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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

Herodotus, Histories, 5.67

nanIn doing this, to my thinking, this Cleisthenes was imitating his own mother's father, Cleisthenes the tyrant of Sicyon, for Cleisthenes, after going to war with the Argives, made an end of minstrels' contests at Sicyon by reason of the Homeric poems, in which it is the Argives and Argos which are primarily the theme of the songs. Furthermore, he conceived the desire to cast out from the land Adrastus son of Talaus, the hero whose shrine stood then as now in the very marketplace of Sicyon because he was an Argive. ,He went then to Delphi, and asked the oracle if he should cast Adrastus out, but the priestess said in response: “Adrastus is king of Sicyon, and you but a stone thrower.” When the god would not permit him to do as he wished in this matter, he returned home and attempted to devise some plan which might rid him of Adrastus. When he thought he had found one, he sent to Boeotian Thebes saying that he would gladly bring Melanippus son of Astacus into his country, and the Thebans handed him over. ,When Cleisthenes had brought him in, he consecrated a sanctuary for him in the government house itself, where he was established in the greatest possible security. Now the reason why Cleisthenes brought in Melanippus, a thing which I must relate, was that Melanippus was Adrastus' deadliest enemy, for Adrastus had slain his brother Mecisteus and his son-in-law Tydeus. ,Having then designated the precinct for him, Cleisthenes took away all Adrastus' sacrifices and festivals and gave them to Melanippus. The Sicyonians had been accustomed to pay very great honor to Adrastus because the country had once belonged to Polybus, his maternal grandfather, who died without an heir and bequeathed the kingship to him. ,Besides other honors paid to Adrastus by the Sicyonians, they celebrated his lamentable fate with tragic choruses in honor not of Dionysus but of Adrastus. Cleisthenes, however, gave the choruses back to Dionysus and the rest of the worship to Melanippus.

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24 results
1. Archilochus, Fragments, 124, 108 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

2. Archilochus, Fragments, 124, 108 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

3. Hesiod, Shield, 280 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

280. and the girls led on the lovely dance to the sound of lyres. Then again on the other side was a rout of young men revelling, with flutes playing; some frolicking with dance and song, and others were going forward in time with a flute player and laughing. The whole town was filled with mirth and dance and festivity.
4. Hesiod, Theogony, 12 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

12. And her whose golden sandals grace her limbs
5. Homer, Iliad, 4.8, 4.51-4.52, 5.908 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

4.8. /And forthwith the son of Cronos made essay to provoke Hera with mocking words, and said with malice:Twain of the goddesses hath Menelaus for helpers, even Argive Hera, and Alalcomenean Athene. Howbeit these verily sit apart and take their pleasure in beholding 4.51. /Then in answer to him spake ox-eyed, queenly Hera:Verily have I three cities that are far dearest in my sight, Argos and Sparta and broad-wayed Mycenae; these do thou lay waste whensoe'er they shall be hateful to thy heart. Not in their defence do I stand forth, nor account them too greatly. 4.52. /Then in answer to him spake ox-eyed, queenly Hera:Verily have I three cities that are far dearest in my sight, Argos and Sparta and broad-wayed Mycenae; these do thou lay waste whensoe'er they shall be hateful to thy heart. Not in their defence do I stand forth, nor account them too greatly. 5.908. /And Hebe bathed him, and clad him in beautiful raiment, and he sate him down by the side of Zeus, son of Cronos, exulting in his glory.Then back to the palace of great Zeus fared Argive Hera and Alalcomenean Athene, when they had made Ares, the bane of mortals, to cease from his man-slaying.
6. Solon, Fragments, None (7th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

7. Aeschylus, Suppliant Women, 292-293, 291 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

291. κλῃδοῦχον Ἥρας φασὶ δωμάτων ποτὲ 291. Is there a report that once in this land of Argos Io was ward of Hera’s house? King
8. Pindar, Isthmian Odes, 4.61-4.68 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9. Pindar, Nemean Odes, 7.46-7.48, 9.11, 10.22-10.24 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10. Euripides, Electra, 126 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

126. ἄναγε πολύδακρυν ἁδονάν.
11. Herodotus, Histories, 1.65-1.68, 1.143, 1.166-1.168, 2.2-2.5, 2.44, 2.48, 2.52-2.53, 2.56-2.57, 2.123, 2.145-2.146, 4.15, 4.76, 4.155, 5.45, 5.47, 5.52, 5.54, 5.65-5.66, 5.79-5.81, 5.97, 5.114, 6.21, 6.36-6.38, 6.53-6.55, 6.81, 7.43, 7.94, 7.117, 7.139.1, 7.171, 8.83, 9.97 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.65. So Croesus learned that at that time such problems were oppressing the Athenians, but that the Lacedaemonians had escaped from the great evils and had mastered the Tegeans in war. In the kingship of Leon and Hegesicles at Sparta, the Lacedaemonians were successful in all their other wars but met disaster only against the Tegeans. ,Before this they had been the worst-governed of nearly all the Hellenes and had had no dealings with strangers, but they changed to good government in this way: Lycurgus, a man of reputation among the Spartans, went to the oracle at Delphi . As soon as he entered the hall, the priestess said in hexameter: , quote type="oracle" l met="dact"You have come to my rich temple, Lycurgus, /l lA man dear to Zeus and to all who have Olympian homes. /l lI am in doubt whether to pronounce you man or god, /l lBut I think rather you are a god, Lycurgus. /l /quote ,Some say that the Pythia also declared to him the constitution that now exists at Sparta, but the Lacedaemonians themselves say that Lycurgus brought it from Crete when he was guardian of his nephew Leobetes, the Spartan king. ,Once he became guardian, he changed all the laws and took care that no one transgressed the new ones. Lycurgus afterwards established their affairs of war: the sworn divisions, the bands of thirty, the common meals; also the ephors and the council of elders. 1.66. Thus they changed their bad laws to good ones, and when Lycurgus died they built him a temple and now worship him greatly. Since they had good land and many men, they immediately flourished and prospered. They were not content to live in peace, but, confident that they were stronger than the Arcadians, asked the oracle at Delphi about gaining all the Arcadian land. ,She replied in hexameter: quote type="oracle" l met="dact"You ask me for Arcadia ? You ask too much; I grant it not. /l lThere are many men in Arcadia, eaters of acorns, /l lWho will hinder you. But I grudge you not. /l lI will give you Tegea to beat with your feet in dancing, /l lAnd its fair plain to measure with a rope. /l /quote ,When the Lacedaemonians heard the oracle reported, they left the other Arcadians alone and marched on Tegea carrying chains, relying on the deceptive oracle. They were confident they would enslave the Tegeans, but they were defeated in battle. ,Those taken alive were bound in the very chains they had brought with them, and they measured the Tegean plain with a rope by working the fields. The chains in which they were bound were still preserved in my day, hanging up at the temple of Athena Alea. 1.67. In the previous war the Lacedaemonians continually fought unsuccessfully against the Tegeans, but in the time of Croesus and the kingship of Anaxandrides and Ariston in Lacedaemon the Spartans had gained the upper hand. This is how: ,when they kept being defeated by the Tegeans, they sent ambassadors to Delphi to ask which god they should propitiate to prevail against the Tegeans in war. The Pythia responded that they should bring back the bones of Orestes, son of Agamemnon. ,When they were unable to discover Orestes' tomb, they sent once more to the god to ask where he was buried. The Pythia responded in hexameter to the messengers: , quote type="oracle" l met="dact"There is a place Tegea in the smooth plain of Arcadia, /l lWhere two winds blow under strong compulsion. /l lBlow lies upon blow, woe upon woe. /l lThere the life-giving earth covers the son of Agamemnon. /l lBring him back, and you shall be lord of Tegea . /l /quote ,When the Lacedaemonians heard this, they were no closer to discovery, though they looked everywhere. Finally it was found by Lichas, who was one of the Spartans who are called “doers of good deeds.”. These men are those citizens who retire from the knights, the five oldest each year. They have to spend the year in which they retire from the knights being sent here and there by the Spartan state, never resting in their efforts. 1.68. It was Lichas, one of these men, who found the tomb in Tegea by a combination of luck and skill. At that time there was free access to Tegea, so he went into a blacksmith's shop and watched iron being forged, standing there in amazement at what he saw done. ,The smith perceived that he was amazed, so he stopped what he was doing and said, “My Laconian guest, if you had seen what I saw, then you would really be amazed, since you marvel so at ironworking. ,I wanted to dig a well in the courtyard here, and in my digging I hit upon a coffin twelve feet long. I could not believe that there had ever been men taller than now, so I opened it and saw that the corpse was just as long as the coffin. I measured it and then reburied it.” So the smith told what he had seen, and Lichas thought about what was said and reckoned that this was Orestes, according to the oracle. ,In the smith's two bellows he found the winds, hammer and anvil were blow upon blow, and the forging of iron was woe upon woe, since he figured that iron was discovered as an evil for the human race. ,After reasoning this out, he went back to Sparta and told the Lacedaemonians everything. They made a pretence of bringing a charge against him and banishing him. Coming to Tegea, he explained his misfortune to the smith and tried to rent the courtyard, but the smith did not want to lease it. ,Finally he persuaded him and set up residence there. He dug up the grave and collected the bones, then hurried off to Sparta with them. Ever since then the Spartans were far superior to the Tegeans whenever they met each other in battle. By the time of Croesus' inquiry, the Spartans had subdued most of the Peloponnese . 1.143. Among these Ionians, the Milesians were safe from the danger (for they had made a treaty), and the islanders among them had nothing to fear: for the Phoenicians were not yet subjects of the Persians, nor were the Persians themselves mariners. ,But those of Asia were cut off from the rest of the Ionians only in the way that I shall show. The whole Hellenic stock was then small, and the last of all its branches and the least regarded was the Ionian; for it had no considerable city except Athens . ,Now the Athenians and the rest would not be called Ionians, but spurned the name; even now the greater number of them seem to me to be ashamed of it; but the twelve cities aforesaid gloried in this name, and founded a holy place for themselves which they called the Panionion, and agreed among themselves to allow no other Ionians to use it (nor in fact did any except the men of Smyrna ask to be admitted); 1.166. And when they came to Cyrnus they lived there for five years as one community with those who had come first, and they founded temples there. But they harassed and plundered all their neighbors, as a result of which the Tyrrhenians and Carthaginians made common cause against them, and sailed to attack them with sixty ships each. ,The Phocaeans also manned their ships, sixty in number, and met the enemy in the sea called Sardonian. They engaged and the Phocaeans won, yet it was only a kind of Cadmean victory; for they lost forty of their ships, and the twenty that remained were useless, their rams twisted awry. ,Then sailing to Alalia they took their children and women and all of their possessions that their ships could hold on board, and leaving Cyrnus they sailed to Rhegium . 1.167. As for the crews of the disabled ships, the Carthaginians and Tyrrhenians drew lots for them, and of the Tyrrhenians the Agyllaioi were allotted by far the majority and these they led out and stoned to death. But afterwards, everything from Agylla that passed the place where the stoned Phocaeans lay, whether sheep or beasts of burden or men, became distorted and crippled and palsied. ,The Agyllaeans sent to Delphi, wanting to mend their offense; and the Pythian priestess told them to do what the people of Agylla do to this day: for they pay great honors to the Phocaeans, with religious rites and games and horse-races. ,Such was the end of this part of the Phocaeans. Those of them who fled to Rhegium set out from there and gained possession of that city in the Oenotrian country which is now called Hyele ; ,they founded this because they learned from a man of Posidonia that the Cyrnus whose establishment the Pythian priestess ordained was the hero, and not the island. 1.168. Thus, then, it went with the Ionian Phocaea. The Teians did the same things as the Phocaeans: when Harpagus had taken their walled city by building an earthwork, they all embarked aboard ship and sailed away for Thrace . There they founded a city, Abdera, which before this had been founded by Timesius of Clazomenae ; yet he got no profit of it, but was driven out by the Thracians. This Timesius is now honored as a hero by the Teians of Abdera . 2.2. Now before Psammetichus became king of Egypt, the Egyptians believed that they were the oldest people on earth. But ever since Psammetichus became king and wished to find out which people were the oldest, they have believed that the Phrygians were older than they, and they than everybody else. ,Psammetichus, when he was in no way able to learn by inquiry which people had first come into being, devised a plan by which he took two newborn children of the common people and gave them to a shepherd to bring up among his flocks. He gave instructions that no one was to speak a word in their hearing; they were to stay by themselves in a lonely hut, and in due time the shepherd was to bring goats and give the children their milk and do everything else necessary. ,Psammetichus did this, and gave these instructions, because he wanted to hear what speech would first come from the children, when they were past the age of indistinct babbling. And he had his wish; for one day, when the shepherd had done as he was told for two years, both children ran to him stretching out their hands and calling “Bekos!” as he opened the door and entered. ,When he first heard this, he kept quiet about it; but when, coming often and paying careful attention, he kept hearing this same word, he told his master at last and brought the children into the king's presence as required. Psammetichus then heard them himself, and asked to what language the word “Bekos” belonged; he found it to be a Phrygian word, signifying bread. ,Reasoning from this, the Egyptians acknowledged that the Phrygians were older than they. This is the story which I heard from the priests of Hephaestus' temple at Memphis ; the Greeks say among many foolish things that Psammetichus had the children reared by women whose tongues he had cut out. 2.3. Besides this story of the rearing of the children, I also heard other things at Memphis in conversation with the priests of Hephaestus; and I visited Thebes and Heliopolis, too, for this very purpose, because I wished to know if the people of those places would tell me the same story as the priests at Memphis ; for the people of Heliopolis are said to be the most learned of the Egyptians. ,Now, such stories as I heard about the gods I am not ready to relate, except their names, for I believe that all men are equally knowledgeable about them; and I shall say about them what I am constrained to say by the course of my history. 2.4. But as to human affairs, this was the account in which they all agreed: the Egyptians, they said, were the first men who reckoned by years and made the year consist of twelve divisions of the seasons. They discovered this from the stars (so they said). And their reckoning is, to my mind, a juster one than that of the Greeks; for the Greeks add an intercalary month every other year, so that the seasons agree; but the Egyptians, reckoning thirty days to each of the twelve months, add five days in every year over and above the total, and thus the completed circle of seasons is made to agree with the calendar. ,Furthermore, the Egyptians (they said) first used the names of twelve gods (which the Greeks afterwards borrowed from them); and it was they who first assigned to the several gods their altars and images and temples, and first carved figures on stone. Most of this they showed me in fact to be the case. The first human king of Egypt, they said, was Min. ,In his time all of Egypt except the Thebaic district was a marsh: all the country that we now see was then covered by water, north of lake Moeris, which is seven days' journey up the river from the sea. 2.5. And I think that their account of the country was true. For even if a man has not heard it before, he can readily see, if he has sense, that that Egypt to which the Greeks sail is land deposited for the Egyptians, the river's gift—not only the lower country, but even the land as far as three days' voyage above the lake, which is of the same nature as the other, although the priests did not say this, too. ,For this is the nature of the land of Egypt : in the first place, when you approach it from the sea and are still a day's sail from land, if you let down a sounding line you will bring up mud from a depth of eleven fathoms. This shows that the deposit from the land reaches this far. 2.44. Moreover, wishing to get clear information about this matter where it was possible so to do, I took ship for Tyre in Phoenicia, where I had learned by inquiry that there was a holy temple of Heracles. ,There I saw it, richly equipped with many other offerings, besides two pillars, one of refined gold, one of emerald: a great pillar that shone at night; and in conversation with the priests, I asked how long it was since their temple was built. ,I found that their account did not tally with the belief of the Greeks, either; for they said that the temple of the god was founded when Tyre first became a city, and that was two thousand three hundred years ago. At Tyre I saw yet another temple of the so-called Thasian Heracles. ,Then I went to Thasos, too, where I found a temple of Heracles built by the Phoenicians, who made a settlement there when they voyaged in search of Europe ; now they did so as much as five generations before the birth of Heracles the son of Amphitryon in Hellas . ,Therefore, what I have discovered by inquiry plainly shows that Heracles is an ancient god. And furthermore, those Greeks, I think, are most in the right, who have established and practise two worships of Heracles, sacrificing to one Heracles as to an immortal, and calling him the Olympian, but to the other bringing offerings as to a dead hero. 2.48. To Dionysus, on the evening of his festival, everyone offers a piglet which he kills before his door and then gives to the swineherd who has sold it, for him to take away. ,The rest of the festival of Dionysus is observed by the Egyptians much as it is by the Greeks, except for the dances; but in place of the phallus, they have invented the use of puppets two feet high moved by strings, the male member nodding and nearly as big as the rest of the body, which are carried about the villages by women; a flute-player goes ahead, the women follow behind singing of Dionysus. ,Why the male member is so large and is the only part of the body that moves, there is a sacred legend that explains. 2.52. Formerly, in all their sacrifices, the Pelasgians called upon gods without giving name or appellation to any (I know this, because I was told at Dodona ); for as yet they had not heard of such. They called them gods from the fact that, besides setting everything in order, they maintained all the dispositions. ,Then, after a long while, first they learned the names of the rest of the gods, which came to them from Egypt, and, much later, the name of Dionysus; and presently they asked the oracle at Dodona about the names; for this place of divination, held to be the most ancient in Hellas, was at that time the only one. ,When the Pelasgians, then, asked at Dodona whether they should adopt the names that had come from foreign parts, the oracle told them to use the names. From that time onwards they used the names of the gods in their sacrifices; and the Greeks received these later from the Pelasgians. 2.53. But whence each of the gods came to be, or whether all had always been, and how they appeared in form, they did not know until yesterday or the day before, so to speak; ,for I suppose Hesiod and Homer flourished not more than four hundred years earlier than I; and these are the ones who taught the Greeks the descent of the gods, and gave the gods their names, and determined their spheres and functions, and described their outward forms. ,But the poets who are said to have been earlier than these men were, in my opinion, later. The earlier part of all this is what the priestesses of Dodona tell; the later, that which concerns Hesiod and Homer, is what I myself say. 2.56. But my own belief about it is this. If the Phoenicians did in fact carry away the sacred women and sell one in Libya and one in Hellas, then, in my opinion, the place where this woman was sold in what is now Hellas, but was formerly called Pelasgia, was Thesprotia ; ,and then, being a slave there, she established a shrine of Zeus under an oak that was growing there; for it was reasonable that, as she had been a handmaid of the temple of Zeus at Thebes , she would remember that temple in the land to which she had come. ,After this, as soon as she understood the Greek language, she taught divination; and she said that her sister had been sold in Libya by the same Phoenicians who sold her. 2.57. I expect that these women were called “doves” by the people of Dodona because they spoke a strange language, and the people thought it like the cries of birds; ,then the woman spoke what they could understand, and that is why they say that the dove uttered human speech; as long as she spoke in a foreign tongue, they thought her voice was like the voice of a bird. For how could a dove utter the speech of men? The tale that the dove was black signifies that the woman was Egyptian . ,The fashions of divination at Thebes of Egypt and at Dodona are like one another; moreover, the practice of divining from the sacrificed victim has also come from Egypt . 2.123. These Egyptian stories are for the benefit of whoever believes such tales: my rule in this history is that I record what is said by all as I have heard it. The Egyptians say that Demeter and Dionysus are the rulers of the lower world. ,The Egyptians were the first who maintained the following doctrine, too, that the human soul is immortal, and at the death of the body enters into some other living thing then coming to birth; and after passing through all creatures of land, sea, and air, it enters once more into a human body at birth, a cycle which it completes in three thousand years. ,There are Greeks who have used this doctrine, some earlier and some later, as if it were their own; I know their names, but do not record them. 2.145. Among the Greeks, Heracles, Dionysus, and Pan are held to be the youngest of the gods. But in Egypt, Pan is the most ancient of these and is one of the eight gods who are said to be the earliest of all; Heracles belongs to the second dynasty (that of the so-called twelve gods); and Dionysus to the third, which came after the twelve. ,How many years there were between Heracles and the reign of Amasis, I have already shown; Pan is said to be earlier still; the years between Dionysus and Amasis are the fewest, and they are reckoned by the Egyptians at fifteen thousand. ,The Egyptians claim to be sure of all this, since they have reckoned the years and chronicled them in writing. ,Now the Dionysus who was called the son of Semele, daughter of Cadmus, was about sixteen hundred years before my time, and Heracles son of Alcmene about nine hundred years; and Pan the son of Penelope (for according to the Greeks Penelope and Hermes were the parents of Pan) was about eight hundred years before me, and thus of a later date than the Trojan war. 2.146. With regard to these two, Pan and Dionysus, one may follow whatever story one thinks most credible; but I give my own opinion concerning them here. Had Dionysus son of Semele and Pan son of Penelope appeared in Hellas and lived there to old age, like Heracles the son of Amphitryon, it might have been said that they too (like Heracles) were but men, named after the older Pan and Dionysus, the gods of antiquity; ,but as it is, the Greek story has it that no sooner was Dionysus born than Zeus sewed him up in his thigh and carried him away to Nysa in Ethiopia beyond Egypt ; and as for Pan, the Greeks do not know what became of him after his birth. It is therefore plain to me that the Greeks learned the names of these two gods later than the names of all the others, and trace the birth of both to the time when they gained the knowledge. 4.15. Such is the tale told in these two towns. But this, I know, happened to the Metapontines in Italy, two hundred and forty years after the second disappearance of Aristeas, as reckoning made at Proconnesus and Metapontum shows me: ,Aristeas, so the Metapontines say, appeared in their country and told them to set up an altar to Apollo, and set beside it a statue bearing the name of Aristeas the Proconnesian; for, he said, Apollo had come to their country alone of all Italian lands, and he—the man who was now Aristeas, but then when he followed the god had been a crow—had come with him. ,After saying this, he vanished. The Metapontines, so they say, sent to Delphi and asked the god what the vision of the man could mean; and the Pythian priestess told them to obey the vision, saying that their fortune would be better. ,They did as instructed. And now there stands beside the image of Apollo a statue bearing the name of Aristeas; a grove of bay-trees surrounds it; the image is set in the marketplace. Let it suffice that I have said this much about Aristeas. 4.76. But as regards foreign customs, the Scythians (like others) very much shun practising those of any other country, and particularly of Hellas, as was proved in the case of Anacharsis and also of Scyles. ,For when Anacharsis was coming back to the Scythian country after having seen much of the world in his travels and given many examples of his wisdom, he sailed through the Hellespont and put in at Cyzicus; ,where, finding the Cyzicenes celebrating the feast of the Mother of the Gods with great ceremony, he vowed to this same Mother that if he returned to his own country safe and sound he would sacrifice to her as he saw the Cyzicenes doing, and establish a nightly rite of worship. ,So when he came to Scythia, he hid himself in the country called Woodland (which is beside the Race of Achilles, and is all overgrown with every kind of timber); hidden there, Anacharsis celebrated the goddess' ritual with exactness, carrying a small drum and hanging images about himself. ,Then some Scythian saw him doing this and told the king, Saulius; who, coming to the place himself and seeing Anacharsis performing these rites, shot an arrow at him and killed him. And now the Scythians, if they are asked about Anacharsis, say they have no knowledge of him; this is because he left his country for Hellas and followed the customs of strangers. ,But according to what I heard from Tymnes, the deputy for Ariapithes, Anacharsis was an uncle of Idanthyrsus king of Scythia, and he was the son of Gnurus, son of Lycus, son of Spargapithes. Now if Anacharsis was truly of this family, then let him know he was slain by his own brother; for Idanthyrsus was the son of Saulius, and it was Saulius who killed Anacharsis. 4.155. There Polymnestus, a notable Theraean, took Phronime and made her his concubine. In time, a son of weak and stammering speech was born to him, to whom he gave the name Battus, as the Theraeans and Cyrenaeans say; but in my opinion the boy was given some other name, ,and changed it to Battus on his coming to Libya, taking this new name because of the oracle given to him at Delphi and the honorable office which he received. For the Libyan word for king is “Battus,” and this (I believe) is why the Pythian priestess called him so in her prophecy, using a Libyan name because she knew that he was to be king in Libya. ,For when he grew to adulthood, he went to Delphi to inquire about his voice; and the priestess in answer gave him this: quote type="oracle" l met="dact"“Battus, you have come for a voice; but Lord Phoebus Apollo /l lSends you to found a city in Libya, nurse of sheep,” /l /quote just as if she addressed him using the Greek word for “king,” “Basileus, you have come for a voice,” et cetera. ,But he answered: “Lord, I came to you to ask about my speech; but you talk of other matters, things impossible to do; you tell me to plant a colony in Libya; where shall I get the power or strength of hand for it?” Battus spoke thus, but as the god would not give him another oracle and kept answering as before, he departed while the priestess was still speaking, and went away to Thera. 5.45. This is their tale, and both cities have proof of the truth of what they say. The Sybarites point to a precinct and a temple beside the dry bed of the Crathis, which, they say, Dorieus founded in honor of Athena of Crathis after he had helped to take their city. and find their strongest proof in his death. He perished through doing more than the oracle bade him, for if he had accomplished no more than that which he set out to do, he would have taken and held the Erycine region without bringing about the death of himself and his army. ,The Crotoniats, on the other hand, show many plots of land which had been set apart for and given to Callias of Elis and on which Callias' posterity dwelt even to my time but show no gift to Dorieus and his descendants. They claim, however,that if Dorieus had aided them in their war with Sybaris, he would have received a reward many times greater than what was given to Callias. This, then is the evidence brought forward by each party, and each may side with that which seems to him to deserve more credence. 5.47. Philippus of Croton, son of Butacides, was among those who followed Dorieus and were slain with him. He had been betrothed to the daughter of Telys of Sybaris but was banished from Croton. Cheated out of his marriage, he sailed away to Cyrene, from where he set forth and followed Dorieus, bringing his own trireme and covering all expenses for his men. This Philippus was a victor at Olympia and the fairest Greek of his day. ,For his physical beauty he received from the Egestans honors accorded to no one else. They built a hero's shrine by his grave and offer him sacrifices of propitiation. 5.52. Now the nature of this road is as I will show. All along it are the king's road stations and very good resting places, and the whole of it passes through country that is inhabited and safe. Its course through Lydia and Phrygia is of the length of twenty stages, and ninety-four and a half parasangs. ,Next after Phrygia it comes to the river Halys, where there is both a defile which must be passed before the river can be crossed and a great fortress to guard it. After the passage into Cappadocia, the road in that land as far as the borders of Cilicia is of twenty-eight stages and one hundred and four parasangs. On this frontier you must ride through two defiles and pass two fortresses. ,Ride past these, and you will have a journey through Cilica of three stages and fifteen and a half parasangs. The boundary of Cilicia and Armenia is a navigable river, the name of which is the Euphrates. In Armenia there are fifteen resting-stages and fifty-six and a half parasangs. Here too there is a fortress. From Armenia the road enters the Matienian land, in which there are thirty-four stages and one hundred and thirty-seven parasangs. ,Through this land flow four navigable rivers which must be passed by ferries, first the Tigris, then a second and a third of the same name, yet not the same stream nor flowing from the same source. The first-mentioned of them flows from the Armenians and the second from the Matieni. ,The fourth river is called Gyndes, that Gyndes which Cyrus parted once into three hundred and sixty channels. ,When this country is passed, the road is in the Cissian land, where there are eleven stages and forty-two and a half parasangs, as far as yet another navigable river, the Choaspes, on the banks of which stands the city of Susa. 5.54. Aristagoras of Miletus accordingly spoke the truth to Cleomenes the Lacedaemonian when he said that the journey inland was three months long. If anyone should desire a more exact measurement, I will give him that too, for the journey from Ephesus to Sardis must be added to the rest. ,So, then, from the Greek sea to Susa, which is the city called Memnonian, it is a journey of fourteen thousand and forty stages, for there are five hundred and forty furlongs from Ephesus to Sardis. The three months' journey is accordingly made longer by three days. 5.65. The Lacedaemonians would never have taken the Pisistratid stronghold. First of all they had no intention to blockade it, and secondly the Pisistratidae were well furnished with food and drink. The Lacedaemonians would only have besieged the place for a few days and then returned to Sparta. As it was, however, there was a turn of fortune which harmed the one party and helped the other, for the sons of the Pisistratid family were taken as they were being secretly carried out of the country. ,When this happened, all their plans were confounded, and they agreed to depart from Attica within five days on the terms prescribed to them by the Athenians in return for the recovery of their children. ,Afterwards they departed to Sigeum on the Scamander. They had ruled the Athenians for thirty-six years and were in lineage of the house of Pylos and Neleus, born of the same ancestors as the families of Codrus and Melanthus, who had formerly come from foreign parts to be kings of Athens. ,It was for this reason that Hippocrates gave his son the name Pisistratus as a remembrance, calling him after Pisistratus the son of Nestor. ,This is the way, then, that the Athenians got rid of their tyrants. As regards all the noteworthy things which they did or endured after they were freed and before Ionia revolted from Darius and Aristagoras of Miletus came to Athens to ask help of its people, of these I will first give an account. 5.66. Athens, which had been great before, now grew even greater when her tyrants had been removed. The two principal holders of power were Cleisthenes an Alcmaeonid, who was reputed to have bribed the Pythian priestess, and Isagoras son of Tisandrus, a man of a notable house but his lineage I cannot say. His kinsfolk, at any rate, sacrifice to Zeus of Caria. ,These men with their factions fell to contending for power, Cleisthenes was getting the worst of it in this dispute and took the commons into his party. Presently he divided the Athenians into ten tribes instead of four as formerly. He called none after the names of the sons of Ion—Geleon, Aegicores, Argades, and Hoples—but invented for them names taken from other heroes, all native to the country except Aias. Him he added despite the fact that he was a stranger because he was a neighbor and an ally. 5.79. This, then, is the course of action which the Athenians took, and the Thebans, desiring vengeance on Athens, afterwards appealed to Delphi for advice. The Pythian priestess said that the Thebans themselves would not be able to obtain the vengeance they wanted and that they should lay the matter before the “many-voiced” and entreat their “nearest.” ,Upon the return of the envoys, an assembly was called and the oracle put before it. When the Thebans heard that they must entreat their “nearest,” they said, “If this is so, our nearest neighbors are the men of Tanagra and Coronea and Thespiae. These are always our comrades in battle and zealously wage our wars. What need, then, is there to entreat them? Perhaps this is the meaning of the oracle.” 5.80. They reasoned in this way, till at last one understood, and said: “I think that I perceive what the oracle is trying to tell us. Thebe and Aegina, it is said, were daughters of Asopus and sisters. The god's answer is, I think, that we should ask the Aeginetans to be our avengers.” ,Seeing that there seemed to be no better opinion before them than this, they sent straightaway to entreat the Aeginetans and invite their aid, since this was the oracle's bidding, and the Aeginetans were their nearest. These replied to their demand that they were sending the Sons of Aeacus in aid. 5.81. The Thebans took the field on the strength of their alliance with that family but were soundly beaten by the Athenians. Thereupon they sent a second message to Aegina, giving back the sons of Aeacus and asking for some men instead. ,The Aeginetans, who were enjoying great prosperity and remembered their old feud with Athens, accordingly made war on the Athenians at the entreaty of the Thebans without sending a herald. ,While the Athenians were busy with the Boeotians, they descended on Attica in ships of war, and ravaged Phaleron and many other seaboard townships. By so doing they dealt the Athenians a very shrewd blow. 5.97. It was when the Athenians had made their decision and were already on bad terms with Persia, that Aristagoras the Milesian, driven from Sparta by Cleomenes the Lacedaemonian, came to Athens, since that city was more powerful than any of the rest. Coming before the people, Aristagoras spoke to the same effect as at Sparta, of the good things of Asia, and how the Persians carried neither shield nor spear in war and could easily be overcome. ,This he said adding that the Milesians were settlers from Athens, whom it was only right to save seeing that they themselves were a very powerful people. There was nothing which he did not promise in the earnestness of his entreaty, till at last he prevailed upon them. It seems, then, that it is easier to deceive many than one, for he could not deceive Cleomenes of Lacedaemon, one single man, but thirty thousand Athenians he could. ,The Athenians, now persuaded, voted to send twenty ships to aid the Ionians, appointing for their admiral Melanthius, a citizen of Athens who had an unblemished reputation. These ships were the beginning of troubles for both Greeks and foreigners. 5.114. As for Onesilus, the Amathusians cut off his head and brought it to Amathus, where they hung it above their gates, because he had besieged their city. When this head became hollow, a swarm of bees entered it and filled it with their honeycomb. ,In consequence of this the Amathusians, who had inquired concerning the matter, received an oracle which stated that they should take the head down and bury it, and offer yearly sacrifice to Onesilus as to a hero. If they did this, things would go better for them. 6.21. Now when the Milesians suffered all this at the hands of the Persians, the Sybarites (who had lost their city and dwelt in Laus and Scidrus) did not give them equal return for what they had done. When Sybaris was taken by the Crotoniates, all the people of Miletus, young and old, shaved their heads and made great public lamentation; no cities which we know were ever so closely joined in friendship as these. ,The Athenians acted very differently. The Athenians made clear their deep grief for the taking of Miletus in many ways, but especially in this: when Phrynichus wrote a play entitled “The Fall of Miletus” and produced it, the whole theater fell to weeping; they fined Phrynichus a thousand drachmas for bringing to mind a calamity that affected them so personally, and forbade the performance of that play forever. 6.36. The Pythia also bade him do so. Then Miltiades son of Cypselus, previously an Olympic victor in the four-horse chariot, recruited any Athenian who wanted to take part in the expedition, sailed off with the Dolonci, and took possession of their land. Those who brought him appointed him tyrant. ,His first act was to wall off the isthmus of the Chersonese from the city of Cardia across to Pactye, so that the Apsinthians would not be able to harm them by invading their land. The isthmus is thirty-six stadia across, and to the south of the isthmus the Chersonese is four hundred and twenty stadia in length. 6.37. After Miltiades had pushed away the Apsinthians by walling off the neck of the Chersonese, he made war first on the people of Lampsacus, but the Lampsacenes laid an ambush and took him prisoner. However, Miltiades stood high in the opinion of Croesus the Lydian, and when Croesus heard what had happened, he sent to the Lampsacenes and commanded them to release Miltiades. If they did not do so, he threatened to cut them down like a pine tree. ,The Lampsacenes went astray in their counsels as to what the utterance meant which Croesus had threatened them with, saying he would devastate them like a pine tree, until at last one of the elders understood and said what it was: the pine is the only tree that once cut down never sends out any shoots; it is utterly destroyed. So out of fear of Croesus the Lampsacenes released Miltiades and let him go. 6.38. So he escaped by the intervention of Croesus, but he later died childless and left his rule and possessions to Stesagoras, the son of his half-brother Cimon. Since his death, the people of the Chersonese offer sacrifices to him as their founder in the customary manner, instituting a contest of horse races and gymnastics. No one from Lampsacus is allowed to compete. ,But in the war against the Lampsacenes Stesagoras too met his end and died childless; he was struck on the head with an axe in the town-hall by a man who pretended to be a deserter but in truth was an enemy and a man of violence. 6.53. The Lacedaemonians are the only Greeks who tell this story. But in what I write I follow the Greek report, and hold that the Greeks correctly recount these kings of the Dorians as far back as Perseus son of Danae—they make no mention of the god —and prove these kings to be Greek; for by that time they had come to be classified as Greeks. ,I said as far back as Perseus, and I took the matter no further than that, because no one is named as the mortal father of Perseus, as Amphitryon is named father of Heracles. So I used correct reasoning when I said that the Greek record is correct as far back as Perseus; farther back than that, if the king's ancestors in each generation, from Danae daughter of Acrisius upward, be reckoned, then the leaders of the Dorians will be shown to be true-born Egyptians. 6.54. Thus have I traced their lineage according to the Greek story; but the Persian tale is that Perseus himself was an Assyrian, and became a Greek, which his forebears had not been; the Persians say that the ancestors of Acrisius had no bond of kinship with Perseus, and they indeed were, as the Greeks say, Egyptians. 6.55. Enough of these matters. Why and for what achievements these men, being Egyptian, won the kingship of the Dorians has been told by others, so I will let it go, and will make mention of matters which others have not touched. 6.81. Then Cleomenes sent most of his army back to Sparta, while he himself took a thousand of the best warriors and went to the temple of Hera to sacrifice. When he wished to sacrifice at the altar the priest forbade him, saying that it was not holy for a stranger to sacrifice there. Cleomenes ordered the helots to carry the priest away from the altar and whip him, and he performed the sacrifice. After doing this, he returned to Sparta. 7.43. When the army had come to the river Scamander, which was the first river after the beginning of their march from Sardis that fell short of their needs and was not sufficient for the army and the cattle to drink—arriving at this river, Xerxes ascended to the citadel of Priam, having a desire to see it. ,After he saw it and asked about everything there, he sacrificed a thousand cattle to Athena of Ilium, and the Magi offered libations to the heroes. After they did this, a panic fell upon the camp in the night. When it was day they journeyed on from there, keeping on their left the cities of Rhoetium and Ophryneum and Dardanus, which borders Abydos, and on their right the Teucrian Gergithae. 7.94. The Ionians furnished a hundred ships; their equipment was like the Greek. These Ionians, as long as they were in the Peloponnese, dwelt in what is now called Achaia, and before Danaus and Xuthus came to the Peloponnese, as the Greeks say, they were called Aegialian Pelasgians. They were named Ionians after Ion the son of Xuthus. 7.117. While Xerxes was at Acanthus, it happened that Artachaees, overseer of the digging of the canal, died of an illness. He was high in Xerxes' favor, an Achaemenid by lineage, and the tallest man in Persia, lacking four finger-breadths of five royal cubits in stature, and his voice was the loudest on earth. For this reason Xerxes mourned him greatly and gave him a funeral and burial of great pomp, and the whole army poured libations on his tomb. ,The Acanthians hold Artachaees a hero, and sacrifice to him, calling upon his name. This they do at the command of an oracle. 7.139.1. Here I am forced to declare an opinion which will be displeasing to most, but I will not refrain from saying what seems to me to be true. 7.171. In relating the matter of the Rhegians and Tarentines, however, I digress from the main thread of my history. The Praesians say that when Crete was left desolate, it was populated especially by Greeks, among other peoples. Then, in the third generation after Minos, the events surrounding the Trojan War, in which the Cretans bore themselves as bravely as any in the cause of Menelaus, took place. ,After this, when they returned from Troy, they and their flocks and herds were afflicted by famine and pestilence, until Crete was once more left desolate. Then came a third influx of Cretans, and it is they who, with those that were left, now dwell there. It was this that the priestess bade them remember, and so prevented them from aiding the Greeks as they were previously inclined. 8.83. When they found the words of the Tenians worthy of belief, the Hellenes prepared to fight at sea. As dawn glimmered, they held an assembly of the fighting men, and Themistocles gave the best address among the others. His entire speech involved comparing the better and lesser elements in human nature and the human condition. ,He concluded his speech by advising them to choose the better of these, then gave the command to mount the ships. Just as they embarked, the trireme which had gone after the sons of Aeacus arrived from Aegina. 9.97. With this design they put to sea. So when they came past the temple of the Goddesses at Mykale to the Gaeson and Scolopois, where there is a temple of Eleusinian Demeter (which was built by Philistus son of Pasicles when he went with Nileus son of Codrus to the founding of Miletus), they beached their ships and fenced them round with stones and the trunks of orchard trees which they cut down; they drove in stakes around the fence and prepared for siege or victory, making ready, after consideration, for either event.
12. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

13. Sophocles, Women of Trachis, 211-214, 210 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

210. maidens, lift up a paean, cry aloud to his sister, Ortygian Artemis, huntress of deer, goddess with torch in each hand
14. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 3.13, 3.29-3.34, 3.104, 6.56-6.58 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

15. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 11.26.7, 11.65 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

11.26.7.  After this incident Gelon built noteworthy temples to Demeter and Corê out of the spoils, and making a golden tripod of sixteen talents value he set it up in the sacred precinct at Delphi as a thank-offering to Apollo. At a later time he purposed to build a temple to Demeter at Aetna, since she had none in that place; but he did not complete it, his life having been cut short by fate. 11.65. 1.  The following year Theageneides was archon in Athens, and in Rome the consuls elected were Lucius Aemilius Mamercus and Lucius Julius Iulus, and the Seventy-eight Olympiad was celebrated, that in which Parmenides of Posidonia won the "stadion." In this year a war broke out between the Argives and Mycenaeans for the following reasons.,2.  The Mycenaeans, because of the ancient prestige of their country, would not be subservient to the Argives as the other cities of Argolis were, but they maintained an independent position and would take no orders from the Argives; and they kept disputing with them also over the shrine of Hera and claiming that they had the right to administer the Nemean Games by themselves. Furthermore, when the Argives voted not to join with the Lacedaemonians in the battle at Thermopylae unless they were given a share in the supreme command, the Mycenaeans were the only people of Argolis who fought at the side of the Lacedaemonians.,3.  In a word, the Argives were suspicious of the Mycenaeans, fearing lest, if they got any stronger, they might, on the strength of the ancient prestige of Mycenae, dispute the right of Argos to the leadership. Such, then, were the reasons for the bad blood between them; and from of old the Argives had ever been eager to exalt their city, and now they thought they had a favourable opportunity, seeing that the Lacedaemonians had been weakened and were unable to come to the aid of the Mycenaeans. Therefore the Argives, gathering a strong army from both Argos and the cities of their allies, marched against the Mycenaeans, and after defeating them in battle and shutting them within their walls, they laid siege to the city.,4.  The Mycenaeans for a time resisted the besiegers with vigour, but afterwards, since they were being worsted in the fighting and the Lacedaemonians could bring them no aid because of their own wars and the disaster that had overtaken them in the earthquakes, and since there were no other allies, they were taken by storm through lack of support from outside.,5.  The Argives sold the Mycenaeans into slavery, dedicated a tenth part of them to the god, and razed Mycenae. So this city, which in ancient times had enjoyed such felicity, possessing great men and having to its credit memorable achievements, met with such an end, and has remained uninhabited down to our own times. These, then, were the events of this year.
16. Dionysius of Halycarnassus, The Arrangement of Words, 4.7 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

17. Dionysius of Halycarnassus, The Arrangement of Words, 4.7 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

18. Dionysius of Halycarnassus, Letter To Pompeius Geminus, 3.12 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

19. Plutarch, Oracles At Delphi No Longer Given In Verse, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Aelian, Varia Historia, 9.25 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

21. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 2.9.6, 2.16.6, 2.22.8-2.22.9, 10.7.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.9.6. After the hero-shrine of Aratus is an altar to Isthmian Poseidon, and also a Zeus Meilichius (Gracious) and an Artemis named Patroa (Paternal), both of them very inartistic works. The Meilichius is like a pyramid, the Artemis like a pillar. Here too stand their council-chamber and a portico called Cleisthenean from the name of him who built it. It was built from spoils by Cleisthenes, who helped the Amphictyons in the war at Cirrha . c. 590 B.C. In the market-place under the open sky is a bronze Zeus, a work of Lysippus, Contemporary of Alexander the Great. and by the side of it a gilded Artemis. 2.16.6. In the ruins of Mycenae is a fountain called Persea; there are also underground chambers of Atreus and his children, in which were stored their treasures. There is the grave of Atreus, along with the graves of such as returned with Agamemnon from Troy, and were murdered by Aegisthus after he had given them a banquet. As for the tomb of Cassandra, it is claimed by the Lacedaemonians who dwell around Amyclae. Agamemnon has his tomb, and so has Eurymedon the charioteer, while another is shared by Teledamus and Pelops, twin sons, they say, of Cassandra 2.22.8. As you go along a straight road to a gymnasium, called Cylarabis after the son of Sthenelus, you come to the grave of Licymnius, the son of Electryon, who, Homer says, was killed by Tleptolemus, the son of Heracles for which homicide Tleptolemus was banished from Argos . On turning a little aside from the road to Cylarabis and to the gate there, you come to the tomb of Sacadas, who was the first to play at Delphi the Pythian flute-tune; 2.22.9. the hostility of Apollo to flute-players, which had lasted ever since the rivalry of Marsyas the Silenus, is supposed to have stayed because of this Sacadas. In the gymnasium of Cylarabes is an Athena called Pania; they show also the graves of Sthenelus and of Cylarabes himself. Not far from the gymnasium has been built a common grave of those Argives who sailed with the Athenians to enslave Syracuse and Sicily . 10.7.4. In the third year of the forty-eighth Olympiad, 586 B.C at which Glaucias of Crotona was victorious, the Amphictyons held contests for harping as from the beginning, but added competitions for flute-playing and for singing to the flute. The conquerors proclaimed were Melampus, a Cephallenian, for harping, and Echembrotus, an Arcadian, for singing to the flute, with Sacadas of Argos for flute-playing. This same Sacadas won victories at the next two Pythian festivals.
22. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 1.89 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.89. 6. CLEOBULUSCleobulus, the son of Euagoras, was born at Lindus, but according to Duris he was a Carian. Some say that he traced his descent back to Heracles, that he was distinguished for strength and beauty, and was acquainted with Egyptian philosophy. He had a daughter Cleobuline, who composed riddles in hexameters; she is mentioned by Cratinus, who gives one of his plays her name, in the plural form Cleobulinae. He is also said to have rebuilt the temple of Athena which was founded by Danaus.He was the author of songs and riddles, making some 3000 lines in all.The inscription on the tomb of Midas is said by some to be his:I am a maiden of bronze and I rest upon Midas's tomb. So long as water shall flow and tall trees grow, and the sun shall rise and shine
23. Demosthenes, Orations, 21.51, 43.66

24. Strabo, Geography, 8.6.10

8.6.10. After the descendants of Danaus succeeded to the reign in Argos, and the Amythaonides, who were emigrants from Pisatis and Triphylia, became associated with these, one should not be surprised if, being kindred, they at first so divided the country into two kingdoms that the two cities in them which held the hegemony were designated as the capitals, though situated near one another, at a distance of less than fifty stadia, I mean Argos and Mycenae, and that the Heraion near Mycenae was a sanctuary common to both. In this sanctuary are the images made by Polycleitus, in execution the most beautiful in the world, but in costliness and size inferior to those by Pheidias. Now at the outset Argos was the more powerful, but later Mycenae waxed more powerful on account of the removal thereto of the Pelopidae; for, when everything fell to the sons of Atreus, Agamemnon, being the elder, assumed the supreme power, and by a combination of good fortune and valor acquired much of the country in addition to the possessions he already had; and indeed he also added Laconia to the territory of Mycenae. Now Menelaus came into possession of Laconia, but Agamemnon received Mycenae and the regions as far as Corinth and Sikyon and the country which at that time was called the country of the Ionians and Aegialians but later the country of the Achaeans. But after the Trojan times, when the empire of Agememnon had been broken up, it came to pass that Mycenae was reduced, and particularly after the return of the Heracleidae; for when these had taken possession of the Peloponnesus they expelled its former masters, so that those who held Argos also held Mycenae as a component part of one whole. But in later times Mycenae was razed to the ground by the Argives, so that today not even a trace of the city of the Mycenaeans is to be found. And since Mycenae has suffered such a fate, one should not be surprised if also some of the cities which are catalogued as subject to Argos have now disappeared. Now the Catalogue contains the following: And those who held Argos, and Tiryns of the great walls, and Hermione and Asine that occupy a deep gulf, and Troezen and Eiones and vine-clad Epidaurus, and the youths of the Achaeans who held Aigina and Mases. But of the cities just named I have already discussed Argos, and now I must discuss the others.

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abderitae Mikalson (2003) 176
acanthians Mikalson (2003) 176
adrastos,hero cult Eisenfeld (2022) 160, 161
adrastos,khoroi for Kowalzig (2007) 71, 170
adrastos Eisenfeld (2022) 160, 161; Ekroth (2013) 182, 183
adrastus,hero of sicyon Mikalson (2003) 176, 193
aeacus,hero of aegina Mikalson (2003) 176
aegean sea,floating configuration of islands in Kowalzig (2007) 71, 105, 112
aeschylus,creation of religious space in Kowalzig (2007) 71
aeschylus,delineating worshipping communities Kowalzig (2007) 71
aetiologies Lyons (1997) 24
agorai Gygax (2016) 102
aigina,aiginetans Kowalzig (2007) 71
akte (seaboard of argolid),and argos Kowalzig (2007) 129, 152
akte (seaboard of argolid),dorianization of Kowalzig (2007) 152
akte (seaboard of argolid),long-term cultic network of Kowalzig (2007) 152
akte (seaboard of argolid),maritime links Kowalzig (2007) 152
akte (seaboard of argolid) Kowalzig (2007) 129, 152
alkmene Lyons (1997) 24
altar,altars,of the god of the achelous river Gygax (2016) 102
amathusians Mikalson (2003) 176
amphiaraos Eisenfeld (2022) 160, 161
amphitres of miletus Gygax (2016) 103
amphitryon,amyklai,throne of Kowalzig (2007) 167
amun,god of egypt Mikalson (2003) 193
anacharsis of scythia Mikalson (2003) 193
animal victim,god's portion at sacrifice" Ekroth (2013) 182
animal victim,hero's portion at sacrifice" Ekroth (2013) 182
animal victim,treatment of burning of divinity's portion" Ekroth (2013) 182
anthropology,historical anthropology Gygax (2016) 103
antiochus,n. Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 635
aphrodite,of metapontum Mikalson (2003) 193
apollo Bowie (2021) 395
apollo delios/dalios (delos),apollo delios,spread of Kowalzig (2007) 71
apollo delios/dalios (delos),myth-ritual network of Kowalzig (2007) 71
apollo delios/dalios (delos),songs for Kowalzig (2007) 71
apollo delios/dalios (delos) Kowalzig (2007) 71, 105, 112
apollo pythaieus,at asine,and ethnic integration Kowalzig (2007) 152
apollo pythaieus,at asine,in traditional maritime myth-ritual network Kowalzig (2007) 152
apollo pythaieus,at asine,land of Kowalzig (2007) 170
apollo pythaieus,at asine,myth-ritual nexus of Kowalzig (2007) 170
apollo pythaieus,at asine Kowalzig (2007) 152
apollo pythios (delphi),argive plain Kowalzig (2007) 167, 170
apollo pythios (delphi),argolid Kowalzig (2007) 129, 152, 167, 170
apollo pythios (delphi),competing claims to Kowalzig (2007) 167
apollo pythios (delphi),cultic landscape of Kowalzig (2007) 167
apollo pythios (delphi),dorianization Kowalzig (2007) 152
apollo pythios (delphi),early fifth-century transformation Kowalzig (2007) 129
apollo pythios (delphi),eastern vs. western plain Kowalzig (2007) 167
apollo pythios (delphi),musical traditions of Kowalzig (2007) 129
apollo pythios (delphi),reconfiguration of myths and rituals in song Kowalzig (2007) 170
archinus of argos Gygax (2016) 103
argos,and akte Kowalzig (2007) 152
argos,and argive plain Kowalzig (2007) 167, 170
argos,blending traditions of akhaian and the seven Kowalzig (2007) 170
argos,in nemean 9 Eisenfeld (2022) 161
argos,in seven against thebes Eisenfeld (2022) 161
argos,ionians at Kowalzig (2007) 152
argos,lack of trojan war traditions Kowalzig (2007) 152
argos,ph(r)atrai Kowalzig (2007) 152, 167
argos,reconfiguring myths and rituals of the argive plain Kowalzig (2007) 167, 170
argos,self-dorianization Kowalzig (2007) 129, 152
argos,social integration in the dithyramb Kowalzig (2007) 170
argos,synoikism,democracy,tribal reform Kowalzig (2007) 167
argos,tied to akte in religion Kowalzig (2007) 152
argos Kowalzig (2007) 129, 152, 167, 170
argos (without epithet) Kowalzig (2007) 167
aristeas of proconnesus Mikalson (2003) 193
aristonikos (musician) Kowalzig (2007) 129
aristophanes Kowalzig (2007) 112
aristotle,on tragedy Jouanna (2018) 708
arkhilokhos Kowalzig (2007) 112
artaüctes of persia Mikalson (2003) 176
asia minor (anatolia) Kowalzig (2007) 112
asine Kowalzig (2007) 152
athena salpinx (argos) Kowalzig (2007) 152
athenian empire,and local identities Kowalzig (2007) 105, 112
athenian empire,and thriving local polis-world Kowalzig (2007) 105
athenian empire,as myth-ritual network Kowalzig (2007) 105, 112
athenian empire,as theoric worshipping group Kowalzig (2007) 105, 112
athenian empire,finances Kowalzig (2007) 112
athenian empire,ionian policies Kowalzig (2007) 105, 112
athenian empire Kowalzig (2007) 71, 105, 112
athens,its own theoria to delos Kowalzig (2007) 71
athletic contests,at sikyon Eisenfeld (2022) 160, 161
athletic contests Ekroth (2013) 197
basileis Gygax (2016) 103
big men Gygax (2016) 103
blood rituals Ekroth (2013) 182
boedeker,d. Lyons (1997) 24
booty Gygax (2016) 103
bribery,ionians Kowalzig (2007) 112
catchment area,of cults,constant (re)forging of Kowalzig (2007) 71, 105, 112
catchment area,of cults,migrating Kowalzig (2007) 152
charity Gygax (2016) 103
choregia,and community building Kowalzig (2007) 112, 129, 170
choregia,and local identity Kowalzig (2007) 112
choregia Kowalzig (2007) 71, 105
chorus,khoros,and civic identity Kowalzig (2007) 170
chorus,khoros,and social integration Kowalzig (2007) 170
chorus,khoros,athenian empire as Kowalzig (2007) 112
chorus,khoros,flexible metaphor Kowalzig (2007) 112
chorus,khoros,integral to sacrificial rituals Kowalzig (2007) 71
chorus,khoros,kyklios Kowalzig (2007) 129
chorus,khoros,mocking Kowalzig (2007) 71
chorus,khoros,mystery cult and Kowalzig (2007) 170
chorus,khoros,of islands Kowalzig (2007) 71, 105, 112
chromios of aitna Eisenfeld (2022) 161
cimon of athens Mikalson (2003) 176
citizenship,and religious participation,and mystery cult Kowalzig (2007) 170
cleisthenes of sicyon Gygax (2016) 102; Mikalson (2003) 193
cleobulus of lindus Gygax (2016) 102
community,human Eisenfeld (2022) 160, 161
community,religious,not identical with political Kowalzig (2007) 112
concept,implicit competition in Kowalzig (2007) 71
concept Kowalzig (2007) 71
crisa Gygax (2016) 103
cult,and tombs Lyons (1997) 24
cyrnus,hero of phocaea Mikalson (2003) 176
danaids of egypt Mikalson (2003) 193
dark age Gygax (2016) 103
defending greeks and democracies,democracy,in 5th cent. greece,and the chorus Kowalzig (2007) 170
defending greeks and democracies,vs. syngeneia Kowalzig (2007) 105
demeter,eleusinia of mycale Mikalson (2003) 193
destruction sacrifice Ekroth (2013) 197
dionysius of halicarnassus,imitation of herodotus by Kirkland (2022) 68
dionysius of halicarnassus,narrative style of Kirkland (2022) 68
dionysius of halicarnassus,rhetorical works Kirkland (2022) 68
dionysius of halicarnassus Kirkland (2022) 68
dionysos Eisenfeld (2022) 161
dionysus Gygax (2016) 103
dithyramb,and consolidiation of a citizen body Kowalzig (2007) 170
dithyramb,at argos Kowalzig (2007) 170
egypt and egyptians Mikalson (2003) 176, 193
elite,as aristocrats Gygax (2016) 103
elites,ἔναυλος κιθάρισις Kowalzig (2007) 129
episodes,number of Jouanna (2018) 708
eponymous hero Kowalzig (2007) 152
eriphyle Eisenfeld (2022) 161
ethnic,integration in ritual and cult Kowalzig (2007) 152
ethnic,stereotyping Kowalzig (2007) 112
evidence,problems of Lyons (1997) 24
excellence,human Eisenfeld (2022) 160
exhortation,ix Bowie (2021) 395
festival,at sikyon Eisenfeld (2022) 160
festivals,of adrastus of argos Mikalson (2003) 193
festivals,of magna mater of cyzicus Mikalson (2003) 193
festivals,olympic games Mikalson (2003) 176
festivals,promoted by tyrants Gygax (2016) 102, 103
festivals Gygax (2016) 103
fire,on the altar/sacrificial fire Ekroth (2013) 182
foundation,pythian games at sikyon Eisenfeld (2022) 161
funeral games Ekroth (2013) 197
funerary,song integral to/ context for performance of song Kowalzig (2007) 71
games Ekroth (2013) 182
gelon of gela and syracuse Gygax (2016) 102
giving continuity to a broken history,unifying localities Kowalzig (2007) 152
goats song Jouanna (2018) 708
habicht,c. Lyons (1997) 24
hecatombaea,agon of the Gygax (2016) 103
hekate Ekroth (2013) 182, 183, 197
hephaestus,of egypt Mikalson (2003) 176
heraeum of argos Gygax (2016) 102
hero-cult Kowalzig (2007) 170
hero cult Eisenfeld (2022) 160, 161
herodotus,historian Gygax (2016) 103
herodotus Bowie (2021) 395
herodotus and the histories,narratorial style or narratology of Kirkland (2022) 68
heroes and heroines,of abdera Mikalson (2003) 176
heroes and heroines,of acanthus Mikalson (2003) 176
heroes and heroines,of aegina Mikalson (2003) 176
heroes and heroines,of amathusia Mikalson (2003) 176
heroes and heroines,of argos Mikalson (2003) 193
heroes and heroines,of athens Mikalson (2003) 176
heroes and heroines,of chersonnesus Mikalson (2003) 176
heroes and heroines,of egesta Mikalson (2003) 176
heroes and heroines,of phocaeans Mikalson (2003) 176
heroes and heroines,of sicyon Mikalson (2003) 176, 193
heroes and heroines,of sparta Mikalson (2003) 176
heroes and heroines,of thebes Mikalson (2003) 176, 193
heroes and heroines Mikalson (2003) 176
heroes at delphi Ekroth (2013) 183
hesiod,catalogue of women Lyons (1997) 24
hesiod Mikalson (2003) 176
homer Gygax (2016) 103; Mikalson (2003) 176
honouring in the sense of receiving cult Ekroth (2013) 183, 197
horse-races Ekroth (2013) 197
hortatory Bowie (2021) 395
iconographical representations of sacrifice Ekroth (2013) 183
identity,general,competitive renegotiation of Kowalzig (2007) 105
identity,general,local vs. central/panhellenic Kowalzig (2007) 105
ideology,athenian Kowalzig (2007) 105
immortality,of fame Eisenfeld (2022) 161
immortality,poetic Eisenfeld (2022) 160
imperial Kowalzig (2007) 112
ino-leukothea Lyons (1997) 24
insular,local (often civic) Kowalzig (2007) 129, 170
iphigeneia Lyons (1997) 24
islands,in the aegean,theoria to delos Kowalzig (2007) 71
islands,in the aegean Kowalzig (2007) 71, 105, 112
kleisthenes Eisenfeld (2022) 161
leotykhidas,lerna,demeter and dionysos at Kowalzig (2007) 170
leuktra,battle of (,leviticus,oracles in Eidinow (2007) 259
loans Gygax (2016) 103
luke,john the baptist Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 635
lycurgus,hero of sparta Mikalson (2003) 176
lycurgus,of sparta Bowie (2021) 395
lycurgus Bowie (2021) 395
lygdamis of naxos Gygax (2016) 102
lysander (sikyonian musician) Kowalzig (2007) 129
magna mater,goddess of cyzicus Mikalson (2003) 193
meals,offerings of meals Ekroth (2013) 182
meals,ritual meals in connection with sacrifices Ekroth (2013) 197
meat,eaten Ekroth (2013) 182
melanippos Ekroth (2013) 182, 183; Kowalzig (2007) 71
melanippus,hero of thebes Mikalson (2003) 176, 193
memories,kept alive or evoked in ritual,of connectivity Kowalzig (2007) 152
memories,religious,intertwined with current practice Kowalzig (2007) 152
memory Eisenfeld (2022) 161
messenian Bowie (2021) 395
miletus,capture of Kowalzig (2007) 105
military campaigns,douglas,mary Eidinow (2007) 259
miltiades the elder of athens,hero of chersonnesus Mikalson (2003) 176, 193
mousike,music,and identity Kowalzig (2007) 129, 152
mousike,music,and social change Kowalzig (2007) 129, 152
mousike,music,argolid Kowalzig (2007) 129, 152
munificence Gygax (2016) 103
music Ekroth (2013) 197
mykenai (classical city),perseus Kowalzig (2007) 170
mykonos Kowalzig (2007) 112
myth,local Eisenfeld (2022) 161
myth,mutability of Lyons (1997) 24
myth,pausamas as source for Lyons (1997) 24
myth-ritual nexus,ritual moment,mytilene,revolt of Kowalzig (2007) 112
myth-ritual nexus,ritual moment Kowalzig (2007) 170
nagy,g. Lyons (1997) 24
naupliadai (argive tribe) Kowalzig (2007) 167
naxos,naxians,and delian theoria Kowalzig (2007) 71
network,of myths and rituals (also myth-ritual web,grid,framework),(re) formulation of Kowalzig (2007) 105
network,of myths and rituals (also myth-ritual web,grid,framework),and competing ethnicities (aegean) Kowalzig (2007) 105
network,of myths and rituals (also myth-ritual web,grid,framework),forging of in song (aegean) Kowalzig (2007) 71
network,of myths and rituals (also myth-ritual web,grid,framework),integrating ethnic diversity (akte) Kowalzig (2007) 152
network,of myths and rituals (also myth-ritual web,grid,framework),keeping out of Kowalzig (2007) 105
nikias (athenian general),theoria to delos Kowalzig (2007) 71
nomos,pythian Kowalzig (2007) 129, 152
oite,mountain Ekroth (2013) 182
onesilus,hero of amathusia Mikalson (2003) 176
oracles,of zeus of dodona Mikalson (2003) 193
oral Bowie (2021) 395
pan,god,greek Mikalson (2003) 176
panathenaea Gygax (2016) 102
panhellenism,local cults claiming Kowalzig (2007) 167
panionion,panionia Kowalzig (2007) 105
parts,of a tragedy Jouanna (2018) 708
pausanias,as source for myth Lyons (1997) 24
pausanias (author) Kowalzig (2007) 152
peasants Gygax (2016) 103
peleus,hero of aegina Mikalson (2003) 176
peloponnese,dorian conquest of Kowalzig (2007) 152
peloponnesian war,athens and delian theoria in Kowalzig (2007) 112
pentheus Kowalzig (2007) 170
performance culture,argolid,competitive Kowalzig (2007) 129
performances of myth and ritual (also song),(re)creating religious spaces Kowalzig (2007) 71
performances of myth and ritual (also song),(re)creation of worshipping groups Kowalzig (2007) 167, 170
performances of myth and ritual (also song),aesthetic appeal of Kowalzig (2007) 112
performances of myth and ritual (also song),embracing social change Kowalzig (2007) 167, 170
performances of myth and ritual (also song),ethnic integration in Kowalzig (2007) 152
performances of myth and ritual (also song),reconfiguring mythical time in relation to ritual spaces Kowalzig (2007) 71
performances of myth and ritual (also song),transforming cultic landscapes Kowalzig (2007) 167
perseus,hero,persia,greeks and Kowalzig (2007) 105
perseus,hero,turning argive in song Kowalzig (2007) 170
perseus,hero Kowalzig (2007) 152
pheidon of argos Gygax (2016) 102
philippos Ekroth (2013) 197
philippus of croton,hero of egesta Mikalson (2003) 176
philistus of athens Mikalson (2003) 193
phoroneus Kowalzig (2007) 152, 167
phoronis Kowalzig (2007) 167
phrynikhos (tragic poet) Kowalzig (2007) 105
pindars Eisenfeld (2022) 161
pisistratidae Gygax (2016) 102
place,religious,transcendence of in myth-ritual performances Kowalzig (2007) 71
plutarch Bowie (2021) 395; Kowalzig (2007) 71
polis,and musical innovation Kowalzig (2007) 129
polis,civic integration in the chorus Kowalzig (2007) 170
polis Bowie (2021) 395
polydorus Bowie (2021) 395
polykrates,of samos Kowalzig (2007) 129
poor,the Gygax (2016) 103
prayers Mikalson (2003) 193
proitids,and argive hera Kowalzig (2007) 167
propitiation Ekroth (2013) 197
prose Bowie (2021) 395
prosodion Kowalzig (2007) 170
ps.-aristotle,athenaion politeia Gygax (2016) 102
pythagoras of ephesus Gygax (2016) 102
pythian games Kowalzig (2007) 129
pythokritos (sikyonian aulete) Kowalzig (2007) 129
religion,greek,universal expressions of Kowalzig (2007) 71
reworking its past,alleged intractability of its past Kowalzig (2007) 152