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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6465
Herodotus, Histories, 2.177.2


nanIt was Amasis also who made the law that every Egyptian declare his means of livelihood to the ruler of his district annually, and that omitting to do so or to prove that one had a legitimate livelihood be punishable with death. Solon the Athenian got this law from Egypt and established it among his people; may they always have it, for it is a perfect law.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

3 results
1. Herodotus, Histories, 2.49-2.53, 2.81, 2.171, 2.177.1, 2.181, 3.16.1, 5.78, 7.104.4 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.49. Now then, it seems to me that Melampus son of Amytheon was not ignorant of but was familiar with this sacrifice. For Melampus was the one who taught the Greeks the name of Dionysus and the way of sacrificing to him and the phallic procession; he did not exactly unveil the subject taking all its details into consideration, for the teachers who came after him made a fuller revelation; but it was from him that the Greeks learned to bear the phallus along in honor of Dionysus, and they got their present practice from his teaching. ,I say, then, that Melampus acquired the prophetic art, being a discerning man, and that, besides many other things which he learned from Egypt, he also taught the Greeks things concerning Dionysus, altering few of them; for I will not say that what is done in Egypt in connection with the god and what is done among the Greeks originated independently: for they would then be of an Hellenic character and not recently introduced. ,Nor again will I say that the Egyptians took either this or any other custom from the Greeks. But I believe that Melampus learned the worship of Dionysus chiefly from Cadmus of Tyre and those who came with Cadmus from Phoenicia to the land now called Boeotia . 2.50. In fact, the names of nearly all the gods came to Hellas from Egypt . For I am convinced by inquiry that they have come from foreign parts, and I believe that they came chiefly from Egypt . ,Except the names of Poseidon and the Dioscuri, as I have already said, and Hera, and Hestia, and Themis, and the Graces, and the Nereids, the names of all the gods have always existed in Egypt . I only say what the Egyptians themselves say. The gods whose names they say they do not know were, as I think, named by the Pelasgians, except Poseidon, the knowledge of whom they learned from the Libyans. ,Alone of all nations the Libyans have had among them the name of Poseidon from the beginning, and they have always honored this god. The Egyptians, however, are not accustomed to pay any honors to heroes. 2.51. These customs, then, and others besides, which I shall indicate, were taken by the Greeks from the Egyptians. It was not so with the ithyphallic images of Hermes; the production of these came from the Pelasgians, from whom the Athenians were the first Greeks to take it, and then handed it on to others. ,For the Athenians were then already counted as Greeks when the Pelasgians came to live in the land with them and thereby began to be considered as Greeks. Whoever has been initiated into the rites of the Cabeiri, which the Samothracians learned from the Pelasgians and now practice, understands what my meaning is. ,Samothrace was formerly inhabited by those Pelasgians who came to live among the Athenians, and it is from them that the Samothracians take their rites. ,The Athenians, then, were the first Greeks to make ithyphallic images of Hermes, and they did this because the Pelasgians taught them. The Pelasgians told a certain sacred tale about this, which is set forth in the Samothracian mysteries. 2.52. Formerly, in all their sacrifices, the Pelasgians called upon gods without giving name or appellation to any (I know this, because I was told at Dodona ); for as yet they had not heard of such. They called them gods from the fact that, besides setting everything in order, they maintained all the dispositions. ,Then, after a long while, first they learned the names of the rest of the gods, which came to them from Egypt, and, much later, the name of Dionysus; and presently they asked the oracle at Dodona about the names; for this place of divination, held to be the most ancient in Hellas, was at that time the only one. ,When the Pelasgians, then, asked at Dodona whether they should adopt the names that had come from foreign parts, the oracle told them to use the names. From that time onwards they used the names of the gods in their sacrifices; and the Greeks received these later from the Pelasgians. 2.53. But whence each of the gods came to be, or whether all had always been, and how they appeared in form, they did not know until yesterday or the day before, so to speak; ,for I suppose Hesiod and Homer flourished not more than four hundred years earlier than I; and these are the ones who taught the Greeks the descent of the gods, and gave the gods their names, and determined their spheres and functions, and described their outward forms. ,But the poets who are said to have been earlier than these men were, in my opinion, later. The earlier part of all this is what the priestesses of Dodona tell; the later, that which concerns Hesiod and Homer, is what I myself say. 2.81. They wear linen tunics with fringes hanging about the legs, called “calasiris,” and loose white woolen mantles over these. But nothing woolen is brought into temples, or buried with them: that is impious. ,They agree in this with practices called Orphic and Bacchic, but in fact Egyptian and Pythagorean: for it is impious, too, for one partaking of these rites to be buried in woolen wrappings. There is a sacred legend about this. 2.171. On this lake they enact by night the story of the god's sufferings, a rite which the Egyptians call the Mysteries. I could say more about this, for I know the truth, but let me preserve a discreet silence. ,Let me preserve a discreet silence, too, concerning that rite of Demeter which the Greeks call dateThesmophoria /date , except as much of it as I am not forbidden to mention. ,The daughters of Danaus were those who brought this rite out of Egypt and taught it to the Pelasgian women; afterwards, when the people of the Peloponnese were driven out by the Dorians, it was lost, except in so far as it was preserved by the Arcadians, the Peloponnesian people which was not driven out but left in its home. 2.177.1. It is said that in the reign of Amasis Egypt attained to its greatest prosperity, in respect of what the river did for the land and the land for its people: and that the number of inhabited cities in the country was twenty thousand. 2.181. Amasis made friends and allies of the people of Cyrene . And he decided to marry from there, either because he had his heart set on a Greek wife, or for the sake of the Corcyreans' friendship; ,in any case, he married a certain Ladice, said by some to be the daughter of Battus, of Arcesilaus by others, and by others again of Critobulus, an esteemed citizen of the place. But whenever Amasis lay with her, he became unable to have intercourse, though he managed with every other woman; ,and when this happened repeatedly, Amasis said to the woman called Ladice, “Woman, you have cast a spell on me, and there is no way that you shall avoid perishing the most wretchedly of all women.” ,So Ladice, when the king did not relent at all although she denied it, vowed in her heart to Aphrodite that, if Amasis could have intercourse with her that night, since that would remedy the problem, she would send a statue to Cyrene to her. And after the prayer, immediately, Amasis did have intercourse with her. And whenever Amasis came to her thereafter, he had intercourse, and he was very fond of her after this. ,Ladice paid her vow to the goddess; she had an image made and sent it to Cyrene, where it stood safe until my time, facing outside the city. Cambyses, when he had conquered Egypt and learned who Ladice was, sent her away to Cyrene unharmed. 3.16.1. From Memphis Cambyses went to the city Sais, anxious to do exactly what he did do. Entering the house of Amasis, he had the body of Amasis carried outside from its place of burial; and when this had been done, he gave orders to scourge it and pull out the hair and pierce it with goads, and to desecrate it in every way. 5.78. So the Athenians grew in power and proved, not in one respect only but in all, that equality is a good thing. Evidence for this is the fact that while they were under tyrannical rulers, the Athenians were no better in war than any of their neighbors, yet once they got rid of their tyrants, they were by far the best of all. This, then, shows that while they were oppressed, they were, as men working for a master, cowardly, but when they were freed, each one was eager to achieve for himself. 7.104.4. So is it with the Lacedaemonians; fighting singly they are as brave as any man living, and together they are the best warriors on earth. They are free, yet not wholly free: law is their master, whom they fear much more than your men fear you.
2. Aristotle, Athenian Constitution, 22.3, 25.4, 26.2, 27.1 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

3. Lucian, A True Story, 1.23, 1.26 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
acropolis Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 152
aeschylus Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 152
amasis Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 56
archons, archons, qualifications for Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 152
aristotle Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 152
army Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 152
autopsy Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 214
belief Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 56
class, lower Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 152
cleisthenes Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 152
demes (demoi) Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 152
economy, economic Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 152
egypt, herodotuss representation of Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 214
empire Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 152
ethnography Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 214
eunomia (eunomie) Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 152
extispicy, fate Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 56
great rhetra Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 152
hoplites Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 152
identity., complexities of Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 214
ideology Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 152
kambyses Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 56
kyros, king of the persians Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 56
law, medieval Gagarin and Cohen, The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Greek Law (2005) 51
lucian, representations of subjectivity in Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 214
lucian, self-othering in Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 214
lucian Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 214
mardonios Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 56
mead, george herbert Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 214
mys of europos Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 56
narratives, herodotean Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 56
nomos (pl. nomoi) Gagarin and Cohen, The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Greek Law (2005) 51
old oligarch (pseudo-xenophon) Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 152
omens, testing of' Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 56
placentia, plataia, battle of Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 56
pnyx Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 152
rhetra, great Gagarin and Cohen, The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Greek Law (2005) 51
salamis, battle of Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 152
sartre, jean-paul Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 214
solon Gagarin and Cohen, The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Greek Law (2005) 51; Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 214
ste. croix, g. e. m. de Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 152
thesmos Gagarin and Cohen, The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Greek Law (2005) 51
thetes Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 152
van wees, hans Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 152
writing, written law. Gagarin and Cohen, The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Greek Law (2005) 51
zeugitai Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 152