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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6465
Herodotus, Histories, 1.32


Σόλων μὲν δὴ εὐδαιμονίης δευτερεῖα ἔνεμε τούτοισι, Κροῖσος δὲ σπερχθεὶς εἶπε “ὦ ξεῖνε Ἀθηναῖε, ἡ δʼ ἡμετέρη εὐδαιμονίη οὕτω τοι ἀπέρριπται ἐς τὸ μηδὲν ὥστε οὐδὲ ἰδιωτέων ἀνδρῶν ἀξίους ἡμέας ἐποίησας;” ὁ δὲ εἶπε “ὦ Κροῖσε, ἐπιστάμενόν με τὸ θεῖον πᾶν ἐὸν φθονερόν τε καὶ ταραχῶδες ἐπειρωτᾷς ἀνθρωπηίων πρηγμάτων πέρι. ἐν γὰρ τῷ μακρῷ χρόνῳ πολλὰ μὲν ἐστὶ ἰδεῖν τὰ μή τις ἐθέλει, πολλὰ δὲ καὶ παθεῖν. ἐς γὰρ ἑβδομήκοντα ἔτεα οὖρον τῆς ζόης ἀνθρώπῳ προτίθημι. οὗτοι ἐόντες ἐνιαυτοὶ ἑβδομήκοντα παρέχονται ἡμέρας διηκοσίας καὶ πεντακισχιλίας καὶ δισμυρίας, ἐμβολίμου μηνὸς μὴ γινομένου· εἰ δὲ δὴ ἐθελήσει τοὔτερον τῶν ἐτέων μηνὶ μακρότερον γίνεσθαι, ἵνα δὴ αἱ ὧραι συμβαίνωσι παραγινόμεναι ἐς τὸ δέον, μῆνες μὲν παρὰ τὰ ἑβδομήκοντα ἔτεα οἱ ἐμβόλιμοι γίνονται τριήκοντα πέντε, ἡμέραι δὲ ἐκ τῶν μηνῶν τούτων χίλιαι πεντήκοντα. τουτέων τῶν ἁπασέων ἡμερέων τῶν ἐς τὰ ἑβδομήκοντα ἔτεα, ἐουσέων πεντήκοντα καὶ διηκοσιέων καὶ ἑξακισχιλιέων καὶ δισμυριέων, ἡ ἑτέρη αὐτέων τῇ ἑτέρῃ ἡμέρῃ τὸ παράπαν οὐδὲν ὅμοιον προσάγει πρῆγμα. οὕτω ὦν Κροῖσε πᾶν ἐστὶ ἄνθρωπος συμφορή. ἐμοὶ δὲ σὺ καὶ πλουτέειν μέγα φαίνεαι καὶ βασιλεὺς πολλῶν εἶναι ἀνθρώπων· ἐκεῖνο δὲ τὸ εἴρεό με, οὔκω σε ἐγὼ λέγω, πρὶν τελευτήσαντα καλῶς τὸν αἰῶνα πύθωμαι. οὐ γάρ τι ὁ μέγα πλούσιος μᾶλλον τοῦ ἐπʼ ἡμέρην ἔχοντος ὀλβιώτερος ἐστί, εἰ μή οἱ τύχη ἐπίσποιτο πάντα καλὰ ἔχοντα εὖ τελευτῆσαὶ τὸν βίον. πολλοὶ μὲν γὰρ ζάπλουτοι ἀνθρώπων ἀνόλβιοι εἰσί, πολλοὶ δὲ μετρίως ἔχοντες βίου εὐτυχέες. ὁ μὲν δὴ μέγα πλούσιος ἀνόλβιος δὲ δυοῖσι προέχει τοῦ εὐτυχέος μοῦνον, οὗτος δὲ τοῦ πλουσίου καὶ ἀνόλβου πολλοῖσι· ὃ μὲν ἐπιθυμίην ἐκτελέσαι καί ἄτην μεγάλην προσπεσοῦσαν ἐνεῖκαι δυνατώτερος, ὁ δὲ τοῖσιδε προέχει ἐκείνου· ἄτην μὲν καὶ ἐπιθυμίην οὐκ ὁμοίως δυνατὸς ἐκείνῳ ἐνεῖκαι, ταῦτα δὲ ἡ εὐτυχίη οἱ ἀπερύκει, ἄπηρος δὲ ἐστί, ἄνουσος, ἀπαθὴς κακῶν, εὔπαις, εὐειδής. εἰ δὲ πρὸς τούτοισι ἔτι τελευτήσῃ τὸν βίον εὖ, οὗτος ἐκεῖνος τὸν σὺ ζητέεις, ὁ ὄλβιος κεκλῆσθαι ἄξιος ἐστί· πρὶν δʼ ἂν τελευτήσῃ, ἐπισχεῖν, μηδὲ καλέειν κω ὄλβιον ἀλλʼ εὐτυχέα. τὰ πάντα μέν νυν ταῦτα συλλαβεῖν ἄνθρωπον ἐόντα ἀδύνατον ἐστί, ὥσπερ χωρῇ οὐδεμία καταρκέει πάντα ἑωυτῇ παρέχουσα, ἀλλὰ ἄλλο μὲν ἔχει ἑτέρου δὲ ἐπιδέεται· ἣ δὲ ἂν τὰ πλεῖστα ἔχῃ, αὕτη ἀρίστη. ὣς δὲ καὶ ἀνθρώπου σῶμα ἓν οὐδὲν αὔταρκες ἐστί· τὸ μὲν γὰρ ἔχει, ἄλλου δὲ ἐνδεές ἐστι· ὃς δʼ ἂν αὐτῶν πλεῖστα ἔχων διατελέῃ καὶ ἔπειτα τελευτήσῃ εὐχαρίστως τὸν βίον, οὗτος παρʼ ἐμοὶ τὸ οὔνομα τοῦτο ὦ βασιλεῦ δίκαιος ἐστὶ φέρεσθαι. σκοπέειν δὲ χρὴ παντὸς χρήματος τὴν τελευτήν, κῇ ἀποβήσεται· πολλοῖσι γὰρ δὴ ὑποδέξας ὄλβον ὁ θεὸς προρρίζους ἀνέτρεψε.”Thus Solon granted second place in happiness to these men. Croesus was vexed and said, “My Athenian guest, do you so much despise our happiness that you do not even make us worth as much as common men?” Solon replied, “Croesus, you ask me about human affairs, and I know that the divine is entirely grudging and troublesome to us. ,In a long span of time it is possible to see many things that you do not want to, and to suffer them, too. I set the limit of a man's life at seventy years; ,these seventy years have twenty-five thousand, two hundred days, leaving out the intercalary month. But if you make every other year longer by one month, so that the seasons agree opportunely, then there are thirty-five intercalary months during the seventy years, and from these months there are one thousand fifty days. ,Out of all these days in the seventy years, all twenty-six thousand, two hundred and fifty of them, not one brings anything at all like another. So, Croesus, man is entirely chance. ,To me you seem to be very rich and to be king of many people, but I cannot answer your question before I learn that you ended your life well. The very rich man is not more fortunate than the man who has only his daily needs, unless he chances to end his life with all well. Many very rich men are unfortunate, many of moderate means are lucky. ,The man who is very rich but unfortunate surpasses the lucky man in only two ways, while the lucky surpasses the rich but unfortunate in many. The rich man is more capable of fulfilling his appetites and of bearing a great disaster that falls upon him, and it is in these ways that he surpasses the other. The lucky man is not so able to support disaster or appetite as is the rich man, but his luck keeps these things away from him, and he is free from deformity and disease, has no experience of evils, and has fine children and good looks. ,If besides all this he ends his life well, then he is the one whom you seek, the one worthy to be called fortunate. But refrain from calling him fortunate before he dies; call him lucky. ,It is impossible for one who is only human to obtain all these things at the same time, just as no land is self-sufficient in what it produces. Each country has one thing but lacks another; whichever has the most is the best. Just so no human being is self-sufficient; each person has one thing but lacks another. ,Whoever passes through life with the most and then dies agreeably is the one who, in my opinion, O King, deserves to bear this name. It is necessary to see how the end of every affair turns out, for the god promises fortune to many people and then utterly ruins them.”


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

48 results
1. Hesiod, Works And Days, 765-770, 822-828, 218 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

218. Why do you cry? A stronger one by far
2. Homer, Iliad, 2.864-2.866, 9.508-9.509 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

2.864. /but was slain beneath the hands of the son of Aeacus, swift of foot, in the river, where Achilles was making havoc of the Trojans and the others as well.And Phorcys and godlike Ascanius led the Phrygians from afar, from Ascania, and were eager to fight in the press of battle.And the Maeonians had captains twain, Mesthles and Antiphus 2.865. /the two sons of TaIaemenes, whose mother was the nymph of the Gygaean lake; and they led the Maeonians, whose birth was beneath Tmolas.And Nastes again led the Carians, uncouth of speech, who held Miletus and the mountain of Phthires, dense with its leafage, and the streams of Maeander, and the steep crests of Mycale. 2.866. /the two sons of TaIaemenes, whose mother was the nymph of the Gygaean lake; and they led the Maeonians, whose birth was beneath Tmolas.And Nastes again led the Carians, uncouth of speech, who held Miletus and the mountain of Phthires, dense with its leafage, and the streams of Maeander, and the steep crests of Mycale. 9.508. /Howbeit Sin is strong and fleet of foot, wherefore she far out-runneth them all, and goeth before them over the face of all the earth making men to fall, and Prayers follow after, seeking to heal the hurt. Now whoso revereth the daughters of Zeus when they draw nigh, him they greatly bless, and hear him, when he prayeth; 9.509. /Howbeit Sin is strong and fleet of foot, wherefore she far out-runneth them all, and goeth before them over the face of all the earth making men to fall, and Prayers follow after, seeking to heal the hurt. Now whoso revereth the daughters of Zeus when they draw nigh, him they greatly bless, and hear him, when he prayeth;
3. Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 659 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

659. ὁρῶμεν ἀνθοῦν πέλαγος Αἰγαῖον νεκροῖς 659. We view the Aigaian sea on flower with corpses
4. Pindar, Olympian Odes, 9.89-9.90 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5. Pindar, Pythian Odes, 8.79 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6. Xenophanes, Fragments, None (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7. Xenophanes, Fragments, None (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8. Xenophanes, Fragments, None (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9. Euripides, Hecuba, 1613, 1612 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10. Euripides, Iphigenia At Aulis, 1613, 590-597, 911-916, 1612 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11. Euripides, Orestes, 1522 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1522. A slave, and yet you fear death, which will release you from trouble? Phrygian
12. Euripides, Phoenician Women, 1580-1581, 1579 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

13. Euripides, Suppliant Women, 1001-1005, 1000 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1000. Now from my home in frantic haste with frenzied mind I rush to join thee, seeking to share with thee the fire’s bright flame and the self-same tomb, to rid me of my weary
14. Euripides, Trojan Women, 606 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

15. Herodotus, Histories, 1.1, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 1.14, 1.15, 1.16, 1.17, 1.18, 1.19, 1.20, 1.21, 1.22, 1.23, 1.24, 1.25, 1.26, 1.27, 1.28, 1.29, 1.30, 1.30.2, 1.30.3, 1.30.4, 1.31, 1.32.1, 1.32.4, 1.32.8, 1.32.9, 1.33, 1.34, 1.35, 1.36, 1.37, 1.38, 1.39, 1.40, 1.41, 1.42, 1.43, 1.44, 1.45, 1.46, 1.47, 1.48, 1.49, 1.50, 1.51, 1.52, 1.53, 1.54, 1.55, 1.56, 1.57, 1.58, 1.59, 1.60, 1.61, 1.62, 1.63, 1.64, 1.65, 1.66, 1.67, 1.68, 1.69, 1.70, 1.71, 1.72, 1.73, 1.74, 1.75, 1.76, 1.77, 1.78, 1.79, 1.80, 1.81, 1.82, 1.82.1, 1.83, 1.84, 1.85, 1.86, 1.87, 1.88, 1.89, 1.90, 1.91, 1.92, 1.93, 1.94, 1.125, 1.126, 1.137, 1.139, 1.159, 1.170, 1.182, 1.192, 1.196, 1.198, 1.199, 1.201, 1.202, 1.203, 1.204, 1.205, 1.206, 1.207, 1.208, 1.209, 1.209.4, 1.210, 1.211, 1.212, 1.213, 1.214, 1.215, 1.216, 2.66, 2.82, 2.141, 2.161, 2.162, 2.163, 2.169, 3.4, 3.10, 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 3.20, 3.21, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 3.25, 3.26, 3.27, 3.29, 3.31, 3.32, 3.33, 3.37, 3.39, 3.40, 3.41, 3.42, 3.43, 3.64, 3.71, 3.72, 3.73, 3.80, 3.81, 3.82, 3.83, 3.98, 3.99, 3.100, 3.101, 3.102, 3.103, 3.104, 3.105, 3.106, 3.116, 3.120, 3.121, 3.122, 3.123, 3.124, 3.125, 3.153, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.21, 4.22, 4.23, 4.24, 4.25, 4.26, 4.27, 4.28, 4.29, 4.30, 4.31, 4.32, 4.33, 4.34, 4.35, 4.36, 4.37, 4.38, 4.39, 4.40, 4.41, 4.42, 4.43, 4.44, 4.45, 4.46, 4.47, 4.48, 4.49, 4.50, 4.51, 4.52, 4.53, 4.54, 4.55, 4.56, 4.57, 4.58, 4.59, 4.60, 4.61, 4.62, 4.63, 4.64, 4.65, 4.66, 4.67, 4.68, 4.69, 4.70, 4.71, 4.72, 4.73, 4.74, 4.75, 4.76, 4.77, 4.78, 4.79, 4.80, 4.81, 4.82, 4.83, 4.84, 4.91, 4.119, 4.134, 4.135, 4.136, 4.137, 4.138, 4.139, 4.140, 4.141, 4.142, 4.171, 4.172, 4.173, 4.177, 4.179, 4.180, 4.181, 4.182, 4.183, 4.184, 4.185, 4.186, 4.187, 4.188, 4.189, 4.191, 4.192, 4.193, 4.194, 4.195, 4.196, 4.197, 4.198, 4.199, 4.205, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.35, 5.78, 5.91, 5.97, 6.5, 6.27, 6.61, 6.62, 6.63, 6.64, 6.65, 6.75, 6.82, 6.84, 6.98, 6.107, 6.108, 6.116, 6.117, 6.118, 6.131, 7.2, 7.3, 7.10, 7.10.ε, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.35, 7.37, 7.39, 7.44, 7.45, 7.46, 7.47, 7.48, 7.49, 7.50, 7.51, 7.52, 7.53, 7.54, 7.55, 7.56, 7.57, 7.101, 7.102, 7.103, 7.104, 7.105, 7.114, 7.115, 7.116, 7.117, 7.118, 7.119, 7.120, 7.133, 7.137, 7.137.2, 7.152.3, 7.157, 7.158, 7.159, 7.160, 7.161, 7.162, 7.208, 7.209, 7.210, 7.211, 7.212, 8.20, 8.27, 8.37, 8.51, 8.52, 8.53, 8.54, 8.55, 8.60, 8.65, 8.77, 8.84, 8.94, 8.96, 8.99, 8.109, 8.115, 8.118, 8.119, 8.120, 8.129, 8.132.2, 8.137, 9.16, 9.73, 9.100, 9.101.1, 9.120, 9.121, 9.122 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.1. The Persian learned men say that the Phoenicians were the cause of the dispute. These (they say) came to our seas from the sea which is called Red, and having settled in the country which they still occupy, at once began to make long voyages. Among other places to which they carried Egyptian and Assyrian merchandise, they came to Argos, ,which was at that time preeminent in every way among the people of what is now called Hellas . The Phoenicians came to Argos, and set out their cargo. ,On the fifth or sixth day after their arrival, when their wares were almost all sold, many women came to the shore and among them especially the daughter of the king, whose name was Io (according to Persians and Greeks alike), the daughter of Inachus. ,As these stood about the stern of the ship bargaining for the wares they liked, the Phoenicians incited one another to set upon them. Most of the women escaped: Io and others were seized and thrown into the ship, which then sailed away for Egypt .
16. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

247a. He is followed by an army of gods and spirits, arrayed in eleven squadrons; Hestia alone remains in the house of the gods. of the rest, those who are included among the twelve great gods and are accounted leaders, are assigned each to his place in the army. There are many blessed sights and many ways hither and thither within the heaven, along which the blessed gods go to and fro attending each to his own duties; and whoever wishes, and is able, follows, for jealousy is excluded from the celestial band. But when they go to a feast and a banquet
17. Sophocles, Electra, 1364-1366, 1363 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

18. Sophocles, Oedipus At Colonus, 1612 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

19. Sophocles, Oedipus The King, 1283-1285, 1282 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

20. Sophocles, Women of Trachis, 1173 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1173. my release from the toils laid upon me would be accomplished. And I expected prosperous days, but the meaning, it seems, was only that I would die. For toil comes no more to the dead. Since, then, my son, those words are clearly finding their fulfillment
21. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 2.34.5 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

2.34.5. The dead are laid in the public sepulchre in the most beautiful suburb of the city, in which those who fall in war are always buried; with the exception of those slain at Marathon, who for their singular and extraordinary valor were interred on the spot where they fell.
22. Xenophon, Memoirs, 4.3.13 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

4.3.13. Yes, and you will realise the truth of what I say if, instead of waiting for the gods to appear to you in bodily presence, you are content to praise and worship them because you see their works. Mark that the gods themselves give the reason for doing so; for when they bestow on us their good gifts, not one of them ever appears before us gift in hand; and especially he who co-ordinates and holds together the universe, wherein all things are fair and good, and presents them ever unimpaired and sound and ageless for our use, ibid. VIII. vii. 22. and quicker than thought to serve us unerringly, is manifest in his supreme works, and yet is unseen by us in the ordering of them.
23. Callimachus, Aetia, 1.23-1.24 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24. Cicero, Letters, 16.7.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

25. Cicero, Letters, 16.7.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

26. Cicero, Letters, 16.7.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

27. Cicero, Letters To His Friends, 5.12.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

28. Cicero, Letters, 16.7.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

29. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 4.62 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4.62. 1.  Deucalion, the eldest of the sons of Minos, while he was ruler of Crete, formed an alliance with the Athenians and united his own sister Phaedra in marriage to Theseus. After the marriage Theseus sent his son Hippolytus, who had been born to him by the Amazon, to Troezen to be reared among the brothers of Aethra, and by Phaedra he begat Acamas and Demophon.,2.  A short time after this Hippolytus returned to Athens for the celebration of the mysteries, and Phaedra, becoming enamoured of him because of his beauty, at that time, after he had returned to Troezen, erected a temple of Aphroditê beside the acropolis at the place whence one can look across and see Troezen, but at a later time, when she was stopping together with Theseus at the home of Pittheus, she asked Hippolytus to lie with her. Upon his refusal to do so Phaedra, they say, was vexed, and on her return to Athens she told Theseus that Hippolytus had proposed lying with her.,3.  And since Theseus had his doubts about the accusation, he sent for Hippolytus in order to put him to the test, whereupon Phaedra, fearing the result of the examination, hanged herself; as for Hippolytus, who was driving a chariot when he heard of the accusation, he was so distraught in spirit that the horses got out of control and ran away with him, and in the event the chariot was smashed to bits and the youth, becoming entangled in the leathern thongs, was dragged along till he died.,4.  Hippolytus, then, since he had ended his life because of his chastity, received at the hands of the Troezenians honours equal to those offered to the gods, but Theseus, when after these happenings he was overpowered by a rival faction and banished from his native land, met his death on foreign soil. The Athenians, however, repenting of what they had done, brought back his bones and accorded him honours equal to those offered to the gods, and they set aside in Athens a sacred precinct which enjoyed the right of sanctuary and was called after him the Theseum.
30. Horace, Sermones, 1.6.29, 1.6.38-1.6.39, 1.6.43-1.6.48, 1.6.56-1.6.61 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

31. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 23, 21 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. And the power and faculty which could be capable of creating the world, has for its origin that good which is founded on truth; for if any one were desirous to investigate the cause on account of which this universe was created, I think that he would come to no erroneous conclusion if he were to say as one of the ancients did say: "That the Father and Creator was good; on which account he did not grudge the substance a share of his own excellent nature, since it had nothing good of itself, but was able to become everything.
32. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 143-145, 142 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

142. On which account Moses says in another passage, "Thou shalt lend a loan to him who asks you for one, as much as he requires, having regard to what he Requires." By the second phrase showing that it is not everything which is to be given, but only such things as are suitable to the requirements of those who are asking for them. For to give an anchor, or an oar, or a rudder to a husbandman, or ploughs or a spade to a captain of a ship, or a lyre to a physician, or instruments suited to manual labour to a musician, would be ridiculous, unless indeed one ought to offer a thirsty man costly viands, or a hungry man unmixed wine in abundance, so as to show at once one's own riches and one's want of humanity, by turning the souls of one's companions into ridicule. The quantity to be given in an act of beneficence is defined according to due proportion, which is a most useful thing. For, says Moses, do not give all that right reason is able to give, but as much as he who is asking the loan is worthy to receive.
33. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.43-1.44, 2.55 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.43. But God replied, "I receive, indeed, your eagerness, inasmuch as it is praiseworthy; but the request which you make is not fitting to be granted to any created being. And I only bestow such gifts as are appropriate to him who receives them; for it is not possible for a man to receive all that it is easy for me to give. On which account I give to him who is deserving of my favour all the gifts which he is able to receive. 1.44. But not only is the nature of mankind, but even the whole heaven and the whole world is unable to attain to an adequate comprehension of me. So know yourself, and be not carried away with impulses and desires beyond your power; and let not a desire of unattainable objects carry you away and keep you in suspense. For you shall not lack anything which may be possessed by you. 2.55. For the merciful God lightened her fear, bidding her by his holy word confess that she did laugh, in order to teach us that the creature is not wholly and entirely deprived of joy; but that joy is unmingled and the purest of all which can receive nothing of an opposite nature, the chosen peculiar joy of God. But the joy which flows from that is a mingled one, being alloyed, being that of a man who is already wise, and who has received as the most valuable gift possible such a mixture as that in which the pleasant are far more numerous than the unpleasant ingredients. And this is enough to say on this subject.THE SECOND FESTIVALXV.
34. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 1.55, 2.57 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

35. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 119 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

119. But to the impious Cain, neither does the earth contribute anything to give him vigour, even though he never concerns himself about anything which is exterior to it; on which account, in the next sentence, he is found "groaning and trembling upon the Earth," that is to say, under the influence of grief and terror; and such also is the miserable life of a wicked man, who has received for his inheritance the most painful of the four passions, pain and terror; the one being equivalent to groaning, and the other to trembling; for it is inevitable, that some evil should either be present to or impending over such a man. Now the expectation of impending evil causes fear, but the suffering of present evil causes pain.
36. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 13 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. And since, as that sweetest of all writers, Plato, says, envy is removed far from the divine company, but wisdom, that most divine and communicative of all things, never closes its school, but is continually open to receive all who thirst for salutary doctrines, to whom she pours forth the inexhaustible stream of unalloyed instruction and wisdom, and persuades them to yield to the intoxication of the soberest of all drunkenness.
37. Strabo, Geography, 13.4.6, 14.1.3, 14.1.5, 14.2.23-14.2.24 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

13.4.6. The verses of Homer are about as follows: Mnesthles and Antiphus, the two sons of Talaemenes, whose mother was Lake Gygaea, who led also the Meionians, who were born at the foot of Tmolus; but some add the following fourth verse: At the foot of snowy Tmolus, in the fertile land of Hyde. But there is no Hyde to be found in the country of the Lydians. Some also put Tychius there, of whom the poet says,far the best of workers in hide, who lived in Hyde. And they add that the place is woody and subject to strokes of lightning, and that the Arimi live there, for after Homer's verse,in the land of the Arimi where men say is the couch of Typhon, they insert the words,in a wooded place, in the fertile land of Hyde. But others lay the scene of this myth in Cilicia, and some lay it in Syria, and still others in the Pithecussae Islands, who say that among the Tyrrhenians pitheci are called arimi. Some call Sardeis Hyde, while others call its acropolis Hyde. But the Scepsian thinks that those writers are most plausible who place the Arimi in the Catacecaumene country in Mysia. But Pindar associates the Pithecussae which lie off the Cymaean territory, as also the territory in Sicily, with the territory in Cilicia, for he says that Typhon lies beneath Aetna: Once he dwelt in a far-famed Cilician cavern; now, however, his shaggy breast is o'er-pressed by the sea-girt shores above Cumae and by Sicily. And again,round about him lies Aetna with her haughty fetters, and again,but it was father Zeus that once amongst the Arimi, by necessity, alone of the gods, smote monstrous Typhon of the fifty heads. But some understand that the Syrians are Arimi, who are now called the Arimaeans, and that the Cilicians in Troy, forced to migrate, settled again in Syria and cut off for themselves what is now called Cilicia. Callisthenes says that the Arimi, after whom the neighboring mountains are called Arima, are situated near Mt. Calycadnus and the promontory of Sarpedon near the Corycian cave itself. 14.1.3. Pherecydes says concerning this seaboard that Miletus and Myus and the parts round Mycale and Ephesus were in earlier times occupied by Carians, and that the coast next thereafter, as far as Phocaea and Chios and Samos, which were ruled by Ancaeus, was occupied by Leleges, but that both were driven out by the Ionians and took refuge in the remaining parts of Caria. He says that Androclus, legitimate son of Codrus the king of Athens, was the leader of the Ionian colonization, which was later than the Aeolian, and that he became the founder of Ephesus; and for this reason, it is said, the royal seat of the Ionians was established there. And still now the descendants of his family are called kings; and they have certain honors, I mean the privilege of front seats at the games and of wearing purple robes as insignia of royal descent, and staff instead of sceptre, and of the superintendence of the sacrifices in honor of the Eleusinian Demeter. Miletus was founded by Neleus, a Pylian by birth. The Messenians and the Pylians pretend a kind of kinship with one another, according to which the more recent poets call Nestor a Messenian; and they say that many of the Pylians accompanied Melanthus, father of Codrus, and his followers to Athens, and that, accordingly, all this people sent forth the colonizing expedition in common with the Ionians. There is an altar, erected by Neleus, to be seen on the Poseidium. Myus was founded by Cydrelus, bastard son of Codrus; Lebedus by Andropompus, who seized a place called Artis; Colophon by Andraemon a Pylian, according to Mimnermus in his Nanno; Priene by Aepytus the son of Neleus, and then later by Philotas, who brought a colony from Thebes; Teos, at first by Athamas, for which reason it is by Anacreon called Athamantis, and at the time of the Ionian colonization by Nauclus, bastard son of Codrus, and after him by Apoecus and Damasus, who were Athenians, and Geres, a Boeotian; Erythrae by Cnopus, he too a bastard son of Codrus; Phocaea by the Athenians under Philogenes; Clazomenae by Paralus; Chios by Egertius, who brought with him a mixed crowd; Samos by Tembrion, and then later by Procles. 14.1.5. Next after the Poseidium of the Milesians, eighteen stadia inland, is the oracle of Apollo Didymeus among the Branchidae. It was set on fire by Xerxes, as were also the other sanctuaries, except that at Ephesus. The Branchidae gave over the treasures of the god to the Persian king, and accompanied him in his flight in order to escape punishment for the robbing and the betrayal of the sanctuary. But later the Milesians erected the largest temple in the world, though on account of its size it remained without a roof. At any rate, the circuit of the sacred enclosure holds a village settlement; and there is a magnificent sacred grove both inside and outside the enclosure; and other sacred enclosures contain the oracle and sacred things. Here is laid the scene of the myth of Branchus and the love of Apollo. It is adorned with costliest offerings consisting of early works of art. Thence to the city is no long journey, by land or by sea. 14.2.23. But as for Mylasa: it is situated in an exceedingly fertile plain; and above the plain, towering into a peak, rises a mountain, which has a most excellent quarry of white marble. Now this quarry is of no small advantage, since it has stone in abundance and close at hand, for building purposes and in particular for the building of sanctuaries and other public works; accordingly this city, if any city is, is in every way beautifully adorned with porticoes and temples. But one may well be amazed at those who so absurdly founded the city at the foot of a steep and commanding crag. Accordingly, one of the commanders, amazed at the fact, is said to have said, If the man who founded this city was not afraid, wasn't he at least ashamed? The Mylasians have two sanctuaries of Zeus, Zeus Osogoos, as he is called, and Zeus Labraundenus. The former is in the city, whereas Labraunda is a village far from the city, being situated on the mountain near the pass that leads over from Alabanda to Mylasa. At Labraunda there is an ancient temple and image [xoanon] of Zeus Stratius. It is honored by the people all about and by the Mylasians; and there is a paved road of almost sixty stadia from it to Mylasa, called the Sacred Way, on which their sacred processions are conducted. The priestly offices are held by the most distinguished of the citizens, always for life. Now these two are particular to the city; but there is a third sanctuary, that of the Carian Zeus, which is a common possession of all Carians, and in which, as brothers, both Lydians and Mysians have a share. It is related that Mylasa was a mere village in ancient times, but that it was the native land and royal residence of the Carians of the house of Hecatomnos. The city is nearest to the sea at Physcus; and this is their seaport. 14.2.24. Mylasa has had two notable men in my time, who were at once orators and leaders of the city, Euthydemus and Hybreas. Now Euthydemus, having inherited from his ancestors great wealth and high repute, and having added to these his own cleverness, was not only a great man in his native land, but was also thought worthy of the foremost honor in Asia. As for Hybreas, as he himself used to tell the story in his school and as confirmed by his fellow-citizens, his father left him a mule-driver and a wood-carrying mule. And, being supported by these, he became a pupil of Diotrephes of Antiocheia for a short time, and then came back and surrendered himself to the office of market-clerk. But when he had been tossed about in this office and had made but little money, he began to apply himself to the affairs of state and to follow closely the speakers of the forum. He quickly grew in power, and was already an object of amazement in the lifetime of Euthydemus, but in particular after his death, having become master of the city. So long as Euthydemus lived he strongly prevailed, being at once powerful and useful to the city, so that even if there was something tyrannical about him, it was atoned for by the fact that it was attended by what was good for the city. At any rate, people applaud the following statement of Hybreas, made by him towards the end of a public speech: Euthydemus: you are an evil necessary to the city, for we can live neither with you nor without you. However, although he had grown very strong and had the repute of being both a good citizen and orator, he stumbled in his political opposition to Labienus; for while the others, since they were without arms and inclined to peace, yielded to Labienus when he was coming against them with an army and an allied Parthian force, the Parthians by that time being in possession of Asia, yet Zeno of Laodiceia and Hybreas, both orators, refused to yield and caused their own cities to revolt. Hybreas also provoked Labienus, a lad who was irritable and full of folly, by a certain pronouncement; for when Labienus proclaimed himself Parthian Emperor, Hybreas said, Then I too call myself Carian Emperor. Consequently Labienus set out against the city with cohorts of Roman soldiers in Asia that were already organized. Labienus did not seize Hybreas, however, since he had withdrawn to Rhodes, but he shamefully maltreated his home, with its costly furnishings, and plundered it. And he likewise damaged the whole of the city. But though Hybreas abandoned Asia, he came back and rehabilitated both himself and the city. So much, then, for Mylasa.
38. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 5.461, 7.218-7.243, 7.453 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.461. for it had so happened, that the king of Commagene had flourished more than any other kings that were under the power of the Romans, till a change happened in his condition; and when he was become an old man, he declared plainly that we ought not to call any man happy before he is dead. 7.218. He also laid a tribute upon the Jews wheresoever they were, and enjoined every one of them to bring two drachmae every year into the Capitol, as they used to pay the same to the temple at Jerusalem. And this was the state of the Jewish affairs at this time. 7.219. 1. And now, in the fourth year of the reign of Vespasian, it came to pass that Antiochus, the king of Commagene, with all his family, fell into very great calamities. The occasion was this: 7.221. and therein told him that Antiochus, with his son Epiphanes, had resolved to rebel against the Romans, and had made a league with the king of Parthia to that purpose; 7.222. that it was therefore fit to prevent them, lest they prevent us, and begin such a war as may cause a general disturbance in the Roman empire. 7.223. Now Caesar was disposed to take some care about the matter, since this discovery was made; for the neighborhood of the kingdoms made this affair worthy of greater regard; 7.224. for Samosata, the capital of Commagene, lies upon Euphrates, and upon any such design could afford an easy passage over it to the Parthians, and could also afford them a secure reception. 7.225. Petus was accordingly believed, and had authority given him of doing what he should think proper in the case; so he set about it without delay, and fell upon Commagene before Antiochus and his people had the least expectation of his coming: he had with him the tenth legion, as also some cohorts and troops of horsemen. 7.226. These kings also came to his assistance: Aristobulus, king of the country called Chalcidene, and Sohemus, who was called king of Emesa. 7.227. Nor was there any opposition made to his forces when they entered the kingdom; for no one of that country would so much as lift up his hand against them. 7.228. When Antiochus heard this unexpected news, he could not think in the least of making war with the Romans, but determined to leave his whole kingdom in the state wherein it now was, and to retire privately, with his wife and children, as thinking thereby to demonstrate himself to the Romans to be innocent as to the accusation laid against him. 7.229. So he went away from that city as far as a hundred and twenty furlongs, into a plain, and there pitched his tents. 7.231. However, the king was not prevailed upon by the distress he was in to do anything in the way of war against the Romans, but bemoaned his own hard fate, and endured with patience what he was not able to prevent. 7.232. But his sons, who were young, and unexperienced in war, but of strong bodies, were not easily induced to bear this calamity without fighting. Epiphanes, therefore, and Callinicus, betook themselves to military force; 7.233. and as the battle was a sore one, and lasted all the day long, they showed their own valor in a remarkable manner, and nothing but the approach of night put a period thereto, and that without any diminution of their forces; 7.234. yet would not Antiochus, upon this conclusion of the fight, continue there by any means, but took his wife and his daughters, and fled away with them to Cilicia, and by so doing quite discouraged the minds of his own soldiers. 7.235. Accordingly, they revolted, and went over to the Romans, out of the despair they were in of his keeping the kingdom; and his case was looked upon by all as quite desperate. 7.236. It was therefore necessary that Epiphanes and his soldiers should get clear of their enemies before they became entirely destitute of any confederates; nor were there any more than ten horsemen with him, who passed with him over Euphrates 7.237. whence they went undisturbed to Vologeses, the king of Parthia, where they were not disregarded as fugitives, but had the same respect paid them as if they had retained their ancient prosperity. 7.238. 3. Now when Antiochus was come to Tarsus in Cilicia, Petus ordered a centurion to go to him, and send him in bonds to Rome. 7.239. However, Vespasian could not endure to have a king brought to him in that manner, but thought it fit rather to have a regard to the ancient friendship that had been between them, than to preserve an inexorable anger upon pretense of this war. 7.241. When Epiphanes, who before was in great fear for his father, was informed of this, their minds were freed from that great and almost incurable concern they had been under. 7.242. He also hoped that Caesar would be reconciled to them, upon the intercession of Vologeses; for although he lived in plenty, he knew not how to bear living out of the Roman empire. 7.243. So Caesar gave him leave, after an obliging manner, and he came to Rome; and as his father came quickly to him from Lacedemon, he had all sorts of respect paid him there, and there he remained. 7.453. This his distemper grew still a great deal worse and worse continually, and his very entrails were so corroded, that they fell out of his body, and in that condition he died. Thus he became as great an instance of Divine Providence as ever was, and demonstrated that God punishes wicked men.
39. Plutarch, Cimon, 8.5-8.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

40. Plutarch, On The Malice of Herodotus, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

41. Plutarch, Pericles, 1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

42. Plutarch, Solon, 19.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19.1. After he had established the council of the Areiopagus, consisting of those who had been archons year by year (and he himself was a member of this body since he had been archon), he observed that the common people were uneasy and bold in consequence of their release from debt, and therefore established another council besides, consisting of four hundred men, one hundred chosen from each of the four tribes. Cf. Aristot. Const. Ath. 8.4 . These were to deliberate on public matters before the people did, and were not to allow any matter to come before the popular assembly without such previous deliberation.
43. Suetonius, Augustus, 99 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

44. Hermogenes, Rhetorical Exercises, 7 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

45. Marcus Aurelius Emperor of Rome, Meditations, 11.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

46. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.3.2, 1.15.3, 1.17.6, 1.33.7-1.33.8, 3.3.7, 5.25.11, 6.3.8, 8.24.8-8.24.9, 8.27.1, 9.30.1, 9.33.6, 10.7.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.3.2. Near the portico stand Conon, Timotheus his son and Evagoras Evagoras was a king of Salamis in Cyprus, who reigned from about 410 to 374 B.C. He favoured the Athenians, and helped Conon to defeat the Spartan fleet off Cnidus in 394 B.C. King of Cyprus, who caused the Phoenician men-of-war to be given to Conon by King Artaxerxes. This he did as an Athenian whose ancestry connected him with Salamis, for he traced his pedigree back to Teucer and the daughter of Cinyras. Here stands Zeus, called Zeus of Freedom, and the Emperor Hadrian, a benefactor to all his subjects and especially to the city of the Athenians. 1.15.3. At the end of the painting are those who fought at Marathon; the Boeotians of Plataea and the Attic contingent are coming to blows with the foreigners. In this place neither side has the better, but the center of the fighting shows the foreigners in flight and pushing one another into the morass, while at the end of the painting are the Phoenician ships, and the Greeks killing the foreigners who are scrambling into them. Here is also a portrait of the hero Marathon, after whom the plain is named, of Theseus represented as coming up from the under-world, of Athena and of Heracles. The Marathonians, according to their own account, were the first to regard Heracles as a god. of the fighters the most conspicuous figures in the painting are Callimachus, who had been elected commander-in-chief by the Athenians, Miltiades, one of the generals, and a hero called Echetlus, of whom I shall make mention later. 1.17.6. Now Menestheus took no account of the children of Theseus, who had secretly withdrawn to Elephenor in Euboea, but he was aware that Theseus, if ever he returned from Thesprotia, would be a doughty antagonist, and so curried favour with his subjects that Theseus on re covering afterwards his liberty was expelled. So Theseus set out to Deucalion in Crete . Being carried out of his course by winds to the island of Scyros he was treated with marked honor by the inhabitants, both for the fame of his family and for the reputation of his own achievements. Accordingly Lycomedes contrived his death. His close was built at Athens after the Persians landed at Marathon, when Cimon, son of Miltiades, ravaged Scyros, thus avenging Theseus' death, and carried his bones to Athens . 1.33.7. Neither this nor any other ancient statue of Nemesis has wings, for not even the holiest wooden images of the Smyrnaeans have them, but later artists, convinced that the goddess manifests herself most as a consequence of love, give wings to Nemesis as they do to Love. I will now go onto describe what is figured on the pedestal of the statue, having made this preface for the sake of clearness. The Greeks say that Nemesis was the mother of Helen, while Leda suckled and nursed her. The father of Helen the Greeks like everybody else hold to be not Tyndareus but Zeus. 1.33.8. Having heard this legend Pheidias has represented Helen as being led to Nemesis by Leda, and he has represented Tyndareus and his children with a man Hippeus by name standing by with a horse. There are Agamemnon and Menelaus and Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles and first husband of Hermione, the daughter of Helen. Orestes was passed over because of his crime against his mother, yet Hermione stayed by his side in everything and bore him a child. Next upon the pedestal is one called Epochus and another youth; the only thing I heard about them was that they were brothers of Oenoe, from whom the parish has its name. 3.3.7. Similar to the oracle about the bones of Orestes was the one afterwards given to the Athenians, that they were to bring back Theseus from Scyros to Athens otherwise they could not take Scyros. Now the bones of Theseus were discovered by Cimon the son of Miltiades, who displayed similar sharpness of wit, and shortly afterwards took Scyros. 5.25.11. Not far from the offering of the Achaeans there is also a Heracles fighting with the Amazon, a woman on horseback, for her girdle. It was dedicated by Evagoras, a Zanclaean by descent, and made by Aristocles of Cydonia . Aristocles should be included amongst the most ancient sculptors, and though his date is uncertain, he was clearly born before Zancle took its present name of Messene . 6.3.8. The statue of Oebotas was set up by the Achaeans by the command of the Delphic Apollo in the eightieth Olympiad 460 B.C., but Oebotas won his victory in the footrace at the sixth Festival 756 B.C. . How, therefore, could Oebotas have taken part in the Greek victory at Plataea ? For it was in the seventy-fifth Olympiad 479B.C. that the Persians under Mardonius suffered their disaster at Plataea . Now I am obliged to report the statements made by the Greeks, though I am not obliged to believe them all. The other incidents in the life of Oebotas I will add to my history of Achaia . See Paus. 7.17.6 . 8.24.8. They are called “maidens” by the natives. Alcmaeon, after killing his mother, fled from Argos and came to Psophis, which was still called Phegia after Phegeus, and married Alphesiboea, the daughter of Phegeus. Among the presents that he naturally gave her was the necklace. While he lived among the Arcadians his disease did not grow any better, so he had recourse to the oracle at Delphi . The Pythian priestess informed him that the only land into which the avenging spirit of Eriphyle would not follow him was the newest land, one brought up to light by the sea after the pollution of his mother's death. 8.24.9. On discovering the alluvial deposit of the Achelous he settled there, and took to wife Callirhoe, said by the Acarians to have been the daughter of Achelous. He had two sons, Acar and Amphoterus; after this Acar were called by their present name (so the story runs) the dwellers in this part of the mainland, who previously were called Curetes. Senseless passions shipwreck many men, and even more women. 8.27.1. Megalopolis is the youngest city, not of Arcadia only, but of Greece, with the exception of those whose inhabitants have been removed by the accident of the Roman domination. The Arcadians united into it to gain strength, realizing that the Argives also were in earlier times in almost daily danger of being subjected by war to the Lacedaemonians, but when they had increased the population of Argos by reducing Tiryns, Hysiae, Orneae, Mycenae, Mideia, along with other towns of little importance in Argolis, the Argives had less to fear from the Lacedaemonians, while they were in a stronger position to deal with their vassal neighbors. 9.30.1. The first images of the Muses are of them all, from the hand of Cephisodotus, while a little farther on are three, also from the hand of Cephisodotus, and three more by Strongylion, an excellent artist of oxen and horses. The remaining three were made by Olympiosthenes. There is also on Helicon a bronze Apollo fighting with Hermes for the lyre. There is also a Dionysus by Lysippus; the standing image, however, of Dionysus, that Sulla dedicated, is the most noteworthy of the works of Myron after the Erectheus at Athens . What he dedicated was not his own; he took it away from the Minyae of Orchomenus . This is an illustration of the Greek proverb, “to worship the gods with other people's incense.” 9.33.6. Sulla's treatment of the Athenians was savage and foreign to the Roman character, but quite consistent with his treatment of Thebes and Orchomenus . But in Alalcomenae he added yet another to his crimes by stealing the image of Athena itself. After these mad outrages against the Greek cities and the gods of the Greeks he was attacked by the most foul of diseases. He broke out into lice, and what was formerly accounted his good fortune came to such an end. The sanctuary at Alalcomenae, deprived of the goddess, was hereafter neglected. 10.7.1. It seems that from the beginning the sanctuary at Delphi has been plotted against by a vast number of men. Attacks were made against it by this Euboean pirate, and years afterwards by the Phlegyan nation; furthermore by Pyrrhus, son of Achilles, by a portion of the army of Xerxes, by the Phocian chieftains, whose attacks on the wealth of the god were the longest and fiercest, and by the Gallic invaders. It was fated too that Delphi was to suffer from the universal irreverence of Nero, who robbed Apollo of five hundred bronze statues, some of gods, some of men.
47. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 5.5.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

48. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 5.5.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
"historiography, classical" Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 181, 182, 183, 184, 185
"historiography, hellenistic" Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 181
"justice, divine" Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 181, 183, 185
"punishment, mirroring or apt" Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 185
ability to handle good fortune Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 181, 182, 183, 185
achilles Meister, Greek Praise Poetry and the Rhetoric of Divinity (2019) 168
adam Dunderberg, Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus (2008) 224
aeschylus of athens Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 151
agamemnon Meister, Greek Praise Poetry and the Rhetoric of Divinity (2019) 168; de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 192
amasis Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 111; Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 195
ambition, condemned Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 186
antiochus of commagene Brighton, Sicarii in Josephus's Judean War: Rhetorical Analysis and Historical Observations (2009) 98
antoninus pius Chrysanthou, Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire (2022) 249
antoniopolis Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
antonius, m. Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
aphthonius Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 185
apollo (god) Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
apollonia in lydia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
apollonihieritae Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
arabia Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 111
aristomenes Amendola, The Demades Papyrus (P.Berol. inv. 13045): A New Text with Commentary (2022) 57
armstrong, david Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 186
arrogance Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 181, 182, 183, 185
artabanus of persia Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 151
artemis Meister, Greek Praise Poetry and the Rhetoric of Divinity (2019) 168
athenians, and solon Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 17
athenians Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 17
athens Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 17; Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 285
atossa Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 195
authority\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 81
babylon, babylonians Torok, Herodotus In Nubia (2014) 43
barbarians, contrasted with greeks Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 17
biography Chrysanthou, Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire (2022) 249
biton Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 110
branchidae Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
cadi Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
cambyses Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 182; Torok, Herodotus In Nubia (2014) 43
chance Versnel, Coping with the Gods: Wayward Readings in Greek Theology (2011) 182
child sacrifice Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 329
chorus / choral lyric de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 192
chresmologoi Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 206
cimon of athens Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 204
cleobis Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 110
cleomenes Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 195
cleonnis Amendola, The Demades Papyrus (P.Berol. inv. 13045): A New Text with Commentary (2022) 57
clytemnestra Meister, Greek Praise Poetry and the Rhetoric of Divinity (2019) 168
coincidences, as a sign of divine involvement Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 185
comparisons, with heroes and gods Meister, Greek Praise Poetry and the Rhetoric of Divinity (2019) 168
contradictions Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 17
contrasts, as theme in plutarchs narrative Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 17
contrasts Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 17
corpse Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 185
croesus Amendola, The Demades Papyrus (P.Berol. inv. 13045): A New Text with Commentary (2022) 57; Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 109, 110, 111; Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 17; Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 181, 182, 183, 184, 185; Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 147; Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 277, 278, 295
croesus of lydia, phthonos and Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 150, 151
croesus of lydia, solon and Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 150
croesus of lydia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
cynics Dunderberg, Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus (2008) 224
cyrus Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 108, 109, 111; Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 133
cyrus of persia, fortune and Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 150
cyrus the great Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 182, 184
darius Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 182; Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 195
datis, persians general, dreams of Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 206
death Chrysanthou, Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire (2022) 249
dedications Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 151
delphic oracle, to athenians Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 204
delphic oracle Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 181, 184; Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 150
demaratus, king of sparta Amendola, The Demades Papyrus (P.Berol. inv. 13045): A New Text with Commentary (2022) 57
demaratus Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 195
desire Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 195
didyma Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
diodorus siculus Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 108; Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 181, 185
divination, the delphic oracle Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 31
divination Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 31
divine visits, herodotus Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 389
divine voices, graeco-roman Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 389
dreams Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 195
dreams and visions, dream figures, phantoms Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 389
dreams and visions, examples, herodotus Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 389
dreams and visions, examples, popular, personal, therapeutic Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 389
education/paideia\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 81
electra de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 192
encomium, instructions for Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 185
enviousness (of the gods) Versnel, Coping with the Gods: Wayward Readings in Greek Theology (2011) 182
envy Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 329; Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 111
epiphany Meister, Greek Praise Poetry and the Rhetoric of Divinity (2019) 168
equable states (εὐπάθειαι) Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 329
ethics\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 81
evaluation, internal Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 181, 182
excessive luck, wealth Versnel, Coping with the Gods: Wayward Readings in Greek Theology (2011) 182
fate Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 185
fear Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 329
festivals, of heracles of marathon Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 204
fortune, mutability of Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 17
fortune, the subjects attitude towards Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 17
fortune Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 17
gelon Amendola, The Demades Papyrus (P.Berol. inv. 13045): A New Text with Commentary (2022) 57
genre\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 81
god, free from envy Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 329
god, joy and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 329
godlike Meister, Greek Praise Poetry and the Rhetoric of Divinity (2019) 168
gods, mortal, human Versnel, Coping with the Gods: Wayward Readings in Greek Theology (2011) 182
greed Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 111
greek historiography Amendola, The Demades Papyrus (P.Berol. inv. 13045): A New Text with Commentary (2022) 57
happiness Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 17
heracles, of marathon Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 204
herod\u2002, classical historiography Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 81
herodotus, and greek anxieties concerning wealth Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 108
herodotus, coincidences and synchronisms Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 147
herodotus, paratactic nature of narrative structure Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 133
herodotus Amendola, The Demades Papyrus (P.Berol. inv. 13045): A New Text with Commentary (2022) 57; Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 17; Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 181, 182, 183, 184, 185; Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 31, 117, 118
herodotus and the histories, ambiguity of Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 295
herodotus and the histories, ideas of instability in Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 278
herodotus and the histories, political warnings of Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 295
heroes and heroines, of athens Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 204
homer Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 185
humanity, grief and fear of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 329
humility Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 183, 184, 185
hyde Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
identity de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 192
illusion Meister, Greek Praise Poetry and the Rhetoric of Divinity (2019) 168
india, indians Torok, Herodotus In Nubia (2014) 43
ionia, ionians Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
ionian revolt Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 147
iphigenia Meister, Greek Praise Poetry and the Rhetoric of Divinity (2019) 168
jacoby, felix Amendola, The Demades Papyrus (P.Berol. inv. 13045): A New Text with Commentary (2022) 57
jealousy of the divine Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 185
journey, earthly journey Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 81
joy, of god Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 329
joy, sacrifice of isaac and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 329
joy Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 329
judgment, divine Brighton, Sicarii in Josephus's Judean War: Rhetorical Analysis and Historical Observations (2009) 98
juxtaposition, as a means of moralising Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 182, 183
lands, happiness of Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 109, 110, 111
leotychidas Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 195
libya, libyans Torok, Herodotus In Nubia (2014) 43
life de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 192
lives, with readers knowledge Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 17
lives, within a life Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 17
logos, structure Torok, Herodotus In Nubia (2014) 43
lucian of samosata Amendola, The Demades Papyrus (P.Berol. inv. 13045): A New Text with Commentary (2022) 57
luxury, problem of in greek literature Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 108
luxury Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 183
lydia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306; Torok, Herodotus In Nubia (2014) 43
lysistratus of athens Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 206
macedonia, macedonians, settlers elsewhere Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
maeander river Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
maeonia, maeonii Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
magnesia Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 195
marcus aurelius Chrysanthou, Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire (2022) 249
massagetae Torok, Herodotus In Nubia (2014) 43
massagetans Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 111
miletus Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
moderation Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 17
monarchy Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 195
myron of priene Amendola, The Demades Papyrus (P.Berol. inv. 13045): A New Text with Commentary (2022) 57
mysotimolitae Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
myth-critics Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 31
myth and mythology Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 151
narrative, travel accounts Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 81
narrative, travel narrative Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 81
narrative manners and techniques Torok, Herodotus In Nubia (2014) 43
nature\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 81
necessity Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 150
nemesis Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 151
neoplatonism Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 329
non-greeks Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 195
octavian Chrysanthou, Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire (2022) 249
odyssey\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 81
omens, herodotus Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 389
omissions Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 17
oracles, reports, herodotus Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 389
oracles Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 181; Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 150; Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 195; Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306; de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 192
oroetes Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 195
overconfidence Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 181, 182, 183, 185
overdetermination Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 184, 185
pactolus river Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
palaephatus Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 31
passions, fear among Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 329
passions, stoicism and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 329
passions Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 329
patronage Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 186
patterning Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 181, 182, 183, 185
pausanias, narrative style of Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 277
pausanias, political tone of Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 295
pausanias Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 277, 278, 284, 285, 295
peripeteia Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 181, 182, 183
persia, persians Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 195
persia/persians Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 133
perspectives, of the subjects Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 17
philo of alexandria Amendola, The Demades Papyrus (P.Berol. inv. 13045): A New Text with Commentary (2022) 57
phrygia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
phthonos Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 150, 151
phylarchus Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 185
plataea, battle of Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 147
plato Amendola, The Demades Papyrus (P.Berol. inv. 13045): A New Text with Commentary (2022) 57
polybius Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 181
polycrates Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 111; Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 195
polycrates of samos Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 182; Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 150, 151
portents, herodotus Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 389
praxeis, instructions for Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 185
prayers Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 150, 151
presbeutikoi logoi Amendola, The Demades Papyrus (P.Berol. inv. 13045): A New Text with Commentary (2022) 57
prophecy, herodotus Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 389
pythius Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 111
reversals of fortune Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 150, 151
rhetoric, handbooks (progymnasmata) Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 185
rhetorical history Amendola, The Demades Papyrus (P.Berol. inv. 13045): A New Text with Commentary (2022) 57
rites, ritual de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 192
roads Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 284
sacrifice of isaac, allegorical interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 329
sacrifice of isaac Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 329
sacrifices Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 150, 151
sage\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 81
sardis Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
satires (horace), treatment of political ambition Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 186
satires (horace), vocabulary Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 186
scythia, scythians Torok, Herodotus In Nubia (2014) 43
self-sufficiency Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 111
seneca Amendola, The Demades Papyrus (P.Berol. inv. 13045): A New Text with Commentary (2022) 57
sex' Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 195
smerdis Amendola, The Demades Papyrus (P.Berol. inv. 13045): A New Text with Commentary (2022) 57
smintheum Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 284
solon, and croesus Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 17
solon Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 109, 110; Brighton, Sicarii in Josephus's Judean War: Rhetorical Analysis and Historical Observations (2009) 98; Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 17; Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 133, 147; Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 277, 278, 284, 285
solon of athens Amendola, The Demades Papyrus (P.Berol. inv. 13045): A New Text with Commentary (2022) 57; Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 150, 151
sorrow de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 192
sparta, spartans Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 195
spies Torok, Herodotus In Nubia (2014) 43
surprise Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 17
table of the sun Torok, Herodotus In Nubia (2014) 43
talthybius Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 147
tellus Bosak-Schroeder, Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography (2020) 110
thanatos, instructions for Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 185
theseus, hero of athens Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 204
thrace, thracians Torok, Herodotus In Nubia (2014) 43
timaeus of tauromenium Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 185
titus (flavius vespasianus) Chrysanthou, Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire (2022) 249
tmolus, mt. Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
tragedy de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 192
tragic history Amendola, The Demades Papyrus (P.Berol. inv. 13045): A New Text with Commentary (2022) 57
trajan Chrysanthou, Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire (2022) 249
traveling sage\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 81
travels Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 284
truth Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 133
tyche Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 150
tyranny/tyrants Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 17; Chrysanthou, Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire (2022) 249
uncertainty of human life Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 183, 185
vespasian Chrysanthou, Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire (2022) 249
vignettes, moralising Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 183
vipsanius agrippa, m. Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 306
wealth Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 181, 185
wisdom/wise Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 17
xenophanes, his attitude to divine disclosure, his attitude to divine disclosure Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 117, 118, 122
xenophanes, his attitude to divine disclosure, rejecting one notion of disclosure and promoting another Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 117, 118, 122
xenophon Amendola, The Demades Papyrus (P.Berol. inv. 13045): A New Text with Commentary (2022) 57; Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 117, 118
xerxes Amendola, The Demades Papyrus (P.Berol. inv. 13045): A New Text with Commentary (2022) 57; Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 182, 183; Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 284; Morrison, Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography (2020) 195
xerxes of persia, dreams of Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 206
xerxes of persia, phthonos and Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 150, 151
zeus, aphrodisios Versnel, Coping with the Gods: Wayward Readings in Greek Theology (2011) 179
εὐδαίμων, εὐδαιμονία Meister, Greek Praise Poetry and the Rhetoric of Divinity (2019) 168
εὐδαιμονία Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 329
εὐδαίμων Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 329
εὐπάθεια Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 329
θώματα (marvels) Torok, Herodotus In Nubia (2014) 43
λόγος (oral report, story, prose text) Torok, Herodotus In Nubia (2014) 43
νόμοι (laws and customs) Torok, Herodotus In Nubia (2014) 43
ἔργα μεγάλα (great accomplishments) Torok, Herodotus In Nubia (2014) 43
ὄλβοϲ, ὄλβιοϲ Meister, Greek Praise Poetry and the Rhetoric of Divinity (2019) 168