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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6465
Herodotus, Histories, 1.91


ἀπικομένοισι δὲ τοῖσι Λυδοῖσι καὶ λέγουσι τὰ ἐντεταλμένα τὴν Πυθίην λέγεται εἰπεῖν τάδε. “τὴν πεπρωμένην μοῖραν ἀδύνατα ἐστὶ ἀποφυγεῖν καὶ θεῷ· Κροῖσος δὲ πέμπτου γονέος ἁμαρτάδα ἐξέπλησε, ὃς ἐὼν δορυφόρος Ἡρακλειδέων, δόλῳ γυναικηίῳ ἐπισπόμενος ἐφόνευσε τὸν δεσπότεα καὶ ἔσχε τὴν ἐκείνου τιμὴν οὐδέν οἱ προσήκουσαν. προθυμεομένου δὲ Λοξίεω ὅκως ἂν κατὰ τοὺς παῖδας τοῦ Κροίσου γένοιτο τὸ Σαρδίων πάθος καὶ μὴ κατʼ αὐτὸν Κροῖσον, οὐκ οἷόν τε ἐγίνετο παραγαγεῖν μοίρας. ὅσον δὲ ἐνέδωκαν αὗται, ἤνυσέ τε καὶ ἐχαρίσατό οἱ· τρία γὰρ ἔτεα ἐπανεβάλετο τὴν Σαρδίων ἅλωσιν, καὶ τοῦτο ἐπιστάσθω Κροῖσος ὡς ὕστερον τοῖσι ἔτεσι τούτοισι ἁλοὺς τῆς πεπρωμένης. δευτέρα δὲ τούτων καιομένῳ αὐτῷ ἐπήρκεσε. κατὰ δὲ τὸ μαντήιον τὸ γενόμενον οὐκ ὀρθῶς Κροῖσος μέμφεται. προηγόρευε γὰρ οἱ Λοξίης, ἢν στρατεύηται ἐπὶ Πέρσας, μεγάλην ἀρχὴν αὐτὸν καταλύσειν. τὸν δὲ πρὸς ταῦτα χρῆν εὖ μέλλοντα βουλεύεσθαι ἐπειρέσθαι πέμψαντα κότερα τὴν ἑωυτοῦ ἢ τὴν Κύρου λέγοι ἀρχήν. οὐ συλλαβὼν δὲ τὸ ῥηθὲν οὐδʼ ἐπανειρόμενος ἑωυτὸν αἴτιον ἀποφαινέτω· τῷ καὶ τὸ τελευταῖον χρηστηριαζομένῳ εἶπε Λοξίης περὶ ἡμιόνου, οὐδὲ τοῦτο συνέλαβε. ἦν γὰρ δὴ ὁ Κῦρος οὗτος ἡμίονος· ἐκ γὰρ δυῶν οὐκ ὁμοεθνέων ἐγεγόνεε, μητρὸς ἀμείνονος, πατρὸς δὲ ὑποδεεστέρου· ἣ μὲν γὰρ ἦν Μηδὶς καὶ Ἀστυάγεος θυγάτηρ τοῦ Μήδων βασιλέος, ὁ δὲ Πέρσης τε ἦν καὶ ἀρχόμενος ὑπʼ ἐκείνοισι καὶ ἔνερθε ἐὼν τοῖσι ἅπασι δεσποίνῃ τῇ ἑωυτοῦ συνοίκεε.” ταῦτα μὲν ἡ Πυθίη ὑπεκρίνατο τοῖσι Λυδοῖσι, οἳ δὲ ἀνήνεικαν ἐς Σάρδις καὶ ἀπήγγειλαν Κροίσῳ. ὁ δὲ ἀκούσας συνέγνω ἑωυτοῦ εἶναι τὴν ἁμαρτάδα καὶ οὐ τοῦ θεοῦ. κατὰ μὲν δὴ τὴν Κροίσου τε ἀρχὴν καὶ Ἰωνίης τὴν πρώτην καταστροφὴν ἔσχε οὕτω.When the Lydians came, and spoke as they had been instructed, the priestess (it is said) made the following reply. “No one may escape his lot, not even a god. Croesus has paid for the sin of his ancestor of the fifth generation before, who was led by the guile of a woman to kill his master, though he was one of the guard of the Heraclidae, and who took to himself the royal state of that master, to which he had no right. ,And it was the wish of Loxias that the evil lot of Sardis fall in the lifetime of Croesus' sons, not in his own; but he could not deflect the Fates. ,Yet as far as they gave in, he did accomplish his wish and favor Croesus: for he delayed the taking of Sardis for three years. And let Croesus know this: that although he is now taken, it is by so many years later than the destined hour. And further, Loxias saved Croesus from burning. ,But as to the oracle that was given to him, Croesus is wrong to complain concerning it. For Loxias declared to him that if he led an army against the Persians, he would destroy a great empire. Therefore he ought, if he had wanted to plan well, to have sent and asked whether the god spoke of Croesus' or of Cyrus' empire. But he did not understood what was spoken, or make further inquiry: for which now let him blame himself. ,When he asked that last question of the oracle and Loxias gave him that answer concerning the mule, even that Croesus did not understand. For that mule was in fact Cyrus, who was the son of two parents not of the same people, of whom the mother was better and the father inferior: ,for she was a Mede and the daughter of Astyages king of the Medes; but he was a Persian and a subject of the Medes and although in all respects her inferior he married this lady of his.” This was the answer of the priestess to the Lydians. They carried it to Sardis and told Croesus, and when he heard it, he confessed that the sin was not the god's, but his. And this is the story of Croesus' rule, and of the first overthrow of Ionia .


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

24 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 4.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.9. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־קַיִן אֵי הֶבֶל אָחִיךָ וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא יָדַעְתִּי הֲשֹׁמֵר אָחִי אָנֹכִי׃ 4.9. And the LORD said unto Cain: ‘Where is Abel thy brother?’ And he said: ‘I know not; am I my brother’s keeper?’"
2. Hesiod, Theogony, 905-906, 904 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

904. The sound of whelps was heard, sometimes the ear
3. Homer, Iliad, 2.864-2.866, 19.86-19.96 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

2.864. /but was slain beneath the hands of the son of Aeacus, swift of foot, in the river, where Achilles was making havoc of the Trojans and the others as well.And Phorcys and godlike Ascanius led the Phrygians from afar, from Ascania, and were eager to fight in the press of battle.And the Maeonians had captains twain, Mesthles and Antiphus 2.865. /the two sons of TaIaemenes, whose mother was the nymph of the Gygaean lake; and they led the Maeonians, whose birth was beneath Tmolas.And Nastes again led the Carians, uncouth of speech, who held Miletus and the mountain of Phthires, dense with its leafage, and the streams of Maeander, and the steep crests of Mycale. 2.866. /the two sons of TaIaemenes, whose mother was the nymph of the Gygaean lake; and they led the Maeonians, whose birth was beneath Tmolas.And Nastes again led the Carians, uncouth of speech, who held Miletus and the mountain of Phthires, dense with its leafage, and the streams of Maeander, and the steep crests of Mycale. 19.86. /Full often have the Achaeans spoken unto me this word, and were ever fain to chide me; howbeit it is not I that am at fault, but Zeus and Fate and Erinys, that walketh in darkness, seeing that in the midst of the place of gathering they cast upon my soul fierce blindness on that day, when of mine own arrogance I took from Achilles his prize. 19.87. /Full often have the Achaeans spoken unto me this word, and were ever fain to chide me; howbeit it is not I that am at fault, but Zeus and Fate and Erinys, that walketh in darkness, seeing that in the midst of the place of gathering they cast upon my soul fierce blindness on that day, when of mine own arrogance I took from Achilles his prize. 19.88. /Full often have the Achaeans spoken unto me this word, and were ever fain to chide me; howbeit it is not I that am at fault, but Zeus and Fate and Erinys, that walketh in darkness, seeing that in the midst of the place of gathering they cast upon my soul fierce blindness on that day, when of mine own arrogance I took from Achilles his prize. 19.89. /Full often have the Achaeans spoken unto me this word, and were ever fain to chide me; howbeit it is not I that am at fault, but Zeus and Fate and Erinys, that walketh in darkness, seeing that in the midst of the place of gathering they cast upon my soul fierce blindness on that day, when of mine own arrogance I took from Achilles his prize. 19.90. /But what could I do? It is God that bringeth all things to their issue. Eldest daughter of Zeus is Ate that blindeth all—a power fraught with bane; delicate are her feet, for it is not upon the ground that she fareth, but she walketh over the heads of men, bringing men to harm, and this one or that she ensnareth. 19.91. /But what could I do? It is God that bringeth all things to their issue. Eldest daughter of Zeus is Ate that blindeth all—a power fraught with bane; delicate are her feet, for it is not upon the ground that she fareth, but she walketh over the heads of men, bringing men to harm, and this one or that she ensnareth. 19.92. /But what could I do? It is God that bringeth all things to their issue. Eldest daughter of Zeus is Ate that blindeth all—a power fraught with bane; delicate are her feet, for it is not upon the ground that she fareth, but she walketh over the heads of men, bringing men to harm, and this one or that she ensnareth. 19.93. /But what could I do? It is God that bringeth all things to their issue. Eldest daughter of Zeus is Ate that blindeth all—a power fraught with bane; delicate are her feet, for it is not upon the ground that she fareth, but she walketh over the heads of men, bringing men to harm, and this one or that she ensnareth. 19.94. /But what could I do? It is God that bringeth all things to their issue. Eldest daughter of Zeus is Ate that blindeth all—a power fraught with bane; delicate are her feet, for it is not upon the ground that she fareth, but she walketh over the heads of men, bringing men to harm, and this one or that she ensnareth. 19.95. /Aye, and on a time she blinded Zeus, albeit men say that he is the greatest among men and gods; yet even him Hera, that was but a woman, beguiled in her craftiness on the day when Alcmene in fair-crowned Thebe was to bring forth the mighty Heracles. 19.96. /Aye, and on a time she blinded Zeus, albeit men say that he is the greatest among men and gods; yet even him Hera, that was but a woman, beguiled in her craftiness on the day when Alcmene in fair-crowned Thebe was to bring forth the mighty Heracles.
4. Homer, Odyssey, 5.118 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

5. Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 664 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

664. τύχη δὲ σωτὴρ ναῦν θέλουσʼ ἐφέζετο 664. And Fortune, saviour, willing on our ship sat.
6. Aristophanes, Birds, 982-991, 981 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

981. οὐδὲν ἄρ' ὅμοιός ἐσθ' ὁ χρησμὸς τουτῳί
7. Euripides, Hecuba, 489-491, 488 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

488. ὦ Ζεῦ, τί λέξω; πότερά ς' ἀνθρώπους ὁρᾶν; 488. O Zeus! what can I say? that your eye is over man? or that we hold this opinion all to no purpose
8. Herodotus, Histories, 1.5-1.90, 1.5.3, 1.8.3, 1.48.1, 1.53.2-1.53.3, 1.71.1, 1.87.2, 1.90.4, 1.92-1.94, 1.92.2, 1.118-1.119, 1.147, 1.158-1.160, 1.162-1.170, 1.174, 1.182, 1.189-1.190, 1.192, 1.196, 1.198-1.199, 1.201-1.216, 1.209.4, 2.45-2.46, 2.51.4, 2.55, 2.57, 2.64, 2.130-2.131, 2.133, 2.139, 2.152, 2.161-2.163, 2.169, 3.16-3.43, 3.49, 3.57-3.58, 3.61-3.66, 3.64.3, 3.84, 3.98-3.105, 3.108, 3.120-3.126, 3.153, 4.5-4.84, 4.91, 4.134-4.142, 4.150-4.151, 4.154-4.164, 4.171-4.173, 4.177, 4.179-4.189, 4.191-4.199, 5.1, 5.3-5.9, 5.33, 5.42-5.45, 5.67, 5.74-5.75, 5.79-5.88, 5.91-5.92, 6.18-6.19, 6.27, 6.34-6.38, 6.43-6.44, 6.52, 6.57, 6.64, 6.66-6.67, 6.75-6.77, 6.79-6.82, 6.84, 6.86, 6.97-6.98, 6.125, 6.132-6.136, 6.139-6.140, 7.1, 7.6.4, 7.9-7.10, 7.12-7.19, 7.17.2, 7.35, 7.39, 7.44-7.57, 7.101-7.105, 7.114-7.120, 7.133, 7.135, 7.137, 7.139-7.144, 7.148-7.151, 7.166, 7.169-7.171, 7.178, 7.187, 7.189, 7.208-7.212, 7.219-7.220, 8.20, 8.35-8.39, 8.53, 8.77, 8.96, 8.99, 8.103, 8.109.3, 8.115, 8.118-8.122, 8.128-8.129, 8.135, 9.1, 9.33-9.35, 9.42-9.43, 9.63-9.64, 9.84, 9.93, 9.100-9.101, 9.108-9.113, 9.109.2 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.10. As Gyges could not escape, he consented. Candaules, when he judged it to be time for bed, brought Gyges into the chamber; his wife followed presently, and when she had come in and was laying aside her garments, Gyges saw her; ,when she turned her back upon him to go to bed, he slipped from the room. The woman glimpsed him as he went out, and perceived what her husband had done. But though shamed, she did not cry out or let it be seen that she had perceived anything, for she meant to punish Candaules; ,since among the Lydians and most of the foreign peoples it is felt as a great shame that even a man be seen naked.
9. Lysias, Orations, 6 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

10. Sophocles, Philoctetes, 1317-1320, 1316 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11. Xenophon, The Persian Expedition, 3.1.41, 6.1.22 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

3.1.41. If, however, we can turn the current of their minds, so that they shall be thinking, not merely of what they are to suffer, but likewise of what they are going to do, they will be far more cheerful. 6.1.22. Quite unable as he was to decide the question, it seemed best to him to consult the gods; and he accordingly brought two victims to the altar and proceeded to offer sacrifice to King Zeus, the very god that the oracle at Delphi had prescribed for him; cp. Xen. Anab. 3.1.5 ff. and it was likewise from this god, as he believed, that the dream cp. Xen. Anab. 3.1.11 f. came which he had at the time when he took the first steps toward assuming a share in the charge of the army.
12. Xenophon, Hellenica, 6.3.6 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

6.3.6. The right course, indeed, would have been for us not to take up arms against one another in the beginning, since the tradition is that the first strangers to whom Triptolemus, Triptolemus of Eleusis had, according to the legend, carried from Attica throughout Greece both the cult of Demeter and the knowledge of her art — agriculture. Heracles was the traditional ancestor of the Spartan kings (cp. III. iii.) while the Dioscuri, Castor and Pollux, were putative sons of Tyndareus of Sparta. our ancestor, revealed the mystic rites of Demeter and Core were Heracles, your state’s founder, and the Dioscuri, your citizens; and, further, that it was upon Peloponnesus that he first bestowed the seed of Demeter’s fruit. How, then, can it be right, 371 B.C. either that you should ever come to destroy the fruit of those very men from whom you received the seed, or that we should not desire those very men, to whom we gave the seed, to obtain the greatest possible abundance of food? But if it is indeed ordered of the gods that wars should come among men, then we ought to begin war as tardily as we can, and, when it has come, to bring it to an end as speedily as possible.
13. Theophrastus, Characters, 16.12 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 11.45.8-11.45.9 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

11.45.8.  for once when the Lacedaemonians were consulting the oracle at Delphi about some other matters, the god replied by commanding them to restore her suppliant to the goddess. 11.45.9.  Consequently the Spartans, thinking the oracle's command to be impracticable, were at a loss for a considerable time, being unable to carry out the injunction of the god. Concluding, however, to do as much as was within their power, they made two bronze statues of Pausanias and set them up in the temple of Athena.
15. Livy, History, 1.36.5-1.36.6 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

16. Strabo, Geography, 13.4.6, 14.1.3, 14.1.5, 14.1.30, 14.2.23-14.2.24 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

13.4.6. The verses of Homer are about as follows: Mnesthles and Antiphus, the two sons of Talaemenes, whose mother was Lake Gygaea, who led also the Meionians, who were born at the foot of Tmolus; but some add the following fourth verse: At the foot of snowy Tmolus, in the fertile land of Hyde. But there is no Hyde to be found in the country of the Lydians. Some also put Tychius there, of whom the poet says,far the best of workers in hide, who lived in Hyde. And they add that the place is woody and subject to strokes of lightning, and that the Arimi live there, for after Homer's verse,in the land of the Arimi where men say is the couch of Typhon, they insert the words,in a wooded place, in the fertile land of Hyde. But others lay the scene of this myth in Cilicia, and some lay it in Syria, and still others in the Pithecussae Islands, who say that among the Tyrrhenians pitheci are called arimi. Some call Sardeis Hyde, while others call its acropolis Hyde. But the Scepsian thinks that those writers are most plausible who place the Arimi in the Catacecaumene country in Mysia. But Pindar associates the Pithecussae which lie off the Cymaean territory, as also the territory in Sicily, with the territory in Cilicia, for he says that Typhon lies beneath Aetna: Once he dwelt in a far-famed Cilician cavern; now, however, his shaggy breast is o'er-pressed by the sea-girt shores above Cumae and by Sicily. And again,round about him lies Aetna with her haughty fetters, and again,but it was father Zeus that once amongst the Arimi, by necessity, alone of the gods, smote monstrous Typhon of the fifty heads. But some understand that the Syrians are Arimi, who are now called the Arimaeans, and that the Cilicians in Troy, forced to migrate, settled again in Syria and cut off for themselves what is now called Cilicia. Callisthenes says that the Arimi, after whom the neighboring mountains are called Arima, are situated near Mt. Calycadnus and the promontory of Sarpedon near the Corycian cave itself. 14.1.3. Pherecydes says concerning this seaboard that Miletus and Myus and the parts round Mycale and Ephesus were in earlier times occupied by Carians, and that the coast next thereafter, as far as Phocaea and Chios and Samos, which were ruled by Ancaeus, was occupied by Leleges, but that both were driven out by the Ionians and took refuge in the remaining parts of Caria. He says that Androclus, legitimate son of Codrus the king of Athens, was the leader of the Ionian colonization, which was later than the Aeolian, and that he became the founder of Ephesus; and for this reason, it is said, the royal seat of the Ionians was established there. And still now the descendants of his family are called kings; and they have certain honors, I mean the privilege of front seats at the games and of wearing purple robes as insignia of royal descent, and staff instead of sceptre, and of the superintendence of the sacrifices in honor of the Eleusinian Demeter. Miletus was founded by Neleus, a Pylian by birth. The Messenians and the Pylians pretend a kind of kinship with one another, according to which the more recent poets call Nestor a Messenian; and they say that many of the Pylians accompanied Melanthus, father of Codrus, and his followers to Athens, and that, accordingly, all this people sent forth the colonizing expedition in common with the Ionians. There is an altar, erected by Neleus, to be seen on the Poseidium. Myus was founded by Cydrelus, bastard son of Codrus; Lebedus by Andropompus, who seized a place called Artis; Colophon by Andraemon a Pylian, according to Mimnermus in his Nanno; Priene by Aepytus the son of Neleus, and then later by Philotas, who brought a colony from Thebes; Teos, at first by Athamas, for which reason it is by Anacreon called Athamantis, and at the time of the Ionian colonization by Nauclus, bastard son of Codrus, and after him by Apoecus and Damasus, who were Athenians, and Geres, a Boeotian; Erythrae by Cnopus, he too a bastard son of Codrus; Phocaea by the Athenians under Philogenes; Clazomenae by Paralus; Chios by Egertius, who brought with him a mixed crowd; Samos by Tembrion, and then later by Procles. 14.1.5. Next after the Poseidium of the Milesians, eighteen stadia inland, is the oracle of Apollo Didymeus among the Branchidae. It was set on fire by Xerxes, as were also the other sanctuaries, except that at Ephesus. The Branchidae gave over the treasures of the god to the Persian king, and accompanied him in his flight in order to escape punishment for the robbing and the betrayal of the sanctuary. But later the Milesians erected the largest temple in the world, though on account of its size it remained without a roof. At any rate, the circuit of the sacred enclosure holds a village settlement; and there is a magnificent sacred grove both inside and outside the enclosure; and other sacred enclosures contain the oracle and sacred things. Here is laid the scene of the myth of Branchus and the love of Apollo. It is adorned with costliest offerings consisting of early works of art. Thence to the city is no long journey, by land or by sea. 14.1.30. Teos also is situated on a peninsula; and it has a harbor. Anacreon the melic poet was from Teos; in whose time the Teians abandoned their city and migrated to, Abdera, a Thracian city, being unable to bear the insolence of the Persians; and hence the verse in reference to Abdera.Abdera, beautiful colony of the Teians. But some of them returned again in later times. As I have already said, Apellicon also was a Teian; and Hecataeus the historian was from the same city. And there is also another harbor to the north, thirty stadia distant from the city, called Gerrhaeidae. 14.2.23. But as for Mylasa: it is situated in an exceedingly fertile plain; and above the plain, towering into a peak, rises a mountain, which has a most excellent quarry of white marble. Now this quarry is of no small advantage, since it has stone in abundance and close at hand, for building purposes and in particular for the building of sanctuaries and other public works; accordingly this city, if any city is, is in every way beautifully adorned with porticoes and temples. But one may well be amazed at those who so absurdly founded the city at the foot of a steep and commanding crag. Accordingly, one of the commanders, amazed at the fact, is said to have said, If the man who founded this city was not afraid, wasn't he at least ashamed? The Mylasians have two sanctuaries of Zeus, Zeus Osogoos, as he is called, and Zeus Labraundenus. The former is in the city, whereas Labraunda is a village far from the city, being situated on the mountain near the pass that leads over from Alabanda to Mylasa. At Labraunda there is an ancient temple and image [xoanon] of Zeus Stratius. It is honored by the people all about and by the Mylasians; and there is a paved road of almost sixty stadia from it to Mylasa, called the Sacred Way, on which their sacred processions are conducted. The priestly offices are held by the most distinguished of the citizens, always for life. Now these two are particular to the city; but there is a third sanctuary, that of the Carian Zeus, which is a common possession of all Carians, and in which, as brothers, both Lydians and Mysians have a share. It is related that Mylasa was a mere village in ancient times, but that it was the native land and royal residence of the Carians of the house of Hecatomnos. The city is nearest to the sea at Physcus; and this is their seaport. 14.2.24. Mylasa has had two notable men in my time, who were at once orators and leaders of the city, Euthydemus and Hybreas. Now Euthydemus, having inherited from his ancestors great wealth and high repute, and having added to these his own cleverness, was not only a great man in his native land, but was also thought worthy of the foremost honor in Asia. As for Hybreas, as he himself used to tell the story in his school and as confirmed by his fellow-citizens, his father left him a mule-driver and a wood-carrying mule. And, being supported by these, he became a pupil of Diotrephes of Antiocheia for a short time, and then came back and surrendered himself to the office of market-clerk. But when he had been tossed about in this office and had made but little money, he began to apply himself to the affairs of state and to follow closely the speakers of the forum. He quickly grew in power, and was already an object of amazement in the lifetime of Euthydemus, but in particular after his death, having become master of the city. So long as Euthydemus lived he strongly prevailed, being at once powerful and useful to the city, so that even if there was something tyrannical about him, it was atoned for by the fact that it was attended by what was good for the city. At any rate, people applaud the following statement of Hybreas, made by him towards the end of a public speech: Euthydemus: you are an evil necessary to the city, for we can live neither with you nor without you. However, although he had grown very strong and had the repute of being both a good citizen and orator, he stumbled in his political opposition to Labienus; for while the others, since they were without arms and inclined to peace, yielded to Labienus when he was coming against them with an army and an allied Parthian force, the Parthians by that time being in possession of Asia, yet Zeno of Laodiceia and Hybreas, both orators, refused to yield and caused their own cities to revolt. Hybreas also provoked Labienus, a lad who was irritable and full of folly, by a certain pronouncement; for when Labienus proclaimed himself Parthian Emperor, Hybreas said, Then I too call myself Carian Emperor. Consequently Labienus set out against the city with cohorts of Roman soldiers in Asia that were already organized. Labienus did not seize Hybreas, however, since he had withdrawn to Rhodes, but he shamefully maltreated his home, with its costly furnishings, and plundered it. And he likewise damaged the whole of the city. But though Hybreas abandoned Asia, he came back and rehabilitated both himself and the city. So much, then, for Mylasa.
17. New Testament, Acts, 9.3-9.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9.3. As he traveled, it happened that he got close to Damascus, and suddenly a light from the sky shone around him. 9.4. He fell on the earth, and heard a voice saying to him, "Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me? 9.5. He said, "Who are you, Lord?"The Lord said, "I am Jesus, whom you are persecuting. 9.6. But rise up, and enter into the city, and you will be told what you must do. 9.7. The men who traveled with him stood speechless, hearing the voice, but seeing no one. 9.8. Saul arose from the ground, and when his eyes were opened, he saw no one. They led him by the hand, and brought him into Damascus. 9.9. He was without sight for three days, and neither ate nor drank.
18. Plutarch, Aristides, 11.3, 20.4-20.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Plutarch, Cimon, 8.5-8.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Plutarch, Lysander, 29 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

21. Plutarch, Moralia, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Plutarch, Pelopidas, 21.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

21.3. and, still further, the youths who were sacrificed by Themistocles to Dionysus Carnivorous before the sea fight at Salamis Cf. the Themistocles, xiii. 2 f. for the successes which followed these sacrifices proved them acceptable to the gods. Moreover, when Agesilaüs, who was setting out on an expedition from the same place as Agamemnon did, and against the same enemies, was asked by the goddess for his daughter in sacrifice, and had this vision as he lay asleep at Aulis, he was too tender-hearted to give her, Cf. the Agesilaüs, vi. 4 ff. and thereby brought his expedition to an unsuccessful and inglorious ending.
23. Plutarch, Pericles, 1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.32.3-1.32.5, 10.7.3, 10.10.1, 10.14.5-10.14.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.32.3. Before turning to a description of the islands, I must again proceed with my account of the parishes. There is a parish called Marathon, equally distant from Athens and Carystus in Euboea . It was at this point in Attica that the foreigners landed, were defeated in battle, and lost some of their vessels as they were putting off from the land. 490 B.C. On the plain is the grave of the Athenians, and upon it are slabs giving the names of the killed according to their tribes; and there is another grave for the Boeotian Plataeans and for the slaves, for slaves fought then for the first time by the side of their masters. 1.32.4. here is also a separate monument to one man, Miltiades, the son of Cimon, although his end came later, after he had failed to take Paros and for this reason had been brought to trial by the Athenians. At Marathon every night you can hear horses neighing and men fighting. No one who has expressly set himself to behold this vision has ever got any good from it, but the spirits are not wroth with such as in ignorance chance to be spectators. The Marathonians worship both those who died in the fighting, calling them heroes, and secondly Marathon, from whom the parish derives its name, and then Heracles, saying that they were the first among the Greeks to acknowledge him as a god. 1.32.5. They say too that there chanced to be present in the battle a man of rustic appearance and dress. Having slaughtered many of the foreigners with a plough he was seen no more after the engagement. When the Athenians made enquiries at the oracle the god merely ordered them to honor Echetlaeus (He of the Plough-tail) as a hero. A trophy too of white marble has been erected. Although the Athenians assert that they buried the Persians, because in every case the divine law applies that a corpse should be laid under the earth, yet I could find no grave. There was neither mound nor other trace to be seen, as the dead were carried to a trench and thrown in anyhow. 10.7.3. They say too that Eleuther won a Pythian victory for his loud and sweet voice, for the song that he sang was not of his own composition. The story is that Hesiod too was debarred from competing because he had not learned to accompany his own singing on the harp. Homer too came to Delphi to inquire about his needs, but even though he had learned to play the harp, he would have found the skill useless owing to the loss of his eye-sight. 10.10.1. On the base below the wooden horse is an inscription which says that the statues were dedicated from a tithe of the spoils taken in the engagement at Marathon. They represent Athena, Apollo, and Miltiades, one of the generals. of those called heroes there are Erechtheus, Cecrops, Pandion, Leos, Antiochus, son of Heracles by Meda, daughter of Phylas, as well as Aegeus and Acamas, one of the sons of Theseus. These heroes gave names, in obedience to a Delphic oracle, to tribes at Athens . Codrus however, the son of Melanthus, Theseus, and Neleus, these are not givers of names to tribes. 10.14.5. The Greeks who fought against the king, besides dedicating at Olympia a bronze Zeus, dedicated also an Apollo at Delphi, from spoils taken in the naval actions at Artemisium and Salamis . There is also a story that Themistocles came to Delphi bringing with him for Apollo some of the Persian spoils. He asked whether he should dedicate them within the temple, but the Pythian priestess bade him carry them from the sanctuary altogether. The part of the oracle referring to this runs as follows:— The splendid beauty of the Persian's spoils Set not within my temple. Despatch them home speedily. 10.14.6. Now I greatly marveled that it was from Themistocles alone that the priestess refused to accept Persian spoils. Some thought that the god would have rejected alike all offerings from Persian spoils, if like Themistocles the others had inquired of Apollo before making their dedication. Others said that the god knew that Themistocles would become a suppliant of the Persian king, and refused to take the gifts so that Themistocles might not by a dedication render the Persian's enmity unappeasable. The expedition of the barbarian against Greece we find foretold in the oracles of Bacis, and Euclus wrote his verses about it at an even earlier date.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
"historiography, classical" Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 181, 182, 183, 184, 185
"historiography, hellenistic" Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 181
"justice, divine" Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 181, 183, 185
"punishment, mirroring or apt" Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 185
ability to handle good fortune Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 181, 182, 183, 185
aigeus of athens Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 266
aipytos, king Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 266
akrisios, king of argos Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 266
alcmaeonidae of athens Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 161
alkmaion Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 266
alyattes Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
amiclas, hero of carthage Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 230
amphiaraos, delphi, rivalry with in kroisos logos Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147
amphiaraos, kroisos and Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147
amphiaraos, shield and spear of Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 142, 147
amphiaraos, theban ismenion and Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 147
amphiaraus, hero of thebes Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 140
amphiareion, delphi, rivalry with Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 141, 142, 143, 144, 147
amphiareion, location of Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 147
amphilytos Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 145
anabasis, xenophons Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 131
anaximander of miletus, map of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 208
antoniopolis Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
antonius, m. Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
aphrodite, pythios of delphi Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 56, 149
apollo, cult of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192, 208
apollo, dedications to Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
apollo, in myth Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 208
apollo, oracles of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192, 208
apollo Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192, 208
apollo (god) Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
apollonia in lydia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
apollonihieritae Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
archegetes Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
aretalogy Versnel, Coping with the Gods: Wayward Readings in Greek Theology (2011) 286
arrogance Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 181, 182, 183, 185
artabanus Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 241
artabanus of persia Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 161
artaüctes of persia Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 140
asia, europe and Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 208
asia, royal funerals of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
assyria Sweeney, Foundation Myths and Politics in Ancient Ionia (2013) 27
astyages Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 125
athens Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 281
athens and athenians, in peisistratid era Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 208
athens and athenians, tyranny and Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 208
audience Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 126
auspex Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 41
author Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 126
azande people, sudan Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 241
babylon, babylonians Torok, Herodotus In Nubia (2014) 43
bacis, salamis Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 140
bacis Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 140
bakis Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 139
battus Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
bel-marduk Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
branchidae Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
cadi Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
cambyses Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 182; Torok, Herodotus In Nubia (2014) 43
cambyses of persia, impieties of Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 208
cambyses of persia, oracles to Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 230
candaules Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 131
candaules of lydia Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 149
cargill, jack Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 208
chance Versnel, Coping with the Gods: Wayward Readings in Greek Theology (2011) 182
charikles Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 266
charis Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 140, 147; Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 162; Peels, Hosios: A Semantic Study of Greek Piety (2016) 53
chians Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 140
chrēsmologos, amphilytos as Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 145
chrēsmologos, seer and Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 139
cimmerians Sweeney, Foundation Myths and Politics in Ancient Ionia (2013) 27
clazomenae Sweeney, Foundation Myths and Politics in Ancient Ionia (2013) 27
cleomenes of sparta, impieties of Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 208
cleomenes of sparta, omens to Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 140, 149, 208
cleomenes of sparta, oracles to Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 56, 149
cognitive linguistics Peels, Hosios: A Semantic Study of Greek Piety (2016) 53
coincidences, as a sign of divine involvement Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 185
colonial discourse, delphis oracular monopoly and Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 139
conflict, with persians Sweeney, Foundation Myths and Politics in Ancient Ionia (2013) 27
croesus, and delphi Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 208
croesus, fall of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192, 208
croesus Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 181, 182, 183, 184, 185; Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 41; Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 281; Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 131; Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192, 208; Sweeney, Foundation Myths and Politics in Ancient Ionia (2013) 27
croesus (in herodotus), and delphic oracle Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 242
croesus (in herodotus), and layers of superhuman influence Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 242
croesus (in herodotus), deceived by apollo? Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 242
croesus (king of lydia) Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 125
croesus of lydia, dedications of Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 161, 162
croesus of lydia, oracles to Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 56, 140, 149, 161, 162, 230
croesus of lydia, phthonos and Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 150
croesus of lydia, piety of Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 161, 162
croesus of lydia, solon and Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 150
croesus of lydia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
cumaeum carmen Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 41
cyno, as a mule Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 66
cyno Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 66
cypselus Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 56
cyrus, the great Sweeney, Foundation Myths and Politics in Ancient Ionia (2013) 27
cyrus of persia, dreams of Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 208
cyrus of persia, fortune and Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 150, 230
cyrus the great Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 182, 184; Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 131; Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 208
cyrus the great (king of persia) Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 125
darios, perian king Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 241
darius Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 182; Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 126
darius of persia Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 140, 208
deinomenes of syrakuse Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 266
delos Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 208
delos and delians Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 140
delphi, amphiareion, rivalry with in kroisos logos Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147
delphi, kroisos and Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144
delphi, oracle of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
delphi Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 131; Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
delphi and delphians, dedications at Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 161, 162, 210
delphi and delphians Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 140
delphic apollo/delphic oracle, in competition with other oracles Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 139
delphic oracle, to aristides Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 210
delphic oracle, to athenians Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 149, 210
delphic oracle, to cleomenes Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 56, 149
delphic oracle, to croesus Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 56, 140, 161, 162, 230
delphic oracle, to cypselus Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 56
delphic oracle, to delphians Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 140
delphic oracle, to gyges Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 149
delphic oracle, to milesians Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 140, 149
delphic oracle, to miltiades the elder Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 56
delphic oracle, to siphnians Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 56
delphic oracle, to spartans Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 56, 140
delphic oracle, to thebans Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 56, 149
delphic oracle, to themistocles Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 210
delphic oracle, to tisamenus Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 140
delphic oracle, togreeks Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 210
delphic oracle, wooden wall, Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 56, 140
delphic oracle Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 66; Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 181, 184; Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 56, 140, 149, 150, 210, 230
destruction/ruin Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 125
didyma Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
diodorus siculus Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 181, 185
diogenes of sinope Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 266
discourse of Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 139
divination, and anthropology Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 41
divination, and belief Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 41
divination, and crisis Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 41
divination, the delphic oracle Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 31
divination Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 31
divine speech, enigmatic Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 223
dreams and visions, riddling Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 223
echetlaeus, hero of athens Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 210
effeminacy Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 125
enigmatic speech, graeco-roman oracular and prophetic Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 223
enigmatic speech, modes Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 223
enviousness (of the gods) Versnel, Coping with the Gods: Wayward Readings in Greek Theology (2011) 181, 182
epiphany, of apollo Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 140
epiphany, of solon Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 140
erginos, king of orchomenos Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 266
ethnicity, and animality Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 66
euadne Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 266
evaluation, internal Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 181, 182
excessive luck, wealth Versnel, Coping with the Gods: Wayward Readings in Greek Theology (2011) 180, 181, 182
fate Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 185
firstfruits Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 162
fontenrose, j. Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 266
funerary cult Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
georges, pericles Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
gift -exchange model of reciprocity Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 139, 140, 144, 147
gods, intervention Martin, Divine Talk: Religious Argumentation in Demosthenes (2009) 145
gods, mortal, human Versnel, Coping with the Gods: Wayward Readings in Greek Theology (2011) 180, 182
gods, oracles Budelmann, The Language of Sophocles: Communality, Communication, and Involvement (1999) 124
graeca interpretatio Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 161, 162
grayson, albert kirk Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 208
gyges, and delphi Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
gyges, founds mermnad dynasty Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
gyges Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 131
gyges of lydia Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 149
harpagus Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 125
haruspicy Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 41
hegesistratus of samos Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 140
hera, of argos Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 140
heracles Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 131; Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
heraclidae Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 131
herodotus, and flexible necessity Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 242
herodotus, ethnic perspectives of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192, 208
herodotus, historical perspective of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
herodotus, irony Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 125, 126
herodotus, military training in Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 125
herodotus, on fate or fates Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 242
herodotus, on sovereignty Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 208
herodotus, on tyranny Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 208
herodotus, prosperity in Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 125
herodotus, subjugation/subject-people in Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 125
herodotus, weakness of non-persians Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 125
herodotus, wise advisers Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 125
herodotus Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 125; Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 181, 182, 183, 184, 185; Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 41; Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 31
heroes and heroines, of athens Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 210
heroes and heroines, of athens (eponymous) Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 230
heroes and heroines, of thebes Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 140
hesiod Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 230
histories (herodotus), mixing of species in Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 66
historiography, development of Marincola et al., Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones and Calum Maciver, Greek Notions of the Past in the Archaic and Classical Eras: History Without Historians (2021) 1
homer, character and divine influence in Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 242
homer, layers of superhuman influence in Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 242
homer Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 266; Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 281; Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 230
humility Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 183, 184, 185
hyde Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
icon Versnel, Coping with the Gods: Wayward Readings in Greek Theology (2011) 286
identity, proclamation of Edmonds, Myths of the Underworld Journey: Plato, Aristophanes, and the ‘Orphic’ Gold Tablets (2004) 72
india, indians Torok, Herodotus In Nubia (2014) 43
ionia, ionians Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
ionian cosmology and science Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 208
jealousy of the divine Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 185
juxtaposition, as a means of moralising Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 182, 183
kaplan, philip Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
kephalos Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 266
kingship, among greeks Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
kingship, lydian Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
kingship, spartan Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
kroisos, amphiaraos and Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 142, 143, 144, 147
kroisos, apollo and Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 139, 140, 145, 146, 147
kroisos, delphi and Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144
kroisos, herodotean logos of Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147
kroisos, nicolaus of damascus pyre scene and Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 145, 146, 147
kroisos, solon and Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 140, 141
laios, king of thebes Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 266
law Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
lawagetas, lavagtaei Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
leonidas Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 125
leto, goddess, of egypt Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 230
libya, libyans Torok, Herodotus In Nubia (2014) 43
logos, structure Torok, Herodotus In Nubia (2014) 43
luxury Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 183
lycus Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 131
lydia, lydians Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 131
lydia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306; Torok, Herodotus In Nubia (2014) 43
lydia and lydians, and sparta Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
lydians Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 125
macedonia, macedonians, settlers elsewhere Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
macintyre, alasdair Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 241
maeander river Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
maeonia, maeonii Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
malkin, irad Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
mantic-oracular rivalry Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147
mantic authority, oracular authority and Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147
maps, ionian Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 208
mardonius Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 125
massagetae Torok, Herodotus In Nubia (2014) 43
medes Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 66
menelaos Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 266
mermnads Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192, 208
miaros (pollution, impurity), andocides Martin, Divine Talk: Religious Argumentation in Demosthenes (2009) 145
midas, historical record of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
midas monument (yazılıkaya) Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
milesians Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 140, 149
miletus Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306; Sweeney, Foundation Myths and Politics in Ancient Ionia (2013) 27
miletus and milesians Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
military, training Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 125
miltiades the elder of athens, hero of chersonnesus Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 56
miracles, at sardis Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 162
modello-esemplare, herodotus as Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 131
moirae Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 162, 230
mother of the gods, and warfare Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
musaeus Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 140
mycerinus Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 66
mys Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 147
mysotimolitae Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
myth-critics' Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 31
nabonidus, chronicle Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 208
narrative manners and techniques Torok, Herodotus In Nubia (2014) 43
naxos, sicilian Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
necessity Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 149, 150
nepos Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 266
nomoi Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 162
non-greeks, characterized as animals Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 66
nuer people Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 241
oidipous Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 266
oikistes Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
oikoumene, and kingship Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
oikoumene Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192, 208
omens, to artaüctes Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 140
omens, to chians Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 140
omens, to greeks Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 140
omens, to spartans Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 140
omens Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 140
oracles, croesus and the Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192, 208
oracles, delphic Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
oracles, of zeus ammon Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 141
oracles, reports, herodotus Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 455
oracles, riddling Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 223
oracles, rivalry between Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 139
oracles Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 181; Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 56, 140, 149, 150; Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 131; Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
oropos, amphiareion at Foster, The Seer and the City: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Ideology in Ancient Greece (2017) 147
osborne, robin Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 192
overconfidence Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 181, 182, 183, 185
overdetermination Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 184, 185
pactolus river Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
paionians Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 56
palaephatus Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 31
paphlagonians Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 131
patterning Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 181, 182, 183, 185
pausanias, role of fortune in Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 281
pausanias Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 281
peisistratus and peisistratids Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 208
periander of corinth Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 208
peripeteia Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 181, 182, 183
persia, persians Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 131