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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



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Hermas, Mandates, 11
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1. Anon., Didache, 11.7-11.12, 13.2-13.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2. Ignatius, To Polycarp, 4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3. Ignatius, To The Ephesians, 15.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15.1. It is better to keep silence and to be, than to talk and not to be. It is a fine thing to teach, if the speaker practise. Now there is one teacher, who spake and it came to pass: yea and even the things which He hath done in silence are worthy of the Father.
4. New Testament, 1 John, 4.1-4.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.1. Beloved, don't believe every spirit, but test the spirits, whether they are of God, because many false prophets have gone out into the world. 4.2. By this you know the Spirit of God: every spirit who confesses that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is of God 4.3. and every spirit who doesn't confess that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is not of God, and this is the spirit of the antichrist, of whom you have heard that it comes. Now it is in the world already. 4.4. You are of God, little children, and have overcome them; because greater is he who is in you than he who is in the world. 4.5. They are of the world. Therefore they speak of the world, and the world hears them. 4.6. We are of God. He who knows God listens to us. He who is not of God doesn't listen to us. By this we know the spirit of truth, and the spirit of error.
5. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 6.12-6.20, 11.20, 12.3, 12.10, 12.28, 14.3, 14.22, 14.26, 14.29, 15.15, 15.45, 16.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.12. All things are lawful for me," but not all thingsare expedient. "All things are lawful for me," but I will not bebrought under the power of anything. 6.13. Foods for the belly, andthe belly for foods," but God will bring to nothing both it and them.But the body is not for sexual immorality, but for the Lord; and theLord for the body. 6.14. Now God raised up the Lord, and will alsoraise us up by his power. 6.15. Don't you know that your bodies aremembers of Christ? Shall I then take the members of Christ, and makethem members of a prostitute? May it never be! 6.16. Or don't you knowthat he who is joined to a prostitute is one body? For, "The two," sayshe, "will become one flesh. 6.17. But he who is joined to the Lord isone spirit. 6.18. Flee sexual immorality! "Every sin that a man doesis outside the body," but he who commits sexual immorality sins againsthis own body. 6.19. Or don't you know that your body is a temple ofthe Holy Spirit which is in you, which you have from God? You are notyour own 6.20. for you were bought with a price. Therefore glorifyGod in your body and in your spirit, which are God's. 11.20. When therefore you assemble yourselves together, itis not possible to eat the Lord's supper. 12.3. Therefore Imake known to you that no man speaking by God's Spirit says, "Jesus isaccursed." No one can say, "Jesus is Lord," but by the Holy Spirit. 12.10. and to another workings of miracles; and to another prophecy; and toanother discerning of spirits; to another different kinds of languages;and to another the interpretation of languages. 12.28. God has set some in the assembly: first apostles, secondprophets, third teachers, then miracle workers, then gifts of healings,helps, governments, and various kinds of languages. 14.3. But he who prophesies speaks tomen for their edification, exhortation, and consolation. 14.22. Therefore other languages are for a sign, not to those whobelieve, but to the unbelieving; but prophesying is for a sign, not tothe unbelieving, but to those who believe. 14.26. What is it then, brothers? When you come together, each oneof you has a psalm, has a teaching, has a revelation, has anotherlanguage, has an interpretation. Let all things be done to build eachother up. 14.29. Let the prophets speak,two or three, and let the others discern. 15.15. Yes, weare found false witnesses of God, because we testified about God thathe raised up Christ, whom he didn't raise up, if it is so that the deadare not raised. 15.45. So also it is written, "The first man, Adam, became a livingsoul." The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. 16.19. The assemblies of Asia greet you. Aquila and Priscilla greetyou much in the Lord, together with the assembly that is in theirhouse.
6. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 5.20-5.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.20. Don't despise prophesies. 5.21. Test all things, and hold firmly that which is good.
7. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 3.17, 4.7-4.15, 11.13, 11.26, 12.1-12.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8. New Testament, Acts, 2.46, 9.20, 12.12, 13.44-13.48, 14.1, 15.1-15.35 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.46. Day by day, continuing steadfastly with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread at home, they took their food with gladness and singleness of heart 9.20. Immediately in the synagogues he proclaimed the Christ, that he is the Son of God. 12.12. Thinking about that, he came to the house of Mary, the mother of John whose surname was Mark, where many were gathered together and were praying. 13.44. The next Sabbath almost the whole city was gathered together to hear the word of God. 13.45. But when the Jews saw the multitudes, they were filled with jealousy, and contradicted the things which were spoken by Paul, and blasphemed. 13.46. Paul and Barnabas spoke out boldly, and said, "It was necessary that God's word should be spoken to you first. Since indeed you thrust it from you, and judge yourselves unworthy of eternal life, behold, we turn to the Gentiles. 13.47. For so has the Lord commanded us, saying, 'I have set you as a light of the Gentiles, That you should be for salvation to the uttermost parts of the earth.' 13.48. As the Gentiles heard this, they were glad, and glorified the word of God. As many as were appointed to eternal life believed. 14.1. It happened in Iconium that they entered together into the synagogue of the Jews, and so spoke that a great multitude both of Jews and of Greeks believed. 15.1. Some men came down from Judea and taught the brothers, "Unless you are circumcised after the custom of Moses, you can't be saved. 15.2. Therefore when Paul and Barnabas had no small discord and discussion with them, they appointed Paul and Barnabas, and some others of them, to go up to Jerusalem to the apostles and elders about this question. 15.3. They, being sent on their way by the assembly, passed through both Phoenicia and Samaria, declaring the conversion of the Gentiles. They caused great joy to all the brothers. 15.4. When they had come to Jerusalem, they were received by the assembly and the apostles and the elders, and they reported all things that God had done with them. 15.5. But some of the sect of the Pharisees who believed rose up, saying, "It is necessary to circumcise them, and to charge them to keep the law of Moses. 15.6. The apostles and the elders were gathered together to see about this matter. 15.7. When there had been much discussion, Peter rose up and said to them, "Brothers, you know that a good while ago God made choice among you, that by my mouth the Gentiles should hear the word of the gospel, and believe. 15.8. God, who knows the heart, testified about them, giving them the Holy Spirit, just like he did to us. 15.9. He made no distinction between us and them, cleansing their hearts by faith. 15.10. Now therefore why do you tempt God, that you should put a yoke on the neck of the disciples which neither our fathers nor we were able to bear? 15.11. But we believe that we are saved through the grace of the Lord Jesus, just as they are. 15.12. All the multitude kept silence, and they listened to Barnabas and Paul reporting what signs and wonders God had done among the Gentiles through them. 15.13. After they were silent, James answered, "Brothers, listen to me. 15.14. Simeon has reported how God first visited the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name. 15.15. This agrees with the words of the prophets. As it is written 15.16. 'After these things I will return. I will again build the tent of David, which has fallen. I will again build its ruins. I will set it up 15.17. That the rest of men may seek after the Lord; All the Gentiles who are called by my name, Says the Lord, who does all these things. 15.18. All his works are known to God from eternity.' 15.19. Therefore my judgment is that we don't trouble those from among the Gentiles who turn to God 15.20. but that we write to them that they abstain from the pollution of idols, from sexual immorality, from what is strangled, and from blood. 15.21. For Moses from generations of old has in every city those who preach him, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath. 15.22. Then it seemed good to the apostles and the elders, with the whole assembly, to choose men out of their company, and send them to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas: Judas called Barsabbas, and Silas, chief men among the brothers. 15.23. They wrote these things by their hand: "The apostles, the elders, and the brothers, to the brothers who are of the Gentiles in Antioch, Syria, and Cilicia: greetings. 15.24. Because we have heard that some who went out from us have troubled you with words, unsettling your souls, saying, 'You must be circumcised and keep the law,' to whom we gave no commandment; 15.25. it seemed good to us, having come to one accord, to choose out men and send them to you with our beloved Barnabas and Paul 15.26. men who have risked their lives for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. 15.27. We have sent therefore Judas and Silas, who themselves will also tell you the same things by word of mouth. 15.28. For it seemed good to the Holy Spirit, and to us, to lay no greater burden on you than these necessary things: 15.29. that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality, from which if you keep yourselves, it will be well with you. Farewell. 15.30. So, when they were sent off, they came to Antioch. Having gathered the multitude together, they delivered the letter. 15.31. When they had read it, they rejoiced for the consolation. 15.32. Judas and Silas, also being prophets themselves, encouraged the brothers with many words, and strengthened them. 15.33. After they had spent some time there, they were sent back with greetings from the brothers to the apostles. 15.35. But Paul and Barnabas stayed in Antioch, teaching and preaching the word of the Lord, with many others also.
9. New Testament, James, 2.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.2. For if a man with a gold ring, in fine clothing, comes into your assembly, and a poor man in filthy clothing also comes in;
10. New Testament, Philemon, 2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11. New Testament, Colossians, 4.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.15. Greet the brothers who are in Laodicea, and Nymphas, and the assembly that is in his house.
12. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.20, 4.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.20. being built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the chief cornerstone; 4.11. He gave some to be apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, shepherds and teachers;
13. New Testament, Galatians, 1.15-1.16, 2.4, 2.19-2.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.15. Butwhen it was the good pleasure of God, who separated me from my mother'swomb, and called me through his grace 1.16. to reveal his Son in me,that I might preach him among the Gentiles, I didn't immediately conferwith flesh and blood 2.4. Thiswas because of the false brothers secretly brought in, who stole in tospy out our liberty which we have in Christ Jesus, that they mightbring us into bondage; 2.19. For I, through the law, died to the law,that I might live to God. 2.20. I have been crucified with Christ, andit is no longer I that live, but Christ living in me. That life which Inow live in the flesh, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me,and gave himself up for me.
14. New Testament, Romans, 1.3-1.4, 8.9-8.11, 13.12, 16.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh 1.4. who was declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord 8.9. But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if it is so that the Spirit of God dwells in you. But if any man doesn't have the Spirit of Christ, he is not his. 8.10. If Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the spirit is alive because of righteousness. 8.11. But if the Spirit of him who raised up Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised up Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit who dwells in you. 13.12. The night is far gone, and the day is near. Let's therefore throw off the works of darkness, and let's put on the armor of light. 16.14. Greet Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas, and the brothers who are with them.
15. New Testament, John, 4.1-4.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.1. Therefore when the Lord knew that the Pharisees had heard that Jesus was making and baptizing more disciples than John 4.2. (although Jesus himself didn't baptize, but his disciples) 4.3. he left Judea, and departed into Galilee.
16. New Testament, Matthew, 7.15-7.20, 23.3-23.7, 23.13-23.33 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.15. Beware of false prophets, who come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly are ravening wolves. 7.16. By their fruits you will know them. Do you gather grapes from thorns, or figs from thistles? 7.17. Even so, every good tree produces good fruit; but the corrupt tree produces evil fruit. 7.18. A good tree can't produce evil fruit, neither can a corrupt tree produce good fruit. 7.19. Every tree that doesn't grow good fruit is cut down, and thrown into the fire. 7.20. Therefore, by their fruits you will know them. 23.3. All things therefore whatever they tell you to observe, observe and do, but don't do their works; for they say, and don't do. 23.4. For they bind heavy burdens that are grievous to be borne, and lay them on men's shoulders; but they themselves will not lift a finger to help them. 23.5. But all their works they do to be seen by men. They make their phylacteries broad, enlarge the fringes of their garments 23.6. and love the place of honor at feasts, the best seats in the synagogues 23.7. the salutations in the marketplaces, and to be called 'Rabbi, Rabbi' by men. 23.13. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you devour widows' houses, and as a pretense you make long prayers. Therefore you will receive greater condemnation. 23.14. But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! Because you shut up the Kingdom of Heaven against men; for you don't enter in yourselves, neither do you allow those who are entering in to enter. 23.15. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you travel around by sea and land to make one proselyte; and when he becomes one, you make him twice as much of a son of Gehenna as yourselves. 23.16. Woe to you, you blind guides, who say, 'Whoever swears by the temple, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gold of the temple, he is obligated.' 23.17. You blind fools! For which is greater, the gold, or the temple that sanctifies the gold? 23.18. 'Whoever swears by the altar, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gift that is on it, he is a obligated.' 23.19. You blind fools! For which is greater, the gift, or the altar that sanctifies the gift? 23.20. He therefore who swears by the altar, swears by it, and by everything on it. 23.21. He who swears by the temple, swears by it, and by him who is living in it. 23.22. He who swears by heaven, swears by the throne of God, and by him who sits on it. 23.23. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you tithe mint, dill, and cumin, and have left undone the weightier matters of the law: justice, mercy, and faith. But you ought to have done these, and not to have left the other undone. 23.24. You blind guides, who strain out a gnat, and swallow a camel! 23.25. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and unrighteousness. 23.26. You blind Pharisee, first clean the inside of the cup and of the platter, that the outside of it may become clean also. 23.27. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like whitened tombs, which outwardly appear beautiful, but inwardly are full of dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness. 23.28. Even so you also outwardly appear righteous to men, but inwardly you are full of hypocrisy and iniquity. 23.29. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you build the tombs of the prophets, and decorate the tombs of the righteous 23.30. and say, 'If we had lived in the days of our fathers, we wouldn't have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets.' 23.31. Therefore you testify to yourselves that you are sons of those who killed the prophets. 23.32. Fill up, then, the measure of your fathers. 23.33. You serpents, you offspring of vipers, how will you escape the judgment of Gehenna?
17. Hermas, Mandates, 1.2, 5.1.1-5.1.3, 5.2.2, 5.2.5-5.2.7, 6.1.5, 6.2.3, 6.2.5, 10.1.2, 10.2, 11.1-11.14, 12.1.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. Hermas, Similitudes, 5.6.5, 6.1.4, 9.13.2, 9.13.8, 9.15.4, 9.17.4, 9.20.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Hermas, Visions, 2.2.3, 3.5.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Justin, First Apology, 67 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

67. And we afterwards continually remind each other of these things. And the wealthy among us help the needy; and we always keep together; and for all things wherewith we are supplied, we bless the Maker of all through His Son Jesus Christ, and through the Holy Ghost. And on the day called Sunday, all who live in cities or in the country gather together to one place, and the memoirs of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read, as long as time permits; then, when the reader has ceased, the president verbally instructs, and exhorts to the imitation of these good things. Then we all rise together and pray, and, as we before said, when our prayer is ended, bread and wine and water are brought, and the president in like manner offers prayers and thanksgivings, according to his ability, and the people assent, saying Amen; and there is a distribution to each, and a participation of that over which thanks have been given, and to those who are absent a portion is sent by the deacons. And they who are well to do, and willing, give what each thinks fit; and what is collected is deposited with the president, who succours the orphans and widows and those who, through sickness or any other cause, are in want, and those who are in bonds and the strangers sojourning among us, and in a word takes care of all who are in need. But Sunday is the day on which we all hold our common assembly, because it is the first day on which God, having wrought a change in the darkness and matter, made the world; and Jesus Christ our Saviour on the same day rose from the dead. For He was crucified on the day before that of Saturn (Saturday); and on the day after that of Saturn, which is the day of the Sun, having appeared to His apostles and disciples, He taught them these things, which we have submitted to you also for your consideration.
21. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

92a. דאי בעי מפקע ליה ושקיל בנסכא וכיון דאיכא שנצין מפיק ליה עד פומיה ושרי ושקיל ושנצין אגידי מגואי דליכא שנצין ואיבעית אימא דאית ליה ומכרכי עילויה,וכן אמר רבא לא שנו אלא בקופה מלאה קישואין ודלועין אבל מלאה חרדל חייב אלמא קסבר אגד כלי לא שמיה אגד אביי אמר אפילו מלאה חרדל פטור אלמא קסבר אגד כלי שמיה אגד קם אביי בשיטתיה דרבא קם רבא בשיטתיה דאביי ורמי דאביי אדאביי ורמי דרבא אדרבא,דאיתמר המוציא פירות לרה"ר אביי אמר ביד חייב בכלי פטור ורבא אמר ביד פטור בכלי חייב,איפוך ביד חייב והתנן פשט בעל הבית את ידו לחוץ ונטל העני מתוכה או שנתן לתוכה והכניס שניהן פטורין התם למעלה מג' הכא למטה מג':, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big המוציא בין בימינו בין בשמאלו בתוך חיקו או על כתיפיו חייב שכן משא בני קהת כלאחר ידו ברגלו בפיו ובמרפקו באזנו ובשערו ובפונדתו ופיה למטה בין פונדתו לחלוקו ובשפת חלוקו במנעלו בסנדלו פטור שלא הוציא כדרך המוציאין:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר ר"א המוציא משאוי למעלה מעשרה טפחים חייב שכן משא בני קהת ומשא בני קהת מנלן דכתיב (במדבר ג, כו) על המשכן ועל המזבח סביב מקיש מזבח למשכן מה משכן י' אמות אף מזבח י' אמות,ומשכן גופיה מנלן דכתיב (שמות כו, טז) עשר אמות אורך הקרש וכתיב (שמות מ, יט) ויפרוש את האהל על המשכן ואמר רב משה רבינו פרשו מכאן אתה למד גובהן של לויים עשר אמות וגמירי דכל טונא דמידלי במוטות תילתא מלעיל ותרי תילתי מלתחת אישתכח דהוה מידלי טובא,ואיבעית אימא מארון דאמר מר ארון תשעה וכפורת טפח הרי כאן י' וגמירי דכל טונא דמידלי במוטות תילתא מלעיל ותרי תילתי מלרע אישתכח דלמעלה מי' הוה קאי וליגמר ממשה דילמא משה שאני דאמר מר אין השכינה שורה אלא על חכם גבור ועשיר ובעל קומה,אמר רב משום רבי חייא המוציא משאוי בשבת על ראשו חייב חטאת שכן אנשי הוצל עושין כן ואנשי הוצל רובא דעלמא אלא אי איתמר הכי איתמר אמר רב משום רבי חייא אחד מבני הוצל שהוציא משוי על ראשו בשבת חייב שכן בני עירו עושין כן ותיבטל דעתו אצל כל אדם אלא אי איתמר הכי איתמר המוציא משוי על ראשו פטור 92a. bfor if he wishes, he can tearthe seam band takethe money. The Gemara answers: Here, it is referring btolong bmetal strips.As long as the entire purse is not in the public domain, he did not acquire any of the long strips, and he is not liable for theft. The Gemara asks: bAnd sincethe purse bhas lacesto close its opening, to be liable for theft it is sufficient bthat he carry it out sothat bits mouthis in the public domain, as he can buntiethe straps band removethe contents of the purse. bAndsince the blacesremain bbound insidethe private domain, he is not yet liable for violating the prohibition of Shabbat. The Gemara answers: This is referring to a case where the purse bdoes not have laces. And if you wish, sayinstead that it is referring to a case where bit haslaces, bandthe laces are bwound aroundthe purse.,There is a dispute between Abaye and Rava that parallels the dispute between Ḥizkiya and Rabbi Yoḥa. bAnd, so too, Rava said: They only taughtin the mishna that one is exempt bwith regard tocarrying out ba basket full of cucumbers and gourds. However,for carrying out a basket bfull of mustardseeds, bhe is liable. Apparently,Rava bholds: fusionof several objects in a single bvessel is not considered fusion. Abaye said: Evenif the basket is bfull of mustardseeds, bhe is exempt. Apparently,Abaye bholds: Fusionof several objects in a single bvessel is considered fusion.The Gemara comments: bAbayelater bassumed the opinion of Rava,and bRava assumed the opinion of Abaye. And a contradiction is raisedbetween one statement of bAbayeand another statement of bAbaye; and a contradiction is raisedbetween one statement of bRavaand another statement of bRava. /b, bAs it was statedthat they disputed the matter of bone who carries out fruit into the public domain. Abaye said:If he carried them out binhis bhand, he is liableeven if the rest of his body remained in the private domain because fusion of several objects in his hand is not considered fusion. However, if he carried them out bin a vessel,and part of the vessel remained in the private domain, bhe is exempt. And Rava said:If he carried them out binhis bhand, he is exemptbecause the legal status of his hand is determined by the status of the rest of the body. However, if he carried them out bin a vessel, he is liable. /b,These are contrary to their opinions stated above. The Gemara answers: bReversethe opinions, and say that Rava was the one who said: If he carried it out bin his hand, he is liable.The Gemara raises an objection. bDidn’t we learnin the mishna: In a case where bthe homeowner extended his hand into the public domain, andeither bthe poor person tookan object bfromthe homeowner’s hand and placed it in the public domain, bor the poor person placedan object bintothe homeowner’s hand and the homeowner bcarriedthe object bintothe private domain, bboth are exempt.Apparently, one is not liable if he merely moved an object in his hand into the public domain. The Gemara answers: bThere,in the mishna, it is referring to a case where his hand was babove threehandbreadths from the ground. The object in his hand, therefore, does not have the legal status of having been placed on the ground, and he is exempt. bHere,it is referring to a case where his hand was bbelow threehandbreadths off the ground. Anything that is within three handbreadths off the ground has the legal status of having been placed on the ground., strongMISHNA: /strong bOne who carries outan object into the public domain on Shabbat, bwhetherhe carried it out bin his righthand bor in his lefthand, whether he carried it bin his lap or on his shoulders, he is liable.All of these are typical methods of carrying out an object, basthis was the method of bcarryingthe sacred vessels of the Tabernacle employed bby the sons of Kehatin the desert. All labors prohibited on Shabbat are derived from the Tabernacle, including the prohibited labor of carrying out from domain to domain. But one who carries an object out bin anunusual, bbackhandedmanner, or bwith his foot,or bwith his mouth,or bwith his elbow, with his ear,or bwith his hair,or bwith his belt [ ipunda /i] whose openingfaced bdownward,or bbetween his belt and his cloak,or bwith the hem of his cloak,or bwith his shoe,or bwith his sandal, he is exemptbecause bhe did not carryit bout in a mannertypical bof those who carry. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bRabbi Elazar said: One who carries out a loadfrom the private domain to the public domain, even if he does so at a height babove ten handbreadths,which is beyond the parameters of the public domain, bhe is liable, asthis was the method of bcarryingutilized bby the sons of Kehat.The Gemara asks: bAnd from where do wederive that the method of bcarryingutilized bby the sons of Kehatwas above ten handbreadths? The Gemara answers: bFor it is writtenabout the Levites’ carrying: “And the hangings of the courtyard, and the screen for the courtyard entrance which bsurrounds the Tabernacle, and the altar,and its cords for all of its service” (Numbers 3:26). This verse bjuxtaposesthe baltar to the Tabernacle.It is derived that bjust as the Tabernaclewas bten cubitshigh, bso too,the baltarwas bten cubits high.The verse that indicates otherwise: “And you shall make the altar…and its height should be three cubits” (Exodus 27:1), must be understood differently.,The Gemara asks: bAnd from where do wederive that bthe Tabernacle itselfwas carried above ten handbreadths? The Gemara answers: bAs it is written:“And you shall make the boards for the Tabernacle out of acacia wood standing upright, bthe length of a board shall be ten cubits”(Exodus 26:15–16). bAnd it is writtenwith regard to the construction of the Tabernacle: b“And he spread the tent over the Tabernacle,and he placed the cover for the tent on top of it as God commanded Moses” (Exodus 40:19). bAnd Rav said: Moses, our teacher, spread ithimself. bFrom here youcan bderive that the height of the Levites was ten cubits.If Moses was capable of standing and spreading the cover over the tent by himself, he must have been at least ten cubits tall. Presumably, that was the height of the rest of the Levites as well. bAndthey blearnedthrough tradition that bevery burden that is carried with poles, one-thirdof the burden bis abovethe porter’s height, band two-thirds are belowhis height. bIt is found,then, bthatthe altar bwas very high,as if they carried the altar on poles, the bottom of the altar was at least one-third of ten cubits, twenty handbreadths, off the ground., bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that the Levites were not extraordinarily tall, and this can be derived from bthe Arkof the Covet, bas the Master said:The bArkitself was bninehandbreadths tall as stated in the Torah, band the Ark-coverwas one bhandbreadth, fora total of bten. Andthey blearnedthrough tradition that bevery burden that is carried with poles, one-thirdof the burden bis abovethe porter’s height band two-thirds are belowhis height. bIt is found,then, bthatthe bottom of the Ark bstood tenhandbreadths babovethe ground. The Gemara asks: bAnd let us deriveit bfrom Moses,and why was the first proof insufficient? The Gemara answers: bPerhaps Moseswas bdifferentfrom the other Levites and taller than they were, as bthe Master said: The Divine Presence only rests upona person who is bwise, mighty, wealthy, and tall.Since the Divine Presence rested on Moses, he had to be tall., bRav said in the name of Rabbi Ḥiyya: One who carries out a burden on his head on Shabbat is liableto bring ba sin-offering, as the people of Hotzal do so.They would typically carry burdens on their heads. The Gemara asks: bAnddo bthe people of Hotzalconstitute bthe majority of the world?Even if in one place it is a typical method of carrying a burden, it remains an atypical method of carrying in the rest of the world. bRather, ifthis ruling bwas stated, it was stated as follows. Rav said in the name of Rabbi Ḥiyya:If ba resident of Hotzal carried out a burden on his head on Shabbat he is liable, as the people of his city do so.The Gemara asks again: Even if the inhabitants of his city do this, blet his intention berendered birrelevant bythe opinions of ballother bpeople.If an individual or small group of people conduct themselves in an atypical manner, their conduct is not rendered typical. Typical conduct is determined by the majority of people. bRather, ifthis bwas stated, it was stated as follows. One who carries out a burden on his head is exempt. /b
22. Origen, Commentary On Romans, 10.31 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

23. Origen, Commentary On Romans, 10.31 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

24. Origen, Commentary On Romans, 10.31 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

25. Origen, Against Celsus, 7 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

26. Origen, On First Principles, 3.2 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
anthropology Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 28, 31
apollo Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 35
apostle Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 216
balaam Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 32
baptism, and clothing metaphors Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 137
baptism, and repentance, second Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 132
binary Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 26
bishop Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 216
book Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 32, 40, 64
charismatic triad Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 216
christ, jesus, as cornerstone Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 135
church Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 31, 64
clothing metaphors, and virtues Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 137
clothing metaphors, in baptism Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 137
community, prophecy in the Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 132, 133, 135, 136, 137
control Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 28, 29, 31, 32, 39, 40
cross-cultural(ly) Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 28
deacon Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 216
desire Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 35, 36, 39, 40, 64
desires, good, righteousness Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 137
devil Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 35, 36
didache Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 121, 216
dipsychos Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 35, 64
divination Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 13, 26, 29, 35
divinity Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 183
double-mindedness Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 28, 40, 64
dream Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 32
emotion Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 40
enkrateia Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 39
epictetus Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 40
epithumia Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 36, 39, 64
ethnography Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 25, 28
eucharist Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 43
false prophet Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 121
fear, of god or the lord Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 98
fear Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 40
gender Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 32
god Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 26, 28, 29, 31, 36, 183
harnack, a.v. Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 216
hermas Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 216
hermas and the pauline letters, through public reading Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 43
hilaros Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 36
images Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 31
jesus, as teacher Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 121
living to god (ζῆν τῷ θεῷ) Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 98
loss of consciousness Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 28
lupē Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 40
moral Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 13, 25, 32, 39, 64
negotiation Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 13, 25, 26, 28, 29
neurohistory Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 28
oracle Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 32, 35
oracular Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 13, 26, 28
origen Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 32
oxyrhynchus Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 132
papyri Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 31
passive Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 31, 32, 64
pauline letters, in liturgical use Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 43
pauline letters, reading of, communal Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 43
performance Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 25, 26, 31
pneumatology Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 183
possession Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 13, 25, 26, 28, 29, 31, 35, 36, 183
prayer Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 31
prophecy, prophets, as gift from god Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 137
prophecy, prophets, importance of Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 135, 137
prophecy, prophets, in private Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 133
prophecy, prophets, in the community Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 132, 133, 135, 136, 137
prophecy, prophets, spirit-filled Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 135, 137
prophecy, prophets, true and false, testing of Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 133, 135, 136, 137
prophecy Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 13, 26, 28, 31, 32, 35, 36, 39, 40, 64, 183
prophet, in the didache Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 121
prophet Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 216
psychology Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 13, 29
pythia Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 35
re-actualization Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 132
reading, communal Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 43
reading Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 25, 29, 31, 132
religious experience Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 25, 29
repentance, and the tower Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 132
repentance, intermediate position on Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 132
repentance, second, post-baptismal Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 132
repetition Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 64
revelation Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 29
ritual Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 13, 25, 26
rome Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 31
salvation, after repeated repentance Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 132
self Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 25, 31, 32, 39, 64
shepherd of hermas, transmission Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 304
sin, sinfulness, and testing prophets Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 136
slavery Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 25, 29
son Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 29
speech Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 64
spirit, holy, in prophecy Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 135, 137
spirit Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 13, 25, 26, 28, 29, 31, 32, 35, 36, 39, 40, 183
stoic Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 39
sunday, christian Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 194
synagogue Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 133
synagogues Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 194
teacher Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 216
tertullian Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 36
testament, testing of Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 121
tower, parable of the, and repentance, limits to Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 132
tower, parable of the, apostles and prophets as foundation of Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 135
tower, parable of the, christ as the cornerstone Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 135
vessel Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 31, 36, 39
virgins Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 183
virtue, putting on a' Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 137
virtue Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 31, 39
vision Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 26, 32, 39, 40, 132, 183
visionary habitus Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 132
word, ministry of Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 194
worship, daily and weekly Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 194