαι.But if you don’t, don’t be first to offend.


εὖτʼ ἂν ἀληθείην λαοὶ κρίνοντες ἄγωσιν.Don’t lie. If he treats you offensively


αἵδε γὰρ ἡμέραι εἰσὶ Διὸς πάρα μητιόεντοςIn word or deed, then you should recompense


Πρῶτον ἔνη τετράς τε καὶ ἑβδόμη ἱερὸν ἦμαρ·Him double, then, if he would be again


τῇ γὰρ Ἀπόλλωνα χρυσάορα γείνατο Λητώ·Your friend and pay the price for his offence


ὀγδοάτη δʼ ἐνάτη τε, δύω γε μὲν ἤματα μηνὸςThen take him back. They are all wretched men


ἔξοχʼ ἀεξομένοιο βροτήσια ἔργα πένεσθαι·Who go from friend to friend, so let your face


ἑνδεκάτη δὲ δυωδεκάτη τʼ, ἄμφω γε μὲν ἐσθλαίNot falsify your nature. Let none be


ἠμὲν ὄις πείκειν ἠδʼ εὔφρονα καρπὸν ἀμᾶσθαι·Able to call you comrade of the base


ἡ δὲ δυωδεκάτη τῆς ἑνδεκάτης μέγʼ ἀμείνων·Or one who fights men of integrity


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

17 results
1. Archilochus, Fragments, 3 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

2. Archilochus, Fragments, 3 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

3. Hesiod, Works And Days, 165, 240-292, 294-619, 621-776, 778, 780-784, 788-789, 793-806, 813-828, 164 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

164. Called demigods. It was the race before
4. Hesiod, Theogony, 23-35, 448-451, 820-852, 22 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

22. Black Night and each sacred divinity
5. Homer, Iliad, 18.607-18.608 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

18.607. /and two tumblers whirled up and down through the midst of them as leaders in the dance.Therein he set also the great might of the river Oceanus, around the uttermost rim of the strongly-wrought shield.But when he had wrought the shield, great and sturdy 18.608. /and two tumblers whirled up and down through the midst of them as leaders in the dance.Therein he set also the great might of the river Oceanus, around the uttermost rim of the strongly-wrought shield.But when he had wrought the shield, great and sturdy
6. Alcman, Poems, 1 (7th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

7. Herodotus, Histories, 4.42 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.42. I wonder, then, at those who have mapped out and divided the world into Libya, Asia, and Europe; for the difference between them is great, seeing that in length Europe stretches along both the others together, and it appears to me to be wider beyond all comparison. ,For Libya shows clearly that it is bounded by the sea, except where it borders on Asia. Necos king of Egypt first discovered this and made it known. When he had finished digging the canal which leads from the Nile to the Arabian Gulf, he sent Phoenicians in ships, instructing them to sail on their return voyage past the Pillars of Heracles until they came into the northern sea and so to Egypt. ,So the Phoenicians set out from the Red Sea and sailed the southern sea; whenever autumn came they would put in and plant the land in whatever part of Libya they had reached, and there await the harvest; ,then, having gathered the crop, they sailed on, so that after two years had passed, it was in the third that they rounded the pillars of Heracles and came to Egypt. There they said (what some may believe, though I do not) that in sailing around Libya they had the sun on their right hand.
8. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 1.15.3, 1.68-1.71, 1.73-1.79, 1.84, 1.120 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.15.3. The nearest approach to a coalition took place in the old war between Chalcis and Eretria ; this was a quarrel in which the rest of the Hellenic name did to some extent take sides.
9. Aristotle, Meteorology, 2.6 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

10. Demosthenes, Against Neaera, 97 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

11. Demosthenes, On The Crown, 267 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

12. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 4.706-4.708, 4.721-4.722 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 4.39, 4.318, 4.449-4.486, 4.495-4.501, 4.503, 4.506, 4.508, 4.616, 4.656, 5.306-5.330, 5.335, 5.343, 5.350, 5.361-5.387 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.39. 6. And now Vespasian comforted his army, which was much dejected by reflecting on their ill success, and because they had never before fallen into such a calamity, and besides this, because they were greatly ashamed that they had left their general alone in great dangers. 4.39. This was brought about by his still disagreeing with the opinions of others, and giving out injunctions of his own, in a very imperious manner; so that it was evident he was setting up a monarchical power. 4.318. I should not mistake if I said that the death of Aus was the beginning of the destruction of the city, and that from this very day may be dated the overthrow of her wall, and the ruin of her affairs, whereon they saw their high priest, and the procurer of their preservation, slain in the midst of their city. 4.449. while he, with the rest of his forces, returned to Emmaus, whence he came down through the country of Samaria, and hard by the city, by others called Neapolis (or Sichem), but by the people of that country Mabortha, to Corea, where he pitched his camp, on the second day of the month Daesius [Sivan]; 4.451. 2. Hereupon a great multitude prevented their approach, and came out of Jericho, and fled to those mountainous parts that lay over against Jerusalem, while that part which was left behind was in a great measure destroyed; 4.452. they also found the city desolate. It is situated in a plain; but a naked and barren mountain, of a very great length, hangs over it 4.453. which extends itself to the land about Scythopolis northward, but as far as the country of Sodom, and the utmost limits of the lake Asphaltitis, southward. This mountain is all of it very uneven and uninhabited, by reason of its barrenness: 4.454. there is an opposite mountain that is situated over against it, on the other side of Jordan; this last begins at Julias, and the northern quarters, and extends itself southward as far as Somorrhon, which is the bounds of Petra, in Arabia. In this ridge of mountains there is one called the Iron Mountain, that runs in length as far as Moab. 4.455. Now the region that lies in the middle between these ridges of mountains is called the Great Plain; it reaches from the village Ginnabris, as far as the lake Asphaltitis; 4.456. its length is two hundred and thirty furlongs, and its breadth a hundred and twenty, and it is divided in the midst by Jordan. It hath two lakes in it, that of Asphaltitis, and that of Tiberias, whose natures are opposite to each other; for the former is salt and unfruitful, but that of Tiberias is sweet and fruitful. 4.457. This plain is much burnt up in summertime, and, by reason of the extraordinary heat, contains a very unwholesome air; 4.458. it is all destitute of water excepting the river Jordan, which water of Jordan is the occasion why those plantations of palm trees that are near its banks are more flourishing, and much more fruitful, as are those that are remote from it not so flourishing, or fruitful. 4.459. 3. Notwithstanding which, there is a fountain by Jericho, that runs plentifully, and is very fit for watering the ground; it arises near the old city, which Joshua, the son of Nun, the general of the Hebrews, took the first of all the cities of the land of Canaan, by right of war. 4.461. who, when he once was the guest of the people at Jericho, and the men of the place had treated him very kindly, he both made them amends as well as the country, by a lasting favor; 4.462. for he went out of the city to this fountain, and threw into the current an earthen vessel full of salt; after which he stretched out his righteous hand unto heaven, and, pouring out a mild drink-offering, he made this supplication,—That the current might be mollified, and that the veins of fresh water might be opened; 4.463. that God also would bring into the place a more temperate and fertile air for the current, and would bestow upon the people of that country plenty of the fruits of the earth, and a succession of children; and that this prolific water might never fail them, while they continued to be righteous. 4.464. To these prayers Elisha joined proper operations of his hands, after a skillful manner, and changed the fountain; and that water, which had been the occasion of barrenness and famine before, from that time did supply a numerous posterity, and afforded great abundance to the country. 4.465. Accordingly, the power of it is so great in watering the ground, that if it does but once touch a country, it affords a sweeter nourishment than other waters do, when they lie so long upon them, till they are satiated with them. 4.466. For which reason, the advantage gained from other waters, when they flow in great plenty, is but small, while that of this water is great when it flows even in little quantities. 4.467. Accordingly, it waters a larger space of ground than any other waters do, and passes along a plain of seventy furlongs long, and twenty broad; wherein it affords nourishment to those most excellent gardens that are thick set with trees. 4.468. There are in it many sorts of palm trees that are watered by it, different from each other in taste and name; the better sort of them, when they are pressed, yield an excellent kind of honey, not much inferior in sweetness to other honey. 4.469. This country withal produces honey from bees; it also bears that balsam which is the most precious of all the fruits in that place, cypress trees also, and those that bear myrobalanum; so that he who should pronounce this place to be divine would not be mistaken, wherein is such plenty of trees produced as are very rare, and of the most excellent sort. 4.471. the cause of which seems to me to be the warmth of the air, and the fertility of the waters; the warmth calling forth the sprouts, and making them spread, and the moisture making every one of them take root firmly, and supplying that virtue which it stands in need of in summertime. Now this country is then so sadly burnt up, that nobody cares to come at it; 4.472. and if the water be drawn up before sunrising, and after that exposed to the air, it becomes exceeding cold, and becomes of a nature quite contrary to the ambient air; 4.473. as in winter again it becomes warm; and if you go into it, it appears very gentle. The ambient air is here also of so good a temperature, that the people of the country are clothed in linen-only, even when snow covers the rest of Judea. 4.474. This place is one hundred and fifty furlongs from Jerusalem, and sixty from Jordan. The country, as far as Jerusalem, is desert and stony; but that as far as Jordan and the lake Asphaltitis lies lower indeed, though it be equally desert and barren. 4.475. But so much shall suffice to have been said about Jericho, and of the great happiness of its situation. 4.476. 4. The nature of the lake Asphaltitis is also worth describing. It is, as I have said already, bitter and unfruitful. It is so light [or thick] that it bears up the heaviest things that are thrown into it; nor is it easy for anyone to make things sink therein to the bottom, if he had a mind so to do. 4.477. Accordingly, when Vespasian went to see it, he commanded that some who could not swim should have their hands tied behind them, and be thrown into the deep, when it so happened that they all swam as if a wind had forced them upwards. 4.478. Moreover, the change of the color of this lake is wonderful, for it changes its appearance thrice every day; and as the rays of the sun fall differently upon it, the light is variously reflected. 4.479. However, it casts up black clods of bitumen in many parts of it; these swim at the top of the water, and resemble both in shape and bigness headless bulls; 4.481. This bitumen is not only useful for the caulking of ships, but for the cure of men’s bodies; accordingly, it is mixed in a great many medicines. 4.482. The length of this lake is five hundred and eighty furlongs, where it is extended as far as Zoar in Arabia; and its breadth is a hundred and fifty. 4.483. The country of Sodom borders upon it. It was of old a most happy land, both for the fruits it bore and the riches of its cities, although it be now all burnt up. 4.484. It is related how, for the impiety of its inhabitants, it was burnt by lightning; in consequence of which there are still the remainders of that Divine fire, and the traces [or shadows] of the five cities are still to be seen, as well as the ashes growing in their fruits; which fruits have a color as if they were fit to be eaten, but if you pluck them with your hands, they dissolve into smoke and ashes. 4.485. And thus what is related of this land of Sodom hath these marks of credibility which our very sight affords us. 4.486. 1. And now Vespasian had fortified all the places round about Jerusalem, and erected citadels at Jericho and Adida, and placed garrisons in them both, partly out of his own Romans, and partly out of the body of his auxiliaries. 4.501. but Titus, by a Divine impulse, sailed back from Greece to Syria, and came in great haste to Caesarea, to his father. 4.503. 3. And now there arose another war at Jerusalem. There was a son of Giora, one Simon, by birth of Gerasa, a young man, not so cunning indeed as John [of Gischala], who had already seized upon the city 4.506. However, his manner so well agreed with theirs, and he seemed so trusty a man, that he went out with them, and ravaged and destroyed the country with them about Masada; 4.508. but he affecting to tyrannize, and being fond of greatness, when he had heard of the death of Aus, he left them, and went into the mountainous part of the country. So he proclaimed liberty to those in slavery, and a reward to those already free, and got together a set of wicked men from all quarters. 4.616. 6. Justly, therefore, did Vespasian desire to obtain that government, in order to corroborate his attempts upon the whole empire; so he immediately sent to Tiberius Alexander, who was then governor of Egypt and of Alexandria, and informed him what the army had put upon him, and how he, being forced to accept of the burden of the government, was desirous to have him for his confederate and supporter. 4.656. 5. And now, as Vespasian was come to Alexandria, this good news came from Rome, and at the same time came embassies from all his own habitable earth, to congratulate him upon his advancement; and though this Alexandria was the greatest of all cities next to Rome, it proved too narrow to contain the multitude that then came to it. 5.317. 4. And now Titus brought one of his engines to the middle tower of the north part of the wall, in which a certain crafty Jew, whose name was Castor, lay in ambush, with ten others like himself, the rest being fled away by reason of the archers. 5.318. These men lay still for a while, as in great fear, under their breastplates; but when the tower was shaken, they arose, and Castor did then stretch out his hand, as a petitioner, and called for Caesar, and by his voice moved his compassion, and begged of him to have mercy upon them; 5.319. and Titus, in the innocency of his heart, believing him to be in earnest, and hoping that the Jews did now repent, stopped the working of the batteringram, and forbade them to shoot at the petitioners, and bid Castor say what he had a mind to say to him. 5.321. Now five of the ten dissembled with him, and pretended to beg for mercy, while the rest cried out aloud that they would never be slaves to the Romans, while it was in their power to die in a state of freedom. 5.322. Now while these men were quarreling for a long while, the attack was delayed; Castor also sent to Simon, and told him that they might take some time for consultation about what was to be done, because he would elude the power of the Romans for a considerable time. And at the same time that he sent thus to him, he appeared openly to exhort those that were obstinate to accept of Titus’s hand for their security; 5.323. but they seemed very angry at it, and brandished their naked swords upon the breastworks, and struck themselves upon their breast, and fell down as if they had been slain. 5.324. Hereupon Titus, and those with him, were amazed at the courage of the men; and as they were not able to see exactly what was done, they admired at their great fortitude, and pitied their calamity. 5.325. During this interval, a certain person shot a dart at Castor, and wounded him in his nose; whereupon he presently pulled out the dart, and showed it to Titus, and complained that this was unfair treatment; so Caesar reproved him that shot the dart, and sent Josephus, who then stood by him, to give his right hand to Castor. 5.326. But Josephus said that he would not go to him, because these pretended petitioners meant nothing that was good; he also restrained those friends of his who were zealous to go to him. But still there was one Aeneas, a deserter, who said he would go to him. 5.327. Castor also called to them, that somebody should come and receive the money which he had with him; this made Aeneas the more earnestly to run to him with his bosom open. 5.328. Then did Castor take up a great stone, and threw it at him, which missed him, because he guarded himself against it; but still it wounded another soldier that was coming to him. 5.329. When Caesar understood that this was a delusion, he perceived that mercy in war is a pernicious thing, because such cunning tricks have less place under the exercise of greater severity. So he caused the engine to work more strongly than before, on account of his anger at the deceit put upon him. 5.335. As to the people, he had them of a long time ready to comply with his proposals; but as to the fighting men, this humanity of his seemed a mark of his weakness, and they imagined that he made these proposals because he was not able to take the rest of the city. 5.343. For God had blinded their minds for the transgressions they had been guilty of, nor could they see how much greater forces the Romans had than those that were now expelled, no more than they could discern how a famine was creeping upon them; 5.361. o he mixed good counsel with his works for the siege. And being sensible that exhortations are frequently more effectual than arms, he persuaded them to surrender the city, now in a manner already taken, and thereby to save themselves, and sent Josephus to speak to them in their own language; for he imagined they might yield to the persuasion of a countryman of their own. 5.362. 3. So Josephus went round about the wall, and tried to find a place that was out of the reach of their darts, and yet within their hearing, and besought them, in many words, to spare themselves, to spare their country and their temple, and not to be more obdurate in these cases than foreigners themselves; 5.363. for that the Romans, who had no relation to those things, had a reverence for their sacred rites and places, although they belonged to their enemies, and had till now kept their hands off from meddling with them; while such as were brought up under them, and, if they be preserved, will be the only people that will reap the benefit of them, hurry on to have them destroyed. 5.364. That certainly they have seen their strongest walls demolished, and that the wall still remaining was weaker than those that were already taken. That they must know the Roman power was invincible, and that they had been used to serve them; 5.365. for, that in case it be allowed a right thing to fight for liberty, that ought to have been done at first; but for them that have once fallen under the power of the Romans, and have now submitted to them for so many long years, to pretend to shake off that yoke afterward, was the work of such as had a mind to die miserably, not of such as were lovers of liberty. 5.366. Besides, men may well enough grudge at the dishonor of owning ignoble masters over them, but ought not to do so to those who have all things under their command; for what part of the world is there that hath escaped the Romans, unless it be such as are of no use for violent heat, or for violent cold? 5.367. And evident it is that fortune is on all hands gone over to them; and that God, when he had gone round the nations with this dominion, is now settled in Italy. That, moreover, it is a strong and fixed law, even among brute beasts, as well as among men, to yield to those that are too strong for them; and to suffer those to have dominion who are too hard 5.368. for the rest in war; for which reason it was that their forefathers, who were far superior to them, both in their souls and bodies, and other advantages, did yet submit to the Romans, which they would not have suffered, had they not known that God was with them. 5.369. As for themselves, what can they depend on in this their opposition, when the greatest part of their city is already taken? and when those that are within it are under greater miseries than if they were taken, although their walls be still standing? 5.371. for although the Romans should leave off the siege, and not fall upon the city with their swords in their hands, yet was there an insuperable war that beset them within, and was augmented every hour, unless they were able to wage war with famine, and fight against it, or could alone conquer their natural appetites. 5.372. He added this further, how right a thing it was to change their conduct before their calamities were become incurable, and to have recourse to such advice as might preserve them, while opportunity was offered them for so doing; for that the Romans would not be mindful of their past actions to their disadvantage, unless they persevered in their insolent behavior to the end; because they were naturally mild in their conquests, and preferred what was profitable, before what their passions dictated to them; 5.373. which profit of theirs lay not in leaving the city empty of inhabitants, nor the country a desert; on which account Caesar did now offer them his right hand for their security. Whereas, if he took the city by force, he would not save anyone of them, and this especially, if they rejected his offers in these their utmost distresses; 5.374. for the walls that were already taken could not but assure them that the third wall would quickly be taken also. And though their fortifications should prove too strong for the Romans to break through them, yet would the famine fight for the Romans against them. 5.375. 4. While Josephus was making this exhortation to the Jews, many of them jested upon him from the wall, and many reproached him; nay, some threw their darts at him: but when he could not himself persuade them by such open good advice, he betook himself to the histories belonging to their own nation 5.376. and cried out aloud, “O miserable creatures! are you so unmindful of those that used to assist you, that you will fight by your weapons and by your hands against the Romans? When did we ever conquer any other nation by such means? 5.377. and when was it that God, who is the Creator of the Jewish people, did not avenge them when they had been injured? Will not you turn again, and look back, and consider whence it is that you fight with such violence, and how great a Supporter you have profanely abused? Will not you recall to mind the prodigious things done for your forefathers and this holy place, and how great enemies of yours were by him subdued under you? 5.378. I even tremble myself in declaring the works of God before your ears, that are unworthy to hear them; however, hearken to me, that you may be informed how you fight not only against the Romans, but against God himself. 5.379. In old times there was one Necao, king of Egypt, who was also called Pharaoh; he came with a prodigious army of soldiers, and seized queen Sarah, the mother of our nation. 5.381. Was not our queen sent back, without any defilement, to her husband, the very next evening?—while the king of Egypt fled away, adoring this place which you have defiled by shedding thereon the blood of your own countrymen; and he also trembled at those visions which he saw in the night season, and bestowed both silver and gold on the Hebrews, as on a people beloved by God. 5.382. Shall I say nothing, or shall I mention the removal of our fathers into Egypt, who, when they were used tyrannically, and were fallen under the power of foreign kings for four hundred years together, and might have defended themselves by war and by fighting, did yet do nothing but commit themselves to God? 5.383. Who is there that does not know that Egypt was overrun with all sorts of wild beasts, and consumed by all sorts of distempers? how their land did not bring forth its fruit? how the Nile failed of water? how the ten plagues of Egypt followed one upon another? and how by those means our fathers were sent away under a guard, without any bloodshed, and without running any dangers, because God conducted them as his peculiar servants? 5.384. Moreover, did not Palestine groan under the ravage the Assyrians made, when they carried away our sacred ark? asdid their idol Dagon, and as also did that entire nation of those that carried it away 5.385. how they were smitten with a loathsome distemper in the secret parts of their bodies, when their very bowels came down together with what they had eaten, till those hands that stole it away were obliged to bring it back again, and that with the sound of cymbals and timbrels, and other oblations, in order to appease the anger of God for their violation of his holy ark. 5.386. It was God who then became our General, and accomplished these great things for our fathers, and this because they did not meddle with war and fighting, but committed it to him to judge about their affairs. 5.387. When Sennacherib, king of Assyria, brought along with him all Asia, and encompassed this city round with his army, did he fall by the hands of men?
14. Lucan, Pharsalia, 5.476-5.498 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 18.269-18.271 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.16.5-5.16.7 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.16.5. Besides the account already given they tell another story about the Sixteen Women as follows. Damophon, it is said, when tyrant of Pisa did much grievous harm to the Eleans. But when he died, since the people of Pisa refused to participate as a people in their tyrant's sins, and the Eleans too became quite ready to lay aside their grievances, they chose a woman from each of the sixteen cities of Elis still inhabited at that time to settle their differences, this woman to be the oldest, the most noble, and the most esteemed of all the women. 5.16.6. The cities from which they chose the women were Elis, The women from these cities made peace between Pisa and Elis . Later on they were entrusted with the management of the Heraean games, and with the weaving of the robe for Hera. The Sixteen Women also arrange two choral dances, one called that of Physcoa and the other that of Hippodameia. This Physcoa they say came from Elis in the Hollow, and the name of the parish where she lived was Orthia. 5.16.7. She mated they say with Dionysus, and bore him a son called Narcaeus. When he grew up he made war against the neighboring folk, and rose to great power, setting up moreover a sanctuary of Athena surnamed Narcaea. They say too that Narcaeus and Physcoa were the first to pay worship to Dionysus. So various honors are paid to Physcoa, especially that of the choral dance, named after her and managed by the Sixteen Women. The Eleans still adhere to the other ancient customs, even though some of the cities have been destroyed. For they are now divided into eight tribes, and they choose two women from each.
17. Manilius, Astronomica, 5.206-5.211, 5.538-5.619



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abrasax Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 126
aegean sea, winds in Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 65
aelius aristides, p. Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 390
agore/ἀγορή Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 113
agricultural calendar Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 86, 87, 88
agriculture, as a metapoetic metaphor in hesiod Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 88
agriculture Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 7
alcibiades Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels (2023) 787
alcyons Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 65, 66
amphidamas, funeral games of Marincola et al., Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones and Calum Maciver, Greek Notions of the Past in the Archaic and Classical Eras: History Without Historians (2021) 49
amulets Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 126
aquilones Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 65
arcturus Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 65
asia, continent and region Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 66
astrology Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 390; Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 244; Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 537
astrometeorology, stars rising from / setting into the sea Green, Carthage in Virgil's Aeneid: Staging the Enemy under Augustus (2014) 48
astronomica (manilius), (deteriorating) teacher / student relationship in Green, Carthage in Virgil's Aeneid: Staging the Enemy under Augustus (2014) 48
astronomica (manilius), andromeda digression in Green, Carthage in Virgil's Aeneid: Staging the Enemy under Augustus (2014) 48
augustus Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 244
aulis Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 86, 87
authority, poetic Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 88
autocracy, roman Keith and Edmondson, Roman Literary Cultures: Domestic Politics, Revolutionary Poetics, Civic Spectacle (2016) 232
bergk, wilhelm theodor Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture (2021) 250
birds Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 65, 66
caesar, julius Keith and Edmondson, Roman Literary Cultures: Domestic Politics, Revolutionary Poetics, Civic Spectacle (2016) 232
calame, claude Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture (2021) 539
calendars Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 65
canicula Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 65
chalcis Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 87
chelidoniae wind Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 65
choral Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture (2021) 539
civil war, roman Keith and Edmondson, Roman Literary Cultures: Domestic Politics, Revolutionary Poetics, Civic Spectacle (2016) 232
comedy Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 331
competition Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture (2021) 539
constantine Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 126
constellations Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 65
contests, poetic Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 87
contingency Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 87, 88
cultic ritual practice, calendars and festivals Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 537
cultic ritual practice, sacrificial and festal calendars Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 537
cyme Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 86
cyrnus Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture (2021) 250
dance, choral Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 390
dance, cosmic Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 390
dancing Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture (2021) 539
demetrius poliorcetes Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 390
demosthenes Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 331
divination Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 244
drama Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 331
earth, beneath Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 66
ecnephias Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 66
egypt, and astronomy Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 66
elis, elean Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture (2021) 539
elitism Keith and Edmondson, Roman Literary Cultures: Domestic Politics, Revolutionary Poetics, Civic Spectacle (2016) 232
emotion\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 168
encomium Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 390
epic Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 126
eris Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 88
eudoxus of cnidus Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 66
euripides Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 331
euripus, the Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 87
festival Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture (2021) 539
festivals Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 537
flavius josephus\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 168
food Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 86, 87, 88
gallia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 65
gallia narbonensis Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 65
greece Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 113
hadriatic sea Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 390
halcyons Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 65, 66
hannah, robert Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 537
hecuba Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 331
helicon Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 86
helios Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 390
hera Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture (2021) 539
herodotean life of homer, the Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 87
heroes, race of, in hesiod Marincola et al., Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones and Calum Maciver, Greek Notions of the Past in the Archaic and Classical Eras: History Without Historians (2021) 49
hesiod, at funeral games for amphidamas Marincola et al., Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones and Calum Maciver, Greek Notions of the Past in the Archaic and Classical Eras: History Without Historians (2021) 49
hesiod, myth of the races in Marincola et al., Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones and Calum Maciver, Greek Notions of the Past in the Archaic and Classical Eras: History Without Historians (2021) 49
hesiod, works and days Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture (2021) 250; Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 537
hesiod Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture (2021) 250; Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 126; Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 86, 87, 88; Marincola et al., Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones and Calum Maciver, Greek Notions of the Past in the Archaic and Classical Eras: History Without Historians (2021) 49
hirundo Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 65
hispania Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 66
homer Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 87
horologium Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 390
hymn Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 390
hymns Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 87
iaō Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 126
inscriptions, sacrificial calendars Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 537
intercalary year Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 66
italy (italia), weather and Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 65, 66
jerusalem\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 168
judaea\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 168
judaean (or jewish) war\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 168
justice Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 86, 87, 88
kravaritou, s. Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 537
lamella Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 126
leocrates Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 331
longus, religion Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels (2023) 787
manilius (marcus manilius) Green, Carthage in Virgil's Aeneid: Staging the Enemy under Augustus (2014) 48
mediterranean, climate Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 7
mediterranean sea, winds in Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 65
mesomedes Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 390
metaphor Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 244
misinformation Keith and Edmondson, Roman Literary Cultures: Domestic Politics, Revolutionary Poetics, Civic Spectacle (2016) 232
moon Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 244
moon divinity Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 244
music Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 390
nymphs Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels (2023) 787
odysseus Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 126
odyssey\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 168
olives Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 7
ornithias wind Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 65
pan Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels (2023) 787
parisinus suppl. gr. Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture (2021) 250
patronage Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 390
peleades Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture (2021) 539
perses Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 86, 87, 88
philetas, in longus Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels (2023) 787
pindar Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture (2021) 539
piracy Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 66
pleiades Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 66
poetic quotations Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 331
poetry, and aristocratic power Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 86, 87, 88
poetry Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 390
portal Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 113
poseidon Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 126
prodromi Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 65
prosodion Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 390
ptolemy Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 244
republicanism Keith and Edmondson, Roman Literary Cultures: Domestic Politics, Revolutionary Poetics, Civic Spectacle (2016) 232
rhetoric Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 88
rings Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 126
ritual Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture (2021) 539
rome\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 168
sabina Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 390
sailing season Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 65, 66
sea Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 113
seamen Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 65
seasons Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 65, 66
selene Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 390
shipwreck Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 126
sirius (seirios) Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 65
snow Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 66
socrates Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels (2023) 787
solon Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 331
spaces, civic Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 113
storm\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 168
sub-élite Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 390
sun Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 244
tacking Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 66
tartaros Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 66
theognis and the theognidea Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture (2021) 250
thucydides Marincola et al., Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones and Calum Maciver, Greek Notions of the Past in the Archaic and Classical Eras: History Without Historians (2021) 49
thunderbolts Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 66
time, calendars' Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 537
timeliness Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 86, 87, 88
timosthenes of rhodes Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 65
tragedy Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 331
transformations Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 113
travel, dangers of travel Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 168
trojan war, the Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 87, 88
trojan war Marincola et al., Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones and Calum Maciver, Greek Notions of the Past in the Archaic and Classical Eras: History Without Historians (2021) 49
troy Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 87; Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 113
trümpy, c. Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 537
typhon, meterological phenomenon Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 66
typhon, mythological creature or personality Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 66
vergiliae Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 65
vespasian\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 168
vitellius\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 168
vortex Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 66
weather Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 66
winds Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 65, 66
year of the four emperors\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 168
zeus (god) Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 66
ἔργον Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 113