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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6471
Hesiod, Works And Days, 195-201


ζῆλος δʼ ἀνθρώποισιν ὀιζυροῖσιν ἅπασιRespect for aging parents at an end.


δυσκέλαδος κακόχαρτος ὁμαρτήσει, στυγερώπης.Their wretched children shall with words of bile


καὶ τότε δὴ πρὸς Ὄλυμπον ἀπὸ χθονὸς εὐρυοδείηςFind fault with them in their irreverence


λευκοῖσιν φάρεσσι καλυψαμένα χρόα καλὸνAnd not repay their bringing up. We’ll find


ἀθανάτων μετὰ φῦλον ἴτον προλιπόντʼ ἀνθρώπουςCities brought down. There’ll be no deference


Αἰδὼς καὶ Νέμεσις· τὰ δὲ λείψεται ἄλγεα λυγρὰThat’s given to the honest, just and kind.


θνητοῖς ἀνθρώποισι· κακοῦ δʼ οὐκ ἔσσεται ἀλκή.The evil and the proud will get acclaim


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

59 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 8.9, 12.16, 15.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.9. אֶרֶץ אֲשֶׁר לֹא בְמִסְכֵּנֻת תֹּאכַל־בָּהּ לֶחֶם לֹא־תֶחְסַר כֹּל בָּהּ אֶרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אֲבָנֶיהָ בַרְזֶל וּמֵהֲרָרֶיהָ תַּחְצֹב נְחֹשֶׁת׃ 12.16. רַק הַדָּם לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ עַל־הָאָרֶץ תִּשְׁפְּכֶנּוּ כַּמָּיִם׃ 15.23. רַק אֶת־דָּמוֹ לֹא תֹאכֵל עַל־הָאָרֶץ תִּשְׁפְּכֶנּוּ כַּמָּיִם׃ 8.9. a land wherein thou shalt eat bread without scarceness, thou shalt not lack any thing in it; a land whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills thou mayest dig brass." 12.16. Only ye shall not eat the blood; thou shalt pour it out upon the earth as water." 15.23. Only thou shalt not eat the blood thereof; thou shalt pour it out upon the ground as water."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 4.22-4.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.22. וְצִלָּה גַם־הִוא יָלְדָה אֶת־תּוּבַל קַיִן לֹטֵשׁ כָּל־חֹרֵשׁ נְחֹשֶׁת וּבַרְזֶל וַאֲחוֹת תּוּבַל־קַיִן נַעֲמָה׃ 4.23. וַיֹּאמֶר לֶמֶךְ לְנָשָׁיו עָדָה וְצִלָּה שְׁמַעַן קוֹלִי נְשֵׁי לֶמֶךְ הַאְזֵנָּה אִמְרָתִי כִּי אִישׁ הָרַגְתִּי לְפִצְעִי וְיֶלֶד לְחַבֻּרָתִי׃ 4.24. כִּי שִׁבְעָתַיִם יֻקַּם־קָיִן וְלֶמֶךְ שִׁבְעִים וְשִׁבְעָה׃ 4.22. And Zillah, she also bore Tubal-cain, the forger of every cutting instrument of brass and iron; and the sister of Tubal-cain was Naamah." 4.23. And Lamech said unto his wives: Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; Ye wives of Lamech, hearken unto my speech; For I have slain a man for wounding me, And a young man for bruising me;" 4.24. If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, Truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold."
3. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 8.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.4. הֵם הִמְלִיכוּ וְלֹא מִמֶּנִּי הֵשִׂירוּ וְלֹא יָדָעְתִּי כַּסְפָּם וּזְהָבָם עָשׂוּ לָהֶם עֲצַבִּים לְמַעַן יִכָּרֵת׃ 8.4. They have set up kings, but not from Me, they have made princes, and I knew it not; of their silver and their gold have they made them idols, that they may be cut off."
4. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 7.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.6. כִּי־בֵן מְנַבֵּל אָב בַּת קָמָה בְאִמָּהּ כַּלָּה בַּחֲמֹתָהּ אֹיְבֵי אִישׁ אַנְשֵׁי בֵיתוֹ׃ 7.6. For the son dishonoureth the father, The daughter riseth up against her mother, The daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law; A man’s enemies are the men of his own house."
5. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 78.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

78.3. לֹא־זָרוּ מִתַּאֲוָתָם עוֹד אָכְלָם בְּפִיהֶם׃ 78.3. אֲשֶׁר שָׁמַעְנוּ וַנֵּדָעֵם וַאֲבוֹתֵינוּ סִפְּרוּ־לָנוּ׃ 78.3. That which we have heard and known, And our fathers have told us,"
6. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 2.20, 31.7, 34.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

31.7. כִּי בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִמְאָסוּן אִישׁ אֱלִילֵי כַסְפּוֹ וֶאֱלִילֵי זְהָבוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ לָכֶם יְדֵיכֶם חֵטְא׃ 34.3. וְחַלְלֵיהֶם יֻשְׁלָכוּ וּפִגְרֵיהֶם יַעֲלֶה בָאְשָׁם וְנָמַסּוּ הָרִים מִדָּמָם׃ 2.20. In that day a man shall cast away His idols of silver, and his idols of gold, Which they made for themselves to worship, To the moles and to the bats;" 31.7. For in that day they shall cast away every man his idols of silver, and his idols of gold, Which your own hands have made unto you for a sin." 34.3. Their slain also shall be cast out, And the stench of their carcasses shall come up, And the mountains shall be melted with their blood."
7. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 10.4 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.4. בְּכֶסֶף וּבְזָהָב יְיַפֵּהוּ בְּמַסְמְרוֹת וּבְמַקָּבוֹת יְחַזְּקוּם וְלוֹא יָפִיק׃ 10.4. They deck it with silver and with gold, They fasten it with nails and with hammers, that it move not."
8. Hesiod, Works And Days, 101-109, 11, 110-119, 12, 120-129, 13, 130-139, 14, 140-149, 15, 150-159, 16, 160-169, 17, 170-179, 18, 180-189, 19, 190-194, 196-199, 2, 20, 200-209, 21, 210-219, 22, 220-229, 23, 230-239, 24, 240-249, 25, 250-259, 26, 260-269, 27, 270-279, 28, 280-289, 29, 290-292, 30-59, 6, 60-64, 649, 65, 650, 66-69, 7, 70, 702-705, 71-100 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

100. Which brought the Death-Gods. Now in misery
9. Hesiod, Theogony, 154-210, 270-336, 453-506, 535, 538-541, 617-735, 820-880, 95-100 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

100. Employing gentle words persuasively
10. Homer, Iliad, 1.396-1.406, 15.115, 15.129 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

1.396. /For often I have heard you glorying in the halls of my father, and declaring that you alone among the immortals warded off shameful ruin from the son of Cronos, lord of the dark clouds, on the day when the other Olympians wished to put him in bonds, even Hera and Poseidon and Pallas Athene. 1.397. /For often I have heard you glorying in the halls of my father, and declaring that you alone among the immortals warded off shameful ruin from the son of Cronos, lord of the dark clouds, on the day when the other Olympians wished to put him in bonds, even Hera and Poseidon and Pallas Athene. 1.398. /For often I have heard you glorying in the halls of my father, and declaring that you alone among the immortals warded off shameful ruin from the son of Cronos, lord of the dark clouds, on the day when the other Olympians wished to put him in bonds, even Hera and Poseidon and Pallas Athene. 1.399. /For often I have heard you glorying in the halls of my father, and declaring that you alone among the immortals warded off shameful ruin from the son of Cronos, lord of the dark clouds, on the day when the other Olympians wished to put him in bonds, even Hera and Poseidon and Pallas Athene. 1.400. /But you came, goddess, and freed him from his bonds, when you had quickly called to high Olympus him of the hundred hands, whom the gods call Briareus, but all men Aegaeon; for he is mightier than his father. He sat down by the side of the son of Cronos, exulting in his glory 1.401. /But you came, goddess, and freed him from his bonds, when you had quickly called to high Olympus him of the hundred hands, whom the gods call Briareus, but all men Aegaeon; for he is mightier than his father. He sat down by the side of the son of Cronos, exulting in his glory 1.402. /But you came, goddess, and freed him from his bonds, when you had quickly called to high Olympus him of the hundred hands, whom the gods call Briareus, but all men Aegaeon; for he is mightier than his father. He sat down by the side of the son of Cronos, exulting in his glory 1.403. /But you came, goddess, and freed him from his bonds, when you had quickly called to high Olympus him of the hundred hands, whom the gods call Briareus, but all men Aegaeon; for he is mightier than his father. He sat down by the side of the son of Cronos, exulting in his glory 1.404. /But you came, goddess, and freed him from his bonds, when you had quickly called to high Olympus him of the hundred hands, whom the gods call Briareus, but all men Aegaeon; for he is mightier than his father. He sat down by the side of the son of Cronos, exulting in his glory 1.405. /and the blessed gods were seized with fear of him, and did not bind Zeus. Bring this now to his remembrance, and sit by his side, and clasp his knees, in hope that he might perhaps wish to succour the Trojans, and for those others, the Achaeans, to pen them in among the sterns of their ships and around the sea as they are slain, so that they may all have profit of their king 1.406. /and the blessed gods were seized with fear of him, and did not bind Zeus. Bring this now to his remembrance, and sit by his side, and clasp his knees, in hope that he might perhaps wish to succour the Trojans, and for those others, the Achaeans, to pen them in among the sterns of their ships and around the sea as they are slain, so that they may all have profit of their king 15.129. /and she took from his strong hand the spear of bronze, and set it down, and with words rebuked furious Ares:Thou madman, distraught of wit, thou art beside thyself! Verily it is for naught that thou hast ears for hearing, and thine understanding and sense of right are gone from thee.
11. Homer, Odyssey, 6.66, 6.222, 6.286, 11.368 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

12. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 7.19 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.19. כַּסְפָּם בַּחוּצוֹת יַשְׁלִיכוּ וּזְהָבָם לְנִדָּה יִהְיֶה כַּסְפָּם וּזְהָבָם לֹא־יוּכַל לְהַצִּילָם בְּיוֹם עֶבְרַת יְהוָה נַפְשָׁם לֹא יְשַׂבֵּעוּ וּמֵעֵיהֶם לֹא יְמַלֵּאוּ כִּי־מִכְשׁוֹל עֲוֺנָם הָיָה׃ 7.19. They shall cast their silver in the streets, and their gold shall be as an unclean thing; their silver and their gold shall not be able to deliver them in the day of the wrath of the LORD; they shall not satisfy their souls, neither fill their bowels; because it hath been the stumblingblock of their iniquity."
13. Parmenides, Fragments, None (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

14. Pindar, Olympian Odes, 9.42-9.53 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

15. Theognis, Elegies, 1138-1141, 1137 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

16. Democritus, Fragments, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

17. Herodotus, Histories, 4.187 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.187. Thus it is with this region. But west of the Tritonian lake the Libyans are not nomads; they do not follow the same customs, or treat their children as the nomads do. ,For the practice of many Libyan nomads (I cannot say absolutely whether it is the practice of all) is to take their children when four years old, and to burn the veins of their scalps or sometimes of their temples with grease of sheep's wool, so that the children may never afterward be afflicted by phlegm draining from the head. ,They say that this makes their children quite healthy. In fact, the Libyans are the healthiest of all men whom we know; whether it is because of this practice, I cannot say absolutely; but they certainly are healthy. When the children smart from the pain of the burning, the Libyans have found a remedy; they soothe them by applications of goats' urine. This is what the Libyans themselves say.
18. Plato, Gorgias, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

19. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

680b. Ath. Everybody, I believe, gives the name of headship to the government which then existed,—and it still continues to exist to-day among both Greeks and barbarians in many quarters. And, of course, Homer mentions its existence in connection with the household system of the Cyclopes, where he says— No halls of council and no laws are theirs, But within hollow caves on mountain heights Aloft they dwell, each making his own law.
20. Plato, Phaedo, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

69e. because I believe that there, no less than here, I shall find good rulers and friends. If now I am more successful in convincing you by my defence than I was in convincing my Athenian judges, it is well. Phaedo. When Socrates had finished, Cebes answered and said: Socrates, I agree to
21. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

22. Plato, Statesman, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

269c. and so I must tell it now; for that will help us to make clear the nature of the king. Y. Soc. Very good; just tell your tale and omit nothing. Str. Listen then. During a certain period God himself goes with the universe as guide in its revolving course, but at another epoch, when the cycles have at length reached the measure of his allotted time, he lets it go
23. Plato, Protagoras, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

24. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

363d. they entertain the time henceforth with wine, as if the fairest meed of virtue were an everlasting drunk. And others extend still further the rewards of virtue from the gods. For they say that the children’s children of the pious and oath-keeping man and his race thereafter never fail. Such and such-like are their praises of justice. But the impious and the unjust they bury in mud in the house of Hades and compel them to fetch water in a sieve, and, while they still live
25. Plato, Symposium, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

202e. Through it are conveyed all divination and priestcraft concerning sacrifice and ritual
26. Protagoras, Fragments, None (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

27. Xenophon, Constitution of The Spartans, 5.4-5.7 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

5.4. Another of his reforms was the abolition of compulsory drinking, At the public meals each had his own cup: there was no passing of cups along as at Athens and elsewhere. Critias in Athenacus , 10.432 D and 11.463 E. which is the undoing alike of body of mind. But he allowed everyone to drink when he was thirsty, believing that drink is then most harmless and most welcome. Now what opportunity did these public messes give a man to ruin himself or his estate by gluttony or wine-bibbing? 5.5. Note that in other states the company usually consists of men of the same age, where modesty is apt to be conspicuous by its absence from the board. But Lycurgus introduced mixed companies Something appears to be lost after ἀνέμιξε . Schneider suggested ἀνέμιξε τὰς ἡλικίας ὥστε , mixed the ages, so that. at Sparta , so that the experience of the elders might contribute largely to the education of the juniors. 5.6. In point of fact, by the custom of the country the conversation at the public meals turns on the great deeds wrought in the state, and so there is little room for insolence or drunken uproar, for unseemly conduct or indecent talk. 5.7. And the system of feeding in the open has other good results. They must needs walk home after the meal, and, of course, must take good care not to stumble under the influence of drink (for they know that they will not stay on at the table); and they must do in the dark what they do in the day. Indeed, those who are still in the army are not even allowed a torch to guide them.
28. Aratus Solensis, Phaenomena, 101-136, 96-100 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

100. εὔκηλος φορέοιτο· λόγος γε μὲν ἐντρέχει ἄλλος
29. Aristotle, Politics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

30. Anon., 1 Enoch, 7.5, 8.1-8.8, 10.12, 14.6, 19.1, 56.7, 99.5, 100.2 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.5. them and devoured mankind. And they began to sin against birds, and beasts, and reptiles, and 8.1. And Azazel taught men to make swords, and knives, and shields, and breastplates, and made known to them the metals of the earth and the art of working them, and bracelets, and ornaments, and the use of antimony, and the beautifying of the eyelids, and all kinds of costly stones, and all 8.2. colouring tinctures. And there arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they 8.3. were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways. Semjaza taught enchantments, and root-cuttings, 'Armaros the resolving of enchantments, Baraqijal (taught) astrology, Kokabel the constellations, Ezeqeel the knowledge of the clouds, Araqiel the signs of the earth, Shamsiel the signs of the sun, and Sariel the course of the moon. And as men perished, they cried, and their cry went up to heaven . . . 10.12. with them in all their uncleanness. And when their sons have slain one another, and they have seen the destruction of their beloved ones, bind them fast for seventy generations in the valleys of the earth, till the day of their judgement and of their consummation, till the judgement that i 14.6. has gone forth to bind you for all the days of the world. And (that) previously you shall have seen the destruction of your beloved sons and ye shall have no pleasure in them, but they shall fall before 19.1. And Uriel said to me: 'Here shall stand the angels who have connected themselves with women, and their spirits assuming many different forms are defiling mankind and shall lead them astray into sacrificing to demons as gods, (here shall they stand,) till the day of the great judgement in 56.7. But the city of my righteous shall be a hindrance to their horses.And they shall begin to fight among themselves, And their right hand shall be strong against themselves,And a man shall not know his brother, Nor a son his father or his mother,Till there be no number of the corpses through their slaughter, And their punishment be not in vain. 99.5. And in those days the destitute shall go forth and carry off their children, And they shall abandon them, so that their children shall perish through them: Yea, they shall abandon their children (that are still) sucklings, and not return to them, And shall have no pity on their beloved ones. 100.2. For a man shall not withhold his hand from slaying his sons and his sons' sons, And the sinner shall not withhold his hand from his honoured brother: From dawn till sunset they shall slay one another.
31. Anon., Jubilees, 5.7, 5.9, 7.20-7.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.7. And He said: "I shall destroy man and all flesh upon the face of the earth which I have created. 5.9. And against the angels whom He had sent upon the earth, He was exceedingly wroth, and He gave commandment to root them out of all their dominion 7.20. And behold these three cities are near Mount Lûbâr; Sêdêqêtêlĕbâb fronting the mountain on its east; and Na’êlâtamâ’ûk on the south; ’Adatanêsês towards the west. 7.21. And these are the sons of Shem: Elam, and Asshur, and Arpachshad--this (son) was born two years after the flood--and Lud, and Aram.
32. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 1.36 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.36. Lastly, Balbus, I come to your Stoic school. Zeno's view is that the law of nature is divine, and that its function is to command what is right and to forbid the opposite. How he makes out this law to be alive passes our comprehension; yet we undoubtedly expect god to be a living being. In another passage however Zeno declares that the aether is god — if there is any meaning in a god without sensation, a form of deity that never presents itself to us when we offer up our prayers and supplications and make our vows. And in other books again he holds the view that a 'reason' which pervades all nature is possessed of divine power. He likewise attributes the same powers to the stars, or at another time to the years, the months and the seasons. Again, in his interpretation of Hesiod's Theogony (or Origin of the Gods) he does away with the customary and received ideas of the gods altogether, for he does not reckon either Jupiter, Juno or Vesta as gods, or any being that bears a personal name, but teaches that these names have been assigned allegorically to dumb and lifeless things.
33. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

34. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 13.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

13.10. But miserable, with their hopes set on dead things, are the men who give the name "gods" to the works of mens hands,gold and silver fashioned with skill,and likenesses of animals,or a useless stone, the work of an ancient hand.
35. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 1.73-1.76 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

1.73. That with the sweat of labor ye may have 1.74. Sufficient food.” Thus he spoke; and he made 1.75. 75 The author of deceit to press the ground 1.76. On belly and on side, a crawling snake
36. Catullus, Poems, 64 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

37. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 3.12 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.12. 1.  At the extremity of Egypt and in the contiguous territory of both Arabia and Ethiopia there lies a region which contains many large gold mines, where the gold is secured in great quantities with much suffering and at great expense. For the earth is naturally black and contains seams and veins of a marble which is unusually white and in brilliancy surpasses everything else which shines brightly by its nature, and here the overseers of the labour in the mines work recover the gold with the aid of a multitude of workers.,2.  For the kings of Egypt gather together and condemn to the mining of the gold such as have been found guilty of some crime and captives of war, as well as those who have been accused unjustly and thrown into prison because of their anger, and not only such persons but occasionally all their relatives as well, by this means not only inflicting punishment upon those found guilty but also securing at the same time great revenues from their labours.,3.  And those who have been condemned in this way — and they are a great multitude and are all bound in chains — work at their task unceasingly both by day and throughout the entire night, enjoying no respite and being carefully cut off from any means of escape; since guards of foreign soldiers who speak a language different from theirs stand watch over them, so that not a man, either by conversation or by some contact of a friendly nature, is able to corrupt one of his keepers.,6.  Now these men, working in darkness as they do because of the bending and winding of the passages, carry lamps bound on their foreheads; and since much of the time they change the position of their bodies to follow the particular character of the stone they throw the blocks, as they cut them out, on the ground; and at this task they labour without ceasing beneath the sternness and blows of an overseer.
38. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 1.89-1.150, 1.179-1.180, 1.185-1.205, 1.237, 1.251-1.252, 1.262-1.312, 1.324-1.339, 15.870-15.879 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

39. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.262-1.304, 6.752-6.892, 8.324-8.325, 8.625-8.728 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.262. which good Acestes while in Sicily 1.263. had stored in jars, and prince-like sent away 1.264. with his Ioved guest;—this too Aeneas gave; 1.266. “Companions mine, we have not failed to feel 1.267. calamity till now. O, ye have borne 1.268. far heavier sorrow: Jove will make an end 1.269. also of this. Ye sailed a course hard by 1.270. infuriate Scylla's howling cliffs and caves. 1.271. Ye knew the Cyclops' crags. Lift up your hearts! 1.272. No more complaint and fear! It well may be 1.273. ome happier hour will find this memory fair. 1.274. Through chance and change and hazard without end 1.275. our goal is Latium ; where our destinies 1.276. beckon to blest abodes, and have ordained 1.277. that Troy shall rise new-born! Have patience all! 1.279. Such was his word, but vexed with grief and care 1.280. feigned hopes upon his forehead firm he wore 1.281. and locked within his heart a hero's pain. 1.282. Now round the welcome trophies of his chase 1.283. they gather for a feast. Some flay the ribs 1.284. and bare the flesh below; some slice with knives 1.285. and on keen prongs the quivering strips impale 1.286. place cauldrons on the shore, and fan the fires. 1.287. Then, stretched at ease on couch of simple green 1.288. they rally their lost powers, and feast them well 1.289. on seasoned wine and succulent haunch of game. 1.290. But hunger banished and the banquet done 1.291. in long discourse of their lost mates they tell 1.292. 'twixt hopes and fears divided; for who knows 1.293. whether the lost ones live, or strive with death 1.294. or heed no more whatever voice may call? 1.295. Chiefly Aeneas now bewails his friends 1.296. Orontes brave and fallen Amycus 1.297. or mourns with grief untold the untimely doom 1.299. After these things were past, exalted Jove 1.300. from his ethereal sky surveying clear 1.301. the seas all winged with sails, lands widely spread 1.302. and nations populous from shore to shore 1.303. paused on the peak of heaven, and fixed his gaze 1.304. on Libya . But while he anxious mused 6.752. Came on my view; their hands made stroke at Heaven 6.753. And strove to thrust Jove from his seat on high. 6.754. I saw Salmoneus his dread stripes endure 6.755. Who dared to counterfeit Olympian thunder 6.756. And Jove's own fire. In chariot of four steeds 6.757. Brandishing torches, he triumphant rode 6.758. Through throngs of Greeks, o'er Elis ' sacred way 6.759. Demanding worship as a god. 0 fool! 6.760. To mock the storm's inimitable flash— 6.761. With crash of hoofs and roll of brazen wheel! 6.762. But mightiest Jove from rampart of thick cloud 6.763. Hurled his own shaft, no flickering, mortal flame 6.764. And in vast whirl of tempest laid him low. 6.765. Next unto these, on Tityos I looked 6.766. Child of old Earth, whose womb all creatures bears: 6.767. Stretched o'er nine roods he lies; a vulture huge 6.768. Tears with hooked beak at his immortal side 6.769. Or deep in entrails ever rife with pain 6.770. Gropes for a feast, making his haunt and home 6.771. In the great Titan bosom; nor will give 6.772. To ever new-born flesh surcease of woe. 6.773. Why name Ixion and Pirithous 6.774. The Lapithae, above whose impious brows 6.775. A crag of flint hangs quaking to its fall 6.776. As if just toppling down, while couches proud 6.777. Propped upon golden pillars, bid them feast 6.778. In royal glory: but beside them lies 6.779. The eldest of the Furies, whose dread hands 6.780. Thrust from the feast away, and wave aloft 6.781. A flashing firebrand, with shrieks of woe. 6.782. Here in a prison-house awaiting doom 6.783. Are men who hated, long as life endured 6.784. Their brothers, or maltreated their gray sires 6.785. Or tricked a humble friend; the men who grasped 6.786. At hoarded riches, with their kith and kin 6.787. Not sharing ever—an unnumbered throng; 6.788. Here slain adulterers be; and men who dared 6.789. To fight in unjust cause, and break all faith 6.790. With their own lawful lords. Seek not to know 6.791. What forms of woe they feel, what fateful shape 6.792. of retribution hath o'erwhelmed them there. 6.793. Some roll huge boulders up; some hang on wheels 6.794. Lashed to the whirling spokes; in his sad seat 6.795. Theseus is sitting, nevermore to rise; 6.796. Unhappy Phlegyas uplifts his voice 6.797. In warning through the darkness, calling loud 6.798. ‘0, ere too late, learn justice and fear God!’ 6.799. Yon traitor sold his country, and for gold 6.800. Enchained her to a tyrant, trafficking 6.801. In laws, for bribes enacted or made void; 6.802. Another did incestuously take 6.803. His daughter for a wife in lawless bonds. 6.804. All ventured some unclean, prodigious crime; 6.805. And what they dared, achieved. I could not tell 6.806. Not with a hundred mouths, a hundred tongues 6.807. Or iron voice, their divers shapes of sin 6.809. So spake Apollo's aged prophetess. 6.810. “Now up and on!” she cried. “Thy task fulfil! 6.811. We must make speed. Behold yon arching doors 6.812. Yon walls in furnace of the Cyclops forged! 6.813. 'T is there we are commanded to lay down 6.814. Th' appointed offering.” So, side by side 6.815. Swift through the intervening dark they strode 6.816. And, drawing near the portal-arch, made pause. 6.817. Aeneas, taking station at the door 6.818. Pure, lustral waters o'er his body threw 6.820. Now, every rite fulfilled, and tribute due 6.821. Paid to the sovereign power of Proserpine 6.822. At last within a land delectable 6.823. Their journey lay, through pleasurable bowers 6.824. of groves where all is joy,—a blest abode! 6.825. An ampler sky its roseate light bestows 6.826. On that bright land, which sees the cloudless beam 6.827. of suns and planets to our earth unknown. 6.828. On smooth green lawns, contending limb with limb 6.829. Immortal athletes play, and wrestle long 6.830. 'gainst mate or rival on the tawny sand; 6.831. With sounding footsteps and ecstatic song 6.832. Some thread the dance divine: among them moves 6.833. The bard of Thrace, in flowing vesture clad 6.834. Discoursing seven-noted melody 6.835. Who sweeps the numbered strings with changeful hand 6.836. Or smites with ivory point his golden lyre. 6.837. Here Trojans be of eldest, noblest race 6.838. Great-hearted heroes, born in happier times 6.839. Ilus, Assaracus, and Dardanus 6.840. Illustrious builders of the Trojan town. 6.841. Their arms and shadowy chariots he views 6.842. And lances fixed in earth, while through the fields 6.843. Their steeds without a bridle graze at will. 6.844. For if in life their darling passion ran 6.845. To chariots, arms, or glossy-coated steeds 6.846. The self-same joy, though in their graves, they feel. 6.847. Lo! on the left and right at feast reclined 6.848. Are other blessed souls, whose chorus sings 6.849. Victorious paeans on the fragrant air 6.850. of laurel groves; and hence to earth outpours 6.851. Eridanus, through forests rolling free. 6.852. Here dwell the brave who for their native land 6.853. Fell wounded on the field; here holy priests 6.854. Who kept them undefiled their mortal day; 6.855. And poets, of whom the true-inspired song 6.856. Deserved Apollo's name; and all who found 6.857. New arts, to make man's life more blest or fair; 6.858. Yea! here dwell all those dead whose deeds bequeath 6.859. Deserved and grateful memory to their kind. 6.860. And each bright brow a snow-white fillet wears. 6.861. Unto this host the Sibyl turned, and hailed 6.862. Musaeus, midmost of a numerous throng 6.863. Who towered o'er his peers a shoulder higher: 6.864. “0 spirits blest! 0 venerable bard! 6.865. Declare what dwelling or what region holds 6.866. Anchises, for whose sake we twain essayed 6.867. Yon passage over the wide streams of hell.” 6.868. And briefly thus the hero made reply: 6.869. “No fixed abode is ours. In shadowy groves 6.870. We make our home, or meadows fresh and fair 6.871. With streams whose flowery banks our couches be. 6.872. But you, if thitherward your wishes turn 6.873. Climb yonder hill, where I your path may show.” 6.874. So saying, he strode forth and led them on 6.875. Till from that vantage they had prospect fair 6.876. of a wide, shining land; thence wending down 6.877. They left the height they trod; for far below 6.878. Father Anchises in a pleasant vale 6.879. Stood pondering, while his eyes and thought surveyed 6.880. A host of prisoned spirits, who there abode 6.881. Awaiting entrance to terrestrial air. 6.882. And musing he reviewed the legions bright 6.883. of his own progeny and offspring proud— 6.884. Their fates and fortunes, virtues and great deeds. 6.885. Soon he discerned Aeneas drawing nigh 6.886. o'er the green slope, and, lifting both his hands 6.887. In eager welcome, spread them swiftly forth. 6.888. Tears from his eyelids rained, and thus he spoke: 6.889. “Art here at last? Hath thy well-proven love 6.890. of me thy sire achieved yon arduous way? 6.891. Will Heaven, beloved son, once more allow 6.892. That eye to eye we look? and shall I hear 8.324. tood open, deeply yawning, just as if 8.325. the riven earth should crack, and open wide 8.625. “Great leader of the Teucrians, while thy life 8.626. in safety stands, I call not Trojan power 8.627. vanquished or fallen. But to help thy war 8.628. my small means match not thy redoubled name. 8.629. Yon Tuscan river is my bound. That way 8.630. Rutulia thrusts us hard and chafes our wall 8.631. with loud, besieging arms. But I propose 8.632. to league with thee a numerous array 8.633. of kings and mighty tribes, which fortune strange 8.634. now brings to thy defence. Thou comest here 8.635. because the Fates intend. Not far from ours 8.636. a city on an ancient rock is seen 8.637. Agylla, which a warlike Lydian clan 8.638. built on the Tuscan hills. It prospered well 8.639. for many a year, then under the proud yoke 8.640. of King Mezentius it came and bore 8.641. his cruel sway. Why tell the loathsome deeds 8.642. and crimes unspeakable the despot wrought? 8.643. May Heaven requite them on his impious head 8.644. and on his children! For he used to chain 8.645. dead men to living, hand on hand was laid 8.646. and face on face,—torment incredible! 8.647. Till, locked in blood-stained, horrible embrace 8.648. a lingering death they found. But at the last 8.649. his people rose in furious despair 8.650. and while he blasphemously raged, assailed 8.651. his life and throne, cut down his guards 8.652. and fired his regal dwellings; he, the while 8.653. escaped immediate death and fied away 8.654. to the Rutulian land, to find defence 8.655. in Turnus hospitality. To-day 8.656. Etruria, to righteous anger stirred 8.657. demands with urgent arms her guilty King. 8.658. To their large host, Aeneas, I will give 8.659. an added strength, thyself. For yonder shores 8.660. re-echo with the tumult and the cry 8.661. of ships in close array; their eager lords 8.662. are clamoring for battle. But the song 8.663. of the gray omen-giver thus declares 8.664. their destiny: ‘O goodly princes born 8.665. of old Maeonian lineage! Ye that are 8.666. the bloom and glory of an ancient race 8.667. whom just occasions now and noble rage 8.668. enflame against Mezentius your foe 8.669. it is decreed that yonder nation proud 8.670. hall never submit to chiefs Italian-born. 8.671. Seek ye a king from far!’ So in the field 8.672. inert and fearful lies Etruria's force 8.673. disarmed by oracles. Their Tarchon sent 8.674. envoys who bore a sceptre and a crown 8.675. even to me, and prayed I should assume 8.676. the sacred emblems of Etruria's king 8.677. and lead their host to war. But unto me 8.678. cold, sluggish age, now barren and outworn 8.679. denies new kingdoms, and my slow-paced powers 8.680. run to brave deeds no more. Nor could I urge 8.681. my son, who by his Sabine mother's line 8.682. is half Italian-born. Thyself art he 8.683. whose birth illustrious and manly prime 8.684. fate favors and celestial powers approve. 8.685. Therefore go forth, O bravest chief and King 8.686. of Troy and Italy ! To thee I give 8.687. the hope and consolation of our throne 8.688. pallas, my son, and bid him find in thee 8.689. a master and example, while he learns 8.690. the soldier's arduous toil. With thy brave deeds 8.691. let him familiar grow, and reverence thee 8.692. with youthful love and honor. In his train 8.693. two hundred horsemen of Arcadia 8.694. our choicest men-at-arms, shall ride; and he 8.695. in his own name an equal band shall bring 8.696. to follow only thee.” Such the discourse. 8.697. With meditative brows and downcast eyes 8.698. Aeneas and Achates, sad at heart 8.699. mused on unnumbered perils yet to come. 8.700. But out of cloudless sky Cythera's Queen 8.701. gave sudden signal: from th' ethereal dome 8.702. a thunder-peal and flash of quivering fire 8.703. tumultuous broke, as if the world would fall 8.704. and bellowing Tuscan trumpets shook the air. 8.705. All eyes look up. Again and yet again 8.706. crashed the terrible din, and where the sky 8.707. looked clearest hung a visionary cloud 8.708. whence through the brightness blazed resounding arms. 8.709. All hearts stood still. But Troy 's heroic son 8.710. knew that his mother in the skies redeemed 8.711. her pledge in sound of thunder: so he cried 8.712. “Seek not, my friend, seek not thyself to read 8.713. the meaning of the omen. 'T is to me 8.714. Olympus calls. My goddess-mother gave 8.715. long since her promise of a heavenly sign 8.716. if war should burst; and that her power would bring 8.717. a panoply from Vulcan through the air 8.718. to help us at our need. Alas, what deaths 8.719. over Laurentum's ill-starred host impend! 8.720. O Turnus, what a reckoning thou shalt pay 8.721. to me in arms! O Tiber, in thy wave 8.722. what helms and shields and mighty soldiers slain 8.723. hall in confusion roll! Yea, let them lead 8.725. He said: and from the lofty throne uprose. 8.726. Straightway he roused anew the slumbering fire 8.727. acred to Hercules, and glad at heart 8.728. adored, as yesterday, the household gods
40. Vergil, Eclogues, 4.4-4.10, 6.31 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4.4. woods worthy of a Consul let them be. 4.5. Now the last age by Cumae's Sibyl sung 4.6. has come and gone, and the majestic roll 4.7. of circling centuries begins anew: 4.8. justice returns, returns old Saturn's reign 4.9. with a new breed of men sent down from heaven. 4.10. Only do thou, at the boy's birth in whom 6.31. and crying, “Why tie the fetters? loose me, boys;
41. Vergil, Georgics, 1.121-1.146 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.121. And heaved its furrowy ridges, turns once more 1.122. Cross-wise his shattering share, with stroke on stroke 1.123. The earth assails, and makes the field his thrall. 1.124. Pray for wet summers and for winters fine 1.125. Ye husbandmen; in winter's dust the crop 1.126. Exceedingly rejoice, the field hath joy; 1.127. No tilth makes placeName key= 1.128. Nor Gargarus his own harvests so admire. 1.129. Why tell of him, who, having launched his seed 1.130. Sets on for close encounter, and rakes smooth 1.131. The dry dust hillocks, then on the tender corn 1.132. Lets in the flood, whose waters follow fain; 1.133. And when the parched field quivers, and all the blade 1.134. Are dying, from the brow of its hill-bed 1.135. See! see! he lures the runnel; down it falls 1.136. Waking hoarse murmurs o'er the polished stones 1.137. And with its bubblings slakes the thirsty fields? 1.138. Or why of him, who lest the heavy ear 1.139. O'erweigh the stalk, while yet in tender blade 1.140. Feeds down the crop's luxuriance, when its growth 1.141. First tops the furrows? Why of him who drain 1.142. The marsh-land's gathered ooze through soaking sand 1.143. Chiefly what time in treacherous moons a stream 1.144. Goes out in spate, and with its coat of slime 1.145. Holds all the country, whence the hollow dyke 1.146. Sweat steaming vapour?
42. Anon., 2 Baruch, 70.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

43. Gorgias Atheniensis, Fragments, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

44. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 9.39 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.39. But when at the rising of the sun they saw the water in the torrent, for it was not far from the land of Moab, and that it was of the color of blood, for at such a time the water especially looks red, by the shining of the sun upon it, they formed a false notion of the state of their enemies, as if they had slain one another for thirst; and that the river ran with their blood.
45. Mishnah, Sotah, 9.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.15. When Rabbi Meir died, the composers of fables ceased. When Ben Azzai died, the diligent students [of Torah] ceased. When Ben Zoma died, the expounders ceased. When Rabbi Joshua died, goodness ceased from the world. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel died, locusts come and troubles multiplied. When Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah died, the sages ceased to be wealthy. When Rabbi Akiba died, the glory of the Torah ceased. When Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa died, men of wondrous deeds ceased. When Rabbi Yose Katnuta died, the pious men (hasidim) ceased and why was his name called Katnuta? Because he was the youngest of the pious men. When Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai died, the splendor of wisdom ceased. When Rabban Gamaliel the elder died, the glory of the torah ceased, and purity and separateness perished. When Rabbi Ishmael ben Fabi died, the splendor of the priesthood ceased. When Rabbi died, humility and fear of sin ceased. Rabbi Phineas ben Yair says: when Temple was destroyed, scholars and freemen were ashamed and covered their head, men of wondrous deeds were disregarded, and violent men and big talkers grew powerful. And nobody expounds, nobody seeks, and nobody asks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: from the day the Temple was destroyed, the sages began to be like scribes, scribes like synagogue-attendants, synagogue-attendants like common people, and the common people became more and more debased. And nobody seeks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. In the footsteps of the messiah insolence (hutzpah) will increase and the cost of living will go up greatly; the vine will yield its fruit, but wine will be expensive; the government will turn to heresy, and there will be no one to rebuke; the meeting-place [of scholars] will be used for licentiousness; the Galilee will be destroyed, the Gablan will be desolated, and the dwellers on the frontier will go about [begging] from place to place without anyone to take pity on them; the wisdom of the learned will rot, fearers of sin will be despised, and the truth will be lacking; youths will put old men to shame, the old will stand up in the presence of the young, “For son spurns father, daughter rises up against mother, daughter-in-law against mother-in-law a man’s own household are his enemies” (Micah 7:6). The face of the generation will be like the face of a dog, a son will not feel ashamed before his father. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Pinchas ben Yair says, “Heedfulness leads to cleanliness, cleanliness leads to purity, purity leads to separation, separation leads to holiness, holiness leads to modesty, modesty leads to fear of sin, fear of sin leads to piety, piety leads to the Holy Spirit, The Holy Spirit leads to the resurrection of the dead, and the resurrection of the dead comes from Elijah, blessed be his memory, Amen.”"
46. New Testament, Luke, 12.53, 21.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.53. They will be divided, father against son, and son against father; mother against daughter, and daughter against her mother; mother-in-law against her daughter-in-law, and daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law. 21.16. You will be handed over even by parents, brothers, relatives, and friends. Some of you they will cause to be put to death.
47. New Testament, Mark, 13.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.12. Brother will deliver up brother to death, and the father his child. Children will rise up against parents, and cause them to be put to death.
48. New Testament, Matthew, 10.21, 10.36 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.21. Brother will deliver up brother to death, and the father his child. Children will rise up against parents, and cause them to be put to death. 10.36. A man's foes will be those of his own household.
49. Seneca The Younger, Phaedra, 484-503, 517-520, 522-525, 483 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

50. Silius Italicus, Punica, 1.8-1.11, 1.268, 1.296-1.302 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

51. Tacitus, Annals, 3.28 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.28.  Then came Pompey's third consulate. But this chosen reformer of society, operating with remedies more disastrous than the abuses, this maker and breaker of his own enactments, lost by the sword what he was holding by the sword. The followed twenty crowded years of discord, during which law and custom ceased to exist: villainy was immune, decency not rarely a sentence of death. At last, in his sixth consulate, Augustus Caesar, feeling his power secure, cancelled the behests of his triumvirate, and presented us with laws to serve our needs in peace and under a prince. Thenceforward the fetters were tightened: sentries were set over us and, under the Papia-Poppaean law, lured on by rewards; so that, if a man shirked the privileges of paternity, the state, as universal parent, might step into the vacant inheritance. But they pressed their activities too far: the capital, Italy, every corner of the Roman world, had suffered from their attacks, and the positions of many had been wholly ruined. Indeed, a reign of terror was threatened, when Tiberius, for the fixing of a remedy, chose by lot five former consuls, five former praetors, and an equal number of ordinary senators: a body which, by untying many of the legal knots, gave for the time a measure of relief.
52. Tacitus, Histories, 1.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

53. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 34.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

34.8. וְכָל הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר אִתְּךָ וגו' (בראשית ח, יז), אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן הַוְצֵא כְּתִיב הַיְצֵא קְרִי. וְשָׁרְצוּ בָאָרֶץ, וְלֹא בַתֵּבָה. וּפָרוּ בָאָרֶץ, וְלֹא בַתֵּבָה. (בראשית ח, יט): כָּל הַחַיָּה [ו] כָל הָרֶמֶשׂ וגו', כֹּל רוֹמֵשׁ, אָמַר רַבִּי אַיְּבוּ רוֹמֵשׂ מָלֵא פְּרַט לְכִלְאָיִם. לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתֵיהֶם, פְּרַט לְסִירוּס. עַל שִׁבְעָה דְּבָרִים נִצְטַוּוּ בְּנֵי נֹחַ, עַל עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים, וְעַל גִּלּוּי עֲרָיוֹת, וְעַל שְׁפִיכוּת דָּמִים, וְעַל בִּרְכַּת הַשֵּׁם, וְעַל הַדִּין, וְעַל הַגָּזֵל, וְעַל אֵבָר מִן הֶחָי. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר אַף עַל הַדָּם מִן הֶחָי. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר אַף עַל הַכִּלְאָיִם. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי אוֹמֵר אַף עַל הַכְּשָׁפִים. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן בְּרוֹקָא אוֹמֵר אַף עַל הַסֵּרוּס. אָמַר רַבִּי אַסֵּי עַל כָּל הָאָמוּר בַּפָּרָשָׁה נִצְטַוּוּ בְּנֵי נֹחַ (דברים יח, י): לֹא יִמָּצֵא בְךָ מַעֲבִיר בְּנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ וגו', וּכְתִיב בַּתְרֵיהּ (דברים יח, יב): כִּי תוֹעֲבַת ה' כָּל עוֹשֵׂה אֵלֶּה. 34.8. Bring forth (hayetze) with you every living thing that is with you…that they may swarm in the earth (Gen. 8:18). R. Yudan said: havtze is written, but it is read hayetze: that they may swarm in the earth - but not in the Ark. And be fruitful and multiply upon the earth - but not in the Ark. 'Every beast, every creeping thing, and every fowl, whatsoever moves (kol romes) upon the earth (Gen 8:19). R. Aivu said: Kol romes is written fully [with a vav] - it excludes kilayim [mixing species]. After their families: this excludes emasculation. The children of Noah were enjoined concerning seven tings: Idolatry, incest, murder, cursing the Divine Name [blasphemy], civil law, and a limb torn from a living animal. Rabbi Chanina ben Gamliel says: also concerning blood from a living animal. Rabbi Eleazar says: also against mixing species. Rabbi Shime'on ben Yochai says: also against witchcraft. Rabbi Yocha ben Beroka says: also against emasculation. Rabbi Assi said: The children of Noah were ordered regarding everything stated in the sentence: 'There shall not be found among you any one that makes his son or his daughter to pass through the fire, etc.' (Deut. 18:10) and afterwards 'because it is an abomination for Ad-nai all that do this.' (Deut. 18:12)"
54. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

56a. בכל יום דנין את העדים בכינוי יכה יוסי את יוסי,נגמר הדין לא הורגין בכינוי אלא מוציאין כל אדם לחוץ שואלין את הגדול שביניהן ואומר לו אמור מה ששמעת בפירוש והוא אומר והדיינין עומדין על רגליהן וקורעין ולא מאחין,והשני אומר אף אני כמוהו והשלישי אומר אף אני כמוהו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנא עד שיברך שם בשם,מנהני מילי אמר שמואל דאמר קרא (ויקרא כד, טז) ונוקב שם וגו' בנקבו שם יומת,ממאי דהאי נוקב לישנא דברוכי הוא דכתיב (במדבר כג, ח) מה אקב לא קבה אל ואזהרתיה מהכא (שמות כב, כז) אלהים לא תקלל,ואימא מיברז הוא דכתיב (מלכים ב יב, י) ויקב חור בדלתו ואזהרתיה מהכא (דברים יב, ג) ואבדתם את שמם לא תעשון כן לה' אלהיכם,בעינא שם בשם וליכא,ואימא דמנח שני שמות אהדדי ובזע להו ההוא נוקב וחוזר ונוקב הוא ואימא דחייק שם אפומא דסכינא ובזע בה ההוא חורפא דסכינא הוא דקא בזע,אימא פרושי שמיה הוא דכתיב (במדבר א, יז) ויקח משה ואהרן את האנשים האלה אשר נקבו בשמות ואזהרתיה מהכא (דברים ו, יג) את ה' אלהיך תירא,חדא דבעינא שם בשם וליכא ועוד הויא ליה אזהרת עשה ואזהרת עשה לא שמה אזהרה,ואיבעית אימא אמר קרא (ויקרא כד, יא) ויקב ויקלל למימרא דנוקב קללה הוא,ודילמא עד דעבד תרוייהו לא סלקא דעתך דכתיב (ויקרא כד, יד) הוצא את המקלל ולא כתיב הוצא את הנוקב והמקלל שמע מינה חדא היא,תנו רבנן איש מה ת"ל איש איש לרבות את העובדי כוכבים שמוזהרין על ברכת השם כישראל ואינן נהרגין אלא בסייף שכל מיתה האמורה בבני נח אינה אלא בסייף,והא מהכא נפקא מהתם נפקא ה' זו ברכת השם,אמר ר' יצחק נפחא לא נצרכא אלא לרבותא הכינויין ואליבא דרבי מאיר,דתניא (ויקרא כד, טו) איש איש כי יקלל אלהיו ונשא חטאו מה תלמוד לומר והלא כבר נאמר (ויקרא כד, טז) ונוקב שם ה' מות יומת לפי שנאמר ונוקב שם מות יומת יכול לא יהא חייב אלא על שם המיוחד בלבד מניין לרבות כל הכינויין תלמוד לומר איש כי יקלל אלהיו מכל מקום דברי רבי מאיר,וחכמים אומרים על שם המיוחד במיתה ועל הכינויין באזהרה,ופליגא דרבי מיישא דאמר רבי מיישא בן נח שבירך את השם בכינויים לרבנן חייב,מאי טעמא דאמר קרא (ויקרא כד, טז) כגר כאזרח גר ואזרח הוא דבעינן בנקבו שם אבל עובד כוכבים אפילו בכינוי,ורבי מאיר האי כגר כאזרח מאי עביד ליה גר ואזרח בסקילה אבל עובד כוכבים בסייף סלקא דעתך אמינא הואיל ואיתרבו איתרבו קמ"ל,ורבי יצחק נפחא אליבא דרבנן האי כגר כאזרח מאי עביד ליה גר ואזרח הוא דבעינן שם בשם אבל עובד כוכבים לא בעינן שם בשם,איש איש למה לי דיברה תורה כלשון בני אדם,תנו רבנן שבע מצות נצטוו בני נח דינין וברכת השם ע"ז גילוי עריות ושפיכות דמים וגזל ואבר מן החי 56a. bOn every dayof a blasphemer’s trial, when the judges bjudge the witnesses,i.e., interrogate the witnesses, they ask the witnesses to use ban appellationfor the name of God, so that they do not utter a curse of God’s name. Specifically, the witnesses would say: bLet Yosei smite Yosei,as the name Yosei has four letters in Hebrew, as does the Tetragrammaton.,When bthe judgment is over,and the court votes to deem the defendant guilty, bthey do not sentencehim bto death based onthe testimony of the witnesses in which they used ban appellationfor the name of God, without having ever heard the exact wording of the curse. bRather, they remove allthe bpeoplewho are not required to be there from the court, so that the curse is not heard publicly, and the judges binterrogate the eldest ofthe witnesses, band say to him: Say what you heard explicitly. And he saysexactly what he heard. bAnd the judges stand on their feet and make a tearin their garments, as an act of mourning for the desecration of the honor of God. bAnd they do notever fully bstitchit back together again., bAnd the secondwitness bsays: I tooheard bas hedid, but he does not repeat the curse explicitly. bAnd the thirdwitness, in the event that there is one, bsays: I tooheard bas hedid. In this manner, the repetition of the invective sentence is limited to what is absolutely necessary., strongGEMARA: /strong The Sage btaughtin a ibaraita /i: A blasphemer is not liable bunless he blesses,a euphemism for curses, the bnameof God bwiththe bnameof God, e.g., by saying: Let such and such a name strike such and such a name.,The Gemara asks: bFrom where is this matterderived? bShmuel says:It is derived from that bwhich the verse states: “And he who blasphemes [ ivenokev /i] the nameof the Lord shall be put to death; all the congregation shall stone him; the convert as well as the homeborn, bwhen he blasphemes [ ibenokvo /i] the name, he shall be put to death”(Leviticus 24:16). It is derived from the repetition of the phrase “blasphemes the name” that the reference is to cursing the name of God with the name of God.,The Gemara asks: bFrom whereis it derived bthat thisword inokevis a term for blessing,i.e., cursing? The Gemara answers that it is derived from the statement of Balaam, who was sent by Balak to curse the Jewish people: b“How shall I curse [ iekkov /i] whom God has not cursed?”(Numbers 23:8). bAndthe bprohibitionagainst cursing God is derived bfrom here: “You shall not curse God”(Exodus 22:27).,The Gemara asks: bBut saythat perhaps the meaning of inokev bisnot cursing, but rather bmaking a hole, as it is written: “And made a hole [ ivayyikkov /i] in its lid”(II Kings 12:10). According to this, the word inokevis referring to one who makes a hole and damages the written name of God. bAndthe bprohibitionagainst doing so is derived bfrom here: “And you shall destroy their nameout of that place. bYou shall not do so to the Lord your God”(Deuteronomy 12:3–4).,The Gemara answers: It is derived from the repetition of inokevthat for one to be liable, it is bnecessarythat his transgression involve the bnameof God bwiththe bnameof God, bandsuch a transgression is bnotpossible if the reference is to making a hole.,The Gemara challenges: bBut say thatsuch a transgression is possible, as one can bplace twowritten bnamesof God, bone on top of the other, and tearthrough bthemat once. The Gemara explains: bThatwould be defined as bmaking a hole and again making a hole,not making a hole in one name by means of another name. The Gemara asks: bBut say thatone can betchthe bnameof God bon the point of a knife and cutthrough another name bwith it.The Gemara answers: In bthatcase, bit is the point of the knife that is cutting,not the name of God.,The Gemara asks: bSaythat inokevmeans the butterance of theineffable bname ofGod. bAs it is written: “And Moses and Aaron took these men that are pointed out [ inikkevu /i] by name”(Numbers 1:17). bAndthe bprohibitionto do so is derived bfrom here: “You shall fear the Lord, your God”(Deuteronomy 6:13).,The Gemara answers: bOneanswer is bthatfor one to be liable, it is bnecessarythat his transgression involve the bnameof God bwiththe bnameof God, bandsuch a transgression is bnotpossible if the reference is to uttering the ineffable name of God. bFurthermore,the prohibition derived from the verse “You shall fear the Lord, your God” bis a prohibitionstated as ba positive mitzva, and a prohibitionstated as ba positive mitzva is not considered a prohibition. /b,The Gemara presents an alternative proof that inokevis referring to cursing: bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that bthe verse states: “Andthe son of the Israelite woman bblasphemed [ ivayyikkov /i]the name band cursed”(Leviticus 24:11). bThat is to say thatthe meaning of inokevisto bcurse. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut perhapsthis verse does not prove that the meaning of inokevis to curse; rather, it indicates that one is not liable to be executed bunless he does both,i.e., both inokevand cursing God? The Gemara answers: This shall bnot enter your mind, as it is written: “Bring forth the one who cursed… /band stone him” (Leviticus 24:14), band it is not written: Bring forth the inokevand one who cursed. Conclude from itthat bit is oneact and not two.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the verse: “Anyone who curses his God shall bear his sin” (Leviticus 24:15), that the verse could have stated: bOne [ iish /i]who curses his God. bWhymust bthe verse state: “Anyone [ iish ish /i]”?It is bto include the gentiles, who are prohibited from blessing,i.e., cursing, bthe nameof God, just blike Jewsare. bAnd they are executedfor this transgression bby the sword alone, as all deathpenalties bstated with regard to the descendants of Noah are by the sword alone. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut is this ihalakha bderived from here?Rather, bit is derived from there:“And the Lord God commanded the man” (Genesis 2:16), as is stated in a ibaraitathat will soon be quoted at length: b“The Lord,” thisis referring to bthe blessing,i.e., cursing, bof the nameof God. This verse concerns Adam, the first man, and is therefore binding on all of humanity., bRav Yitzḥak Nappaḥa says:The verse “anyone who curses his God” bis necessary only to includegentiles who curse God using bthe appellationsfor the name of God, rather than mentioning the ineffable name, bandthis is bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rabbi Meir. /b, bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWhymust bthe verse state: “Anyone who curses his God shall bear his sin”? But isn’t it already stated: “And he who blasphemes the name of the Lord shall be put to death”(Leviticus 24:16)? Rather, bsince it is stated: “And he who blasphemes the nameof the Lord bshall be put to death,”one bmighthave thought that one bwill be liable only forcursing bthe ineffable nameof God. bFrom whereis it derived that the verse bincludesone who curses bany of the appellationsas well? bThe verse states: “Anyone who curses his God,”to indicate that one is liable to be executed bin any case.This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. /b, bAnd the Rabbis say: Forcursing bthe ineffable nameof God, one is punished bby death, and forcursing bthe appellations,one is liable to receive lashes bforviolating ba prohibition. /b,The Gemara comments: bAndRav Yitzḥak Nappaḥa, who holds that according to the Rabbis, gentiles are not liable for cursing appellations for the name of God, bdisagrees withthe opinion of bRav Meyasha. As Rav Meyasha says: A descendant of Noah who blessed God byone of the bappellations is liableto be executed even baccording tothe opinion of bthe Rabbis. /b, bWhat is the reason?It is bbecause the verse states: “The convert as well as the homeborn,when he blasphemes the name, he shall be put to death” (Leviticus 24:16), from which it is derived that bit isonly in the case of ba convert or a homebornJew bthat we requirethe condition: b“When he blasphemes the name,”i.e., he is liable to be executed only if he curses the ineffable name. bBut a gentileis liable to be executed beven due tomerely cursing ban appellation. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd what does Rabbi Meir do with thispart of the verse: b“The convert as well as the homeborn”?What does he derive from it? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Meir derives that ba convert or a homebornJew is liable to be executed bby stoningfor this transgression, bbut a gentileis executed bby the sword.This exclusion is necessary as otherwise it might benter your mind to saythat bsincegentiles bare includedin the ihalakhotof this verse, bthey are includedin all the ihalakhotof blasphemy. Therefore the verse bteaches usthat they are not stoned.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what does Rav Yitzḥak Nappaḥa do with thispart of the verse: b“The convert as well as the homeborn,” according tothe opinion bof the Rabbis,since Rav Yitzḥak Nappaḥa holds that the Rabbis do not deem either a Jew or a gentile liable for cursing an appellation of God’s name? The Gemara answers: He derives that bit isspecifically with regard to ba convert and a homebornJew bthat we requirethe condition that he curse ba nameof God bby a nameof God; bbutwith regard to ba gentile, we do not requirethat he curse ba nameof God bby a nameof God in order for him to be liable.,The Gemara asks: bWhy do Ineed the inclusive term b“anyonewho curses his God,” according to the opinions that do not derive from it that a gentile is liable for cursing an appellation of God’s name? The Gemara answers: No ihalakhais derived from it; it is not a superfluous term, as bthe Torah spoke in the language of people. /b,§ Since the ihalakhotof the descendants of Noah have been mentioned, a full discussion of the Noahide mitzvot is presented. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe descendants of Noah,i.e., all of humanity, bwere commandedto observe bseven mitzvot:The mitzva of establishing courts of bjudgment; andthe prohibition against bblessing,i.e., cursing, bthe nameof God; and the prohibition of bidol worship;and the prohibition against bforbidden sexual relations; andthe prohibition of bbloodshed; andthe prohibition of brobbery; andthe prohibition against eating ba limb from a livinganimal.
55. Anon., 4 Ezra, 12, 11

56. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 120, 119

119. We were told that from the neighbouring mountains of Arabia copper and iron were formerly obtained. This was stopped, however, at the time of the Persian rule, since the authorities of the time spread
57. Heraclitus, Allegoriae, 53

58. Melito of Sardis, On Pascha, 52

59. Protagoras Nicaenus V3. Jh., Fragments, None



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
achilles Weinstein, Plato's Three-fold City and Soul (2018) 248
achilles (mythological hero) Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
aeetes Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 121
aemilius sura Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 116
age/era, eschatological Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 431
age/era, present Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 431
age/era, third Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 432
ages, myths of Graf and Johnston, Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets (2007) 202
ages of man Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 165
agore/ἀγορή Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 123
agriculture Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 123
aid?s (shame, respect) Weinstein, Plato's Three-fold City and Soul (2018) 248
aidos Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 29
aim (σκοπóς) Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 173
ancient/barbarian wisdom, development of interest in Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 48
angelic sin, as epistemological transgression Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
angels, punishment of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 431
animals Fortenbaugh, Aristotle's Practical Side: On his Psychology, Ethics, Politics and Rhetoric (2006) 161; Lateiner and Spatharas, The Ancient Emotion of Disgust (2016) 144
anomia (lawlessness) Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 288
anonymus iamblichi, anomia in Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 288
anonymus iamblichi, aretē in Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 275
anthropology, historical anthropology Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 24
apocalypse, genre Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 109
approximation to the divine (in homeric and hesiodic poetry) Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 317, 318
arabia Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 234
aratus, justice in Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 85
aratus, primary influence on the end of catullus Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 85
aratus, source for the metallic ages Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 85
aretē/-a (virtue, excellence), in anonymus iamblichi Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 275
argo, as first ship Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 121
aristocracy, and sōphrosynē Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 249
aristotle Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 24
asael, azael, as culture-hero Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
athena Weinstein, Plato's Three-fold City and Soul (2018) 248
audience Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 39
augustus Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 109
baseness Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 288
beloved ones, children Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 431
beloved ones, giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 431
bernabé, alberto Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
biological (scientific) psychology Fortenbaugh, Aristotle's Practical Side: On his Psychology, Ethics, Politics and Rhetoric (2006) 161
bios/βίος Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 244
bios (way of life) Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 24, 85
bipartition, of the soul Fortenbaugh, Aristotle's Practical Side: On his Psychology, Ethics, Politics and Rhetoric (2006) 161
book of the watchers, and greco-roman culture Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
boys-stones, g. r. Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 48
bremmer, jan n. Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
bronze age, in hesiod Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 84
brother Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 234
cain, cainites Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
cainites as, fallen angels as Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
cainites as Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
cairns, d. Weinstein, Plato's Three-fold City and Soul (2018) 248
carthage Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 113
censure (nemesis) Weinstein, Plato's Three-fold City and Soul (2018) 248
chrysippus Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
civilization, as decline Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
civilization, origins of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
cleanthes Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
closure, ambiguous Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 113
colchis Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 121
conflict, between brothers Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 431, 432
conflict, between fathers and sons Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 432
conflict, between mothers and infants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 431
cornutus Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
cosmetics, cosmetology, and promiscuity Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
cosmetics, cosmetology, as angelic teaching Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
cosmogony Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 39
cosmology Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
cosmos/kosmos Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 318
country Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 123
critias, on spartan sōphrosynē Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 249
critias, politeiai Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 249
critias Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 249
cronus, life under Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 85
cultural history Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 24
cumont, franz Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
cyclical schemas of history Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 83
daimon/daimones Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
daimôn Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 318
death Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 118
death and the afterlife, conceptions of death Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
death and the afterlife, funerary inscriptions Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
death and the afterlife, hades (underworld) Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
death and the afterlife, isles of the blessed/elysian fields Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
death and the afterlife, reincarnation Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
death and the afterlife, soul (psyche) Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
death and the afterlife, tartaros (abyss below hades) Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
deception and falsehood Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 275
decline, historical Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 83, 109
democracy, anonymus iamblichi and Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 288
democritus, and anonymus iamblichi Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 275
democritus, political and social thought Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 275
democritus Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 24
deucalion and pyrrha Graf and Johnston, Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets (2007) 202
dicaearchus of messana, influence of aristotle on Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 24
dicaearchus of messana Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 24
diets, and health Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 85
digressions Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 234
dikē Sommerstein and Torrance, Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece (2014) 12
divine likeness (θεία όμοίωσις) Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 173
drunkenness Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 249
eleazar, high priest Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 234
eleusinian mysteries Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
emotion Fortenbaugh, Aristotle's Practical Side: On his Psychology, Ethics, Politics and Rhetoric (2006) 161
emotions, anger/rage de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 153
emotions, love/passion de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 153
emotions, pity de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 185
empedocles, theology and epistemology in' Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 318
enclosed spaces, walled town Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 123
envy Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 275
epic Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
epicureans, ideas Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
eris/eris/strife/strife Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 244
eschatology/eschatological, woes/conflict/tumult Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 431, 432
ethics Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 29; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
etiology Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 118
excrement Lateiner and Spatharas, The Ancient Emotion of Disgust (2016) 144
family Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 431, 432
fides Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 113
fire Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 39; Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 29
fisheaters (icthyophagoi) Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 85
flavian, culture Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 113
flavian, literature/texts Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 113
flesh, devoured by the giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 432
flesh Lateiner and Spatharas, The Ancient Emotion of Disgust (2016) 144
fortitude Weinstein, Plato's Three-fold City and Soul (2018) 248
four- (or five‐) kingdom paradigm Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 109
garcía teijeiro, m. Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
genesis, and book of the watchers Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
geography, and perspective Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 123
giants, beloved ones Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 431
giants, conflict among Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 431, 432
giants, punishment of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 431
giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 431, 432
gods Kneebone, Orthodoxy and the Courts in Late Antiquity (2020) 394; Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 29; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
gold Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 173
golden age, in hesiod Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 84
golden age/race Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 318
golden age Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 121; Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 83
gorgias, defence of palamedes Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 288
gorgias, funeral oration Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 288
graeco-roman, culture Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
graf, fritz Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
greco-roman culture, timelessness and the now, experience of Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 165
greek Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 234
hades, judgment of Shilo, Beyond Death in the Oresteia: Poetics, Ethics, and Politics (2022) 12, 13
hades Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 318
hannibal, impiety of Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 113
hasmonean period Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 234
hasmoneans Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 234
hatred Lateiner and Spatharas, The Ancient Emotion of Disgust (2016) 144
heidegger, martin Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 165
hercules Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 113
heroic age, in hesiod Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 84
hesiod, ages of man in Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 165
hesiod, ambivalence in Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 318
hesiod, and parmenides Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 317, 318
hesiod, and philosophy Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 317, 318
hesiod, and xenophanes Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 317, 318
hesiod, his narrative of human races Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 317, 318
hesiod, iron age Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
hesiod, myth of the races in Marincola et al., Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones and Calum Maciver, Greek Notions of the Past in the Archaic and Classical Eras: History Without Historians (2021) 37, 53
hesiod, on timelessness and the now Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 165
hesiod, the muses address Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 317
hesiod, unimportant to roman poets before vergil Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 85
hesiod Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 48; Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 24, 85; Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 39; Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 109; Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401; Kneebone, Orthodoxy and the Courts in Late Antiquity (2020) 392, 393, 394; Marincola et al., Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones and Calum Maciver, Greek Notions of the Past in the Archaic and Classical Eras: History Without Historians (2021) 37, 53; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121; Shilo, Beyond Death in the Oresteia: Poetics, Ethics, and Politics (2022) 12; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 153, 185
hexameter (poetry) Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 244
hippolytus Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 121
homer, odyssey Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
homer, on timelessness and the now Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 165
homer Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 24; Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 29; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121; Weinstein, Plato's Three-fold City and Soul (2018) 248
honour Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 431, 432
hooker, j. t. Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
hymn to demeter Shilo, Beyond Death in the Oresteia: Poetics, Ethics, and Politics (2022) 13
idolatry Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
iliad Shilo, Beyond Death in the Oresteia: Poetics, Ethics, and Politics (2022) 12
inscriptions, funerary Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
iron age, in hesiod Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 84
iron age Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 121
irony/ironical Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 431
irony Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 109
islands of the blessed Shilo, Beyond Death in the Oresteia: Poetics, Ethics, and Politics (2022) 13
israel Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 234
jaeger, w. Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
jason Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 121
jewish culture, neo-platonism and platonic idealism in Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 165
judaism Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 234
judea Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 234
judgement, final Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 109
justice, peculiar to human beings Fortenbaugh, Aristotle's Practical Side: On his Psychology, Ethics, Politics and Rhetoric (2006) 161
justice Kneebone, Orthodoxy and the Courts in Late Antiquity (2020) 392, 393, 394; Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 29
justice (dikē), in hesiodic myth Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 288
justice (goddess), in aratus Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 85
justice (goddess), withdraws from humans as the ages progress Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 85
juxtaposition Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 39
knowledge, human and divine Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
knowledge, revealed Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
knowledge Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 39
lawrence, d. h. Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 165
life of greece (dicaearchus of messana) Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 24
literary production Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
lucretius Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
lydia Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 249
manichaean book of giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 432
marcus aurelius Kneebone, Orthodoxy and the Courts in Late Antiquity (2020) 392
market-place and oaths Sommerstein and Torrance, Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece (2014) 12
media Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 116
metallic ages, in aratus Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 85
metallic ages, in hesiod, imagines a possible sixth post-iron age Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 84, 85
metallic ages, in hesiod, not a simple downward progression Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 84
metallic ages, in hesiod, uses races, not ages Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 84
metallic ages, in hesiod Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 84, 85
metallic ages, in vergil, myth facilitated innovative ideas on periodization Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 84
metalworking, and female vanity Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
metalworking, and idolatry Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
metalworking, and violence Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
metalworking, as angelic teaching Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
metalworking, as invention of cainites Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
middle platonism Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 48
mines of arabia Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 234
moabites Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 431
molinos tejada, m. t. Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
moral disgust Lateiner and Spatharas, The Ancient Emotion of Disgust (2016) 144
moral virtue Fortenbaugh, Aristotle's Practical Side: On his Psychology, Ethics, Politics and Rhetoric (2006) 161
murder Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 432
muses Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 29
myth Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 234
myth of ages/golden age Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 29
narratology, affective/cognitive de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 153
natural virtue Fortenbaugh, Aristotle's Practical Side: On his Psychology, Ethics, Politics and Rhetoric (2006) 161
nausikaa Weinstein, Plato's Three-fold City and Soul (2018) 248
nemesis Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 29
neo-platonism Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 165
nero Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 113
nicander Lateiner and Spatharas, The Ancient Emotion of Disgust (2016) 144
night Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 244
noachite commandments Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
north, helen Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 249
nostalgia Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 83
odysseus Weinstein, Plato's Three-fold City and Soul (2018) 248
odysseus (mythological hero) Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
odyssey Shilo, Beyond Death in the Oresteia: Poetics, Ethics, and Politics (2022) 12
olympian Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 39
opposites (pair of) Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 244
orphic tradition Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
pain/suffering de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 185
pandora, in hesiod Marincola et al., Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones and Calum Maciver, Greek Notions of the Past in the Archaic and Classical Eras: History Without Historians (2021) 53
pandora Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 39; Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 84; Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 118
parmenides, and hesiod Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 317, 318
parmenides, and xenophanes Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 317, 318
pastoralism Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 24
periodisation of history Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 83, 109
perses Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 121; Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 244
perses (brother of hesiod) Sommerstein and Torrance, Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece (2014) 12
phanes Graf and Johnston, Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets (2007) 202
philocrates Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 234
philotimia Weinstein, Plato's Three-fold City and Soul (2018) 248
physics, stoic Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
piety, and sōphrosynē Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 249
piety Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 29
pindar, olympian Shilo, Beyond Death in the Oresteia: Poetics, Ethics, and Politics (2022) 13
pindar Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
pistis (trust, sincerity, proof) Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 275, 288
plato Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121; Shilo, Beyond Death in the Oresteia: Poetics, Ethics, and Politics (2022) 12
plato and platonism, jewish and christian influence of Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 165
plato and platonism, on timelessness and the now Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 165
poetry, sōphrosynē in Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 249
politics (aristotle) Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 24
practice (askēsis, meletē), in ionian thought Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 275
primitivism Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 121
proclus Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
progress, historical Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 83
prometheus, in hesiod Marincola et al., Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones and Calum Maciver, Greek Notions of the Past in the Archaic and Classical Eras: History Without Historians (2021) 53
prometheus Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 39; Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 84; Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 29; Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 118; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 153
prophecy Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 29
protagoras, timaeus Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 165
ps.-aristeas Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 234
ptolemy ii philadelphus Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 234
purification Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 113
pythagoras Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
pythagoreanism Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
reincarnation Shilo, Beyond Death in the Oresteia: Poetics, Ethics, and Politics (2022) 13
reputation Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 275
ritual, false Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 113
river Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 431
roman empire Kneebone, Orthodoxy and the Courts in Late Antiquity (2020) 392
romans Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 431
rosenmeyer, t. g. Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
sack of troy de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 185
saguntum Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 113
salvation cults Shilo, Beyond Death in the Oresteia: Poetics, Ethics, and Politics (2022) 12, 13
scala naturae Fortenbaugh, Aristotle's Practical Side: On his Psychology, Ethics, Politics and Rhetoric (2006) 161
scipio (africanus) Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 113
sensation, faculty of Fortenbaugh, Aristotle's Practical Side: On his Psychology, Ethics, Politics and Rhetoric (2006) 161
shame, in hesiodic myth Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 288
shame Fortenbaugh, Aristotle's Practical Side: On his Psychology, Ethics, Politics and Rhetoric (2006) 161; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 431, 432
sibyl Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
silver age, in hesiod Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 84
sinners/wicked ones, slaying of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 431