Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6471
Hesiod, Works And Days, 122


τοὶ μὲν δαίμονες ἁγνοὶ ἐπιχθόνιοι καλέονταιOf health, away from grief, they took delight


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

70 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 8.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.9. אֶרֶץ אֲשֶׁר לֹא בְמִסְכֵּנֻת תֹּאכַל־בָּהּ לֶחֶם לֹא־תֶחְסַר כֹּל בָּהּ אֶרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אֲבָנֶיהָ בַרְזֶל וּמֵהֲרָרֶיהָ תַּחְצֹב נְחֹשֶׁת׃ 8.9. a land wherein thou shalt eat bread without scarceness, thou shalt not lack any thing in it; a land whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills thou mayest dig brass."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 4.22-4.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.22. וְצִלָּה גַם־הִוא יָלְדָה אֶת־תּוּבַל קַיִן לֹטֵשׁ כָּל־חֹרֵשׁ נְחֹשֶׁת וּבַרְזֶל וַאֲחוֹת תּוּבַל־קַיִן נַעֲמָה׃ 4.23. וַיֹּאמֶר לֶמֶךְ לְנָשָׁיו עָדָה וְצִלָּה שְׁמַעַן קוֹלִי נְשֵׁי לֶמֶךְ הַאְזֵנָּה אִמְרָתִי כִּי אִישׁ הָרַגְתִּי לְפִצְעִי וְיֶלֶד לְחַבֻּרָתִי׃ 4.24. כִּי שִׁבְעָתַיִם יֻקַּם־קָיִן וְלֶמֶךְ שִׁבְעִים וְשִׁבְעָה׃ 4.22. And Zillah, she also bore Tubal-cain, the forger of every cutting instrument of brass and iron; and the sister of Tubal-cain was Naamah." 4.23. And Lamech said unto his wives: Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; Ye wives of Lamech, hearken unto my speech; For I have slain a man for wounding me, And a young man for bruising me;" 4.24. If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, Truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold."
3. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 8.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.4. הֵם הִמְלִיכוּ וְלֹא מִמֶּנִּי הֵשִׂירוּ וְלֹא יָדָעְתִּי כַּסְפָּם וּזְהָבָם עָשׂוּ לָהֶם עֲצַבִּים לְמַעַן יִכָּרֵת׃ 8.4. They have set up kings, but not from Me, they have made princes, and I knew it not; of their silver and their gold have they made them idols, that they may be cut off."
4. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 2.20, 31.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

31.7. כִּי בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִמְאָסוּן אִישׁ אֱלִילֵי כַסְפּוֹ וֶאֱלִילֵי זְהָבוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ לָכֶם יְדֵיכֶם חֵטְא׃ 2.20. In that day a man shall cast away His idols of silver, and his idols of gold, Which they made for themselves to worship, To the moles and to the bats;" 31.7. For in that day they shall cast away every man his idols of silver, and his idols of gold, Which your own hands have made unto you for a sin."
5. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 10.4 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.4. בְּכֶסֶף וּבְזָהָב יְיַפֵּהוּ בְּמַסְמְרוֹת וּבְמַקָּבוֹת יְחַזְּקוּם וְלוֹא יָפִיק׃ 10.4. They deck it with silver and with gold, They fasten it with nails and with hammers, that it move not."
6. Hesiod, Works And Days, 101-109, 11, 110-119, 12, 120-121, 123-129, 13, 130-139, 14, 140-149, 15, 150-159, 16, 160-169, 17, 170-179, 18, 180-189, 19, 190-199, 2, 20, 200-209, 21, 210-219, 22, 220-229, 23, 230-239, 24, 240-249, 25, 250-259, 26, 260-269, 27, 270-279, 28, 280-289, 29, 290-292, 30-64, 649, 65, 650, 66-100 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

100. Which brought the Death-Gods. Now in misery
7. Hesiod, Theogony, 122-126, 154-210, 270-336, 453-506, 617-735, 783-804, 820-880, 95-100 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

100. Employing gentle words persuasively
8. Homer, Iliad, 1.222, 1.396-1.406, 3.278-3.279, 13.62-13.65, 15.236-15.238, 15.690-15.693, 16.384-16.392, 17.89-17.95, 17.97-17.99, 17.673, 17.679, 18.117-18.119, 19.259-19.260, 21.252-21.253, 21.494-21.495, 24.614-24.617 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

1.222. /the word of Athene. She returned to Olympus to the palace of aegis-bearing Zeus, to join the company of the other gods.But the son of Peleus again addressed with violent words the son of Atreus, and in no way ceased from his wrath:Heavy with wine, with the face of a dog but the heart of a deer 1.396. /For often I have heard you glorying in the halls of my father, and declaring that you alone among the immortals warded off shameful ruin from the son of Cronos, lord of the dark clouds, on the day when the other Olympians wished to put him in bonds, even Hera and Poseidon and Pallas Athene. 1.397. /For often I have heard you glorying in the halls of my father, and declaring that you alone among the immortals warded off shameful ruin from the son of Cronos, lord of the dark clouds, on the day when the other Olympians wished to put him in bonds, even Hera and Poseidon and Pallas Athene. 1.398. /For often I have heard you glorying in the halls of my father, and declaring that you alone among the immortals warded off shameful ruin from the son of Cronos, lord of the dark clouds, on the day when the other Olympians wished to put him in bonds, even Hera and Poseidon and Pallas Athene. 1.399. /For often I have heard you glorying in the halls of my father, and declaring that you alone among the immortals warded off shameful ruin from the son of Cronos, lord of the dark clouds, on the day when the other Olympians wished to put him in bonds, even Hera and Poseidon and Pallas Athene. 1.400. /But you came, goddess, and freed him from his bonds, when you had quickly called to high Olympus him of the hundred hands, whom the gods call Briareus, but all men Aegaeon; for he is mightier than his father. He sat down by the side of the son of Cronos, exulting in his glory 1.401. /But you came, goddess, and freed him from his bonds, when you had quickly called to high Olympus him of the hundred hands, whom the gods call Briareus, but all men Aegaeon; for he is mightier than his father. He sat down by the side of the son of Cronos, exulting in his glory 1.402. /But you came, goddess, and freed him from his bonds, when you had quickly called to high Olympus him of the hundred hands, whom the gods call Briareus, but all men Aegaeon; for he is mightier than his father. He sat down by the side of the son of Cronos, exulting in his glory 1.403. /But you came, goddess, and freed him from his bonds, when you had quickly called to high Olympus him of the hundred hands, whom the gods call Briareus, but all men Aegaeon; for he is mightier than his father. He sat down by the side of the son of Cronos, exulting in his glory 1.404. /But you came, goddess, and freed him from his bonds, when you had quickly called to high Olympus him of the hundred hands, whom the gods call Briareus, but all men Aegaeon; for he is mightier than his father. He sat down by the side of the son of Cronos, exulting in his glory 1.405. /and the blessed gods were seized with fear of him, and did not bind Zeus. Bring this now to his remembrance, and sit by his side, and clasp his knees, in hope that he might perhaps wish to succour the Trojans, and for those others, the Achaeans, to pen them in among the sterns of their ships and around the sea as they are slain, so that they may all have profit of their king 1.406. /and the blessed gods were seized with fear of him, and did not bind Zeus. Bring this now to his remembrance, and sit by his side, and clasp his knees, in hope that he might perhaps wish to succour the Trojans, and for those others, the Achaeans, to pen them in among the sterns of their ships and around the sea as they are slain, so that they may all have profit of their king 3.278. /Then in their midst Agamemnon lifted up his hands and prayed aloud:Father Zeus, that rulest from Ida, most glorious, most great, and thou Sun, that beholdest all things and hearest all things, and ye rivers and thou earth, and ye that in the world below take vengeance on men that are done with life, whosoever hath sworn a false oath; 3.279. /Then in their midst Agamemnon lifted up his hands and prayed aloud:Father Zeus, that rulest from Ida, most glorious, most great, and thou Sun, that beholdest all things and hearest all things, and ye rivers and thou earth, and ye that in the world below take vengeance on men that are done with life, whosoever hath sworn a false oath; 13.62. /smote the twain with his staff, and filled them with valorous strength and made their limbs light, their feet and their hands above. And himself, even as a hawk, swift of flight, speedeth forth to fly, and poising himself aloft above a high sheer rock, darteth over the plain to chase some other bird; 13.63. /smote the twain with his staff, and filled them with valorous strength and made their limbs light, their feet and their hands above. And himself, even as a hawk, swift of flight, speedeth forth to fly, and poising himself aloft above a high sheer rock, darteth over the plain to chase some other bird; 13.64. /smote the twain with his staff, and filled them with valorous strength and made their limbs light, their feet and their hands above. And himself, even as a hawk, swift of flight, speedeth forth to fly, and poising himself aloft above a high sheer rock, darteth over the plain to chase some other bird; 13.65. /even so from them sped Poseidon, the Shaker of Earth. And of the twain swift Aias, son of Oïleus, was first to mark the god, and forthwith spake to Aias, son of Telamon:Aias, seeing it is one of the gods who hold Olympus that in the likeness of the seer biddeth the two of us fight beside the ships— 15.236. /to the end that yet again the Achaeans may have respite from their toil. So spake he, nor was Apollo disobedient to his father s bidding, but went down from the hills of Ida, like a fleet falcon, the slayer of doves, that is the swiftest of winged things. He found the son of wise-hearted Priam, even goodly Hector 15.237. /to the end that yet again the Achaeans may have respite from their toil. So spake he, nor was Apollo disobedient to his father s bidding, but went down from the hills of Ida, like a fleet falcon, the slayer of doves, that is the swiftest of winged things. He found the son of wise-hearted Priam, even goodly Hector 15.238. /to the end that yet again the Achaeans may have respite from their toil. So spake he, nor was Apollo disobedient to his father s bidding, but went down from the hills of Ida, like a fleet falcon, the slayer of doves, that is the swiftest of winged things. He found the son of wise-hearted Priam, even goodly Hector 15.690. /but as a tawny eagle darteth upon a flock of winged fowl that are feeding by a river's bank—a flock of wild geese, or cranes, or long-necked swans, even so Hector made for a dark-prowed ship, rushing straight thereon; and from behind Zeus thrust him on 15.691. /but as a tawny eagle darteth upon a flock of winged fowl that are feeding by a river's bank—a flock of wild geese, or cranes, or long-necked swans, even so Hector made for a dark-prowed ship, rushing straight thereon; and from behind Zeus thrust him on 15.692. /but as a tawny eagle darteth upon a flock of winged fowl that are feeding by a river's bank—a flock of wild geese, or cranes, or long-necked swans, even so Hector made for a dark-prowed ship, rushing straight thereon; and from behind Zeus thrust him on 15.693. /but as a tawny eagle darteth upon a flock of winged fowl that are feeding by a river's bank—a flock of wild geese, or cranes, or long-necked swans, even so Hector made for a dark-prowed ship, rushing straight thereon; and from behind Zeus thrust him on 16.384. /And straight over the trench leapt the swift horses—the immortal horses that the gods gave as glorious gifts to Peleus—in their onward flight, and against Hector did the heart of Patroclus urge him on, for he was fain to smite him; but his swift horses ever bare Hector forth. And even as beneath a tempest the whole black earth is oppressed 16.385. /on a day in harvest-time, when Zeus poureth forth rain most violently, whenso in anger he waxeth wroth against men that by violence give crooked judgments in the place of gathering, and drive justice out, recking not of the vengeance of the gods; and all their rivers flow in flood 16.386. /on a day in harvest-time, when Zeus poureth forth rain most violently, whenso in anger he waxeth wroth against men that by violence give crooked judgments in the place of gathering, and drive justice out, recking not of the vengeance of the gods; and all their rivers flow in flood 16.387. /on a day in harvest-time, when Zeus poureth forth rain most violently, whenso in anger he waxeth wroth against men that by violence give crooked judgments in the place of gathering, and drive justice out, recking not of the vengeance of the gods; and all their rivers flow in flood 16.388. /on a day in harvest-time, when Zeus poureth forth rain most violently, whenso in anger he waxeth wroth against men that by violence give crooked judgments in the place of gathering, and drive justice out, recking not of the vengeance of the gods; and all their rivers flow in flood 16.389. /on a day in harvest-time, when Zeus poureth forth rain most violently, whenso in anger he waxeth wroth against men that by violence give crooked judgments in the place of gathering, and drive justice out, recking not of the vengeance of the gods; and all their rivers flow in flood 16.390. /and many a hillside do the torrents furrow deeply, and down to the dark sea they rush headlong from the mountains with a mighty roar, and the tilled fields of men are wasted; even so mighty was the roar of the mares of Troy as they sped on. 16.391. /and many a hillside do the torrents furrow deeply, and down to the dark sea they rush headlong from the mountains with a mighty roar, and the tilled fields of men are wasted; even so mighty was the roar of the mares of Troy as they sped on. 16.392. /and many a hillside do the torrents furrow deeply, and down to the dark sea they rush headlong from the mountains with a mighty roar, and the tilled fields of men are wasted; even so mighty was the roar of the mares of Troy as they sped on. 17.89. /stripping off the glorious arms, and of the other lying on the ground; and the blood was flowing down from the stricken wound. Then strode he forth amid the foremost fighters, harnessed in flaming bronze, crying a shrill cry, in fashion like unto the flame of Hephaestus that none may quench. Nor was his shrill cry unheard of the son of Atreus 17.90. /but sore troubled he spake to his own great-hearted spirit:Ah, woe is me! If I leave behind the goodly arms, and Patroclus, that here lieth low for that he would get me recompense, I fear lest many a Danaan wax wroth against me, whosoever beholdeth it. But if for very shame I, that am alone, do battle with Hector and the Trojans 17.91. /but sore troubled he spake to his own great-hearted spirit:Ah, woe is me! If I leave behind the goodly arms, and Patroclus, that here lieth low for that he would get me recompense, I fear lest many a Danaan wax wroth against me, whosoever beholdeth it. But if for very shame I, that am alone, do battle with Hector and the Trojans 17.92. /but sore troubled he spake to his own great-hearted spirit:Ah, woe is me! If I leave behind the goodly arms, and Patroclus, that here lieth low for that he would get me recompense, I fear lest many a Danaan wax wroth against me, whosoever beholdeth it. But if for very shame I, that am alone, do battle with Hector and the Trojans 17.93. /but sore troubled he spake to his own great-hearted spirit:Ah, woe is me! If I leave behind the goodly arms, and Patroclus, that here lieth low for that he would get me recompense, I fear lest many a Danaan wax wroth against me, whosoever beholdeth it. But if for very shame I, that am alone, do battle with Hector and the Trojans 17.94. /but sore troubled he spake to his own great-hearted spirit:Ah, woe is me! If I leave behind the goodly arms, and Patroclus, that here lieth low for that he would get me recompense, I fear lest many a Danaan wax wroth against me, whosoever beholdeth it. But if for very shame I, that am alone, do battle with Hector and the Trojans 17.95. /I fear lest haply they beset me round about, many against one; for all the Trojans is Hector of the flashing helm leading hitherward. But why doth my heart thus hold converse with me? Whenso a warrior is minded against the will of heaven to fight with another whom a god honoureth, forthwith then upon him rolleth mighty woe. 17.97. /I fear lest haply they beset me round about, many against one; for all the Trojans is Hector of the flashing helm leading hitherward. But why doth my heart thus hold converse with me? Whenso a warrior is minded against the will of heaven to fight with another whom a god honoureth, forthwith then upon him rolleth mighty woe. 17.98. /I fear lest haply they beset me round about, many against one; for all the Trojans is Hector of the flashing helm leading hitherward. But why doth my heart thus hold converse with me? Whenso a warrior is minded against the will of heaven to fight with another whom a god honoureth, forthwith then upon him rolleth mighty woe. 17.99. /I fear lest haply they beset me round about, many against one; for all the Trojans is Hector of the flashing helm leading hitherward. But why doth my heart thus hold converse with me? Whenso a warrior is minded against the will of heaven to fight with another whom a god honoureth, forthwith then upon him rolleth mighty woe. 17.673. /now let each man remember the kindliness of hapless Patroclus; for to all was he ever gentle while yet he lived, but now death and fate have come upon him. So saying fair-haired Menelaus departed, glancing warily on every side as an eagle, which, men say, hath 18.117. /even on Hector; for my fate, I will accept it whenso Zeus willeth to bring it to pass, and the other immortal gods. For not even the mighty Heracles escaped death, albeit he was most dear to Zeus, son of Cronos, the king, but fate overcame him, and the dread wrath of Hera. 18.118. /even on Hector; for my fate, I will accept it whenso Zeus willeth to bring it to pass, and the other immortal gods. For not even the mighty Heracles escaped death, albeit he was most dear to Zeus, son of Cronos, the king, but fate overcame him, and the dread wrath of Hera. 18.119. /even on Hector; for my fate, I will accept it whenso Zeus willeth to bring it to pass, and the other immortal gods. For not even the mighty Heracles escaped death, albeit he was most dear to Zeus, son of Cronos, the king, but fate overcame him, and the dread wrath of Hera. 19.259. /made prayer to Zeus; and all the Argives sat thereby in silence, hearkening as was meet unto the king. And he spake in prayer, with a look up to the wide heaven:Be Zeus my witness first, highest and best of gods, and Earth and Sun, and the Erinyes, that under earth 19.260. /take vengeance on men, whosoever hath sworn a false oath, that never laid I hand upon the girl Briseis either by way of a lover's embrace or anywise else, but she ever abode untouched in my huts. And if aught of this oath be false, may the gods give me woes 21.252. /goodly Achilles from his labour, and ward off ruin from the Trojans. But the son of Peleus rushed back as far as a spear-cast with the swoop of a black eagle, the mighty hunter, that is alike the strongest and swiftest of winged things; like him he darted, and upon his breast 21.253. /goodly Achilles from his labour, and ward off ruin from the Trojans. But the son of Peleus rushed back as far as a spear-cast with the swoop of a black eagle, the mighty hunter, that is alike the strongest and swiftest of winged things; like him he darted, and upon his breast 21.494. /with her left hand, and with her right took the bow and its gear from her shoulders, and with these self-same weapons, smiling the while, she beat her about the ears, as she turned this way and that; and the swift arrows fell from out the quiver. Then weeping the goddess fled from before her even as a dove that from before a falcon flieth into a hollow rock 21.495. /a cleft—nor is it her lot to be taken; even so fled Artemis weeping, and left her bow and arrows where they lay. But unto Leto spake the messenger Argeiphontes:Leto, it is not I that will anywise fight with thee; a hard thing were it to bandy blows with the wives of Zeus, the cloud-gatherer; 24.614. /For nine days' space they lay in their blood, nor was there any to bury them, for the son of Cronos turned the folk to stones; howbeit on the tenth day the gods of heaven buried them; and Niobe bethought her of meat, for she was wearied with the shedding of tears. And now somewhere amid the rocks, on the lonely mountains 24.615. /on Sipylus, where, men say, are the couching-places of goddesses, even of the nymphs that range swiftly in the dance about Achelous, there, albeit a stone, she broodeth over her woes sent by the gods. But come, let us twain likewise, noble old sire, bethink us of meat; and thereafter shalt thou make lament over thy dear son 24.616. /on Sipylus, where, men say, are the couching-places of goddesses, even of the nymphs that range swiftly in the dance about Achelous, there, albeit a stone, she broodeth over her woes sent by the gods. But come, let us twain likewise, noble old sire, bethink us of meat; and thereafter shalt thou make lament over thy dear son 24.617. /on Sipylus, where, men say, are the couching-places of goddesses, even of the nymphs that range swiftly in the dance about Achelous, there, albeit a stone, she broodeth over her woes sent by the gods. But come, let us twain likewise, noble old sire, bethink us of meat; and thereafter shalt thou make lament over thy dear son
9. Homer, Odyssey, 4.563-4.569, 11.368, 11.565-11.627 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

10. Aeschylus, Eumenides, 150, 230, 312, 490, 500, 512, 516-531, 538-548, 560, 564-565, 72, 115 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

115. ψυχῆς, φρονήσατʼ, ὦ κατὰ χθονὸς θεαί. 115. awake to consciousness, goddesses of the underworld! For in a dream I, Clytaemestra, now invoke you. Chorus
11. Aeschylus, Persians, 608-699, 607 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

607. τοιγὰρ κέλευθον τήνδʼ ἄνευ τʼ ὀχημάτων
12. Aeschylus, Seven Against Thebes, 70 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

70. Ἀρά τʼ Ἐρινὺς πατρὸς ἡ μεγασθενής 70. and Curse, note anchored=
13. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 7.19 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.19. כַּסְפָּם בַּחוּצוֹת יַשְׁלִיכוּ וּזְהָבָם לְנִדָּה יִהְיֶה כַּסְפָּם וּזְהָבָם לֹא־יוּכַל לְהַצִּילָם בְּיוֹם עֶבְרַת יְהוָה נַפְשָׁם לֹא יְשַׂבֵּעוּ וּמֵעֵיהֶם לֹא יְמַלֵּאוּ כִּי־מִכְשׁוֹל עֲוֺנָם הָיָה׃ 7.19. They shall cast their silver in the streets, and their gold shall be as an unclean thing; their silver and their gold shall not be able to deliver them in the day of the wrath of the LORD; they shall not satisfy their souls, neither fill their bowels; because it hath been the stumblingblock of their iniquity."
14. Heraclitus of Ephesus, Fragments, None (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

15. Parmenides, Fragments, None (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

16. Pindar, Olympian Odes, 9.42-9.53 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

17. Empedocles, Fragments, 115.9-115.11 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

18. Euripides, Electra, 1272 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1272. σεμνὸν βροτοῖσιν εὐσεβὲς χρηστήριον:
19. Euripides, Medea, 1389-1391, 5, 9-10 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10. to slay their father and come to live here in the land of Corinth with her husband and children, where her exile found favour with the citizens to whose land she had come, and in all things of her own accord was she at one with Jason, the greatest safeguard thi
20. Euripides, Orestes, 265, 264 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

264. Let me go! you are one of my Furies
21. Herodotus, Histories, 2.44.5, 4.149, 4.187 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.44.5. Therefore, what I have discovered by inquiry plainly shows that Heracles is an ancient god. And furthermore, those Greeks, I think, are most in the right, who have established and practise two worships of Heracles, sacrificing to one Heracles as to an immortal, and calling him the Olympian, but to the other bringing offerings as to a dead hero. 4.149. But as Theras' son would not sail with him, his father said that he would leave him behind as a sheep among wolves; after which saying the boy got the nickname of Oeolycus, and it so happened that this became his customary name. He had a son, Aegeus, from whom the Aegidae, a great Spartan clan, take their name. ,The men of this clan, finding that none of their children lived, set up a temple of the avenging spirits of Laïus and Oedipus, by the instruction of an oracle, after which their children lived. It fared thus, too, with the children of the Aegidae at Thera. 4.187. Thus it is with this region. But west of the Tritonian lake the Libyans are not nomads; they do not follow the same customs, or treat their children as the nomads do. ,For the practice of many Libyan nomads (I cannot say absolutely whether it is the practice of all) is to take their children when four years old, and to burn the veins of their scalps or sometimes of their temples with grease of sheep's wool, so that the children may never afterward be afflicted by phlegm draining from the head. ,They say that this makes their children quite healthy. In fact, the Libyans are the healthiest of all men whom we know; whether it is because of this practice, I cannot say absolutely; but they certainly are healthy. When the children smart from the pain of the burning, the Libyans have found a remedy; they soothe them by applications of goats' urine. This is what the Libyans themselves say.
22. Plato, Apology of Socrates, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

27d. gods or children of gods? Yes, or no? Certainly. Then if I believe in spirits, as you say, if spirits are a kind of gods, that would be the puzzle and joke which I say you are uttering in saying that I, while I do not believe in gods, do believe In gods again, since I believe in spirits; but if, on the other hand, spirits are a kind of bastard children of gods, by nymphs or by any others, whoever their mothers are said to be, what man would believe that there are children of gods, but no gods? It would be just as absurd
23. Plato, Cratylus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

397c. Hermogenes. I think you are right, Socrates. Socrates. Then is it not proper to begin with the gods and see how the gods are rightly called by that name? Hermogenes. That is reasonable. Socrates. Something of this sort, then, is what I suspect: I think the earliest men in Greece believed only in those gods in whom many foreigners believe today—
24. Plato, Greater Hippias, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

293a. and for the gods themselves? Hipp. What’s that? Confound it! These questions of the fellow’s are not even respectful to religion. Soc. Well, then, when another asks the question, perhaps it is not quite disrespectful to religion to say that these things are so? Hipp. Perhaps. Soc. Perhaps, then, you are the man, he will say, who says that it is beautiful for every one and always to be buried by one’s offspring, and to bury one’s parents; or was not Heracles included in ’every one,’ he and all those whom we just now mentioned? Hipp. But I did not say it was so for the gods. Soc. Nor for the heroes either, apparently.
25. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

26. Plato, Phaedo, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

107d. from evil or be saved in any other way than by becoming as good and wise as possible. For the soul takes with it to the other world nothing but its education and nurture, and these are said to benefit or injure the departed greatly from the very beginning of his journey thither. And so it is said that after death, the tutelary genius of each person, to whom he had been allotted in life, leads him to a place where the dead are gathered together; then they are judged and depart to the other world
27. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

28. Plato, Statesman, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

269c. and so I must tell it now; for that will help us to make clear the nature of the king. Y. Soc. Very good; just tell your tale and omit nothing. Str. Listen then. During a certain period God himself goes with the universe as guide in its revolving course, but at another epoch, when the cycles have at length reached the measure of his allotted time, he lets it go
29. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

30. Plato, Symposium, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

202e. Through it are conveyed all divination and priestcraft concerning sacrifice and ritual
31. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

90a. wherefore care must be taken that they have their motions relatively to one another in due proportion. And as regards the most lordly kind of our soul, we must conceive of it in this wise: we declare that God has given to each of us, as his daemon, that kind of soul which is housed in the top of our body and which raises us—seeing that we are not an earthly but a heavenly plant up from earth towards our kindred in the heaven. And herein we speak most truly; for it is by suspending our head and root from that region whence the substance of our soul first came that the Divine Power
32. Sophocles, Oedipus At Colonus, 1299, 1434, 466, 1298 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

33. Xenophon, Apology, 11, 13, 10 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

34. Xenophon, The Education of Cyrus, 8.7.18 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

35. Aratus Solensis, Phaenomena, 101-136, 96-100 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

100. εὔκηλος φορέοιτο· λόγος γε μὲν ἐντρέχει ἄλλος
36. Aristotle, Politics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

37. Anon., 1 Enoch, 8.1-8.8, 19.1 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

8.1. And Azazel taught men to make swords, and knives, and shields, and breastplates, and made known to them the metals of the earth and the art of working them, and bracelets, and ornaments, and the use of antimony, and the beautifying of the eyelids, and all kinds of costly stones, and all 8.2. colouring tinctures. And there arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they 8.3. were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways. Semjaza taught enchantments, and root-cuttings, 'Armaros the resolving of enchantments, Baraqijal (taught) astrology, Kokabel the constellations, Ezeqeel the knowledge of the clouds, Araqiel the signs of the earth, Shamsiel the signs of the sun, and Sariel the course of the moon. And as men perished, they cried, and their cry went up to heaven . . . 19.1. And Uriel said to me: 'Here shall stand the angels who have connected themselves with women, and their spirits assuming many different forms are defiling mankind and shall lead them astray into sacrificing to demons as gods, (here shall they stand,) till the day of the great judgement in
38. Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica, 1.19-1.20 (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.19. Ἄργον Ἀθηναίης καμέειν ὑποθημοσύνῃσιν. 1.20. νῦν δʼ ἂν ἐγὼ γενεήν τε καὶ οὔνομα μυθησαίμην
39. Anon., Jubilees, 7.20-7.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.20. And behold these three cities are near Mount Lûbâr; Sêdêqêtêlĕbâb fronting the mountain on its east; and Na’êlâtamâ’ûk on the south; ’Adatanêsês towards the west. 7.21. And these are the sons of Shem: Elam, and Asshur, and Arpachshad--this (son) was born two years after the flood--and Lud, and Aram.
40. Anon., Testament of Judah, 23.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

41. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 1.36 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.36. Lastly, Balbus, I come to your Stoic school. Zeno's view is that the law of nature is divine, and that its function is to command what is right and to forbid the opposite. How he makes out this law to be alive passes our comprehension; yet we undoubtedly expect god to be a living being. In another passage however Zeno declares that the aether is god — if there is any meaning in a god without sensation, a form of deity that never presents itself to us when we offer up our prayers and supplications and make our vows. And in other books again he holds the view that a 'reason' which pervades all nature is possessed of divine power. He likewise attributes the same powers to the stars, or at another time to the years, the months and the seasons. Again, in his interpretation of Hesiod's Theogony (or Origin of the Gods) he does away with the customary and received ideas of the gods altogether, for he does not reckon either Jupiter, Juno or Vesta as gods, or any being that bears a personal name, but teaches that these names have been assigned allegorically to dumb and lifeless things.
42. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

43. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 13.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

13.10. But miserable, with their hopes set on dead things, are the men who give the name "gods" to the works of mens hands,gold and silver fashioned with skill,and likenesses of animals,or a useless stone, the work of an ancient hand.
44. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 1.73-1.76, 1.90-1.103 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

1.73. That with the sweat of labor ye may have 1.74. Sufficient food.” Thus he spoke; and he made 1.75. 75 The author of deceit to press the ground 1.76. On belly and on side, a crawling snake 1.90. 90 But as subdued by sleep; most happy men 1.91. of great heart, whom the immortal Saviour loved 1.92. The King, God. But they also did transgress 1.93. Smitten with folly. For with impudence 1.94. They mocked their fathers and their mothers scorned; 1.95. 95 Kinsmen they knew not, and they formed intrigue 1.96. Against their brothers. And they were impure 1.97. Having defiled themselves with human gore 1.98. And they made wars. And then upon them came 1.99. The last calamity sent forth from heaven 1.100. 100 Which snatched the dreadful men away from life; 1.101. And Hades then received them; it was called 1.102. Hades since Adam, having tasted death 1.103. Went first and earth encompassed him around.
45. Catullus, Poems, 64 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

46. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 3.12 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.12. 1.  At the extremity of Egypt and in the contiguous territory of both Arabia and Ethiopia there lies a region which contains many large gold mines, where the gold is secured in great quantities with much suffering and at great expense. For the earth is naturally black and contains seams and veins of a marble which is unusually white and in brilliancy surpasses everything else which shines brightly by its nature, and here the overseers of the labour in the mines work recover the gold with the aid of a multitude of workers.,2.  For the kings of Egypt gather together and condemn to the mining of the gold such as have been found guilty of some crime and captives of war, as well as those who have been accused unjustly and thrown into prison because of their anger, and not only such persons but occasionally all their relatives as well, by this means not only inflicting punishment upon those found guilty but also securing at the same time great revenues from their labours.,3.  And those who have been condemned in this way — and they are a great multitude and are all bound in chains — work at their task unceasingly both by day and throughout the entire night, enjoying no respite and being carefully cut off from any means of escape; since guards of foreign soldiers who speak a language different from theirs stand watch over them, so that not a man, either by conversation or by some contact of a friendly nature, is able to corrupt one of his keepers.,6.  Now these men, working in darkness as they do because of the bending and winding of the passages, carry lamps bound on their foreheads; and since much of the time they change the position of their bodies to follow the particular character of the stone they throw the blocks, as they cut them out, on the ground; and at this task they labour without ceasing beneath the sternness and blows of an overseer.
47. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 1.89-1.150, 1.179-1.180, 1.185-1.205, 1.237, 1.251-1.252, 1.262-1.312, 1.324-1.339, 15.870-15.879 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

48. Tibullus, Elegies, 1.3.35-1.3.50 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

49. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.262-1.304, 6.752-6.892, 8.319-8.327, 8.625-8.728 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.262. which good Acestes while in Sicily 1.263. had stored in jars, and prince-like sent away 1.264. with his Ioved guest;—this too Aeneas gave; 1.266. “Companions mine, we have not failed to feel 1.267. calamity till now. O, ye have borne 1.268. far heavier sorrow: Jove will make an end 1.269. also of this. Ye sailed a course hard by 1.270. infuriate Scylla's howling cliffs and caves. 1.271. Ye knew the Cyclops' crags. Lift up your hearts! 1.272. No more complaint and fear! It well may be 1.273. ome happier hour will find this memory fair. 1.274. Through chance and change and hazard without end 1.275. our goal is Latium ; where our destinies 1.276. beckon to blest abodes, and have ordained 1.277. that Troy shall rise new-born! Have patience all! 1.279. Such was his word, but vexed with grief and care 1.280. feigned hopes upon his forehead firm he wore 1.281. and locked within his heart a hero's pain. 1.282. Now round the welcome trophies of his chase 1.283. they gather for a feast. Some flay the ribs 1.284. and bare the flesh below; some slice with knives 1.285. and on keen prongs the quivering strips impale 1.286. place cauldrons on the shore, and fan the fires. 1.287. Then, stretched at ease on couch of simple green 1.288. they rally their lost powers, and feast them well 1.289. on seasoned wine and succulent haunch of game. 1.290. But hunger banished and the banquet done 1.291. in long discourse of their lost mates they tell 1.292. 'twixt hopes and fears divided; for who knows 1.293. whether the lost ones live, or strive with death 1.294. or heed no more whatever voice may call? 1.295. Chiefly Aeneas now bewails his friends 1.296. Orontes brave and fallen Amycus 1.297. or mourns with grief untold the untimely doom 1.299. After these things were past, exalted Jove 1.300. from his ethereal sky surveying clear 1.301. the seas all winged with sails, lands widely spread 1.302. and nations populous from shore to shore 1.303. paused on the peak of heaven, and fixed his gaze 1.304. on Libya . But while he anxious mused 6.752. Came on my view; their hands made stroke at Heaven 6.753. And strove to thrust Jove from his seat on high. 6.754. I saw Salmoneus his dread stripes endure 6.755. Who dared to counterfeit Olympian thunder 6.756. And Jove's own fire. In chariot of four steeds 6.757. Brandishing torches, he triumphant rode 6.758. Through throngs of Greeks, o'er Elis ' sacred way 6.759. Demanding worship as a god. 0 fool! 6.760. To mock the storm's inimitable flash— 6.761. With crash of hoofs and roll of brazen wheel! 6.762. But mightiest Jove from rampart of thick cloud 6.763. Hurled his own shaft, no flickering, mortal flame 6.764. And in vast whirl of tempest laid him low. 6.765. Next unto these, on Tityos I looked 6.766. Child of old Earth, whose womb all creatures bears: 6.767. Stretched o'er nine roods he lies; a vulture huge 6.768. Tears with hooked beak at his immortal side 6.769. Or deep in entrails ever rife with pain 6.770. Gropes for a feast, making his haunt and home 6.771. In the great Titan bosom; nor will give 6.772. To ever new-born flesh surcease of woe. 6.773. Why name Ixion and Pirithous 6.774. The Lapithae, above whose impious brows 6.775. A crag of flint hangs quaking to its fall 6.776. As if just toppling down, while couches proud 6.777. Propped upon golden pillars, bid them feast 6.778. In royal glory: but beside them lies 6.779. The eldest of the Furies, whose dread hands 6.780. Thrust from the feast away, and wave aloft 6.781. A flashing firebrand, with shrieks of woe. 6.782. Here in a prison-house awaiting doom 6.783. Are men who hated, long as life endured 6.784. Their brothers, or maltreated their gray sires 6.785. Or tricked a humble friend; the men who grasped 6.786. At hoarded riches, with their kith and kin 6.787. Not sharing ever—an unnumbered throng; 6.788. Here slain adulterers be; and men who dared 6.789. To fight in unjust cause, and break all faith 6.790. With their own lawful lords. Seek not to know 6.791. What forms of woe they feel, what fateful shape 6.792. of retribution hath o'erwhelmed them there. 6.793. Some roll huge boulders up; some hang on wheels 6.794. Lashed to the whirling spokes; in his sad seat 6.795. Theseus is sitting, nevermore to rise; 6.796. Unhappy Phlegyas uplifts his voice 6.797. In warning through the darkness, calling loud 6.798. ‘0, ere too late, learn justice and fear God!’ 6.799. Yon traitor sold his country, and for gold 6.800. Enchained her to a tyrant, trafficking 6.801. In laws, for bribes enacted or made void; 6.802. Another did incestuously take 6.803. His daughter for a wife in lawless bonds. 6.804. All ventured some unclean, prodigious crime; 6.805. And what they dared, achieved. I could not tell 6.806. Not with a hundred mouths, a hundred tongues 6.807. Or iron voice, their divers shapes of sin 6.809. So spake Apollo's aged prophetess. 6.810. “Now up and on!” she cried. “Thy task fulfil! 6.811. We must make speed. Behold yon arching doors 6.812. Yon walls in furnace of the Cyclops forged! 6.813. 'T is there we are commanded to lay down 6.814. Th' appointed offering.” So, side by side 6.815. Swift through the intervening dark they strode 6.816. And, drawing near the portal-arch, made pause. 6.817. Aeneas, taking station at the door 6.818. Pure, lustral waters o'er his body threw 6.820. Now, every rite fulfilled, and tribute due 6.821. Paid to the sovereign power of Proserpine 6.822. At last within a land delectable 6.823. Their journey lay, through pleasurable bowers 6.824. of groves where all is joy,—a blest abode! 6.825. An ampler sky its roseate light bestows 6.826. On that bright land, which sees the cloudless beam 6.827. of suns and planets to our earth unknown. 6.828. On smooth green lawns, contending limb with limb 6.829. Immortal athletes play, and wrestle long 6.830. 'gainst mate or rival on the tawny sand; 6.831. With sounding footsteps and ecstatic song 6.832. Some thread the dance divine: among them moves 6.833. The bard of Thrace, in flowing vesture clad 6.834. Discoursing seven-noted melody 6.835. Who sweeps the numbered strings with changeful hand 6.836. Or smites with ivory point his golden lyre. 6.837. Here Trojans be of eldest, noblest race 6.838. Great-hearted heroes, born in happier times 6.839. Ilus, Assaracus, and Dardanus 6.840. Illustrious builders of the Trojan town. 6.841. Their arms and shadowy chariots he views 6.842. And lances fixed in earth, while through the fields 6.843. Their steeds without a bridle graze at will. 6.844. For if in life their darling passion ran 6.845. To chariots, arms, or glossy-coated steeds 6.846. The self-same joy, though in their graves, they feel. 6.847. Lo! on the left and right at feast reclined 6.848. Are other blessed souls, whose chorus sings 6.849. Victorious paeans on the fragrant air 6.850. of laurel groves; and hence to earth outpours 6.851. Eridanus, through forests rolling free. 6.852. Here dwell the brave who for their native land 6.853. Fell wounded on the field; here holy priests 6.854. Who kept them undefiled their mortal day; 6.855. And poets, of whom the true-inspired song 6.856. Deserved Apollo's name; and all who found 6.857. New arts, to make man's life more blest or fair; 6.858. Yea! here dwell all those dead whose deeds bequeath 6.859. Deserved and grateful memory to their kind. 6.860. And each bright brow a snow-white fillet wears. 6.861. Unto this host the Sibyl turned, and hailed 6.862. Musaeus, midmost of a numerous throng 6.863. Who towered o'er his peers a shoulder higher: 6.864. “0 spirits blest! 0 venerable bard! 6.865. Declare what dwelling or what region holds 6.866. Anchises, for whose sake we twain essayed 6.867. Yon passage over the wide streams of hell.” 6.868. And briefly thus the hero made reply: 6.869. “No fixed abode is ours. In shadowy groves 6.870. We make our home, or meadows fresh and fair 6.871. With streams whose flowery banks our couches be. 6.872. But you, if thitherward your wishes turn 6.873. Climb yonder hill, where I your path may show.” 6.874. So saying, he strode forth and led them on 6.875. Till from that vantage they had prospect fair 6.876. of a wide, shining land; thence wending down 6.877. They left the height they trod; for far below 6.878. Father Anchises in a pleasant vale 6.879. Stood pondering, while his eyes and thought surveyed 6.880. A host of prisoned spirits, who there abode 6.881. Awaiting entrance to terrestrial air. 6.882. And musing he reviewed the legions bright 6.883. of his own progeny and offspring proud— 6.884. Their fates and fortunes, virtues and great deeds. 6.885. Soon he discerned Aeneas drawing nigh 6.886. o'er the green slope, and, lifting both his hands 6.887. In eager welcome, spread them swiftly forth. 6.888. Tears from his eyelids rained, and thus he spoke: 6.889. “Art here at last? Hath thy well-proven love 6.890. of me thy sire achieved yon arduous way? 6.891. Will Heaven, beloved son, once more allow 6.892. That eye to eye we look? and shall I hear 8.319. filled all the arching sky, the river's banks 8.320. asunder leaped, and Tiber in alarm 8.321. reversed his flowing wave. So Cacus' lair 8.322. lay shelterless, and naked to the day 8.323. the gloomy caverns of his vast abode 8.324. tood open, deeply yawning, just as if 8.325. the riven earth should crack, and open wide 8.326. th' infernal world and fearful kingdoms pale 8.327. which gods abhor; and to the realms on high 8.625. “Great leader of the Teucrians, while thy life 8.626. in safety stands, I call not Trojan power 8.627. vanquished or fallen. But to help thy war 8.628. my small means match not thy redoubled name. 8.629. Yon Tuscan river is my bound. That way 8.630. Rutulia thrusts us hard and chafes our wall 8.631. with loud, besieging arms. But I propose 8.632. to league with thee a numerous array 8.633. of kings and mighty tribes, which fortune strange 8.634. now brings to thy defence. Thou comest here 8.635. because the Fates intend. Not far from ours 8.636. a city on an ancient rock is seen 8.637. Agylla, which a warlike Lydian clan 8.638. built on the Tuscan hills. It prospered well 8.639. for many a year, then under the proud yoke 8.640. of King Mezentius it came and bore 8.641. his cruel sway. Why tell the loathsome deeds 8.642. and crimes unspeakable the despot wrought? 8.643. May Heaven requite them on his impious head 8.644. and on his children! For he used to chain 8.645. dead men to living, hand on hand was laid 8.646. and face on face,—torment incredible! 8.647. Till, locked in blood-stained, horrible embrace 8.648. a lingering death they found. But at the last 8.649. his people rose in furious despair 8.650. and while he blasphemously raged, assailed 8.651. his life and throne, cut down his guards 8.652. and fired his regal dwellings; he, the while 8.653. escaped immediate death and fied away 8.654. to the Rutulian land, to find defence 8.655. in Turnus hospitality. To-day 8.656. Etruria, to righteous anger stirred 8.657. demands with urgent arms her guilty King. 8.658. To their large host, Aeneas, I will give 8.659. an added strength, thyself. For yonder shores 8.660. re-echo with the tumult and the cry 8.661. of ships in close array; their eager lords 8.662. are clamoring for battle. But the song 8.663. of the gray omen-giver thus declares 8.664. their destiny: ‘O goodly princes born 8.665. of old Maeonian lineage! Ye that are 8.666. the bloom and glory of an ancient race 8.667. whom just occasions now and noble rage 8.668. enflame against Mezentius your foe 8.669. it is decreed that yonder nation proud 8.670. hall never submit to chiefs Italian-born. 8.671. Seek ye a king from far!’ So in the field 8.672. inert and fearful lies Etruria's force 8.673. disarmed by oracles. Their Tarchon sent 8.674. envoys who bore a sceptre and a crown 8.675. even to me, and prayed I should assume 8.676. the sacred emblems of Etruria's king 8.677. and lead their host to war. But unto me 8.678. cold, sluggish age, now barren and outworn 8.679. denies new kingdoms, and my slow-paced powers 8.680. run to brave deeds no more. Nor could I urge 8.681. my son, who by his Sabine mother's line 8.682. is half Italian-born. Thyself art he 8.683. whose birth illustrious and manly prime 8.684. fate favors and celestial powers approve. 8.685. Therefore go forth, O bravest chief and King 8.686. of Troy and Italy ! To thee I give 8.687. the hope and consolation of our throne 8.688. pallas, my son, and bid him find in thee 8.689. a master and example, while he learns 8.690. the soldier's arduous toil. With thy brave deeds 8.691. let him familiar grow, and reverence thee 8.692. with youthful love and honor. In his train 8.693. two hundred horsemen of Arcadia 8.694. our choicest men-at-arms, shall ride; and he 8.695. in his own name an equal band shall bring 8.696. to follow only thee.” Such the discourse. 8.697. With meditative brows and downcast eyes 8.698. Aeneas and Achates, sad at heart 8.699. mused on unnumbered perils yet to come. 8.700. But out of cloudless sky Cythera's Queen 8.701. gave sudden signal: from th' ethereal dome 8.702. a thunder-peal and flash of quivering fire 8.703. tumultuous broke, as if the world would fall 8.704. and bellowing Tuscan trumpets shook the air. 8.705. All eyes look up. Again and yet again 8.706. crashed the terrible din, and where the sky 8.707. looked clearest hung a visionary cloud 8.708. whence through the brightness blazed resounding arms. 8.709. All hearts stood still. But Troy 's heroic son 8.710. knew that his mother in the skies redeemed 8.711. her pledge in sound of thunder: so he cried 8.712. “Seek not, my friend, seek not thyself to read 8.713. the meaning of the omen. 'T is to me 8.714. Olympus calls. My goddess-mother gave 8.715. long since her promise of a heavenly sign 8.716. if war should burst; and that her power would bring 8.717. a panoply from Vulcan through the air 8.718. to help us at our need. Alas, what deaths 8.719. over Laurentum's ill-starred host impend! 8.720. O Turnus, what a reckoning thou shalt pay 8.721. to me in arms! O Tiber, in thy wave 8.722. what helms and shields and mighty soldiers slain 8.723. hall in confusion roll! Yea, let them lead 8.725. He said: and from the lofty throne uprose. 8.726. Straightway he roused anew the slumbering fire 8.727. acred to Hercules, and glad at heart 8.728. adored, as yesterday, the household gods
50. Vergil, Eclogues, 4.4-4.10, 6.31 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4.4. woods worthy of a Consul let them be. 4.5. Now the last age by Cumae's Sibyl sung 4.6. has come and gone, and the majestic roll 4.7. of circling centuries begins anew: 4.8. justice returns, returns old Saturn's reign 4.9. with a new breed of men sent down from heaven. 4.10. Only do thou, at the boy's birth in whom 6.31. and crying, “Why tie the fetters? loose me, boys;
51. Vergil, Georgics, 1.121-1.146 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.121. And heaved its furrowy ridges, turns once more 1.122. Cross-wise his shattering share, with stroke on stroke 1.123. The earth assails, and makes the field his thrall. 1.124. Pray for wet summers and for winters fine 1.125. Ye husbandmen; in winter's dust the crop 1.126. Exceedingly rejoice, the field hath joy; 1.127. No tilth makes placeName key= 1.128. Nor Gargarus his own harvests so admire. 1.129. Why tell of him, who, having launched his seed 1.130. Sets on for close encounter, and rakes smooth 1.131. The dry dust hillocks, then on the tender corn 1.132. Lets in the flood, whose waters follow fain; 1.133. And when the parched field quivers, and all the blade 1.134. Are dying, from the brow of its hill-bed 1.135. See! see! he lures the runnel; down it falls 1.136. Waking hoarse murmurs o'er the polished stones 1.137. And with its bubblings slakes the thirsty fields? 1.138. Or why of him, who lest the heavy ear 1.139. O'erweigh the stalk, while yet in tender blade 1.140. Feeds down the crop's luxuriance, when its growth 1.141. First tops the furrows? Why of him who drain 1.142. The marsh-land's gathered ooze through soaking sand 1.143. Chiefly what time in treacherous moons a stream 1.144. Goes out in spate, and with its coat of slime 1.145. Holds all the country, whence the hollow dyke 1.146. Sweat steaming vapour?
52. Heraclitus of Ephesus (Attributed Author), Letters, 9.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

53. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 8-10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

54. Plutarch, On The Obsolescence of Oracles, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

55. Plutarch, On Isis And Osiris, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

360d. when a certain Hermodotus in a poem proclaimed him to be "the offspring of the Sun and a god," said, "the slave who attends to my chamber-pot is not conscious of any such thing!" Moreover, Lysippus the sculptor was quite right in his disapproval of the painter Apelles, because Apelles in his portrait of Alexander had represented him with a thunderbolt in his hand, whereas he himself had represented Alexander holding a spear, the glory of which no length of years could ever dim, since it was truthful and was his by right. Better, therefore, is the judgment of those who hold that the stories about Typhon, Osiris, and Isis, are records of experiences of neither gods nor men, but of demigods
56. Seneca The Younger, Phaedra, 484-503, 517-520, 522-525, 483 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

57. Silius Italicus, Punica, 1.8-1.11, 1.268, 1.296-1.302 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

58. Tacitus, Annals, 3.28 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.28.  Then came Pompey's third consulate. But this chosen reformer of society, operating with remedies more disastrous than the abuses, this maker and breaker of his own enactments, lost by the sword what he was holding by the sword. The followed twenty crowded years of discord, during which law and custom ceased to exist: villainy was immune, decency not rarely a sentence of death. At last, in his sixth consulate, Augustus Caesar, feeling his power secure, cancelled the behests of his triumvirate, and presented us with laws to serve our needs in peace and under a prince. Thenceforward the fetters were tightened: sentries were set over us and, under the Papia-Poppaean law, lured on by rewards; so that, if a man shirked the privileges of paternity, the state, as universal parent, might step into the vacant inheritance. But they pressed their activities too far: the capital, Italy, every corner of the Roman world, had suffered from their attacks, and the positions of many had been wholly ruined. Indeed, a reign of terror was threatened, when Tiberius, for the fixing of a remedy, chose by lot five former consuls, five former praetors, and an equal number of ordinary senators: a body which, by untying many of the legal knots, gave for the time a measure of relief.
59. Tacitus, Histories, 1.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

60. Valerius Flaccus Gaius, Argonautica, 1.91-1.95 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

61. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 34.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

34.8. וְכָל הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר אִתְּךָ וגו' (בראשית ח, יז), אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן הַוְצֵא כְּתִיב הַיְצֵא קְרִי. וְשָׁרְצוּ בָאָרֶץ, וְלֹא בַתֵּבָה. וּפָרוּ בָאָרֶץ, וְלֹא בַתֵּבָה. (בראשית ח, יט): כָּל הַחַיָּה [ו] כָל הָרֶמֶשׂ וגו', כֹּל רוֹמֵשׁ, אָמַר רַבִּי אַיְּבוּ רוֹמֵשׂ מָלֵא פְּרַט לְכִלְאָיִם. לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתֵיהֶם, פְּרַט לְסִירוּס. עַל שִׁבְעָה דְּבָרִים נִצְטַוּוּ בְּנֵי נֹחַ, עַל עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים, וְעַל גִּלּוּי עֲרָיוֹת, וְעַל שְׁפִיכוּת דָּמִים, וְעַל בִּרְכַּת הַשֵּׁם, וְעַל הַדִּין, וְעַל הַגָּזֵל, וְעַל אֵבָר מִן הֶחָי. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר אַף עַל הַדָּם מִן הֶחָי. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר אַף עַל הַכִּלְאָיִם. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי אוֹמֵר אַף עַל הַכְּשָׁפִים. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן בְּרוֹקָא אוֹמֵר אַף עַל הַסֵּרוּס. אָמַר רַבִּי אַסֵּי עַל כָּל הָאָמוּר בַּפָּרָשָׁה נִצְטַוּוּ בְּנֵי נֹחַ (דברים יח, י): לֹא יִמָּצֵא בְךָ מַעֲבִיר בְּנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ וגו', וּכְתִיב בַּתְרֵיהּ (דברים יח, יב): כִּי תוֹעֲבַת ה' כָּל עוֹשֵׂה אֵלֶּה. 34.8. Bring forth (hayetze) with you every living thing that is with you…that they may swarm in the earth (Gen. 8:18). R. Yudan said: havtze is written, but it is read hayetze: that they may swarm in the earth - but not in the Ark. And be fruitful and multiply upon the earth - but not in the Ark. 'Every beast, every creeping thing, and every fowl, whatsoever moves (kol romes) upon the earth (Gen 8:19). R. Aivu said: Kol romes is written fully [with a vav] - it excludes kilayim [mixing species]. After their families: this excludes emasculation. The children of Noah were enjoined concerning seven tings: Idolatry, incest, murder, cursing the Divine Name [blasphemy], civil law, and a limb torn from a living animal. Rabbi Chanina ben Gamliel says: also concerning blood from a living animal. Rabbi Eleazar says: also against mixing species. Rabbi Shime'on ben Yochai says: also against witchcraft. Rabbi Yocha ben Beroka says: also against emasculation. Rabbi Assi said: The children of Noah were ordered regarding everything stated in the sentence: 'There shall not be found among you any one that makes his son or his daughter to pass through the fire, etc.' (Deut. 18:10) and afterwards 'because it is an abomination for Ad-nai all that do this.' (Deut. 18:12)"
62. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.32.3-1.32.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.32.3. Before turning to a description of the islands, I must again proceed with my account of the parishes. There is a parish called Marathon, equally distant from Athens and Carystus in Euboea . It was at this point in Attica that the foreigners landed, were defeated in battle, and lost some of their vessels as they were putting off from the land. 490 B.C. On the plain is the grave of the Athenians, and upon it are slabs giving the names of the killed according to their tribes; and there is another grave for the Boeotian Plataeans and for the slaves, for slaves fought then for the first time by the side of their masters. 1.32.4. here is also a separate monument to one man, Miltiades, the son of Cimon, although his end came later, after he had failed to take Paros and for this reason had been brought to trial by the Athenians. At Marathon every night you can hear horses neighing and men fighting. No one who has expressly set himself to behold this vision has ever got any good from it, but the spirits are not wroth with such as in ignorance chance to be spectators. The Marathonians worship both those who died in the fighting, calling them heroes, and secondly Marathon, from whom the parish derives its name, and then Heracles, saying that they were the first among the Greeks to acknowledge him as a god.
63. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

56a. בכל יום דנין את העדים בכינוי יכה יוסי את יוסי,נגמר הדין לא הורגין בכינוי אלא מוציאין כל אדם לחוץ שואלין את הגדול שביניהן ואומר לו אמור מה ששמעת בפירוש והוא אומר והדיינין עומדין על רגליהן וקורעין ולא מאחין,והשני אומר אף אני כמוהו והשלישי אומר אף אני כמוהו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנא עד שיברך שם בשם,מנהני מילי אמר שמואל דאמר קרא (ויקרא כד, טז) ונוקב שם וגו' בנקבו שם יומת,ממאי דהאי נוקב לישנא דברוכי הוא דכתיב (במדבר כג, ח) מה אקב לא קבה אל ואזהרתיה מהכא (שמות כב, כז) אלהים לא תקלל,ואימא מיברז הוא דכתיב (מלכים ב יב, י) ויקב חור בדלתו ואזהרתיה מהכא (דברים יב, ג) ואבדתם את שמם לא תעשון כן לה' אלהיכם,בעינא שם בשם וליכא,ואימא דמנח שני שמות אהדדי ובזע להו ההוא נוקב וחוזר ונוקב הוא ואימא דחייק שם אפומא דסכינא ובזע בה ההוא חורפא דסכינא הוא דקא בזע,אימא פרושי שמיה הוא דכתיב (במדבר א, יז) ויקח משה ואהרן את האנשים האלה אשר נקבו בשמות ואזהרתיה מהכא (דברים ו, יג) את ה' אלהיך תירא,חדא דבעינא שם בשם וליכא ועוד הויא ליה אזהרת עשה ואזהרת עשה לא שמה אזהרה,ואיבעית אימא אמר קרא (ויקרא כד, יא) ויקב ויקלל למימרא דנוקב קללה הוא,ודילמא עד דעבד תרוייהו לא סלקא דעתך דכתיב (ויקרא כד, יד) הוצא את המקלל ולא כתיב הוצא את הנוקב והמקלל שמע מינה חדא היא,תנו רבנן איש מה ת"ל איש איש לרבות את העובדי כוכבים שמוזהרין על ברכת השם כישראל ואינן נהרגין אלא בסייף שכל מיתה האמורה בבני נח אינה אלא בסייף,והא מהכא נפקא מהתם נפקא ה' זו ברכת השם,אמר ר' יצחק נפחא לא נצרכא אלא לרבותא הכינויין ואליבא דרבי מאיר,דתניא (ויקרא כד, טו) איש איש כי יקלל אלהיו ונשא חטאו מה תלמוד לומר והלא כבר נאמר (ויקרא כד, טז) ונוקב שם ה' מות יומת לפי שנאמר ונוקב שם מות יומת יכול לא יהא חייב אלא על שם המיוחד בלבד מניין לרבות כל הכינויין תלמוד לומר איש כי יקלל אלהיו מכל מקום דברי רבי מאיר,וחכמים אומרים על שם המיוחד במיתה ועל הכינויין באזהרה,ופליגא דרבי מיישא דאמר רבי מיישא בן נח שבירך את השם בכינויים לרבנן חייב,מאי טעמא דאמר קרא (ויקרא כד, טז) כגר כאזרח גר ואזרח הוא דבעינן בנקבו שם אבל עובד כוכבים אפילו בכינוי,ורבי מאיר האי כגר כאזרח מאי עביד ליה גר ואזרח בסקילה אבל עובד כוכבים בסייף סלקא דעתך אמינא הואיל ואיתרבו איתרבו קמ"ל,ורבי יצחק נפחא אליבא דרבנן האי כגר כאזרח מאי עביד ליה גר ואזרח הוא דבעינן שם בשם אבל עובד כוכבים לא בעינן שם בשם,איש איש למה לי דיברה תורה כלשון בני אדם,תנו רבנן שבע מצות נצטוו בני נח דינין וברכת השם ע"ז גילוי עריות ושפיכות דמים וגזל ואבר מן החי 56a. bOn every dayof a blasphemer’s trial, when the judges bjudge the witnesses,i.e., interrogate the witnesses, they ask the witnesses to use ban appellationfor the name of God, so that they do not utter a curse of God’s name. Specifically, the witnesses would say: bLet Yosei smite Yosei,as the name Yosei has four letters in Hebrew, as does the Tetragrammaton.,When bthe judgment is over,and the court votes to deem the defendant guilty, bthey do not sentencehim bto death based onthe testimony of the witnesses in which they used ban appellationfor the name of God, without having ever heard the exact wording of the curse. bRather, they remove allthe bpeoplewho are not required to be there from the court, so that the curse is not heard publicly, and the judges binterrogate the eldest ofthe witnesses, band say to him: Say what you heard explicitly. And he saysexactly what he heard. bAnd the judges stand on their feet and make a tearin their garments, as an act of mourning for the desecration of the honor of God. bAnd they do notever fully bstitchit back together again., bAnd the secondwitness bsays: I tooheard bas hedid, but he does not repeat the curse explicitly. bAnd the thirdwitness, in the event that there is one, bsays: I tooheard bas hedid. In this manner, the repetition of the invective sentence is limited to what is absolutely necessary., strongGEMARA: /strong The Sage btaughtin a ibaraita /i: A blasphemer is not liable bunless he blesses,a euphemism for curses, the bnameof God bwiththe bnameof God, e.g., by saying: Let such and such a name strike such and such a name.,The Gemara asks: bFrom where is this matterderived? bShmuel says:It is derived from that bwhich the verse states: “And he who blasphemes [ ivenokev /i] the nameof the Lord shall be put to death; all the congregation shall stone him; the convert as well as the homeborn, bwhen he blasphemes [ ibenokvo /i] the name, he shall be put to death”(Leviticus 24:16). It is derived from the repetition of the phrase “blasphemes the name” that the reference is to cursing the name of God with the name of God.,The Gemara asks: bFrom whereis it derived bthat thisword inokevis a term for blessing,i.e., cursing? The Gemara answers that it is derived from the statement of Balaam, who was sent by Balak to curse the Jewish people: b“How shall I curse [ iekkov /i] whom God has not cursed?”(Numbers 23:8). bAndthe bprohibitionagainst cursing God is derived bfrom here: “You shall not curse God”(Exodus 22:27).,The Gemara asks: bBut saythat perhaps the meaning of inokev bisnot cursing, but rather bmaking a hole, as it is written: “And made a hole [ ivayyikkov /i] in its lid”(II Kings 12:10). According to this, the word inokevis referring to one who makes a hole and damages the written name of God. bAndthe bprohibitionagainst doing so is derived bfrom here: “And you shall destroy their nameout of that place. bYou shall not do so to the Lord your God”(Deuteronomy 12:3–4).,The Gemara answers: It is derived from the repetition of inokevthat for one to be liable, it is bnecessarythat his transgression involve the bnameof God bwiththe bnameof God, bandsuch a transgression is bnotpossible if the reference is to making a hole.,The Gemara challenges: bBut say thatsuch a transgression is possible, as one can bplace twowritten bnamesof God, bone on top of the other, and tearthrough bthemat once. The Gemara explains: bThatwould be defined as bmaking a hole and again making a hole,not making a hole in one name by means of another name. The Gemara asks: bBut say thatone can betchthe bnameof God bon the point of a knife and cutthrough another name bwith it.The Gemara answers: In bthatcase, bit is the point of the knife that is cutting,not the name of God.,The Gemara asks: bSaythat inokevmeans the butterance of theineffable bname ofGod. bAs it is written: “And Moses and Aaron took these men that are pointed out [ inikkevu /i] by name”(Numbers 1:17). bAndthe bprohibitionto do so is derived bfrom here: “You shall fear the Lord, your God”(Deuteronomy 6:13).,The Gemara answers: bOneanswer is bthatfor one to be liable, it is bnecessarythat his transgression involve the bnameof God bwiththe bnameof God, bandsuch a transgression is bnotpossible if the reference is to uttering the ineffable name of God. bFurthermore,the prohibition derived from the verse “You shall fear the Lord, your God” bis a prohibitionstated as ba positive mitzva, and a prohibitionstated as ba positive mitzva is not considered a prohibition. /b,The Gemara presents an alternative proof that inokevis referring to cursing: bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that bthe verse states: “Andthe son of the Israelite woman bblasphemed [ ivayyikkov /i]the name band cursed”(Leviticus 24:11). bThat is to say thatthe meaning of inokevisto bcurse. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut perhapsthis verse does not prove that the meaning of inokevis to curse; rather, it indicates that one is not liable to be executed bunless he does both,i.e., both inokevand cursing God? The Gemara answers: This shall bnot enter your mind, as it is written: “Bring forth the one who cursed… /band stone him” (Leviticus 24:14), band it is not written: Bring forth the inokevand one who cursed. Conclude from itthat bit is oneact and not two.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the verse: “Anyone who curses his God shall bear his sin” (Leviticus 24:15), that the verse could have stated: bOne [ iish /i]who curses his God. bWhymust bthe verse state: “Anyone [ iish ish /i]”?It is bto include the gentiles, who are prohibited from blessing,i.e., cursing, bthe nameof God, just blike Jewsare. bAnd they are executedfor this transgression bby the sword alone, as all deathpenalties bstated with regard to the descendants of Noah are by the sword alone. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut is this ihalakha bderived from here?Rather, bit is derived from there:“And the Lord God commanded the man” (Genesis 2:16), as is stated in a ibaraitathat will soon be quoted at length: b“The Lord,” thisis referring to bthe blessing,i.e., cursing, bof the nameof God. This verse concerns Adam, the first man, and is therefore binding on all of humanity., bRav Yitzḥak Nappaḥa says:The verse “anyone who curses his God” bis necessary only to includegentiles who curse God using bthe appellationsfor the name of God, rather than mentioning the ineffable name, bandthis is bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rabbi Meir. /b, bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWhymust bthe verse state: “Anyone who curses his God shall bear his sin”? But isn’t it already stated: “And he who blasphemes the name of the Lord shall be put to death”(Leviticus 24:16)? Rather, bsince it is stated: “And he who blasphemes the nameof the Lord bshall be put to death,”one bmighthave thought that one bwill be liable only forcursing bthe ineffable nameof God. bFrom whereis it derived that the verse bincludesone who curses bany of the appellationsas well? bThe verse states: “Anyone who curses his God,”to indicate that one is liable to be executed bin any case.This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. /b, bAnd the Rabbis say: Forcursing bthe ineffable nameof God, one is punished bby death, and forcursing bthe appellations,one is liable to receive lashes bforviolating ba prohibition. /b,The Gemara comments: bAndRav Yitzḥak Nappaḥa, who holds that according to the Rabbis, gentiles are not liable for cursing appellations for the name of God, bdisagrees withthe opinion of bRav Meyasha. As Rav Meyasha says: A descendant of Noah who blessed God byone of the bappellations is liableto be executed even baccording tothe opinion of bthe Rabbis. /b, bWhat is the reason?It is bbecause the verse states: “The convert as well as the homeborn,when he blasphemes the name, he shall be put to death” (Leviticus 24:16), from which it is derived that bit isonly in the case of ba convert or a homebornJew bthat we requirethe condition: b“When he blasphemes the name,”i.e., he is liable to be executed only if he curses the ineffable name. bBut a gentileis liable to be executed beven due tomerely cursing ban appellation. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd what does Rabbi Meir do with thispart of the verse: b“The convert as well as the homeborn”?What does he derive from it? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Meir derives that ba convert or a homebornJew is liable to be executed bby stoningfor this transgression, bbut a gentileis executed bby the sword.This exclusion is necessary as otherwise it might benter your mind to saythat bsincegentiles bare includedin the ihalakhotof this verse, bthey are includedin all the ihalakhotof blasphemy. Therefore the verse bteaches usthat they are not stoned.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what does Rav Yitzḥak Nappaḥa do with thispart of the verse: b“The convert as well as the homeborn,” according tothe opinion bof the Rabbis,since Rav Yitzḥak Nappaḥa holds that the Rabbis do not deem either a Jew or a gentile liable for cursing an appellation of God’s name? The Gemara answers: He derives that bit isspecifically with regard to ba convert and a homebornJew bthat we requirethe condition that he curse ba nameof God bby a nameof God; bbutwith regard to ba gentile, we do not requirethat he curse ba nameof God bby a nameof God in order for him to be liable.,The Gemara asks: bWhy do Ineed the inclusive term b“anyonewho curses his God,” according to the opinions that do not derive from it that a gentile is liable for cursing an appellation of God’s name? The Gemara answers: No ihalakhais derived from it; it is not a superfluous term, as bthe Torah spoke in the language of people. /b,§ Since the ihalakhotof the descendants of Noah have been mentioned, a full discussion of the Noahide mitzvot is presented. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe descendants of Noah,i.e., all of humanity, bwere commandedto observe bseven mitzvot:The mitzva of establishing courts of bjudgment; andthe prohibition against bblessing,i.e., cursing, bthe nameof God; and the prohibition of bidol worship;and the prohibition against bforbidden sexual relations; andthe prohibition of bbloodshed; andthe prohibition of brobbery; andthe prohibition against eating ba limb from a livinganimal.
64. Papyri, Papyri Graecae Magicae, 13.288-13.295 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

65. Anon., 4 Ezra, 12, 11

66. Anon., Esther Rabbah, 4.2

4.2. וְהַקָּרֹב אֵלָיו (אסתר א, יד), הֵן הִקְרִיבוּ הַפֻּרְעָנוּת לְעַצְמָן, כַּרְשְׁנָא, שֶׁהָיָה מְמֻנֶּה עַל הַכַּרְשִׁינִין. שֵׁתָר, שֶׁהָיָה מְמֻנֶּה עַל הַיַּיִן. אַדְמָתָא, שֶׁהָיָה מְמֻנֶּה עַל אַטֻּנַס שֶׁבָּאָרֶץ. תַרְשִׁישׁ, שֶׁהָיָה מְמֻנֶּה עַל הַבַּיִת. מֶרֶס, שֶׁהָיָה מְמָרֵס אֶת הָעוֹפוֹת. מַרְסְנָה, זֶה הָיָה מְמָרֵס אֶת הַסְּלָתוֹת. מְמוּכָן, זֶה הָיָה הָאִיסְפַּקְסִיטוֹן שֶׁבְּכֻלָּם. שֶׁהָיְתָה אִשְׁתּוֹ מְתַקֶּנֶת לָהֶן כָּל מַה שֶּׁהָיוּ צְרִיכִין. אָמְרוּ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, אִם מִתְקַיֶּמֶת עֲצָתוֹ שֶׁל רָשָׁע זֶה, מִי מַקְרִיב לְפָנֶיךָ. כַּרְשְׁנָא, מִי מַקְרִיב לְפָנֶיךָ פַּר בֶּן שָׁנָה. שֵׁתָר, מִי מַקְרִיב לְפָנֶיךָ שְׁתֵּי תוֹרִים. אַדְמָתָא, מִי בּוֹנֶה לְפָנֶיךָ מִזְבַּח אֲדָמָה, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות כ, כא): מִזְבַּח אֲדָמָה תַּעֲשֶׂה לִי. תַרְשִׁישׁ, מִי לוֹבֵשׁ בִּגְדֵי כְּהֻנָּה וּמְשַׁמֵּשׁ לְפָנֶיךָ, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות כח, כ): תַּרְשִׁישׁ שֹׁהַם וְיָשְׁפֶה. מֶרֶס, מִי מְמָרֵס לְפָנֶיךָ אֶת הָעוֹפוֹת. מַרְסְנָא, מִי מְמָרֵס לְפָנֶיךָ אֶת הַסְּלָתוֹת. מְמוּכָן, מִי מֵכִין לְפָנֶיךָ אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (עזרא ג, ג): וַיָּכִינוּ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ עַל מְכוֹנֹתָו. אוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה אָמַר לָהֶן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, בָּנַי הֵם, רֵעַי הֵם, קְרוֹבַי הֵם, אוֹהֲבַי הֵם, בְּנֵי אוֹהֲבִי הֵם, שֶׁהוּא אַבְרָהָם, דִּכְתִיב (ישעיה מא, ח): זֶרַע אַבְרָהָם אֹהֲבִי. מְרוֹמֵם אֲנִי קַרְנָם, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (תהלים קמח, יד): וַיָּרֶם קֶרֶן לְעַמּוֹ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, כַּרְשְׁנָא, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בּוֹזֵק אֲנִי לִפְנֵיהֶם כַּרְשִׁינִין וּמַשִּׁירָן מִן הָעוֹלָם. שֵׁתָר, מַשְׁקֶה אֲנִי לָהֶם כּוֹס שֶׁל תַּרְעֵלָה. אַדְמָתָא תַרְשִׁישׁ, מַתִּיר אֲנִי דָּמָן כַּמַּיִם. מֶרֶס, מַרְסְנָא, מְמוּכָן, מְמָרֵס אֲנִי מְסָרֵס וּמְמַעֵךְ אֶת נַפְשָׁם בְּתוֹךְ מְעֵיהֶם, וְכִי הֵיכָן הָיְתָה אִיסְקוֹזוּת שֶׁל כֻּלָּן מְתֻקֶּנֶת, אָמַר רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא מִישַׁעְיָה הַנָּבִיא, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (ישעיה יד, כא): הָכִינוּ לְבָנָיו מַטְבֵּחַ בַּעֲוֹן אֲבוֹתָם בַּל יָקֻמוּ וְיָרְשׁוּ אָרֶץ וגו'.
67. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 120, 119

119. We were told that from the neighbouring mountains of Arabia copper and iron were formerly obtained. This was stopped, however, at the time of the Persian rule, since the authorities of the time spread
68. Heraclitus, Allegoriae, 53

69. Heraclitus Lesbius, Fragments, 94

70. Papyri, Derveni Papyrus, 6.3-6.4



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 108
abydos Gieseler Greenbaum, The Daimon in Hellenistic Astrology: Origins and Influence (2015) 98
achilles (mythological hero) Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
aeetes Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 121, 123
aemilius sura Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 116
aeschylus Luck, Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts (2006) 230
aetiology Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 79
afterlife, archaic beliefs Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 596
afterlife Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 596
agathos daimon (deity), shai and Gieseler Greenbaum, The Daimon in Hellenistic Astrology: Origins and Influence (2015) 98
agency, of gods Harte, Rereading Ancient Philosophy: Old Chestnuts and Sacred Cows (2017) 23
ages, myths of Graf and Johnston, Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets (2007) 202
aidos Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 29
aim (σκοπóς) Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 173
air (element) Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 321
ancient/barbarian wisdom, development of interest in Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 48
angelic descent, historiographical appeal to Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 108
angelic sin, as epistemological transgression Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38, 108
angels Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 32
animals Lateiner and Spatharas, The Ancient Emotion of Disgust (2016) 144
annas, j. Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 32
anthropology, historical anthropology Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 24
anthropology Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 502
aphrodite Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 40
apocalypse, genre Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 109
apocalyptic literature, and book of daniel Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 108
apocalyptic literature, history of scholarship on Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 108
apollo of delphi on, approving cult decisions Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 23
approximation to the divine (in homeric and hesiodic poetry) Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 317, 318
apuleius Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 327
arabia Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 234
aratus, justice in Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 85
aratus, primary influence on the end of catullus Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 85
aratus, source for the metallic ages Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 85
ares Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 80
argo, as first ship Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 121, 123
aristophanes Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 148
aristotle Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 24
artemis Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 81
asael, azael, as culture-hero Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
asia minor Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 108
assemblywomen, aristophanes Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 148
astrology, description of western hellenistic Gieseler Greenbaum, The Daimon in Hellenistic Astrology: Origins and Influence (2015) 5
astrology, western origins of Gieseler Greenbaum, The Daimon in Hellenistic Astrology: Origins and Influence (2015) 5
athens Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 148
audience Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 39
augustus Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 109
autochthony, athenian Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 148
bad daimon, evil daimon Gieseler Greenbaum, The Daimon in Hellenistic Astrology: Origins and Influence (2015) 5
bernabé, alberto Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
bios (way of life) Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 24, 85
blasphemy Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 94
blood Pachoumi, The Concepts of the Divine in the Greek Magical Papyri (2017) 120
book of the watchers, and greco-roman culture Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
boys-stones, g. r. Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 48
bremmer, jan n. Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
bronze age, in hesiod Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 84
brother Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 234
burkert, walter Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 596
cain, cainites Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
cainites as, fallen angels as Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38, 108
cainites as Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
callipolis Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 148
carthage Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 113
chaldaean oracles, charakteres Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 327
chronography, enochic texts and traditions in Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 108
chrysippus Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
city of the just, the Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 81
civilization, as decline Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
civilization, origins of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
cleanthes Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
cleombrotus Fowler, Plato in the Third Sophistic (2014) 44
closure, ambiguous Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 113
colchis Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 121, 123
comedy, old Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 148
cornutus Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
cosmetics, cosmetology, and promiscuity Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
cosmetics, cosmetology, as angelic teaching Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
cosmogony Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 39
cosmological elements Seaford, Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays (2018) 201
cosmology Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
cosmos/kosmos Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 318, 319, 320, 321
cosmos Harte, Rereading Ancient Philosophy: Old Chestnuts and Sacred Cows (2017) 23
cronus, life under Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 85
cronus Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 319
cultural history Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 24
cumont, franz Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
cyclical schemas of history Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 83
daemones Fowler, Plato in the Third Sophistic (2014) 44
daemonology Luck, Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts (2006) 229, 230
daimon, death and Gieseler Greenbaum, The Daimon in Hellenistic Astrology: Origins and Influence (2015) 5
daimon, empedoclean Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 94
daimon, illness and Gieseler Greenbaum, The Daimon in Hellenistic Astrology: Origins and Influence (2015) 5
daimon, intermediary between gods and humans Gieseler Greenbaum, The Daimon in Hellenistic Astrology: Origins and Influence (2015) 5
daimon, madness and Gieseler Greenbaum, The Daimon in Hellenistic Astrology: Origins and Influence (2015) 5
daimon, multivalent concept of Gieseler Greenbaum, The Daimon in Hellenistic Astrology: Origins and Influence (2015) 5
daimon, personal Gieseler Greenbaum, The Daimon in Hellenistic Astrology: Origins and Influence (2015) 5
daimon/daimones Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401, 416
daimon Pachoumi, The Concepts of the Divine in the Greek Magical Papyri (2017) 120
daimones, and sacrifice Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 23
daimones, heraclitus on Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 23
daimones, in hesiodic afterlife Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 596
daimones, of hesiod Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 23
daimones, of plato Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 23
daimones, of the dead Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 23
daimones Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 23
daimons Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 31, 33; Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 327; Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 32
daimôn Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 40, 305, 318, 319, 320, 321
darius (king of persia) Luck, Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts (2006) 230
dead, the, as daimones Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 23
dead, the, divine guidance concerning Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 23
dead, the Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 23
death Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 118
death and the afterlife, conceptions of death Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
death and the afterlife, funerary inscriptions Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
death and the afterlife, hades (underworld) Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
death and the afterlife, isles of the blessed/elysian fields Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
death and the afterlife, reincarnation Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
death and the afterlife, soul (psyche) Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
death and the afterlife, tartaros (abyss below hades) Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
decline, historical Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 83, 109
democritus Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 24
demon Gieseler Greenbaum, The Daimon in Hellenistic Astrology: Origins and Influence (2015) 5
demons McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 163
derveni author Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 31, 33
destiny, of souls Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 31
deucalion and pyrrha Graf and Johnston, Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets (2007) 202
dialectic/dialogue Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 148
dicaearchus of messana, influence of aristotle on Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 24
dicaearchus of messana Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 24
diets, and health Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 85
digressions Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 234
dike Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 31, 33
dikê (goddess) Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 319, 321
discrepancy, between words and deeds Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 79, 80, 81
divination Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 31
divine likeness (θεία όμοίωσις) Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 173
earth/earth/gaea Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 319
earth Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 31
eleazar, high priest Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 234
eleusinian mysteries Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
elysian field Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 596
emotions, anger/rage de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 153
emotions, love/passion de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 153
emotions, pity de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 185
empedocles, theology and epistemology in Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 318
empedocles Fowler, Plato in the Third Sophistic (2014) 44; Seaford, Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays (2018) 201
enochic literary tradition, place of book of dreams in Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 108
epic Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
epicureans, ideas Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
erinyes Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 31, 33; Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 596
eris Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 79, 80
ethics Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 29; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
ethnography, and anthropology Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 502
ethnography Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 502
etiology Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 118
eumenides Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 33
eusebein, personified in empedocles Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 94
evil Fowler, Plato in the Third Sophistic (2014) 44
excrement Lateiner and Spatharas, The Ancient Emotion of Disgust (2016) 144
exorcism Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 32
fable Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 81
fate, egyptian concept of Gieseler Greenbaum, The Daimon in Hellenistic Astrology: Origins and Influence (2015) 98
fate McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 163
festivals Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 23
fides Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 113
fire, in ritual Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 31
fire Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 39; Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 29
fisheaters (icthyophagoi) Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 85
flavian, culture Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 113
flavian, literature/texts Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 113
flesh Lateiner and Spatharas, The Ancient Emotion of Disgust (2016) 144
four- (or five‐) kingdom paradigm Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 109
françois, gilbert Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 416
funerals Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 327
garcía teijeiro, m. Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
genesis, and book of the watchers Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38, 108
genie Gieseler Greenbaum, The Daimon in Hellenistic Astrology: Origins and Influence (2015) 98
ghosts Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 327
giants Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 108
gifts Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 79, 81
glossa, free from mania Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 94
god Harte, Rereading Ancient Philosophy: Old Chestnuts and Sacred Cows (2017) 23
gods Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 31; Kneebone, Orthodoxy and the Courts in Late Antiquity (2020) 394; Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 29; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
gods as elements, names of the gods Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 33
gold Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 173
gold leaves Seaford, Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays (2018) 201
golden age, in hesiod Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 84
golden age/race Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 305, 318, 319, 320, 321
golden age Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 121, 123; Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 83; Fowler, Plato in the Third Sophistic (2014) 44
goldhill, simon Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 502
good Fowler, Plato in the Third Sophistic (2014) 44
good daimon see also agathos daimon, (deity) Gieseler Greenbaum, The Daimon in Hellenistic Astrology: Origins and Influence (2015) 5
gospels McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 163
graeco-roman, culture Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
graf, fritz Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
greek Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 234
guide, daimonic Edmonds, Myths of the Underworld Journey: Plato, Aristophanes, and the ‘Orphic’ Gold Tablets (2004) 93
hades, judgment of Shilo, Beyond Death in the Oresteia: Poetics, Ethics, and Politics (2022) 12, 13
hades Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 318
hades (underworld) Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 596
hannibal, impiety of Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 113
hasmonean period Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 234
hasmoneans Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 234
hatred Lateiner and Spatharas, The Ancient Emotion of Disgust (2016) 144
hera Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 81
heraclitus, and daimones Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 23
heraclitus Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 33; Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 327; Harte, Rereading Ancient Philosophy: Old Chestnuts and Sacred Cows (2017) 23; Seaford, Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays (2018) 201
hercules Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 113
herodotus Marincola et al., Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones and Calum Maciver, Greek Notions of the Past in the Archaic and Classical Eras: History Without Historians (2021) 63
heroes, as deities, as children of the gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 23
heroes, as deities, as class of deities Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 23
heroes Luck, Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts (2006) 229
heroic age, in hesiod Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 84
hesiod, afterlife beliefs Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 596
hesiod, ambivalence in Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 318
hesiod, and parmenides Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 317, 318
hesiod, and philosophy Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 317, 318
hesiod, and xenophanes Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 317, 318
hesiod, daimons in Gieseler Greenbaum, The Daimon in Hellenistic Astrology: Origins and Influence (2015) 5, 98
hesiod, his narrative of human races Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 317, 318
hesiod, iron age Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
hesiod, myth of the races in Marincola et al., Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones and Calum Maciver, Greek Notions of the Past in the Archaic and Classical Eras: History Without Historians (2021) 37, 63
hesiod, the muses address Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 317
hesiod, theogony Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 416
hesiod, unimportant to roman poets before vergil Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 85
hesiod, works and days Gieseler Greenbaum, The Daimon in Hellenistic Astrology: Origins and Influence (2015) 98
hesiod Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 31; Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 48; Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 24, 85; Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 39; Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 109; Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 327; Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401, 416; Fowler, Plato in the Third Sophistic (2014) 44; Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 79, 80, 81, 148; Kneebone, Orthodoxy and the Courts in Late Antiquity (2020) 392, 393, 394; Marincola et al., Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones and Calum Maciver, Greek Notions of the Past in the Archaic and Classical Eras: History Without Historians (2021) 37, 63; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121; Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 108; Seaford, Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays (2018) 201; Shilo, Beyond Death in the Oresteia: Poetics, Ethics, and Politics (2022) 12; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 153, 185
hexameter (poetry) Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 320, 321
hippolytus Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 121
homer, afterlife in Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 596
homer, odyssey Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
homer Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 24; Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 416; Gieseler Greenbaum, The Daimon in Hellenistic Astrology: Origins and Influence (2015) 5; Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 32; Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 79, 81; Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 29; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
homeric similes Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 81
honey, use of, in ritual Luck, Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts (2006) 230
hooker, j. t. Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
horses Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 327
hundt, magnus Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 502
hunger Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 79
hymn to demeter Shilo, Beyond Death in the Oresteia: Poetics, Ethics, and Politics (2022) 13
hymns Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 23
idolatry Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
idols, as demons McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 163
iliad Shilo, Beyond Death in the Oresteia: Poetics, Ethics, and Politics (2022) 12
ingold, tim Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 502
inscriptions, funerary Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
intermarriage Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 108
iron age, in hesiod Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 84
iron age Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 121
irony Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 109
islands of the blessed Shilo, Beyond Death in the Oresteia: Poetics, Ethics, and Politics (2022) 13
isle of the blessed Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 596
isles of the blest Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 80
israel Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 234
jaeger, w. Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
jason Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 121, 123
judaism Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 234
judea Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 234
judgement, final Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 109
jupiter Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 123
justice Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 31, 33; Harte, Rereading Ancient Philosophy: Old Chestnuts and Sacred Cows (2017) 23; Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 79, 80, 81, 148; Kneebone, Orthodoxy and the Courts in Late Antiquity (2020) 392, 393, 394; Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 29
justice (goddess), in aratus Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 85
justice (goddess), withdraws from humans as the ages progress Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 85
juxtaposition Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 39
kingdom of god, in-breaking of McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 163
knowledge, human and divine Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
knowledge, revealed Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38, 108
knowledge Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 39
leaving the city, as a metaliterary metaphor Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 79, 80, 81
life of greece (dicaearchus of messana) Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 24
literary production Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38, 108
long, a. a. Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 596
lucretius Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
madness, in empedocles Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 94
marcus aurelius Kneebone, Orthodoxy and the Courts in Late Antiquity (2020) 392
media Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 116
mediation McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 163
medicine Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 32
meskhenet Gieseler Greenbaum, The Daimon in Hellenistic Astrology: Origins and Influence (2015) 98
metallic ages, in aratus Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 85
metallic ages, in hesiod, imagines a possible sixth post-iron age Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 84, 85
metallic ages, in hesiod, not a simple downward progression Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 84
metallic ages, in hesiod, uses races, not ages Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 84
metallic ages, in hesiod Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 84, 85
metallic ages, in vergil, myth facilitated innovative ideas on periodization Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 84
metalworking, and female vanity Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
metalworking, and idolatry Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
metalworking, and violence Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
metalworking, as angelic teaching Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
metalworking, as invention of cainites Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
middle platonism Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 48
milk, use of, in libations Luck, Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts (2006) 230
mines of arabia Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 234
molinos tejada, m. t. Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 401
moral disgust Lateiner and Spatharas, The Ancient Emotion of Disgust (2016) 144
muse in empedocles Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 94
muses, the Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 79, 80, 81
muses Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 29
myth, of the races Kirichenko, Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age (2022) 79, 80, 81, 148
myth/mythology/μῦýθοι Fowler, Plato in the Third Sophistic (2014) 44