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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6474
Hesiod, Theogony, 117-202


Γαῖʼ εὐρύστερνος, πάντων ἕδος ἀσφαλὲς αἰεὶOf the immortal gods, and those created


ἀθανάτων, οἳ ἔχουσι κάρη νιφόεντος ὈλύμπουIn earthly regions and those generated


Τάρταρά τʼ ἠερόεντα μυχῷ χθονὸς εὐρυοδείηςIn Heaven and Night and in the briny sea.


ἠδʼ Ἔρος, ὃς κάλλιστος ἐν ἀθανάτοισι θεοῖσιTell how the gods and Earth first came to be


λυσιμελής, πάντων δὲ θεῶν πάντων τʼ ἀνθρώπωνThe streams, the swelling sea and up on high


δάμναται ἐν στήθεσσι νόον καὶ ἐπίφρονα βουλήν.The gleaming stars, broad Heaven in the sky


ἐκ Χάεος δʼ Ἔρεβός τε μέλαινά τε Νὺξ ἐγένοντο·The gods they spawned, providing generously


Νυκτὸς δʼ αὖτʼ Αἰθήρ τε καὶ Ἡμέρη ἐξεγένοντοGood things, dividing their prosperity


οὓς τέκε κυσαμένη Ἐρέβει φιλότητι μιγεῖσα.And sharing all their honours, and how they


Γαῖα δέ τοι πρῶτον μὲν ἐγείνατο ἶσον ἑαυτῇTo many-valed Olympus found their way.


Οὐρανὸν ἀστερόενθʼ, ἵνα μιν περὶ πάντα καλύπτοιTherefore, Olympian Muses, tell to me


ὄφρʼ εἴη μακάρεσσι θεοῖς ἕδος ἀσφαλὲς αἰεί.From the beginning, how each came to be.


γείνατο δʼ Οὔρεα μακρά, θεῶν χαρίεντας ἐναύλουςFirst Chaos came, then wide Earth, ever-sound


Νυμφέων, αἳ ναίουσιν ἀνʼ οὔρεα βησσήεντα.Foundations of the gods who on snow-bound


ἣ δὲ καὶ ἀτρύγετον πέλαγος τέκεν, οἴδματι θυῖονOlympus dwell, then, swathed in murkine


Πόντον, ἄτερ φιλότητος ἐφιμέρου· αὐτὰρ ἔπειταBeneath the wide-pathed Earth, came Tartarus


Οὐρανῷ εὐνηθεῖσα τέκʼ Ὠκεανὸν βαθυδίνηνThen Eros, fairest of the deathless ones


Κοῖόν τε Κρῖόν θʼ Ὑπερίονά τʼ Ἰαπετόν τεWho weakens all the gods and men and stun


Θείαν τε Ῥείαν τε Θέμιν τε Μνημοσύνην τεTheir prudent judgment. Chaos then created


Φοίβην τε χρυσοστέφανον Τηθύν τʼ ἐρατεινήν.Erebus; black Night was born, and then she mated


τοὺς δὲ μέθʼ ὁπλότατος γένετο Κρόνος ἀγκυλομήτηςWith Erebus and spawned Aether and Day;


δεινότατος παίδων· θαλερὸν δʼ ἤχθηρε τοκῆα.Then Earth, so that on every side she may


γείνατο δʼ αὖ Κύκλωπας ὑπέρβιον ἦτορ ἔχονταςBe covered, first bore Heaven, who was replete


Βρόντην τε Στερόπην τε καὶ Ἄργην ὀβριμόθυμονWith stars, providing thus a permanent seat


οἳ Ζηνὶ βροντήν τε δόσαν τεῦξάν τε κεραυνόν.For all the gods, as large as Earth; then she


οἳ δή τοι τὰ μὲν ἄλλα θεοῖς ἐναλίγκιοι ἦσανEngendered lengthy mountains which would be


μοῦνος δʼ ὀφθαλμὸς μέσσῳ ἐνέκειτο μετώπῳ.Delightful haunts for all the Nymphs, who dwell


Κύκλωπες δʼ ὄνομʼ ἦσαν ἐπώνυμον, οὕνεκʼ ἄρα σφέωνAmong their glens; then, with its raging swell


κυκλοτερὴς ὀφθαλμὸς ἕεις ἐνέκειτο μετώπῳ·She bore the barren sea, no union


ἰσχὺς δʼ ἠδὲ βίη καὶ μηχαναὶ ἦσαν ἐπʼ ἔργοις.Of love involved, although she later on


ἄλλοι δʼ αὖ Γαίης τε καὶ Οὐρανοῦ ἐξεγένοντοMingled with Heaven, and Oceanus


τρεῖς παῖδες μεγάλοι τε καὶ ὄβριμοι, οὐκ ὀνομαστοίDeep-swirling, was created, and Coeu


Κόττος τε Βριάρεώς τε Γύης θʼ, ὑπερήφανα τέκνα.And Crius and Hyperion she bore


τῶν ἑκατὸν μὲν χεῖρες ἀπʼ ὤμων ἀίσσοντοAnd Iapetus and Theia, furthermore


ἄπλαστοι, κεφαλαὶ δὲ ἑκάστῳ πεντήκονταAnd Rheia, Themis and Mnemosyne


ἐξ ὤμων ἐπέφυκον ἐπὶ στιβαροῖσι μέλεσσιν·And her who wore a golden crown, Phoebe


ἰσχὺς δʼ ἄπλητος κρατερὴ μεγάλῳ ἐπὶ εἴδει.And lovely Tethys, and the youngest one


ὅσσοι γὰρ Γαίης τε καὶ Οὐρανοῦ ἐξεγένοντοThe wily Cronus, such a dreadful son


δεινότατοι παίδων, σφετέρῳ δʼ ἤχθοντο τοκῆιTo lusty Heaven, the vilest of all these


ἐξ ἀρχῆς· καὶ τῶν μὲν ὅπως τις πρῶτα γένοιτοDivinities. She bore the Cyclopes –


πάντας ἀποκρύπτασκε, καὶ ἐς φάος οὐκ ἀνίεσκεBrontes, who gave the thunderbolt to Zeus


Γαίης ἐν κευθμῶνι, κακῷ δʼ ἐπετέρπετο ἔργῳAnd Steropes, who also for his use


Οὐρανός. ἣ δʼ ἐντὸς στοναχίζετο Γαῖα πελώρηGave lightning, and Arges, so strong of heart.


στεινομένη· δολίην δὲ κακήν τʼ ἐφράσσατο τέχνην.The only thing that made them stand apart


αἶψα δὲ ποιήσασα γένος πολιοῦ ἀδάμαντοςFrom all the other gods was one sole eye


τεῦξε μέγα δρέπανον καὶ ἐπέφραδε παισὶ φίλοισιν·That stood upon their foreheads: that is why


εἶπε δὲ θαρσύνουσα, φίλον τετιημένη ἦτορ·We call them Cyclopes. Both skilfulne


παῖδες ἐμοὶ καὶ πατρὸς ἀτασθάλου, αἴ κʼ ἐθέλητεAnd mighty strength did all of them possess.


πείθεσθαι, πατρός κε κακὴν τισαίμεθα λώβηνThere were three other children, odiou


ὑμετέρου· πρότερος γὰρ ἀεικέα μήσατο ἔργα.Though spirited – Cottus, Briareu


ὣς φάτο· τοὺς δʼ ἄρα πάντας ἕλεν δέος, οὐδέ τις αὐτῶνAnd Gyges, all full of effrontery:


φθέγξατο. θαρσήσας δὲ μέγας Κρόνος ἀγκυλομήτηςEven to be in their vicinity


ἂψ αὖτις μύθοισι προσηύδα μητέρα κεδνήν·Was dangerous – of arms they had five score


μῆτερ, ἐγώ κεν τοῦτό γʼ ὑποσχόμενος τελέσαιμιSprung from their shoulders ; fifty heads, what’s more


ἔργον, ἐπεὶ πατρός γε δυσωνύμου οὐκ ἀλεγίζωThey had on brawny limbs; none could suppre


ἡμετέρου· πρότερος γὰρ ἀεικέα μήσατο ἔργα.Their perseverance or their mightiness.


ὣς φάτο· γήθησεν δὲ μέγα φρεσὶ Γαῖα πελώρη·They were the foulest of the progeny


εἷσε δέ μιν κρύψασα λόχῳ· ἐνέθηκε δὲ χερσὶνOf Earth and Heaven and earned the enmity


ἅρπην καρχαρόδοντα· δόλον δʼ ὑπεθήκατο πάντα.Of their own father, for, as soon as they


ἦλθε δὲ νύκτʼ ἐπάγων μέγας Οὐρανός, ἀμφὶ δὲ ΓαίῃWere given birth, he hid them all away


ἱμείρων φιλότητος ἐπέσχετο καί ῥʼ ἐτανύσθηDeep in the earth’s recesses, far from the light


πάντη· ὃ δʼ ἐκ λοχέοιο πάις ὠρέξατο χειρὶAnd in his evil deeds took great delight.


σκαιῇ, δεξιτερῇ δὲ πελώριον ἔλλαβεν ἅρπηνBut vast Earth groaned aloud in her distre


μακρὴν καρχαρόδοντα, φίλου δʼ ἀπὸ μήδεα πατρὸςAnd so devised a piece of cleverness


ἐσσυμένως ἤμησε, πάλιν δʼ ἔρριψε φέρεσθαιAn evil ruse: a mass of flint she made


ἐξοπίσω· τὰ μὲν οὔ τι ἐτώσια ἔκφυγε χειρός·And of it shaped a sickle, then relayed


ὅσσαι γὰρ ῥαθάμιγγες ἀπέσσυθεν αἱματόεσσαιHer scheme to all her brood in consolation


πάσας δέξατο Γαῖα· περιπλομένων δʼ ἐνιαυτῶνAlthough her heart was sore with indignation.


γείνατʼ Ἐρινῦς τε κρατερὰς μεγάλους τε Γίγαντας“Children, your father’s sinful, so hear me,”


τεύχεσι λαμπομένους, δολίχʼ ἔγχεα χερσὶν ἔχονταςShe said, “that he might pay the penalty.”


Νύμφας θʼ ἃς Μελίας καλέουσʼ ἐπʼ ἀπείρονα γαῖαν.They stood in silent fear at what she’d said


μήδεα δʼ ὡς τὸ πρῶτον ἀποτμήξας ἀδάμαντιBut wily Cronus put aside his dread


κάββαλʼ ἀπʼ ἠπείροιο πολυκλύστῳ ἐνὶ πόντῳAnd answered, “I will do what must be done


ὣς φέρετʼ ἂμ πέλαγος πουλὺν χρόνον, ἀμφὶ δὲ λευκὸςMother. I don’t respect The Evil One.”


ἀφρὸς ἀπʼ ἀθανάτου χροὸς ὤρνυτο· τῷ δʼ ἔνι κούρηAt what he said vast Earth was glad at heart


ἐθρέφθη· πρῶτον δὲ Κυθήροισιν ζαθέοισινAnd in an ambush set her child apart


ἔπλητʼ, ἔνθεν ἔπειτα περίρρυτον ἵκετο Κύπρον.And told him everything she had in mind.


ἐκ δʼ ἔβη αἰδοίη καλὴ θεός, ἀμφὶ δὲ ποίηGreat Heaven brought the night and, since he pined


ποσσὶν ὕπο ῥαδινοῖσιν ἀέξετο· τὴν δʼ ἈφροδίτηνTo couple, lay with Earth. Cronus revealed


ἀφρογενέα τε θεὰν καὶ ἐυστέφανον ΚυθέρειανHimself from where he had been well concealed


κικλῄσκουσι θεοί τε καὶ ἀνέρες, οὕνεκʼ ἐν ἀφρῷStretched out one hand and with the other gripped


θρέφθη· ἀτὰρ Κυθέρειαν, ὅτι προσέκυρσε Κυθήροις·The great, big, jagged sickle and then ripped


Κυπρογενέα δʼ, ὅτι γέντο πολυκλύστῳ ἐνὶ Κύπρῳ·His father’s genitals off immediately


ἠδὲ φιλομμηδέα, ὅτι μηδέων ἐξεφαάνθη.And cast them down, nor did they fruitlessly


τῇ δʼ Ἔρος ὡμάρτησε καὶ Ἵμερος ἕσπετο καλὸςDescend behind him, because Earth conceived


γεινομένῃ τὰ πρῶτα θεῶν τʼ ἐς φῦλον ἰούσῃ.The Furies and the Giants, who all wore


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

21 results
1. Hesiod, Works And Days, 277-285, 5, 563, 6-8, 276 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

276. For evil. You who hold supremacy
2. Hesiod, Theogony, 105-116, 118-137, 157-159, 168, 185-206, 211-232, 270-274, 337-361, 464, 475, 482-483, 490-491, 700-705, 73, 736-745, 748-754, 794, 80-81, 814, 83-86, 861-866, 87, 903, 91-92, 924-929, 93, 947-955, 104 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

104. Men sing and play the lyre, but the birth
3. Homer, Iliad, 2.548, 3.103, 3.274, 14.201, 14.246, 14.256-14.261, 14.302, 15.36, 19.258 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

2.548. /And with him there followed forty black ships. 3.103. /because of my quarrel and Alexander's beginning thereof. And for whichsoever of us twain death and fate are appointed, let him lie dead; but be ye others parted with all speed. Bring ye two lambs, a white ram and a black ewe, for Earth and Sun, and for Zeus we will bring another; 3.274. /and poured water over the hands of the kings. And the son of Atreus drew forth with his hand the knife that ever hung beside the great sheath of his sword, and cut hair from off the heads of the lambs; and the heralds portioned it out to the chieftans of the Trojans and Achaeans. 14.201. /For I am faring to visit the limits of the all-nurturing earth, and Oceanus, from whom the gods are sprung, and mother Tethys, even them that lovingly nursed and cherished me in their halls, when they had taken me from Rhea, what time Zeus, whose voice is borne afar, thrust Cronos down to dwell beneath earth and the unresting sea. 14.246. /Oceanus, from whom they all are sprung; but to Zeus, son of Cronos, will I not draw nigh, neither lull him to slumber, unless of himself he bid me. For ere now in another matter did a behest of thine teach me a lesson 14.260. /To her I came in my flight, and besought her, and Zeus refrained him, albeit he was wroth, for he had awe lest he do aught displeasing to swift Night. And now again thou biddest me fulfill this other task, that may nowise be done. To him then spake again ox-eyed, queenly Hera:Sleep, wherefore ponderest thou of these things in thine heart? 14.261. /To her I came in my flight, and besought her, and Zeus refrained him, albeit he was wroth, for he had awe lest he do aught displeasing to swift Night. And now again thou biddest me fulfill this other task, that may nowise be done. To him then spake again ox-eyed, queenly Hera:Sleep, wherefore ponderest thou of these things in thine heart? 14.302. /Then with crafty mind the queenly Hera spake unto him:I am faring to visit the limits of the all-nurturing earth, and Oceanus, from whom the gods are sprung, and mother Tethys, even them that lovingly nursed me and cherished me in their halls. Them am I faring to visit, and will loose for them their endless strife 15.36. /and she spake and addressed him with winged words:Hereto now be Earth my witness and the broad Heaven above, and the down-flowing water of Styx, which is the greatest and most dread oath for the blessed gods, and thine own sacred head, and the couch of us twain, couch of our wedded love 19.258. /made prayer to Zeus; and all the Argives sat thereby in silence, hearkening as was meet unto the king. And he spake in prayer, with a look up to the wide heaven:Be Zeus my witness first, highest and best of gods, and Earth and Sun, and the Erinyes, that under earth
4. Homer, Odyssey, 1.72, 11.302-11.303, 11.602-11.603 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

5. Homeric Hymns, To Demeter, 47, 211 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

211. Around her slender feet her dark-blue dre
6. Homeric Hymns, To Heracles, 7 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

7. Aeschylus, Seven Against Thebes, 11-19, 5-6, 69, 7, 70-77, 8-10 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10. ὑμᾶς δὲ χρὴ νῦν, καὶ τὸν ἐλλείποντʼ ἔτι 10. But now you—both he who is still short of his youthful prime, and he who, though past his prime, still strengthens the abundant growth of his body, and every man still in his prime, as is fitting—you must aid the State and
8. Euripides, Bacchae, 101-165, 55-100 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

100. τέλεσαν, ταυρόκερων θεὸν 100. had perfected him, the bull-horned god, and he crowned him with crowns of snakes, for which reason Maenads cloak their wild prey over their locks. Choru
9. Euripides, Helen, 1302-1368, 1301 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1301. ̓Ορεία ποτὲ δρομάδι κώ- 1301. Once with swift foot the mountain mother of the gods rushed through the wooded glen, and the river’s stream
10. Euripides, Orestes, 1495 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1495. passing right through the house, O Zeus and Earth and light and night! whether by magic spells or wizards’ arts or heavenly theft.
11. Euripides, Phoenician Women, 684-687, 683 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12. Herodotus, Histories, 2.43-2.64, 8.55 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.43. Concerning Heracles, I heard it said that he was one of the twelve gods. But nowhere in Egypt could I hear anything about the other Heracles, whom the Greeks know. ,I have indeed a lot of other evidence that the name of Heracles did not come from Hellas to Egypt, but from Egypt to Hellas (and in Hellas to those Greeks who gave the name Heracles to the son of Amphitryon), besides this: that Amphitryon and Alcmene, the parents of this Heracles, were both Egyptian by descent ; and that the Egyptians deny knowing the names Poseidon and the Dioscuri, nor are these gods reckoned among the gods of Egypt . ,Yet if they got the name of any deity from the Greeks, of these not least but in particular would they preserve a recollection, if indeed they were already making sea voyages and some Greeks, too, were seafaring men, as I expect and judge; so that the names of these gods would have been even better known to the Egyptians than the name of Heracles. ,But Heracles is a very ancient god in Egypt ; as the Egyptians themselves say, the change of the eight gods to the twelve, one of whom they acknowledge Heracles to be, was made seventeen thousand years before the reign of Amasis. 2.44. Moreover, wishing to get clear information about this matter where it was possible so to do, I took ship for Tyre in Phoenicia, where I had learned by inquiry that there was a holy temple of Heracles. ,There I saw it, richly equipped with many other offerings, besides two pillars, one of refined gold, one of emerald: a great pillar that shone at night; and in conversation with the priests, I asked how long it was since their temple was built. ,I found that their account did not tally with the belief of the Greeks, either; for they said that the temple of the god was founded when Tyre first became a city, and that was two thousand three hundred years ago. At Tyre I saw yet another temple of the so-called Thasian Heracles. ,Then I went to Thasos, too, where I found a temple of Heracles built by the Phoenicians, who made a settlement there when they voyaged in search of Europe ; now they did so as much as five generations before the birth of Heracles the son of Amphitryon in Hellas . ,Therefore, what I have discovered by inquiry plainly shows that Heracles is an ancient god. And furthermore, those Greeks, I think, are most in the right, who have established and practise two worships of Heracles, sacrificing to one Heracles as to an immortal, and calling him the Olympian, but to the other bringing offerings as to a dead hero. 2.45. And the Greeks say many other ill-considered things, too; among them, this is a silly story which they tell about Heracles: that when he came to Egypt, the Egyptians crowned him and led him out in a procession to sacrifice him to Zeus; and for a while (they say) he followed quietly, but when they started in on him at the altar, he resisted and killed them all. ,Now it seems to me that by this story the Greeks show themselves altogether ignorant of the character and customs of the Egyptians; for how should they sacrifice men when they are forbidden to sacrifice even beasts, except swine and bulls and bull-calves, if they are unblemished, and geese? ,And furthermore, as Heracles was alone, and, still, only a man, as they say, how is it natural that he should kill many myriads? In talking so much about this, may I keep the goodwill of gods and heroes! 2.46. This is why the Egyptians of whom I have spoken sacrifice no goats, male or female: the Mendesians reckon Pan among the eight gods who, they say, were before the twelve gods. ,Now in their painting and sculpture, the image of Pan is made with the head and the legs of a goat, as among the Greeks; not that he is thought to be in fact such, or unlike other gods; but why they represent him so, I have no wish to say. ,The Mendesians consider all goats sacred, the male even more than the female, and goatherds are held in special estimation: one he-goat is most sacred of all; when he dies, it is ordained that there should be great mourning in all the Mendesian district. ,In the Egyptian language Mendes is the name both for the he-goat and for Pan. In my lifetime a strange thing occurred in this district: a he-goat had intercourse openly with a woman. This came to be publicly known. 2.47. Swine are held by the Egyptians to be unclean beasts. In the first place, if an Egyptian touches a hog in passing, he goes to the river and dips himself in it, clothed as he is; and in the second place, swineherds, though native born Egyptians, are alone of all men forbidden to enter any Egyptian temple; nor will any give a swineherd his daughter in marriage, nor take a wife from their women; but swineherds intermarry among themselves. ,Nor do the Egyptians think it right to sacrifice swine to any god except the Moon and Dionysus; to these, they sacrifice their swine at the same time, in the same season of full moon; then they eat the meat. The Egyptians have an explanation of why they sacrifice swine at this festival, yet abominate them at others; I know it, but it is not fitting that I relate it. ,But this is how they sacrifice swine to the Moon: the sacrificer lays the end of the tail and the spleen and the caul together and covers them up with all the fat that he finds around the belly, then consigns it all to the fire; as for the rest of the flesh, they eat it at the time of full moon when they sacrifice the victim; but they will not taste it on any other day. Poor men, with but slender means, mold swine out of dough, which they then take and sacrifice. 2.48. To Dionysus, on the evening of his festival, everyone offers a piglet which he kills before his door and then gives to the swineherd who has sold it, for him to take away. ,The rest of the festival of Dionysus is observed by the Egyptians much as it is by the Greeks, except for the dances; but in place of the phallus, they have invented the use of puppets two feet high moved by strings, the male member nodding and nearly as big as the rest of the body, which are carried about the villages by women; a flute-player goes ahead, the women follow behind singing of Dionysus. ,Why the male member is so large and is the only part of the body that moves, there is a sacred legend that explains. 2.49. Now then, it seems to me that Melampus son of Amytheon was not ignorant of but was familiar with this sacrifice. For Melampus was the one who taught the Greeks the name of Dionysus and the way of sacrificing to him and the phallic procession; he did not exactly unveil the subject taking all its details into consideration, for the teachers who came after him made a fuller revelation; but it was from him that the Greeks learned to bear the phallus along in honor of Dionysus, and they got their present practice from his teaching. ,I say, then, that Melampus acquired the prophetic art, being a discerning man, and that, besides many other things which he learned from Egypt, he also taught the Greeks things concerning Dionysus, altering few of them; for I will not say that what is done in Egypt in connection with the god and what is done among the Greeks originated independently: for they would then be of an Hellenic character and not recently introduced. ,Nor again will I say that the Egyptians took either this or any other custom from the Greeks. But I believe that Melampus learned the worship of Dionysus chiefly from Cadmus of Tyre and those who came with Cadmus from Phoenicia to the land now called Boeotia . 2.50. In fact, the names of nearly all the gods came to Hellas from Egypt . For I am convinced by inquiry that they have come from foreign parts, and I believe that they came chiefly from Egypt . ,Except the names of Poseidon and the Dioscuri, as I have already said, and Hera, and Hestia, and Themis, and the Graces, and the Nereids, the names of all the gods have always existed in Egypt . I only say what the Egyptians themselves say. The gods whose names they say they do not know were, as I think, named by the Pelasgians, except Poseidon, the knowledge of whom they learned from the Libyans. ,Alone of all nations the Libyans have had among them the name of Poseidon from the beginning, and they have always honored this god. The Egyptians, however, are not accustomed to pay any honors to heroes. 2.51. These customs, then, and others besides, which I shall indicate, were taken by the Greeks from the Egyptians. It was not so with the ithyphallic images of Hermes; the production of these came from the Pelasgians, from whom the Athenians were the first Greeks to take it, and then handed it on to others. ,For the Athenians were then already counted as Greeks when the Pelasgians came to live in the land with them and thereby began to be considered as Greeks. Whoever has been initiated into the rites of the Cabeiri, which the Samothracians learned from the Pelasgians and now practice, understands what my meaning is. ,Samothrace was formerly inhabited by those Pelasgians who came to live among the Athenians, and it is from them that the Samothracians take their rites. ,The Athenians, then, were the first Greeks to make ithyphallic images of Hermes, and they did this because the Pelasgians taught them. The Pelasgians told a certain sacred tale about this, which is set forth in the Samothracian mysteries. 2.52. Formerly, in all their sacrifices, the Pelasgians called upon gods without giving name or appellation to any (I know this, because I was told at Dodona ); for as yet they had not heard of such. They called them gods from the fact that, besides setting everything in order, they maintained all the dispositions. ,Then, after a long while, first they learned the names of the rest of the gods, which came to them from Egypt, and, much later, the name of Dionysus; and presently they asked the oracle at Dodona about the names; for this place of divination, held to be the most ancient in Hellas, was at that time the only one. ,When the Pelasgians, then, asked at Dodona whether they should adopt the names that had come from foreign parts, the oracle told them to use the names. From that time onwards they used the names of the gods in their sacrifices; and the Greeks received these later from the Pelasgians. 2.53. But whence each of the gods came to be, or whether all had always been, and how they appeared in form, they did not know until yesterday or the day before, so to speak; ,for I suppose Hesiod and Homer flourished not more than four hundred years earlier than I; and these are the ones who taught the Greeks the descent of the gods, and gave the gods their names, and determined their spheres and functions, and described their outward forms. ,But the poets who are said to have been earlier than these men were, in my opinion, later. The earlier part of all this is what the priestesses of Dodona tell; the later, that which concerns Hesiod and Homer, is what I myself say. 2.54. But about the oracles in Hellas, and that one which is in Libya, the Egyptians give the following account. The priests of Zeus of Thebes told me that two priestesses had been carried away from Thebes by Phoenicians; one, they said they had heard was taken away and sold in Libya, the other in Hellas ; these women, they said, were the first founders of places of divination in the aforesaid countries. ,When I asked them how it was that they could speak with such certain knowledge, they said in reply that their people had sought diligently for these women, and had never been able to find them, but had learned later the story which they were telling me. 2.55. That, then, I heard from the Theban priests; and what follows, the prophetesses of Dodona say: that two black doves had come flying from Thebes in Egypt, one to Libya and one to Dodona ; ,the latter settled on an oak tree, and there uttered human speech, declaring that a place of divination from Zeus must be made there; the people of Dodona understood that the message was divine, and therefore established the oracular shrine. ,The dove which came to Libya told the Libyans (they say) to make an oracle of Ammon; this also is sacred to Zeus. Such was the story told by the Dodonaean priestesses, the eldest of whom was Promeneia and the next Timarete and the youngest Nicandra; and the rest of the servants of the temple at Dodona similarly held it true. 2.56. But my own belief about it is this. If the Phoenicians did in fact carry away the sacred women and sell one in Libya and one in Hellas, then, in my opinion, the place where this woman was sold in what is now Hellas, but was formerly called Pelasgia, was Thesprotia ; ,and then, being a slave there, she established a shrine of Zeus under an oak that was growing there; for it was reasonable that, as she had been a handmaid of the temple of Zeus at Thebes , she would remember that temple in the land to which she had come. ,After this, as soon as she understood the Greek language, she taught divination; and she said that her sister had been sold in Libya by the same Phoenicians who sold her. 2.57. I expect that these women were called “doves” by the people of Dodona because they spoke a strange language, and the people thought it like the cries of birds; ,then the woman spoke what they could understand, and that is why they say that the dove uttered human speech; as long as she spoke in a foreign tongue, they thought her voice was like the voice of a bird. For how could a dove utter the speech of men? The tale that the dove was black signifies that the woman was Egyptian . ,The fashions of divination at Thebes of Egypt and at Dodona are like one another; moreover, the practice of divining from the sacrificed victim has also come from Egypt . 2.58. It would seem, too, that the Egyptians were the first people to establish solemn assemblies, and processions, and services; the Greeks learned all that from them. I consider this proved, because the Egyptian ceremonies are manifestly very ancient, and the Greek are of recent origin. 2.59. The Egyptians hold solemn assemblies not once a year, but often. The principal one of these and the most enthusiastically celebrated is that in honor of Artemis at the town of Bubastis , and the next is that in honor of Isis at Busiris. ,This town is in the middle of the Egyptian Delta, and there is in it a very great temple of Isis, who is Demeter in the Greek language. ,The third greatest festival is at Saïs in honor of Athena; the fourth is the festival of the sun at Heliopolis, the fifth of Leto at Buto, and the sixth of Ares at Papremis. 2.60. When the people are on their way to Bubastis, they go by river, a great number in every boat, men and women together. Some of the women make a noise with rattles, others play flutes all the way, while the rest of the women, and the men, sing and clap their hands. ,As they travel by river to Bubastis, whenever they come near any other town they bring their boat near the bank; then some of the women do as I have said, while some shout mockery of the women of the town; others dance, and others stand up and lift their skirts. They do this whenever they come alongside any riverside town. ,But when they have reached Bubastis, they make a festival with great sacrifices, and more wine is drunk at this feast than in the whole year besides. It is customary for men and women (but not children) to assemble there to the number of seven hundred thousand, as the people of the place say. 2.61. This is what they do there; I have already described how they keep the feast of Isis at Busiris. There, after the sacrifice, all the men and women lament, in countless numbers; but it is not pious for me to say who it is for whom they lament. ,Carians who live in Egypt do even more than this, inasmuch as they cut their foreheads with knives; and by this they show that they are foreigners and not Egyptians. 2.62. When they assemble at Saïs on the night of the sacrifice, they keep lamps burning outside around their houses. These lamps are saucers full of salt and oil on which the wick floats, and they burn all night. This is called the Feast of Lamps. ,Egyptians who do not come to this are mindful on the night of sacrifice to keep their own lamps burning, and so they are alight not only at Saïs but throughout Egypt . A sacred tale is told showing why this night is lit up thus and honored. 2.63. When the people go to Heliopolis and Buto, they offer sacrifice only. At Papremis sacrifice is offered and rites performed just as elsewhere; but when the sun is setting, a few of the priests hover about the image, while most of them go and stand in the entrance to the temple with clubs of wood in their hands; others, more than a thousand men fulfilling vows, who also carry wooden clubs, stand in a mass opposite. ,The image of the god, in a little gilded wooden shrine, they carry away on the day before this to another sacred building. The few who are left with the image draw a four-wheeled wagon conveying the shrine and the image that is in the shrine; the others stand in the space before the doors and do not let them enter, while the vow-keepers, taking the side of the god, strike them, who defend themselves. ,A fierce fight with clubs breaks out there, and they are hit on their heads, and many, I expect, even die from their wounds; although the Egyptians said that nobody dies. ,The natives say that they made this assembly a custom from the following incident: the mother of Ares lived in this temple; Ares had been raised apart from her and came, when he grew up, wishing to visit his mother; but as her attendants kept him out and would not let him pass, never having seen him before, Ares brought men from another town, manhandled the attendants, and went in to his mother. From this, they say, this hitting for Ares became a custom in the festival. 2.64. Furthermore, it was the Egyptians who first made it a matter of religious observance not to have intercourse with women in temples or to enter a temple after such intercourse without washing. Nearly all other peoples are less careful in this matter than are the Egyptians and Greeks, and consider a man to be like any other animal; ,for beasts and birds (they say) are seen to mate both in the temples and in the sacred precincts; now were this displeasing to the god, the beasts would not do so. This is the reason given by others for practices which I, for my part, dislike; 8.55. I will tell why I have mentioned this. In that acropolis is a shrine of Erechtheus, called the “Earthborn,” and in the shrine are an olive tree and a pool of salt water. The story among the Athenians is that they were set there by Poseidon and Athena as tokens when they contended for the land. It happened that the olive tree was burnt by the barbarians with the rest of the sacred precinct, but on the day after its burning, when the Athenians ordered by the king to sacrifice went up to the sacred precinct, they saw a shoot of about a cubit's length sprung from the stump, and they reported this.
13. Plato, Cratylus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

402b. Socrates. Well, don’t you think he who gave to the ancestors of the other gods the names Rhea and Cronus had the same thought as Heracleitus? Do you think he gave both of them the names of streams merely by chance? Just so Homer, too, says— Ocean the origin of the gods, and their mother Tethys; Hom. Il. 14.201, 302 and I believe Hesiod says that also. Orpheus, too, says— Fair-flowing Ocean was the first to marry
14. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

38c. the copy, on the other hand, is through all time, continually having existed, existing, and being about to exist. Wherefore, as a consequence of this reasoning and design on the part of God, with a view to the generation of Time, the sun and moon and five other stars, which bear the appellation of planets, came into existence for the determining and preserving of the numbers of Time. And when God had made the bodies of each of them He placed them in the orbits along which the revolution of the Other was moving, seven orbits for the seven bodies..
15. Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica, 1.1125-1.1151 (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1125. μητέρα Δινδυμίην πολυπότνιαν ἀγκαλέοντες 1.1126. ἐνναέτιν Φρυγίης, Τιτίην θʼ ἅμα Κύλληνόν τε 1.1127. οἳ μοῦνοι πολέων μοιρηγέται ἠδὲ πάρεδροι 1.1128. μητέρος Ἰδαίης κεκλήαται, ὅσσοι ἔασιν 1.1129. δάκτυλοι Ἰδαῖοι Κρηταιέες, οὕς ποτε νύμφη 1.1130. Ἀγχιάλη Δικταῖον ἀνὰ σπέος ἀμφοτέρῃσιν 1.1131. δραξαμένη γαίης Οἰαξίδος ἐβλάστησεν. 1.1132. πολλὰ δὲ τήνγε λιτῇσιν ἀποστρέψαι ἐριώλας 1.1133. Λἰσονίδης γουνάζετʼ ἐπιλλείβων ἱεροῖσιν 1.1134. αἰθομένοις· ἄμυδις δὲ νέοι Ὀρφῆος ἀνωγῇ 1.1135. σκαίροντες βηταρμὸν ἐνόπλιον ὠρχήσαντο 1.1136. καὶ σάκεα ξιφέεσσιν ἐπέκτυπον, ὥς κεν ἰωὴ 1.1137. δύσφημος πλάζοιτο διʼ ἠέρος, ἣν ἔτι λαοὶ 1.1138. κηδείῃ βασιλῆος ἀνέστενον. ἔνθεν ἐσαιεὶ 1.1139. ῥόμβῳ καὶ τυπάνῳ Ῥείην Φρύγες ἱλάσκονται. 1.1140. ἡ δέ που εὐαγέεσσιν ἐπὶ φρένα θῆκε θυηλαῖς 1.1141. ἀνταίη δαίμων· τὰ δʼ ἐοικότα σήματʼ ἔγεντο. 1.1142. δένδρεα μὲν καρπὸν χέον ἄσπετον, ἀμφὶ δὲ ποσσὶν 1.1143. αὐτομάτη φύε γαῖα τερείνης ἄνθεα ποίης. 1.1144. θῆρες δʼ εἰλυούς τε κατὰ ξυλόχους τε λιπόντες 1.1145. οὐρῇσιν σαίνοντες ἐπήλυθον. ἡ δὲ καὶ ἄλλο 1.1146. θῆκε τέρας· ἐπεὶ οὔτι παροίτερον ὕδατι νᾶεν 1.1147. Δίνδυμον· ἀλλά σφιν τότʼ ἀνέβραχε διψάδος αὔτως 1.1148. ἐκ κορυφῆς ἄλληκτον· Ἰησονίην δʼ ἐνέπουσιν 1.1149. κεῖνο ποτὸν κρήνην περιναιέται ἄνδρες ὀπίσσω. 1.1150. καὶ τότε μὲν δαῖτʼ ἀμφὶ θεᾶς θέσαν οὔρεσιν Ἄρκτων 1.1151. μέλποντες Ῥείην πολυπότνιαν· αὐτὰρ ἐς ἠὼ
16. Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 3.4.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.4.3. Σεμέλης δὲ Ζεὺς ἐρασθεὶς Ἥρας κρύφα συνευνάζεται. ἡ δὲ ἐξαπατηθεῖσα ὑπὸ Ἥρας, κατανεύσαντος αὐτῇ Διὸς πᾶν τὸ αἰτηθὲν ποιήσειν, αἰτεῖται τοιοῦτον αὐτὸν ἐλθεῖν οἷος ἦλθε μνηστευόμενος Ἥραν. Ζεὺς δὲ μὴ δυνάμενος ἀνανεῦσαι παραγίνεται εἰς τὸν θάλαμον αὐτῆς ἐφʼ ἅρματος ἀστραπαῖς ὁμοῦ καὶ βρονταῖς, καὶ κεραυνὸν ἵησιν. Σεμέλης δὲ διὰ τὸν φόβον ἐκλιπούσης, ἑξαμηνιαῖον τὸ βρέφος ἐξαμβλωθὲν ἐκ τοῦ πυρὸς ἁρπάσας ἐνέρραψε τῷ μηρῷ. ἀποθανούσης δὲ Σεμέλης, αἱ λοιπαὶ Κάδμου θυγατέρες διήνεγκαν λόγον, συνηυνῆσθαι θνητῷ τινι Σεμέλην καὶ καταψεύσασθαι Διός, καὶ ὅτι 1 -- διὰ τοῦτο ἐκεραυνώθη. κατὰ δὲ τὸν χρόνον τὸν καθήκοντα Διόνυσον γεννᾷ Ζεὺς λύσας τὰ ῥάμματα, καὶ δίδωσιν Ἑρμῇ. ὁ δὲ κομίζει πρὸς Ἰνὼ καὶ Ἀθάμαντα καὶ πείθει τρέφειν ὡς κόρην. ἀγανακτήσασα δὲ Ἥρα μανίαν αὐτοῖς ἐνέβαλε, καὶ Ἀθάμας μὲν τὸν πρεσβύτερον παῖδα Λέαρχον ὡς ἔλαφον θηρεύσας ἀπέκτεινεν, Ἰνὼ δὲ τὸν Μελικέρτην εἰς πεπυρωμένον λέβητα ῥίψασα, εἶτα βαστάσασα μετὰ νεκροῦ τοῦ παιδὸς ἥλατο κατὰ βυθοῦ. 1 -- καὶ Λευκοθέα μὲν αὐτὴν καλεῖται, Παλαίμων δὲ ὁ παῖς, οὕτως ὀνομασθέντες ὑπὸ τῶν πλεόντων· τοῖς χειμαζομένοις γὰρ βοηθοῦσιν. ἐτέθη δὲ ἐπὶ Μελικέρτῃ ὁ 2 -- ἀγὼν τῶν Ἰσθμίων, Σισύφου θέντος. Διόνυσον δὲ Ζεὺς εἰς ἔριφον ἀλλάξας τὸν Ἥρας θυμὸν ἔκλεψε, καὶ λαβὼν αὐτὸν Ἑρμῆς πρὸς νύμφας ἐκόμισεν ἐν Νύσῃ κατοικούσας τῆς Ἀσίας, ἃς ὕστερον Ζεὺς καταστερίσας ὠνόμασεν Ὑάδας.
17. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.2.6, 1.14.3, 1.35.8, 9.27.2-9.27.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.14.3. Some extant verses of Musaeus, if indeed they are to be included among his works, say that Triptolemus was the son of Oceanus and Earth; while those ascribed to Orpheus (though in my opinion the received authorship is again incorrect) say that Eubuleus and Triptolemus were sons of Dysaules, and that because they gave Demeter information about her daughter the sowing of seed was her reward to them. But Choerilus, an Athenian, who wrote a play called Alope, says that Cercyon and Triptolemus were brothers, that their mother was the daughter of Amphictyon, while the father of Triptolemus was Rarus, of Cercyon, Poseidon. After I had intended to go further into this story, and to describe the contents of the sanctuary at Athens, called the Eleusinium, I was stayed by a vision in a dream. I shall therefore turn to those things it is lawful to write of to all men. 1.35.8. And when I criticized the account and pointed out to them that Geryon is at Gadeira, where there is, not his tomb, but a tree showing different shapes, the guides of the Lydians related the true story, that the corpse is that of Hyllus, a son of Earth, from whom the river is named. They also said that Heracles from his sojourning with Omphale called his son Hyllus after the river. 9.27.2. Most men consider Love to be the youngest of the gods and the son of Aphrodite. But Olen the Lycian, who composed the oldest Greek hymns, says in a hymn to Eileithyia that she was the mother of Love. Later than Olen, both Pamphos and Orpheus wrote hexameter verse, and composed poems on Love, in order that they might be among those sung by the Lycomidae to accompany the ritual. I read them after conversation with a Torchbearer. of these things I will make no further mention. Hesiod, Hes. Th. 116 foll. or he who wrote the Theogony fathered on Hesiod, writes, I know, that Chaos was born first, and after Chaos, Earth, Tartarus and Love. 9.27.3. Sappho of Lesbos wrote many poems about Love, but they are not consistent. Later on Lysippus made a bronze Love for the Thespians, and previously Praxiteles one of Pentelic marble. The story of Phryne and the trick she played on Praxiteles I have related in another place. See Paus. 1.20.1 . The first to remove the image of Love, it is said, was Gaius the Roman Emperor; Claudius, they say, sent it back to Thespiae, but Nero carried it away a second time.
18. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 10.2 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.2. For some time he stayed there and gathered disciples, but returned to Athens in the archonship of Anaxicrates. And for a while, it is said, he prosecuted his studies in common with the other philosophers, but afterwards put forward independent views by the foundation of the school called after him. He says himself that he first came into contact with philosophy at the age of fourteen. Apollodorus the Epicurean, in the first book of his Life of Epicurus, says that he turned to philosophy in disgust at the schoolmasters who could not tell him the meaning of chaos in Hesiod. According to Hermippus, however, he started as a schoolmaster, but on coming across the works of Democritus turned eagerly to philosophy.
19. Anon., Scholia On Argonautika, 1.498

20. Orphic Hymns., Fragments, 8

21. Papyri, Derveni Papyrus, 7.4, 8.4-8.5, 13.4



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
acusilaus Ker and Wessels, The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn (2020) 63
aeschylus, eumenides Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33
aeschylus, prometheus bound Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33
aether Edmunds, Greek Myth (2021) 68; Ker and Wessels, The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn (2020) 34
allegory Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 27
anax Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33
aphrodite, as a planet Bartninkas, Traditional and Cosmic Gods in Later Plato and the Early Academy (2023) 72
apollo de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 241
aristotle Montanari and Rengakos, In the Company of Many Good Poets. Collected Papers of Franco Montanari: Vol. I: Ancient Scholarship (2023) 658
athamantas Trott, Aristotle on the Matter of Form: ? Feminist Metaphysics of Generation (2019) 122
athena Trott, Aristotle on the Matter of Form: ? Feminist Metaphysics of Generation (2019) 122
athens and athenians, autochthony of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33
autochthony, athenian Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33
autochthony, lydian Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33
autochthony Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33
auxo Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33
chaos/χάος Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 26, 27, 67
chaos Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 7; Edmunds, Greek Myth (2021) 68; Ker and Wessels, The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn (2020) 34, 63
children of gods, in the timaeus Bartninkas, Traditional and Cosmic Gods in Later Plato and the Early Academy (2023) 65
cosmic gods, and time Bartninkas, Traditional and Cosmic Gods in Later Plato and the Early Academy (2023) 47
cosmic order (cosmology, cosmos) Ker and Wessels, The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn (2020) 34
cosmogony, in greece Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 7
cosmogony Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 371; Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 27; Ker and Wessels, The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn (2020) 34, 63
cosmos/kosmos Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 67, 205
creation in greece Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 7
cronus Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 51; Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33
damascius Ker and Wessels, The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn (2020) 63
day Ker and Wessels, The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn (2020) 34
death Ker and Wessels, The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn (2020) 34
delphi Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33
demeter, and kore (persephone) Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 56
demeter Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33, 56
derveni papyrus Ker and Wessels, The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn (2020) 63
derveni poem Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 51
destruction, decay Trott, Aristotle on the Matter of Form: ? Feminist Metaphysics of Generation (2019) 122
didactic poetry Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 67
dikê/δίκη Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 171
dikê (goddess) Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 171
dindymene Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 56
dionysus Trott, Aristotle on the Matter of Form: ? Feminist Metaphysics of Generation (2019) 122
dreams Ker and Wessels, The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn (2020) 34
earth/earth/gaea Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 26, 27, 205
earth Trott, Aristotle on the Matter of Form: ? Feminist Metaphysics of Generation (2019) 122
earth (gaea), as demeter Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 56
earth (gaea) Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33, 56
eirênê/εἰρήνη Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 171
eleusis/eleusinian de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 241
eleusis Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33
epic poetry Pamias, Apollodoriana: Ancient Myths, New Crossroads (2017) 231
epicurus Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 7
epimenides Ker and Wessels, The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn (2020) 63
erebus Ker and Wessels, The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn (2020) 34, 63
erechtheus Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33
eris/eris/strife/strife Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 205
eros Edmunds, Greek Myth (2021) 68; Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 26, 27, 171, 205; Ker and Wessels, The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn (2020) 34; de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 241
eunomiê Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 171
euripides, on the mother of the gods Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 56
female, gods Trott, Aristotle on the Matter of Form: ? Feminist Metaphysics of Generation (2019) 122
female, power of Trott, Aristotle on the Matter of Form: ? Feminist Metaphysics of Generation (2019) 122
gaia, cosmological functions of Bartninkas, Traditional and Cosmic Gods in Later Plato and the Early Academy (2023) 72
gaia, in poetic tradition Bartninkas, Traditional and Cosmic Gods in Later Plato and the Early Academy (2023) 65
gaia, theogonic priority of Bartninkas, Traditional and Cosmic Gods in Later Plato and the Early Academy (2023) 47, 65
gaia Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 51; Edmunds, Greek Myth (2021) 68; Trott, Aristotle on the Matter of Form: ? Feminist Metaphysics of Generation (2019) 122
ge (gaea/gaia, goddess) Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 371
genealogy Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 26, 27, 171, 205
gods and goddesses, origins Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 371
gods and goddesses, pantheon Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 371
goethe, johann wolfgang von Edmunds, Greek Myth (2021) 68
harmony Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 171
hephaestus Trott, Aristotle on the Matter of Form: ? Feminist Metaphysics of Generation (2019) 122
hephaistos (god) Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 371
hera Trott, Aristotle on the Matter of Form: ? Feminist Metaphysics of Generation (2019) 122
hermes, as a planet Bartninkas, Traditional and Cosmic Gods in Later Plato and the Early Academy (2023) 72
hermes Trott, Aristotle on the Matter of Form: ? Feminist Metaphysics of Generation (2019) 122
herodotos, histories Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 371
hesiod, theogony Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 371; Ker and Wessels, The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn (2020) 34, 63
hesiod Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 51; Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 371; Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33, 56; Trott, Aristotle on the Matter of Form: ? Feminist Metaphysics of Generation (2019) 122
homer, iliad Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 371
homer, odyssey Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 371
homer Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 56
homeric hymn, to earth Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33, 56
homeric hymns, apollo Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 371
honor de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 241
honour Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 171
hyllus Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33
ida, idaean mother Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 56
ida Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 56
ino Trott, Aristotle on the Matter of Form: ? Feminist Metaphysics of Generation (2019) 122
kronos, in the timaeus Bartninkas, Traditional and Cosmic Gods in Later Plato and the Early Academy (2023) 65
kudos Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33
life, living, mythological view of Trott, Aristotle on the Matter of Form: ? Feminist Metaphysics of Generation (2019) 122
linus de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 241
loraux, nicole Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33
love/philotês (in empedocles) Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 205
lydia and lydians, and phrygian symbols Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 56
lydia and lydians, rites of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 56
lópez-ruiz, carolina Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 371
mankind Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 171
melanippe Edmunds, Greek Myth (2021) 68
miletus and milesians Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33
moira Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 26
mortals Ker and Wessels, The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn (2020) 34
mother, maternal, in mythology Trott, Aristotle on the Matter of Form: ? Feminist Metaphysics of Generation (2019) 122
mother of the gods, and animals Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33, 56
mother of the gods, as demeter Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 56
mother of the gods, as earth (gaea) Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33, 56
mother of the gods, as mountain mother Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 56
mother of the gods, as rhea Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 56
mother of the gods, associated with mountains Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 56
mother of the gods, daughter of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 56
mother of the gods, great Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 56
mother of the gods, in attic drama Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 56
mother of the gods, multiple identities of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 56
musaeus Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33
muses Ker and Wessels, The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn (2020) 34
myth/mythology, origin of the gods Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 371
neikos/strife Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 205
night/nighttime, as mother Ker and Wessels, The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn (2020) 34
night/nighttime, as origin Ker and Wessels, The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn (2020) 34
night/nighttime, children of Ker and Wessels, The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn (2020) 34, 63
night/nighttime, paired with day Ker and Wessels, The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn (2020) 34
night/nighttime, producing day Ker and Wessels, The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn (2020) 34
night Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 7; Edmunds, Greek Myth (2021) 68; Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 26
night (goddess) Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 51
night (nyx) Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33
ocean/oceanus Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 27
ocean and tethys, in theogony Bartninkas, Traditional and Cosmic Gods in Later Plato and the Early Academy (2023) 65
olen de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 241
olympus Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 51; Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 26, 27, 171
onomacritus Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 51
orpheus, literary author de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 241
orpheus Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 171; de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 241
orphic tradition Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 371
orphism Ker and Wessels, The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn (2020) 63
ouranos, body of Bartninkas, Traditional and Cosmic Gods in Later Plato and the Early Academy (2023) 47
ouranos, in poetic tradition Bartninkas, Traditional and Cosmic Gods in Later Plato and the Early Academy (2023) 47, 65
ouranos, theogonic priority of Bartninkas, Traditional and Cosmic Gods in Later Plato and the Early Academy (2023) 65
ouranos Trott, Aristotle on the Matter of Form: ? Feminist Metaphysics of Generation (2019) 122
pamphos de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 241
pandora Trott, Aristotle on the Matter of Form: ? Feminist Metaphysics of Generation (2019) 122
persephone Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 56
phorcys, recharacterisation of Bartninkas, Traditional and Cosmic Gods in Later Plato and the Early Academy (2023) 65
plato Montanari and Rengakos, In the Company of Many Good Poets. Collected Papers of Franco Montanari: Vol. I: Ancient Scholarship (2023) 658
polis Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 171
politics Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 27, 171
prometheus Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33
prophecy, gaias prophecy Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 51
prophecy, nights prophecy Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 51
prophecy and prophets Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33
protogonos (orphic god) Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 51
rationalization Pamias, Apollodoriana: Ancient Myths, New Crossroads (2017) 231
rhea Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 51; Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33, 56
semele Trott, Aristotle on the Matter of Form: ? Feminist Metaphysics of Generation (2019) 122
sleep Ker and Wessels, The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn (2020) 34
song de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 241
sources of the bibliotheca Pamias, Apollodoriana: Ancient Myths, New Crossroads (2017) 231
stoics/stoicism Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 67
swallowing, zeus swallowing of protogonos Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 51
talthybius Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33
tartarus Edmunds, Greek Myth (2021) 68; Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 26, 27
themis Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 171
theognony Edmunds, Greek Myth (2021) 68
theogony' Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 371
theogony Pamias, Apollodoriana: Ancient Myths, New Crossroads (2017) 231; de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 241
time/temporality Ker and Wessels, The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn (2020) 34
titans Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 27
traditional theogony, ironic approach to Bartninkas, Traditional and Cosmic Gods in Later Plato and the Early Academy (2023) 65
traditional theogony, primordial gods in Bartninkas, Traditional and Cosmic Gods in Later Plato and the Early Academy (2023) 65
triptolemus Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33
typhoeus/typhon Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 205
tyrannus, philoctetes Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 56
uranus Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 51; Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33
uranus phallus Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 51
water (element) Iribarren and Koning, Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy (2022) 67
west, martin l. Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 371
zeus, and gaea Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33, 56
zeus, and kingship Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33
zeus, and rhea Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 56
zeus Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 51; Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 33, 56; Trott, Aristotle on the Matter of Form: ? Feminist Metaphysics of Generation (2019) 122
αἰδοῖον, as venerable (epithet of protogonos) Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 51