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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6471
Hesiod, Works And Days, 294-618


φρασσάμενος, τά κʼ ἔπειτα καὶ ἐς τέλος ᾖσιν ἀμείνω·Far-seeing Zeus repays him with a store


ἐσθλὸς δʼ αὖ κἀκεῖνος, ὃς εὖ εἰπόντι πίθηται·Of wealth, but if one swears false oaths outright


ὃς δέ κε μήτʼ αὐτὸς νοέῃ μήτʼ ἄλλου ἀκούωνCommitting fatal wrongs, forevermore


ἐν θυμῷ βάλληται, ὃ δʼ αὖτʼ ἀχρήιος ἀνήρ.His kin shall live in gloominess, while he


ἀλλὰ σύ γʼ ἡμετέρης μεμνημένος αἰὲν ἐφετμῆςWho keeps his oath shall benefit his kin.


ἐργάζευ, Πέρση, δῖον γένος, ὄφρα σε λιμὸςI tell you things of great utility


ἐχθαίρῃ, φιλέῃ δέ σʼ ἐυστέφανος ΔημήτηρFoolish Perses; to take and capture sin


αἰδοίη, βιότου δὲ τεὴν πιμπλῇσι καλιήν·En masse is easy: she is very near


λιμὸς γάρ τοι πάμπαν ἀεργῷ σύμφορος ἀνδρί.The road is flat. To goodness, though, much sweat


τῷ δὲ θεοὶ νεμεσῶσι καὶ ἀνέρες, ὅς κεν ἀεργὸςThe gods have placed en route. The road is sheer


ζώῃ, κηφήνεσσι κοθούροις εἴκελος ὀργήνAnd long and rough at first, but when you get


οἵ τε μελισσάων κάματον τρύχουσιν ἀεργοὶRight to the very peak, though hard to bear


ἔσθοντες· σοὶ δʼ ἔργα φίλʼ ἔστω μέτρια κοσμεῖνIt’s found with ease. That man is wholly best


ὥς κέ τοι ὡραίου βιότου πλήθωσι καλιαί.Who uses his own mind and takes good care


ἐξ ἔργων δʼ ἄνδρες πολύμηλοί τʼ ἀφνειοί τε·About the future. Who takes interest


καὶ ἐργαζόμενοι πολὺ φίλτεροι ἀθανάτοισιν.In others’ notions is a good man too


nanBut he who shuns these things is valueless.


ἔργον δʼ οὐδὲν ὄνειδος, ἀεργίη δέ τʼ ὄνειδος.Remember all that I have said to you


εἰ δέ κε ἐργάζῃ, τάχα σε ζηλώσει ἀεργὸςNoble Perses, and work with steadfastne


πλουτεῦντα· πλούτῳ δʼ ἀρετὴ καὶ κῦδος ὀπηδεῖ.Till Hunger vexes you and you’re a friend


δαίμονι δʼ οἷος ἔησθα, τὸ ἐργάζεσθαι ἄμεινονOf holy, wreathed Demeter, who with corn


εἴ κεν ἀπʼ ἀλλοτρίων κτεάνων ἀεσίφρονα θυμὸνWill fill your barn. But Hunger will attend


εἰς ἔργον τρέψας μελετᾷς βίου, ὥς σε κελεύω.A lazy man. The gods and men all scorn


αἰδὼς δʼ οὐκ ἀγαθὴ κεχρημένον ἄνδρα κομίζειA lazy man, who’s like a stingless drone


αἰδώς, ἥ τʼ ἄνδρας μέγα σίνεται ἠδʼ ὀνίνησιν.Who merely eats and wastes the industry


αἰδώς τοι πρὸς ἀνολβίῃ, θάρσος δὲ πρὸς ὄλβῳ.Of the bees. You must be organized and hone


χρήματα δʼ οὐχ ἁρπακτά, θεόσδοτα πολλὸν ἀμείνω.Your working skills so that your granary


εἰ γάρ τις καὶ χερσὶ βίῃ μέγαν ὄλβον ἕληταιIs full at harvest-time. Through work men grow


ἢ ὅ γʼ ἀπὸ γλώσσης ληίσσεται, οἷά τε πολλὰWealthy in sheep and gold: by earnest work


γίγνεται, εὖτʼ ἂν δὴ κέρδος νόον ἐξαπατήσῃOne’s loved more by the gods above. There’s no


ἀνθρώπων, αἰδῶ δέ τʼ ἀναιδείη κατοπάζῃ·Disgrace in toil; disgrace it is to shirk.


ῥεῖα δέ μιν μαυροῦσι θεοί, μινύθουσι δὲ οἶκονThe wealth you gain from work will very soon


ἀνέρι τῷ, παῦρον δέ τʼ ἐπὶ χρόνον ὄλβος ὀπηδεῖ.Be envied by the idle man: virtue


ἶσον δʼ ὅς θʼ ἱκέτην ὅς τε ξεῖνον κακὸν ἔρξῃAnd fame come to the rich. A greater boon


ὅς τε κασιγνήτοιο ἑοῦ ἀνὰ δέμνια βαίνῃIs work, whatever else happens to you


κρυπταδίης εὐνῆς ἀλόχου, παρακαίρια ῥέζωνIf from your neighbours’ goods your foolish mind


ὅς τέ τευ ἀφραδίῃς ἀλιταίνεται ὀρφανὰ τέκναYou turn and earn your pay by industry


ὅς τε γονῆα γέροντα κακῷ ἐπὶ γήραος οὐδῷAs I bid you. Shame of a cringing kind


νεικείῃ χαλεποῖσι καθαπτόμενος ἐπέεσσιν·Attends a needy man, ignominy


τῷ δʼ ἦ τοι Ζεὺς αὐτὸς ἀγαίεται, ἐς δὲ τελευτὴνThat causes major damage or will turn


ἔργων ἀντʼ ἀδίκων χαλεπὴν ἐπέθηκεν ἀμοιβήν.To gain. Poor men feel sham, the rich, though, are


ἀλλὰ σὺ τῶν μὲν πάμπαν ἔεργʼ ἀεσίφρονα θυμόν.Self-confident. The money that we earn


κὰδ δύναμιν δʼ ἔρδειν ἱέρʼ ἀθανάτοισι θεοῖσινShould not be seized – god-sent, it’s better far.


ἁγνῶς καὶ καθαρῶς, ἐπὶ δʼ ἀγλαὰ μηρία καίειν·If someone steals great riches by dure


ἄλλοτε δὲ σπονδῇσι θύεσσί τε ἱλάσκεσθαιOr with a lying tongue, as has ensued


ἠμὲν ὅτʼ εὐνάζῃ καὶ ὅτʼ ἂν φάος ἱερὸν ἔλθῃQuite often, when his mind in cloudine


ὥς κέ τοι ἵλαον κραδίην καὶ θυμὸν ἔχωσινIs cast by gain, and shame is now pursued


ὄφρʼ ἄλλων ὠνῇ κλῆρον, μὴ τὸν τεὸν ἄλλος.By shamelessness, the gods then easily


τὸν φιλέοντʼ ἐπὶ δαῖτα καλεῖν, τὸν δʼ ἐχθρὸν ἐᾶσαι·Destroy him, bringing down his house, and there


τὸν δὲ μάλιστα καλεῖν, ὅς τις σέθεν ἐγγύθι ναίει·In record time, goes his prosperity.


εἰ γάρ τοι καὶ χρῆμʼ ἐγχώριον ἄλλο γένηταιLikewise, if someone brings great ills to bear


γείτονες ἄζωστοι ἔκιον, ζώσαντο δὲ πηοί.On guest or suppliant or, by wrong beguiled


πῆμα κακὸς γείτων, ὅσσον τʼ ἀγαθὸς μέγʼ ὄνειαρ.Lies with his brother’s wife or sinfully


ἔμμορέ τοι τιμῆς, ὅς τʼ ἔμμορε γείτονος ἐσθλοῦ.Brings harm upon a little orphan child


οὐδʼ ἂν βοῦς ἀπόλοιτʼ, εἰ μὴ γείτων κακὸς εἴη.Or else insults with harsh contumely


εὖ μὲν μετρεῖσθαι παρὰ γείτονος, εὖ δʼ ἀποδοῦναιHis aged father, thus provoking Zeu


αὐτῷ τῷ μέτρῳ, καὶ λώιον, αἴ κε δύνηαιAnd paying dearly for his sins. But you


ὡς ἂν χρηίζων καὶ ἐς ὕστερον ἄρκιον εὕρῃς.Must keep your foolish heart from such abuse


μὴ κακὰ κερδαίνειν· κακὰ κέρδεα ἶσʼ ἀάτῃσιν.And do your best to give the gods their due


τὸν φιλέοντα φιλεῖν, καὶ τῷ προσιόντι προσεῖναι.Of sacrifice; the glorious meat-wrapped thigh


καὶ δόμεν, ὅς κεν δῷ, καὶ μὴ δόμεν, ὅς κεν μὴ δῷ.Roast for them, please them with an offering


δώτῃ μέν τις ἔδωκεν, ἀδώτῃ δʼ οὔτις ἔδωκεν.Of wine and balm at night and when you rise


δὼς ἀγαθή, ἅρπαξ δὲ κακή, θανάτοιο δότειρα.To gain their favour and that it may bring


ὃς μὲν γάρ κεν ἀνὴρ ἐθέλων, ὅ γε, κεἰ μέγα δοίηThe sale of others’ goods, not yours. Invite


χαίρει τῷ δώρῳ καὶ τέρπεται ὃν κατὰ θυμόν·A friend to dine and not an enemy


ὃς δέ κεν αὐτὸς ἕληται ἀναιδείηφι πιθήσαςA neighbour chiefly, for disaster might


καί τε σμικρὸν ἐόν, τό γʼ ἐπάχνωσεν φίλον ἦτορ.Be near and they’re in the vicinity


εἰ γάρ κεν καὶ σμικρὸν ἐπὶ σμικρῷ καταθεῖοUnarmed through haste, while kinsmen will delay


καὶ θαμὰ τοῦτʼ ἔρδοις, τάχα κεν μέγα καὶ τὸ γένοιτο.In arming. Wicked neighbours cause much pain


ὃς δʼ ἐπʼ ἐόντι φέρει, ὃ δʼ ἀλέξεται αἴθοπα λιμόν·But good ones bring a splendid profit. They


οὐδὲ τό γʼ ἐν οἴκῳ κατακείμενον ἀνέρα κήδει.Who have good neighbours find that they will gain


οἴκοι βέλτερον εἶναι, ἐπεὶ βλαβερὸν τὸ θύρηφιν.Much worth. No cow is lost unless you dwell


ἐσθλὸν μὲν παρεόντος ἑλέσθαι, πῆμα δὲ θυμῷNear wicked neighbours. Measure carefully


χρηίζειν ἀπεόντος, ἅ σε φράζεσθαι ἄνωγα.When borrowing from a neighbour, serve them well


ἀρχομένου δὲ πίθου καὶ λήγοντος κορέσασθαιWhen giving him repayment equally


μεσσόθι φείδεσθαι· δειλὴ δʼ ἐνὶ πυθμένι φειδώ.Nay more if you are able, for you’ll gain


μισθὸς δʼ ἀνδρὶ φίλῳ εἰρημένος ἄρκιος ἔστω.By this a friend in need, and do not earn


καί τε κασιγνήτῳ γελάσας ἐπὶ μάρτυρα θέσθαι.Ill-gotten wealth – such profits are a bane.


πίστεις γάρ τοι ὁμῶς καὶ ἀπιστίαι ὤλεσαν ἄνδρας.Love all your friends, turn to all those who turn


μὴ δὲ γυνή σε νόον πυγοστόλος ἐξαπατάτωTo you. Give to a giver but forbear


αἱμύλα κωτίλλουσα, τεὴν διφῶσα καλιήν.To give to one who doesn’t give. One give


ὃς δὲ γυναικὶ πέποιθε, πέποιθʼ ὅ γε φηλήτῃσιν.To open-handed men but does not care


μουνογενὴς δὲ πάις εἴη πατρώιον οἶκονTo please a miser thus, for Giving live


φερβέμεν ὣς γὰρ πλοῦτος ἀέξεται ἐν μεγάροισιν.In virtue, while Theft lives in sin and bring


γηραιὸς δὲ θάνοις ἕτερον παῖδʼ ἐγκαταλείπων.Grim death. The man who gives abundantly


ῥεῖα δέ κεν πλεόνεσσι πόροι Ζεὺς ἄσπετον ὄλβον.And willingly rejoices in the thing


πλείων μὲν πλεόνων μελέτη, μείζων δʼ ἐπιθήκη.He gives, delights within his soul. But he


σοὶ δʼ εἰ πλούτου θυμὸς ἐέλδεται ἐν φρεσὶν ᾗσινWho steals however small a thing will find


ὧδʼ ἔρδειν, καὶ ἔργον ἐπʼ ἔργῳ ἐργάζεσθαι.A freezing in his heart. Add to your store


πληιάδων Ἀτλαγενέων ἐπιτελλομενάωνAnd leave ferocious famine far behind;


ἄρχεσθʼ ἀμήτου, ἀρότοιο δὲ δυσομενάων.If to a little you a little more


αἳ δή τοι νύκτας τε καὶ ἤματα τεσσαράκονταShould add and do this often, with great speed


κεκρύφαται, αὖτις δὲ περιπλομένου ἐνιαυτοῦIt will expand. A man has little care


φαίνονται τὰ πρῶτα χαρασσομένοιο σιδήρου.For what he has at home: there’s greater need


οὗτός τοι πεδίων πέλεται νόμος, οἵ τε θαλάσσηςTo guard his wealth abroad, while still his share


ἐγγύθι ναιετάουσʼ, οἵ τʼ ἄγκεα βησσήενταAt home is safer. Taking from your store


πόντου κυμαίνοντος ἀπόπροθι, πίονα χῶρονIs good, but wanting something causes pain –


ναίουσιν· γυμνὸν σπείρειν, γυμνὸν δὲ βοωτεῖνThink on this. Use thrift with the flagon’s core


γυμνὸν δʼ ἀμάειν, εἴ χʼ ὥρια πάντʼ ἐθέλῃσθαBut when you open it and then again


ἔργα κομίζεσθαι Δημήτερος· ὥς τοι ἕκασταAs it runs out, then take your fill – no need


ὥριʼ ἀέξηται, μή πως τὰ μέταζε χατίζωνFor prudence with the lees. Allow no doubt


πτώσσῃς ἀλλοτρίους οἴκους καὶ μηδὲν ἀνύσσῃς.About a comrade’s wages; no, take heed


ὡς καὶ νῦν ἐπʼ ἔμʼ ἦλθες· ἐγὼ δέ τοι οὐκ ἐπιδώσωEven with your brother – smile and ferret out


οὐδʼ ἐπιμετρήσω· ἐργάζευ, νήπιε ΠέρσηA witness. Trust and mistrust both can kill.


ἔργα, τά τʼ ἀνθρώποισι θεοὶ διετεκμήραντοLet not a dame, fawning and lascivious


μή ποτε σὺν παίδεσσι γυναικί τε θυμὸν ἀχεύωνDupe you - she wants your barn. Your trust is ill-


ζητεύῃς βίοτον κατὰ γείτονας, οἳ δʼ ἀμελῶσιν.Placed in a woman – she’s perfidious.


δὶς μὲν γὰρ καὶ τρὶς τάχα τεύξεαι· ἢν δʼ ἔτι λυπῇςAn only child preserves his family


χρῆμα μὲν οὐ πρήξεις, σὺ δʼ ἐτώσια πόλλʼ ἀγορεύσεις·That wealth may grow. But if one leaves two heirs


ἀχρεῖος δʼ ἔσται ἐπέων νομός. ἀλλά σʼ ἄνωγαOne must live longer. Zeus, though, easily


φράζεσθαι χρειῶν τε λύσιν λιμοῦ τʼ ἀλεωρήν.To larger houses gives great wealth. The care


οἶκον μὲν πρώτιστα γυναῖκά τε βοῦν τʼ ἀροτῆραAnd increase for more kindred greater grow.


κτητήν, οὐ γαμετήν, ἥτις καὶ βουσὶν ἕποιτοIf you want wealth, do this, add industry


χρήματα δʼ ἐν οἴκῳ πάντʼ ἄρμενα ποιήσασθαιTo industry, and harvest what you sow


μὴ σὺ μὲν αἰτῇς ἄλλον, ὃ δʼ ἀρνῆται, σὺ δὲ τητᾷWhen Pleiades’ ascendancy you see


ἡ δʼ ὥρη παραμείβηται, μινύθῃ δὲ τὸ ἔργον.And plough when they have set. They lurk concealed


μηδʼ ἀναβάλλεσθαι ἔς τʼ αὔριον ἔς τε ἔνηφιν·For forty days and nights but then appear


οὐ γὰρ ἐτωσιοεργὸς ἀνὴρ πίμπλησι καλιὴνIn time when first your sickles for the field


οὐδʼ ἀναβαλλόμενος· μελέτη δὲ τὸ ἔργον ὀφέλλει·You sharpen. This is true for dwellers near


αἰεὶ δʼ ἀμβολιεργὸς ἀνὴρ ἄτῃσι παλαίει.The level plains and sea, and those who dwell


ἦμος δὴ λήγει μένος ὀξέος ἠελίοιοIn woody glens far from the raging deep


καύματος ἰδαλίμου, μετοπωρινὸν ὀμβρήσαντοςThose fertile lands; sow naked, plough, as well


Ζηνὸς ἐρισθενέος, μετὰ δὲ τρέπεται βρότεος χρὼςUnclothed, and harvest stripped if you would reap


πολλὸν ἐλαφρότερος· δὴ γὰρ τότε Σείριος ἀστὴρDemeter’s work in season. Everything


βαιὸν ὑπὲρ κεφαλῆς κηριτρεφέων ἀνθρώπωνWill then be done in time: in penury


ἔρχεται ἠμάτιος, πλεῖον δέ τε νυκτὸς ἐπαυρεῖ·You’ll not beg help at others’ homes and bring


τῆμος ἀδηκτοτάτη πέλεται τμηθεῖσα σιδήρῳYour own downfall. Thus now you come to me:


ὕλη, φύλλα δʼ ἔραζε χέει, πτόρθοιό τε λήγει·I’ll give you nothing. Practise industry


τῆμος ἄρʼ ὑλοτομεῖν μεμνημένος ὥρια ἔργα.Foolish Perses, which the gods have given men


ὄλμον μὲν τριπόδην τάμνειν, ὕπερον δὲ τρίπηχυνLest, with their wives and children, dolefully


ἄξονα δʼ ἑπταπόδην· μάλα γάρ νύ τοι ἄρμενον οὕτω·They seek food from their neighbours, who will then


εἰ δέ κεν ὀκταπόδην, ἀπὸ καὶ σφῦράν κε τάμοιο.Ignore them. Twice or thrice you may succeed


τρισπίθαμον δʼ ἄψιν τάμνειν δεκαδώρῳ ἀμάξῃ.But if you still harass them, you’ll achieve


πόλλʼ ἐπικαμπύλα κᾶλα· φέρειν δὲ γύην, ὅτʼ ἂν εὕρῃςNothing and waste your words about your need.


ἐς οἶκον, κατʼ ὄρος διζήμενος ἢ κατʼ ἄρουρανI urge you, figure how you may relieve


πρίνινον· ὃς γὰρ βουσὶν ἀροῦν ὀχυρώτατός ἐστινYour need and cease your hunger. The first thing


εὖτʼ ἂν Ἀθηναίης δμῷος ἐν ἐλύματι πήξαςThat you must do is get a house, then find


γόμφοισιν πελάσας προσαρήρεται ἱστοβοῆι.A slave to help you with your furrowing


δοιὰ δὲ θέσθαι ἄροτρα, πονησάμενος κατὰ οἶκονFemale, unwed, an ox to plough behind


αὐτόγυον καὶ πηκτόν, ἐπεὶ πολὺ λώιον οὕτω·Then in the house prepare the things you’ll need;


εἴ χʼ ἕτερον ἄξαις, ἕτερόν κʼ ἐπὶ βουσὶ βάλοιο.Don’t borrow lest you be refused and lack


δάφνης δʼ ἢ πτελέης ἀκιώτατοι ἱστοβοῆεςAll means and, as the hours duly speed


δρυὸς ἔλυμα, γύης πρίνου· βόε δʼ ἐνναετήρωAlong, your labour’s lost. Do not push back


ἄρσενε κεκτῆσθαι, τῶν γὰρ σθένος οὐκ ἀλαπαδνόνYour toil for just one day: don’t drag your feet


ἥβης μέτρον ἔχοντε· τὼ ἐργάζεσθαι ἀρίστω.And fight with ruin evermore. No, when


οὐκ ἂν τώ γʼ ἐρίσαντε ἐν αὔλακι κὰμ μὲν ἄροτρονYou feel no more the fierce sun’s sweaty heat


ἄξειαν, τὸ δὲ ἔργον ἐτώσιον αὖθι λίποιεν.And mighty Zeus sends autumn rain, why, then


τοῖς δʼ ἅμα τεσσαρακονταετὴς αἰζηὸς ἕποιτοWe move more quickly – that’s the time when we


ἄρτον δειπνήσας τετράτρυφον, ὀκτάβλωμονSee Sirius travelling less above us all


ὃς ἔργου μελετῶν ἰθεῖάν κʼ αὔλακʼ ἐλαύνοιPoor wretches, using night more, and that tree


μηκέτι παπταίνων μεθʼ ὁμήλικας, ἀλλʼ ἐπὶ ἔργῳYou cut has shed its foliage in the fall


θυμὸν ἔχων· τοῦ δʼ οὔτι νεώτερος ἄλλος ἀμείνωνNo longer sprouting, and is less replete


σπέρματα δάσσασθαι καὶ ἐπισπορίην ἀλέασθαι.With worm-holes. Now’s the time to fell your trees.


κουρότερος γὰρ ἀνὴρ μεθʼ ὁμήλικας ἐπτοίηται.Cut with a drilling-mortar of three feet


φράζεσθαι δʼ, εὖτʼ ἂν γεράνου φωνὴν ἐπακούσῃςAnd pestle of three cubits: you must seize


ὑψόθεν ἐκ νεφέων ἐνιαύσια κεκληγυίης·A seven-foot axle – that’s a perfect fit


ἥτʼ ἀρότοιό τε σῆμα φέρει καὶ χείματος ὥρην(You’ll make a hammerhead with one of eight).


δεικνύει ὀμβρηροῦ· κραδίην δʼ ἔδακʼ ἀνδρὸς ἀβούτεω·To have a ten-palm wagon, make for it


δὴ τότε χορτάζειν ἕλικας βόας ἔνδον ἐόντας·Four three-foot wagon-wheels. Wood that’s not straight


ῥηίδιον γὰρ ἔπος εἰπεῖν· βόε δὸς καὶ ἄμαξαν·Is useful – gather lots for use within:


ῥηίδιον δʼ ἀπανήνασθαι· πάρα ἔργα βόεσσιν.At home or in the mountains search for it.


φησὶ δʼ ἀνὴρ φρένας ἀφνειὸς πήξασθαι ἄμαξανHolm-oak is strongest for the plough: the pin


νήπιος, οὐδὲ τὸ οἶδʼ· ἑκατὸν δέ τε δούρατʼ ἀμάξηςIs fixed on it, on which the pole will sit


τῶν πρόσθεν μελέτην ἐχέμεν οἰκήια θέσθαι.By craftsmen of Athene. But make two


εὖτʼ ἂν δὲ πρώτιστʼ ἄροτος θνητοῖσι φανείῃWithin your house, of one piece and compressed.


δὴ τότʼ ἐφορμηθῆναι ὁμῶς δμῶές τε καὶ αὐτὸςThat’s better - if one breaks the other you


αὔην καὶ διερὴν ἀρόων ἀρότοιο καθʼ ὥρηνMay use. Sound elm or laurel are the best


πρωὶ μάλα σπεύδων, ἵνα τοι πλήθωσιν ἄρουραι.For poles. The stock should be of oak, the beam


ἦρι πολεῖν· θέρεος δὲ νεωμένη οὔ σʼ ἀπατήσει.Of holm-oak. Two bull oxen you should buy


νειὸν δὲ σπείρειν ἔτι κουφίζουσαν ἄρουραν·Both nine years old - a prime age, you may deem


νειὸς ἀλεξιάρη παίδων εὐκηλήτειρα.For strength. They toil the hardest nor will vie


εὔχεσθαι δὲ Διὶ χθονίῳ Δημήτερί θʼ ἁγνῇIn conflict in the furrows nor will break


ἐκτελέα βρίθειν Δημήτερος ἱερὸν ἀκτήνThe plough or leave the work undone. And now


ἀρχόμενος τὰ πρῶτʼ ἀρότου, ὅτʼ ἂν ἄκρον ἐχέτληςA forty-year-old stalwart you should take


χειρὶ λαβὼν ὅρπηκα βοῶν ἐπὶ νῶτον ἵκηαιWho will, before he ventures out to plough


ἔνδρυον ἑλκόντων μεσάβων. ὁ δὲ τυτθὸς ὄπισθεConsume a quartered, eight-slice loaf, one who


δμῷος ἔχων μακέλην πόνον ὀρνίθεσσι τιθείηSkilled in his craft, will keep the furrow straight


σπέρμα κατακρύπτων· ἐυθημοσύνη γὰρ ἀρίστηNor look around for comrades but stay true


θνητοῖς ἀνθρώποις, κακοθημοσύνη δὲ κακίστη.To his pursuit. Born at a later date


ὧδέ κεν ἀδροσύνῃ στάχυες νεύοιεν ἔραζεA man may never plough thus and may cause


εἰ τέλος αὐτὸς ὄπισθεν Ὀλύμπιος ἐσθλὸν ὀπάζοιA second sowing. Younger men, distract


ἐκ δʼ ἀγγέων ἐλάσειας ἀράχνια· καί σε ἔολπαWill wink at comrades. Let this give you pause -


γηθήσειν βιότου αἰρεύμενον ἔνδον ἐόντος.The crane’s high, yearly call means “time to act”


εὐοχθέων δʼ ἵξεαι πολιὸν ἔαρ, οὐδὲ πρὸς ἄλλουςStart ploughing for it’s winter-time. It’s gall


αὐγάσεαι· σέο δʼ ἄλλος ἀνὴρ κεχρημένος ἔσται.To one who has no oxen: it will pay


εἰ δέ κεν ἠελίοιο τροπῇς ἀρόῳς χθόνα δῖανTo have horned oxen fattened in their stall.


ἥμενος ἀμήσεις ὀλίγον περὶ χειρὸς ἐέργωνIt will be simple then for you to say


ἀντία δεσμεύων κεκονιμένος, οὐ μάλα χαίρων“Bring me my oxen and my wagon too”


οἴσεις δʼ ἐν φορμῷ· παῦροι δέ σε θηήσονται.And it is also easy to reject


ἄλλοτε δʼ ἀλλοῖος Ζηνὸς νόος αἰγιόχοιοA friend and say “They have their work to do


ἀργαλέος δʼ ἄνδρεσσι καταθνητοῖσι νοῆσαι.My oxen.” Merely mind-rich men expect


εἰ δέ κεν ὄψʼ ἀρόσῃς, τόδε κέν τοι φάρμακον εἴη·Their wagon’s made already, foolish men.


ἦμος κόκκυξ κοκκύζει δρυὸς ἐν πετάλοισιThey don’t know that a hundred boards they’ll need.


τὸ πρῶτον, τέρπει δὲ βροτοὺς ἐπʼ ἀπείρονα γαῖανGet all you need together and then, when


τῆμος Ζεὺς ὕοι τρίτῳ ἤματι μηδʼ ἀπολήγοιThe ploughing term commences, with all speed


μήτʼ ἄρʼ ὑπερβάλλων βοὸς ὁπλὴν μήτʼ ἀπολείπων·You and your slaves, set out and plough straight through


οὕτω κʼ ὀψαρότης πρῳηρότῃ ἰσοφαρίζοι.The season, wet or dry; quick, at cockcrow


ἐν θυμῷ δʼ εὖ πάντα φυλάσσεο· μηδέ σε λήθοιThat you may fill those furrows, plough; and you


μήτʼ ἔαρ γιγνόμενον πολιὸν μήθʼ ὥριος ὄμβρος.Should plough in spring; the summer, should you go


πὰρ δʼ ἴθι χάλκειον θῶκον καὶ ἐπαλέα λέσχηνOn ploughing, won’t dismay you. Plough your field


ὥρῃ χειμερίῃ, ὁπότε κρύος ἀνέρα ἔργωνWhen soil is light – such is a surety


ἰσχάνει, ἔνθα κʼ ἄοκνος ἀνὴρ μέγα οἶκον ὀφέλλοιFor us and for our children forms a shield.


μή σε κακοῦ χειμῶνος ἀμηχανίη καταμάρψῃPray, then, to Zeus, the god of husbandry


σὺν πενίῃ, λεπτῇ δὲ παχὺν πόδα χειρὶ πιέζῃς.And pure Demeter that she fill her grain.


πολλὰ δʼ ἀεργὸς ἀνήρ, κενεὴν ἐπὶ ἐλπίδα μίμνωνFirst grab the handles of the plough and flick


χρηίζων βιότοιο, κακὰ προσελέξατο θυμῷ.The oxen as upon the straps they strain.


ἐλπὶς δʼ οὐκ ἀγαθὴ κεχρημένον ἄνδρα κομίζειThen let a bondsman follow with a stick


ἥμενον ἐν λέσχῃ, τῷ μὴ βίος ἄρκιος εἴη.Close at your back, to hide the seed and cheat


δείκνυε δὲ δμώεσσι θέρευς ἔτι μέσσου ἐόντος·The birds. For man good management’s supreme


οὐκ αἰεὶ θέρος ἐσσεῖται, ποιεῖσθε καλιάς.Bad management is worst. If you repeat


μῆνα δὲ Ληναιῶνα, κάκʼ ἤματα, βουδόρα πάνταThese steps, your fields of corn shall surely teem


τοῦτον ἀλεύασθαι, καὶ πηγάδας, αἵτʼ ἐπὶ γαῖανWith stalks which bow down low if in the end


πνεύσαντος Βορέαο δυσηλεγέες τελέθουσινZeus brings a happy outcome and you’ve cleared


ὅστε διὰ Θρῄκης ἱπποτρόφου εὐρέι πόντῳYour jars of cobwebs: then if you make fast


ἐμπνεύσας ὤρινε· μέμυκε δὲ γαῖα καὶ ὕλη·Your stores of food at home you will be cheered


πολλὰς δὲ δρῦς ὑψικόμους ἐλάτας τε παχείαςI think. You’ll be at ease until pale spring


οὔρεος ἐν βήσσῃς πιλνᾷ χθονὶ πουλυβοτείρῃNor will you gape at others – rather they’ll


ἐμπίπτων, καὶ πᾶσα βοᾷ τότε νήριτος ὕλη.Have need of you. Keep at your furrowing


θῆρες δὲ φρίσσουσʼ, οὐρὰς δʼ ὑπὸ μέζεʼ ἔθεντοUntil the winter sun and surely fail


τῶν καὶ λάχνῃ δέρμα κατάσκιον· ἀλλά νυ καὶ τῶνAnd reap sat down and seize within your hand


ψυχρὸς ἐὼν διάησι δασυστέρνων περ ἐόντων.Your meagre crop and bind with dusty speed


καί τε διὰ ῥινοῦ βοὸς ἔρχεται, οὐδέ μιν ἴσχει·With many a frown, and take it from your land


καί τε διʼ αἶγα ἄησι τανύτριχα· πώεα δʼ οὔ τιInside a basket, and few folk will waste


οὕνεκʼ ἐπηεταναὶ τρίχες αὐτῶν, οὐ διάησινTheir praise upon you. Aegis-bearing Zeu


ἲς ἀνέμου Βορέου· τροχαλὸν δὲ γέροντα τίθησιν.Is changeable – his thoughts are hard to see.


καὶ διὰ παρθενικῆς ἁπαλόχροος οὐ διάησινIf you plough late, this just may be of use:


ἥτε δόμων ἔντοσθε φίλῃ παρὰ μητέρι μίμνειWhen first the cuckoo calls on the oak-tree


οὔ πω ἔργα ἰδυῖα πολυχρύσου Ἀφροδίτης·And through the vast earth causes happiness


εὖ τε λοεσσαμένη τέρενα χρόα καὶ λίπʼ ἐλαίῳZeus rains non-stop for three days that the height


χρισαμένη μυχίη καταλέξεται ἔνδοθι οἴκουOf flood’s an ox’s hoof, no more, no less:


ἤματι χειμερίῳ, ὅτʼ ἀνόστεος ὃν πόδα τένδειThat way the man who ploughs but late just might


ἔν τʼ ἀπύρῳ οἴκῳ καὶ ἤθεσι λευγαλέοισιν.Equal the early plougher. All this you


οὐδέ οἱ ἠέλιος δείκνυ νομὸν ὁρμηθῆναι·Must do, and don’t permit pale spring to take


ἀλλʼ ἐπὶ κυανέων ἀνδρῶν δῆμόν τε πόλιν τεYou by surprise, the rainy season, too.


στρωφᾶται, βράδιον δὲ Πανελλήνεσσι φαείνει.Round public haunts and smithies you should make


καὶ τότε δὴ κεραοὶ καὶ νήκεροι ὑληκοῖταιA detour during winter when the cold


λυγρὸν μυλιόωντες ἀνὰ δρία βησσήενταKeeps men from work, for then a busy man


φεύγουσιν· καὶ πᾶσιν ἐνὶ φρεσὶ τοῦτο μέμηλενMay serve his house. Let hardship not take hold


ὡς σκέπα μαιόμενοι πυκινοὺς κευθμῶνας ἔχωσιNor helplessness, through cruel winter’s span


καὶ γλάφυ πετρῆεν· τότε δὴ τρίποδι βροτῷ ἶσοιNor rub your swollen foot with scrawny hand.


οὗ τʼ ἐπὶ νῶτα ἔαγε, κάρη δʼ εἰς οὖδας ὁρᾶταιAn idle man will often, while in vain


τῷ ἴκελοι φοιτῶσιν, ἀλευόμενοι νίφα λευκήν.He hopes, lacking a living from his land


καὶ τότε ἕσσασθαι ἔρυμα χροός, ὥς σε κελεύωConsider crime. A needy man will gain


χλαῖνάν τε μαλακὴν καὶ τερμιόεντα χιτῶνα·Nothing from hope while sitting in the street


στήμονι δʼ ἐν παύρῳ πολλὴν κρόκα μηρύσασθαι·And gossiping, no livelihood in sight.


τὴν περιέσσασθαι, ἵνα τοι τρίχες ἀτρεμέωσιSay to your slaves in the midsummer heat:


μηδʼ ὀρθαὶ φρίσσωσιν ἀειρόμεναι κατὰ σῶμα.“There won’t always be summer, shining bright –


ἀμφὶ δὲ ποσσὶ πέδιλα βοὸς ἶφι κταμένοιοBuild barns.” Lenaion’s evil days, which gall


ἄρμενα δήσασθαι, πίλοις ἔντοσθε πυκάσσας.The oxen, guard yourself against. Beware


πρωτογόνων δʼ ἐρίφων, ὁπότʼ ἂν κρύος ὥριον ἔλθῃOf hoar-frosts, too, which bring distress to all


δέρματα συρράπτειν νεύρῳ βοός, ὄφρʼ ἐπὶ νώτῳWhen the North Wind blows, which blasts upon the air


ὑετοῦ ἀμφιβάλῃ ἀλέην· κεφαλῆφι δʼ ὕπερθενIn horse-rich Thrace and rouses the broad sea


πῖλον ἔχειν ἀσκητόν, ἵνʼ οὔατα μὴ καταδεύῃ·Making the earth and woods resound with wails.


ψυχρὴ γάρ τʼ ἠὼς πέλεται Βορέαο πεσόντοςHe falls on many a lofty-leafed oak-tree


ἠώιος δʼ ἐπὶ γαῖαν ἀπʼ οὐρανοῦ ἀστερόεντοςAnd on thick pines along the mountain-vale


ἀὴρ πυροφόρος τέταται μακάρων ἐπὶ ἔργοις·And fecund earth, the vast woods bellowing.


ὅστε ἀρυσάμενος ποταμῶν ἄπο αἰεναόντωνThe wild beasts, tails between their legs, all shake.


ὑψοῦ ὑπὲρ γαίης ἀρθεὶς ἀνέμοιο θυέλλῃAlthough their shaggy hair is covering


ἄλλοτε μέν θʼ ὕει ποτὶ ἕσπερον, ἄλλοτʼ ἄησιTheir hides, yet still the cold will always make


πυκνὰ Θρηικίου Βορέου νέφεα κλονέοντος.Their way straight through the hairiest beast. Straight through


τὸν φθάμενος ἔργον τελέσας οἶκόνδε νέεσθαιAn ox’s hide the North Wind blows and drill


μή ποτέ σʼ οὐρανόθεν σκοτόεν νέφος ἀμφικαλύψῃThrough long-haired goats. His strength, though, cannot do


χρῶτα δὲ μυδαλέον θήῃ κατά θʼ εἵματα δεύσῃ.Great harm to sheep who keep away all chill


ἀλλʼ ὑπαλεύασθαι· μεὶς γὰρ χαλεπώτατος οὗτοςWith ample fleece. He makes old men stoop low


χειμέριος, χαλεπὸς προβάτοις, χαλεπὸς δʼ ἀνθρώποις.But soft-skinned maids he never will go through –


τῆμος τὤμισυ βουσίν, ἐπʼ ἀνέρι δὲ πλέον εἴηThey stay indoors, who as yet do not know


ἁρμαλιῆς· μακραὶ γὰρ ἐπίρροθοι εὐφρόναι εἰσίν.Gold Aphrodite’s work, a comfort to


ταῦτα φυλασσόμενος τετελεσμένον εἰς ἐνιαυτὸνTheir darling mothers, and their tender skin


ἰσοῦσθαι νύκτας τε καὶ ἤματα, εἰσόκεν αὖτιςThey wash and smear with oil in winter’s space


γῆ πάντων μήτηρ καρπὸν σύμμικτον ἐνείκῃ.And slumber in a bedroom far within


εὖτʼ ἂν δʼ ἑξήκοντα μετὰ τροπὰς ἠελίοιοThe house, when in his cold and dreadful place


χειμέριʼ ἐκτελέσῃ Ζεὺς ἤματα, δή ῥα τότʼ ἀστὴρThe Boneless gnaws his foot (the sun won’t show


Ἀρκτοῦρος προλιπὼν ἱερὸν ῥόον ὨκεανοῖοHim pastures but rotate around the land


πρῶτον παμφαίνων ἐπιτέλλεται ἀκροκνέφαιος.Of black men and for all the Greeks is slow


τὸν δὲ μέτʼ ὀρθογόη Πανδιονὶς ὦρτο χελιδὼνTo brighten). That’s the time the hornèd and


ἐς φάος ἀνθρώποις, ἔαρος νέον ἱσταμένοιο.The unhorned beasts of the wood flee to the brush


τὴν φθάμενος οἴνας περταμνέμεν· ὣς γὰρ ἄμεινον.Teeth all a-chatter, with one thought in mind –


ἀλλʼ ὁπότʼ ἂν φερέοικος ἀπὸ χθονὸς ἂμ φυτὰ βαίνῃTo find some thick-packed shelter, p’raps a bush


Πληιάδας φεύγων, τότε δὴ σκάφος οὐκέτι οἰνέων·Or hollow rock. Like one with head inclined


ἀλλʼ ἅρπας τε χαρασσέμεναι καὶ δμῶας ἐγείρειν·Towards the ground, spine shattered, with a stick


φεύγειν δὲ σκιεροὺς θώκους καὶ ἐπʼ ἠόα κοῖτονTo hold him up, they wander as they try


ὥρῃ ἐν ἀμήτου, ὅτε τʼ ἠέλιος χρόα κάρφει.To circumvent the snow. As I ordain


τημοῦτος σπεύδειν καὶ οἴκαδε καρπὸν ἀγινεῖνShelter your body, too, when snow is nigh –


ὄρθρου ἀνιστάμενος, ἵνα τοι βίος ἄρκιος εἴη.A fleecy coat and, reaching to the floor


ἠὼς γὰρ ἔργοιο τρίτην ἀπομείρεται αἶσανA tunic. Both the warp and woof must you


ἠώς τοι προφέρει μὲν ὁδοῦ, προφέρει δὲ καὶ ἔργουEntwine but of the woof there must be more


ἠώς, ἥτε φανεῖσα πολέας ἐπέβησε κελεύθουThan of the warp. Don this, for, if you do


ἀνθρώπους πολλοῖσί τʼ ἐπὶ ζυγὰ βουσὶ τίθησιν.Your hair stays still, not shaking everywhere.


ἦμος δὲ σκόλυμός τʼ ἀνθεῖ καὶ ἠχέτα τέττιξBe stoutly shod with ox-hide boots which you


δενδρέῳ ἐφεζόμενος λιγυρὴν καταχεύετʼ ἀοιδὴνMust line with felt. In winter have a care


πυκνὸν ὑπὸ πτερύγων, θέρεος καματώδεος ὥρῃTo sew two young kids’ hides to the sinew


τῆμος πιόταταί τʼ αἶγες καὶ οἶνος ἄριστοςOf an ox to keep the downpour from your back


μαχλόταται δὲ γυναῖκες, ἀφαυρότατοι δέ τοι ἄνδρεςA knit cap for your head to keep your ear


εἰσίν, ἐπεὶ κεφαλὴν καὶ γούνατα Σείριος ἄζειFrom getting wet. It’s freezing at the crack


αὐαλέος δέ τε χρὼς ὑπὸ καύματος· ἀλλὰ τότʼ ἤδηOf dawn, which from the starry sky appear


εἴη πετραίη τε σκιὴ καὶ βίβλινος οἶνοςWhen Boreas drops down: then is there spread


μάζα τʼ ἀμολγαίη γάλα τʼ αἰγῶν σβεννυμενάωνA fruitful mist upon the land which fall


καὶ βοὸς ὑλοφάγοιο κρέας μή πω τετοκυίηςUpon the blessed fields and which is fed


πρωτογόνων τʼ ἐρίφων· ἐπὶ δʼ αἴθοπα πινέμεν οἶνονBy endless rivers, raised on high by squalls.


ἐν σκιῇ ἑζόμενον, κεκορημένον ἦτορ ἐδωδῆςSometimes it rains at evening, then again


ἀντίον ἀκραέος Ζεφύρου τρέψαντα πρόσωπαWhen the thickly-compressed clouds are animated


κρήνης τʼ αἰενάου καὶ ἀπορρύτου, ἥτʼ ἀθόλωτοςBy Thracian Boreas, it blows hard. Then


τρὶς ὕδατος προχέειν, τὸ δὲ τέτρατον ἱέμεν οἴνου.It is the time, having anticipated


δμωσὶ δʼ ἐποτρύνειν Δημήτερος ἱερὸν ἀκτὴνAll this, to finish and go home lest you


δινέμεν, εὖτʼ ἂν πρῶτα φανῇ σθένος ὨαρίωνοςShould be enwrapped by some dark cloud, heaven-sent


χώρῳ ἐν εὐαέι καὶ ἐυτροχάλῳ ἐν ἀλωῇ.Your flesh all wet, your clothing drenched right through.


μέτρῳ δʼ εὖ κομίσασθαι ἐν ἄγγεσιν· αὐτὰρ ἐπὴν δὴThis is the harshest month, both violent


πάντα βίον κατάθηαι ἐπάρμενον ἔνδοθι οἴκουAnd harsh to beast and man – so you have need


θῆτά τʼ ἄοικον ποιεῖσθαι καὶ ἄτεκνον ἔριθονTo be alert. Give to your men more fare


δίζησθαι κέλομαι· χαλεπὴ δʼ ὑπόπορτις ἔριθος·Than usual but halve your oxen’s feed.


καὶ κύνα καρχαρόδοντα κομεῖν, μὴ φείδεο σίτουThe helpful nights are long, and so take care.


μή ποτέ σʼ ἡμερόκοιτος ἀνὴρ ἀπὸ χρήμαθʼ ἕληται.Keep at this till the year’s end when the day


χόρτον δʼ ἐσκομίσαι καὶ συρφετόν, ὄφρα τοι εἴηAnd nights are equal and a diverse crop


βουσὶ καὶ ἡμιόνοισιν ἐπηετανόν. αὐτὰρ ἔπειταSprings from our mother earth and winter’s phase


δμῶας ἀναψῦξαι φίλα γούνατα καὶ βόε λῦσαι.Is two months old and from pure Ocean’s top


εὖτʼ ἂν δʼ Ὠαρίων καὶ Σείριος ἐς μέσον ἔλθῃArcturus rises, shining, at twilight.


οὐρανόν, Ἀρκτοῦρον δʼ ἐσίδῃ ῥοδοδάκτυλος ΗώςInto the light then Pandion’s progeny


ὦ Πέρση, τότε πάντας ἀποδρέπεν οἴκαδε βότρυς·The high-voiced swallow, comes at the first sight


δεῖξαι δʼ ἠελίῳ δέκα τʼ ἤματα καὶ δέκα νύκταςOf spring. Before then, the best strategy


πέντε δὲ συσκιάσαι, ἕκτῳ δʼ εἰς ἄγγεʼ ἀφύσσαιIs pruning of your vines. But when the snail


δῶρα Διωνύσου πολυγηθέος. αὐτὰρ ἐπὴν δὴClimbs up the stems to flee the Pleiades


Πληιάδες θʼ Ὑάδες τε τό τε σθένος ὨαρίωνοςStop digging vineyards; now it’s of avail


δύνωσιν, τότʼ ἔπειτʼ ἀρότου μεμνημένος εἶναιTo sharpen scythes and urge your men. Shun these


ὡραίου· πλειὼν δὲ κατὰ χθονὸς ἄρμενος εἶσιν.Two things – dark nooks and sleeping till cockcrow


εἰ δέ σε ναυτιλίης δυσπεμφέλου ἵμερος αἱρεῖAt harvest-season when the sun makes dry


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

12 results
1. Hesiod, Works And Days, 10, 117-119, 176-177, 19, 2, 231, 237, 240-293, 295-299, 3, 300-399, 4, 400-499, 5, 500-599, 6, 600-699, 7, 700-771, 775-776, 8, 804, 813-828, 9, 91, 1 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

1. Pierian Muses, with your songs of praise
2. Hesiod, Theogony, 27-28, 521-534, 26 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

26. of Helicon, and in those early day
3. Homer, Odyssey, 24.485-24.486 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

4. Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 177, 1564 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1564. παθεῖν τὸν ἔρξαντα· θέσμιον γάρ. 1564. q type=
5. Aeschylus, Eumenides, 996-997, 313 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

313. τὸν μὲν καθαρὰς χεῖρας προνέμοντʼ
6. Pindar, Isthmian Odes, 2.11 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7. Plato, Protagoras, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8. Xenophon, Memoirs, 1.2.1, 2.1.20, 2.1.26, 2.1.29, 2.1.33-2.1.34 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.2.1. No less wonderful is it to me that some believed the charge brought against Socrates of corrupting the youth. In the first place, apart from what I have said, in control of his own passions and appetites he was the strictest of men; further, in endurance of cold and heat and every kind of toil he was most resolute; and besides, his needs were so schooled to moderation that having very little he was yet very content. 2.1.20. Moreover, indolence and present enjoyment can never bring the body into good condition, as trainers say, neither do they put into the soul knowledge of any value, but strenuous effort leads up to good and noble deeds, as good men say. And so says Hesiod somewhere: Hes. WD 285 Wickedness can be had in abundance easily: smooth is the road and very nigh she dwells. But in front of virtue the gods immortal have put sweat: long and steep is the path to her and rough at first; but when you reach the top, then at length the road is easy, hard though it was. Hes. WD 285 And we have the testimony of Epicharmus too in the line: The gods demand of us toil as the price of all good things. Epicharmus And elsewhere he says: Knave, yearn not for the soft things, lest thou earn the hard. Epicharmus 2.1.26. Now when Heracles heard this, he asked, Lady, pray what is your name? My friends call me Happiness, she said, but among those that hate me I am nicknamed Vice. 2.1.29. And Vice, as Prodicus tells, answered and said: Heracles, mark you how hard and long is that road to joy, of which this woman tells? but I will lead you by a short and easy road to happiness. And Virtue said: 2.1.33. To my friends meat and drink bring sweet and simple enjoyment: for they wait till they crave them. And a sweeter sleep falls on them than on idle folk: they are not vexed at awaking from it, nor for its sake do they neglect to do their duties. The young rejoice to win the praise of the old; the elders are glad to be honoured by the young; with joy they recall their deeds past, and their present well-doing is joy to them, for through me they are dear to the gods, lovely to friends, precious to their native land. And when comes the appointed end, they lie not forgotten and dishonoured, but live on, sung and remembered for all time. O Heracles, thou son of goodly parents, if thou wilt labour earnestly on this wise, thou mayest have for thine own the most blessed happiness. 2.1.34. Such, in outline, is Prodicus’ story of the training of Heracles by Virtue; only he has clothed the thoughts in even finer phrases than I have done now. But anyhow, Aristippus, it were well that you should think on these things and try to show some regard for the life that lies before you.
9. Xenophon, Symposium, 4.34 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

4.34. Come, now, Antisthenes, said Socrates , take your turn and tell us how it is that with such slender means you base your pride on wealth. Because, sirs, I conceive that people’s wealth and poverty are to be found not in their real estate but in their hearts.
10. Demosthenes, Against Neaera, 97 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

11. Demosthenes, On The Crown, 267 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

12. Plutarch, Aristides, 25.7-25.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aeschylus Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 7
agamemnon Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 7
agricultural calendar Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 84
alcaeus Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 7
appraisal theory de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 163
archilochus Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 7
aretē/-a (virtue, excellence), in prodicus heracles story Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 200
athena Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 7
audience de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 161
blend of cognition and emotion de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 163
callinus Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 7
characterization de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 161
city of the just, the Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 83
comedy Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 331
daimones, and socrates Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 181
democritus Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 7
demosthenes Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 331
dikê Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 7
discrepancy, between words and deeds Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 83, 84
drama Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 331
emotional (mimetic) contagion de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 161
emotions, admiration/awe de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 163
emotions, anger/rage de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 161, 163
emotions, disappointment de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 163
emotions, joy de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 163
emotions, love/passion de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 161, 163
emotions, sorrow de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 163
eris/eris/strife/strife Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 281
eris Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 155; Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 83
eudaimonia/-ē Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 181
eudaimonism, socratic Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 181
euripides Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 331
food Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 84
gifts Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 83, 84
golden age Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 155
hecuba Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 331
hesiod, on zeus Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 96
hesiod, paths to vice and virtue Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 200
hesiod, the muses address Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 96
hesiod, the proem to the works and days Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 96
hesiod Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 155; Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 83, 84; Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 7; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 161, 163
io Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 155
justice Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 83, 84
labor, in hesiod Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 155
leaving the city, as a metaliterary metaphor Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 83, 84
leocrates Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 331
muses, the Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 83
narratee de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 161
pain/suffering de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 163
pandora Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 155; Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 281; Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 83
perses Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 155; Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 281; Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 83, 84
pindar Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 7
poetic quotations Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 331
poetry, and aristocratic power Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 83, 84
poverty, of socrates Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 181
prayer' Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 96
prodicus, heracles choice story Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 200
prodicus Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 200
prometheus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 155
socrates, poverty of Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 181
solon Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 331
thymos Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 7
timeliness Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 84
tragedy Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 331
tyrtaeus Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 7
utopia Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 83, 84
wealth, socratic view Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 181
wealth Liatsi, Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond (2021) 7
xenophon, as source for prodicus Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 200
zeus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 155; Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 83