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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6276
Hebrew Bible, Song Of Songs, 6.8-6.9


שִׁשִּׁים הֵמָּה מְּלָכוֹת וּשְׁמֹנִים פִּילַגְשִׁים וַעֲלָמוֹת אֵין מִסְפָּר׃There are threescore queens, And fourscore concubines, And maidens without number.


אַחַת הִיא יוֹנָתִי תַמָּתִי אַחַת הִיא לְאִמָּהּ בָּרָה הִיא לְיוֹלַדְתָּהּ רָאוּהָ בָנוֹת וַיְאַשְּׁרוּהָ מְלָכוֹת וּפִילַגְשִׁים וַיְהַלְלוּהָ׃My dove, my undefiled, is but one; She is the only one of her mother; She is the choice one of her that bore her. The daughters saw her, and called her happy; Yea, the queens and the concubines, and they praised her.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

19 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 1.3-1.6, 1.9-1.11, 1.15-1.16, 2.3, 2.9, 2.14, 2.17, 3.7-3.8, 4.1-4.5, 4.7-4.15, 5.1-5.16, 6.1-6.7, 6.9-6.10, 6.12, 7.2-7.6, 8.1, 8.10, 8.13-8.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.3. לְרֵיחַ שְׁמָנֶיךָ טוֹבִים שֶׁמֶן תּוּרַק שְׁמֶךָ עַל־כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ׃ 1.4. מָשְׁכֵנִי אַחֲרֶיךָ נָּרוּצָה הֱבִיאַנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ חֲדָרָיו נָגִילָה וְנִשְׂמְחָה בָּךְ נַזְכִּירָה דֹדֶיךָ מִיַּיִן מֵישָׁרִים אֲהֵבוּךָ׃ 1.5. שְׁחוֹרָה אֲנִי וְנָאוָה בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם כְּאָהֳלֵי קֵדָר כִּירִיעוֹת שְׁלֹמֹה׃ 1.6. אַל־תִּרְאוּנִי שֶׁאֲנִי שְׁחַרְחֹרֶת שֶׁשֱּׁזָפַתְנִי הַשָּׁמֶשׁ בְּנֵי אִמִּי נִחֲרוּ־בִי שָׂמֻנִי נֹטֵרָה אֶת־הַכְּרָמִים כַּרְמִי שֶׁלִּי לֹא נָטָרְתִּי׃ 1.9. לְסֻסָתִי בְּרִכְבֵי פַרְעֹה דִּמִּיתִיךְ רַעְיָתִי׃ 1.11. תּוֹרֵי זָהָב נַעֲשֶׂה־לָּךְ עִם נְקֻדּוֹת הַכָּסֶף׃ 1.15. הִנָּךְ יָפָה רַעְיָתִי הִנָּךְ יָפָה עֵינַיִךְ יוֹנִים׃ 1.16. הִנְּךָ יָפֶה דוֹדִי אַף נָעִים אַף־עַרְשֵׂנוּ רַעֲנָנָה׃ 2.3. כְּתַפּוּחַ בַּעֲצֵי הַיַּעַר כֵּן דּוֹדִי בֵּין הַבָּנִים בְּצִלּוֹ חִמַּדְתִּי וְיָשַׁבְתִּי וּפִרְיוֹ מָתוֹק לְחִכִּי׃ 2.9. דּוֹמֶה דוֹדִי לִצְבִי אוֹ לְעֹפֶר הָאַיָּלִים הִנֵּה־זֶה עוֹמֵד אַחַר כָּתְלֵנוּ מַשְׁגִּיחַ מִן־הַחֲלֹּנוֹת מֵצִיץ מִן־הַחֲרַכִּים׃ 2.14. יוֹנָתִי בְּחַגְוֵי הַסֶּלַע בְּסֵתֶר הַמַּדְרֵגָה הַרְאִינִי אֶתּ־מַרְאַיִךְ הַשְׁמִיעִינִי אֶת־קוֹלֵךְ כִּי־קוֹלֵךְ עָרֵב וּמַרְאֵיךְ נָאוֶה׃ 2.17. עַד שֶׁיָּפוּחַ הַיּוֹם וְנָסוּ הַצְּלָלִים סֹב דְּמֵה־לְךָ דוֹדִי לִצְבִי אוֹ לְעֹפֶר הָאַיָּלִים עַל־הָרֵי בָתֶר׃ 3.7. הִנֵּה מִטָּתוֹ שֶׁלִּשְׁלֹמֹה שִׁשִּׁים גִּבֹּרִים סָבִיב לָהּ מִגִּבֹּרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 3.8. כֻּלָּם אֲחֻזֵי חֶרֶב מְלֻמְּדֵי מִלְחָמָה אִישׁ חַרְבּוֹ עַל־יְרֵכוֹ מִפַּחַד בַּלֵּילּוֹת׃ 4.1. מַה־יָּפוּ דֹדַיִךְ אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה מַה־טֹּבוּ דֹדַיִךְ מִיַּיִן וְרֵיחַ שְׁמָנַיִךְ מִכָּל־בְּשָׂמִים׃ 4.1. הִנָּךְ יָפָה רַעְיָתִי הִנָּךְ יָפָה עֵינַיִךְ יוֹנִים מִבַּעַד לְצַמָּתֵךְ שַׂעְרֵךְ כְּעֵדֶר הָעִזִּים שֶׁגָּלְשׁוּ מֵהַר גִּלְעָד׃ 4.2. שִׁנַּיִךְ כְּעֵדֶר הַקְּצוּבוֹת שֶׁעָלוּ מִן־הָרַחְצָה שֶׁכֻּלָּם מַתְאִימוֹת וְשַׁכֻּלָה אֵין בָּהֶם׃ 4.3. כְּחוּט הַשָּׁנִי שִׂפְתֹתַיִךְ וּמִדְבָּרֵיךְ נָאוֶה כְּפֶלַח הָרִמּוֹן רַקָּתֵךְ מִבַּעַד לְצַמָּתֵךְ׃ 4.4. כְּמִגְדַּל דָּוִיד צַוָּארֵךְ בָּנוּי לְתַלְפִּיּוֹת אֶלֶף הַמָּגֵן תָּלוּי עָלָיו כֹּל שִׁלְטֵי הַגִּבּוֹרִים׃ 4.5. שְׁנֵי שָׁדַיִךְ כִּשְׁנֵי עֳפָרִים תְּאוֹמֵי צְבִיָּה הָרוֹעִים בַּשּׁוֹשַׁנִּים׃ 4.7. כֻּלָּךְ יָפָה רַעְיָתִי וּמוּם אֵין בָּךְ׃ 4.8. אִתִּי מִלְּבָנוֹן כַּלָּה אִתִּי מִלְּבָנוֹן תָּבוֹאִי תָּשׁוּרִי מֵרֹאשׁ אֲמָנָה מֵרֹאשׁ שְׂנִיר וְחֶרְמוֹן מִמְּעֹנוֹת אֲרָיוֹת מֵהַרְרֵי נְמֵרִים׃ 4.9. לִבַּבְתִּנִי אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה לִבַּבְתִּינִי באחד [בְּאַחַת] מֵעֵינַיִךְ בְּאַחַד עֲנָק מִצַּוְּרֹנָיִךְ׃ 4.11. נֹפֶת תִּטֹּפְנָה שִׂפְתוֹתַיִךְ כַּלָּה דְּבַשׁ וְחָלָב תַּחַת לְשׁוֹנֵךְ וְרֵיחַ שַׂלְמֹתַיִךְ כְּרֵיחַ לְבָנוֹן׃ 4.12. גַּן נָעוּל אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה גַּל נָעוּל מַעְיָן חָתוּם׃ 4.13. שְׁלָחַיִךְ פַּרְדֵּס רִמּוֹנִים עִם פְּרִי מְגָדִים כְּפָרִים עִם־נְרָדִים׃ 4.14. נֵרְדְּ וְכַרְכֹּם קָנֶה וְקִנָּמוֹן עִם כָּל־עֲצֵי לְבוֹנָה מֹר וַאֲהָלוֹת עִם כָּל־רָאשֵׁי בְשָׂמִים׃ 4.15. מַעְיַן גַּנִּים בְּאֵר מַיִם חַיִּים וְנֹזְלִים מִן־לְבָנוֹן׃ 5.1. דּוֹדִי צַח וְאָדוֹם דָּגוּל מֵרְבָבָה׃ 5.1. בָּאתִי לְגַנִּי אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה אָרִיתִי מוֹרִי עִם־בְּשָׂמִי אָכַלְתִּי יַעְרִי עִם־דִּבְשִׁי שָׁתִיתִי יֵינִי עִם־חֲלָבִי אִכְלוּ רֵעִים שְׁתוּ וְשִׁכְרוּ דּוֹדִים׃ 5.2. אֲנִי יְשֵׁנָה וְלִבִּי עֵר קוֹל דּוֹדִי דוֹפֵק פִּתְחִי־לִי אֲחֹתִי רַעְיָתִי יוֹנָתִי תַמָּתִי שֶׁרֹּאשִׁי נִמְלָא־טָל קְוֻּצּוֹתַי רְסִיסֵי לָיְלָה׃ 5.3. פָּשַׁטְתִּי אֶת־כֻּתָּנְתִּי אֵיכָכָה אֶלְבָּשֶׁנָּה רָחַצְתִּי אֶת־רַגְלַי אֵיכָכָה אֲטַנְּפֵם׃ 5.4. דּוֹדִי שָׁלַח יָדוֹ מִן־הַחֹר וּמֵעַי הָמוּ עָלָיו׃ 5.5. קַמְתִּי אֲנִי לִפְתֹּחַ לְדוֹדִי וְיָדַי נָטְפוּ־מוֹר וְאֶצְבְּעֹתַי מוֹר עֹבֵר עַל כַּפּוֹת הַמַּנְעוּל׃ 5.6. פָּתַחְתִּי אֲנִי לְדוֹדִי וְדוֹדִי חָמַק עָבָר נַפְשִׁי יָצְאָה בְדַבְּרוֹ בִּקַּשְׁתִּיהוּ וְלֹא מְצָאתִיהוּ קְרָאתִיו וְלֹא עָנָנִי׃ 5.7. מְצָאֻנִי הַשֹּׁמְרִים הַסֹּבְבִים בָּעִיר הִכּוּנִי פְצָעוּנִי נָשְׂאוּ אֶת־רְדִידִי מֵעָלַי שֹׁמְרֵי הַחֹמוֹת׃ 5.8. הִשְׁבַּעְתִּי אֶתְכֶם בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם אִם־תִּמְצְאוּ אֶת־דּוֹדִי מַה־תַּגִּידוּ לוֹ שֶׁחוֹלַת אַהֲבָה אָנִי׃ 5.9. מַה־דּוֹדֵךְ מִדּוֹד הַיָּפָה בַּנָּשִׁים מַה־דּוֹדֵךְ מִדּוֹד שֶׁכָּכָה הִשְׁבַּעְתָּנוּ׃ 5.11. רֹאשׁוֹ כֶּתֶם פָּז קְוּצּוֹתָיו תַּלְתַּלִּים שְׁחֹרוֹת כָּעוֹרֵב׃ 5.12. עֵינָיו כְּיוֹנִים עַל־אֲפִיקֵי מָיִם רֹחֲצוֹת בֶּחָלָב יֹשְׁבוֹת עַל־מִלֵּאת׃ 5.13. לְחָיָו כַּעֲרוּגַת הַבֹּשֶׂם מִגְדְּלוֹת מֶרְקָחִים שִׂפְתוֹתָיו שׁוֹשַׁנִּים נֹטְפוֹת מוֹר עֹבֵר׃ 5.14. יָדָיו גְּלִילֵי זָהָב מְמֻלָּאִים בַּתַּרְשִׁישׁ מֵעָיו עֶשֶׁת שֵׁן מְעֻלֶּפֶת סַפִּירִים׃ 5.15. שׁוֹקָיו עַמּוּדֵי שֵׁשׁ מְיֻסָּדִים עַל־אַדְנֵי־פָז מַרְאֵהוּ כַּלְּבָנוֹן בָּחוּר כָּאֲרָזִים׃ 5.16. חִכּוֹ מַמְתַקִּים וְכֻלּוֹ מַחֲּמַדִּים זֶה דוֹדִי וְזֶה רֵעִי בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 6.1. אָנָה הָלַךְ דּוֹדֵךְ הַיָּפָה בַּנָּשִׁים אָנָה פָּנָה דוֹדֵךְ וּנְבַקְשֶׁנּוּ עִמָּךְ׃ 6.1. מִי־זֹאת הַנִּשְׁקָפָה כְּמוֹ־שָׁחַר יָפָה כַלְּבָנָה בָּרָה כַּחַמָּה אֲיֻמָּה כַּנִּדְגָּלוֹת׃ 6.2. דּוֹדִי יָרַד לְגַנּוֹ לַעֲרוּגוֹת הַבֹּשֶׂם לִרְעוֹת בַּגַּנִּים וְלִלְקֹט שׁוֹשַׁנִּים׃ 6.3. אֲנִי לְדוֹדִי וְדוֹדִי לִי הָרֹעֶה בַּשׁוֹשַׁנִּים׃ 6.4. יָפָה אַתְּ רַעְיָתִי כְּתִרְצָה נָאוָה כִּירוּשָׁלִָם אֲיֻמָּה כַּנִּדְגָּלוֹת׃ 6.5. הָסֵבִּי עֵינַיִךְ מִנֶּגְדִּי שֶׁהֵם הִרְהִיבֻנִי שַׂעְרֵךְ כְּעֵדֶר הָעִזִּים שֶׁגָּלְשׁוּ מִן־הַגִּלְעָד׃ 6.6. שִׁנַּיִךְ כְּעֵדֶר הָרְחֵלִים שֶׁעָלוּ מִן־הָרַחְצָה שֶׁכֻּלָּם מַתְאִימוֹת וְשַׁכֻּלָה אֵין בָּהֶם׃ 6.7. כְּפֶלַח הָרִמּוֹן רַקָּתֵךְ מִבַּעַד לְצַמָּתֵךְ׃ 6.9. אַחַת הִיא יוֹנָתִי תַמָּתִי אַחַת הִיא לְאִמָּהּ בָּרָה הִיא לְיוֹלַדְתָּהּ רָאוּהָ בָנוֹת וַיְאַשְּׁרוּהָ מְלָכוֹת וּפִילַגְשִׁים וַיְהַלְלוּהָ׃ 6.12. לֹא יָדַעְתִּי נַפְשִׁי שָׂמַתְנִי מַרְכְּבוֹת עַמִּי־נָדִיב׃ 7.2. מַה־יָּפוּ פְעָמַיִךְ בַּנְּעָלִים בַּת־נָדִיב חַמּוּקֵי יְרֵכַיִךְ כְּמוֹ חֲלָאִים מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי אָמָּן׃ 7.3. שָׁרְרֵךְ אַגַּן הַסַּהַר אַל־יֶחְסַר הַמָּזֶג בִּטְנֵךְ עֲרֵמַת חִטִּים סוּגָה בַּשּׁוֹשַׁנִּים׃ 7.4. שְׁנֵי שָׁדַיִךְ כִּשְׁנֵי עֳפָרִים תָּאֳמֵי צְבִיָּה׃ 7.5. צַוָּארֵךְ כְּמִגְדַּל הַשֵּׁן עֵינַיִךְ בְּרֵכוֹת בְּחֶשְׁבּוֹן עַל־שַׁעַר בַּת־רַבִּים אַפֵּךְ כְּמִגְדַּל הַלְּבָנוֹן צוֹפֶה פְּנֵי דַמָּשֶׂק׃ 7.6. רֹאשֵׁךְ עָלַיִךְ כַּכַּרְמֶל וְדַלַּת רֹאשֵׁךְ כָּאַרְגָּמָן מֶלֶךְ אָסוּר בָּרְהָטִים׃ 8.1. מִי יִתֶּנְךָ כְּאָח לִי יוֹנֵק שְׁדֵי אִמִּי אֶמְצָאֲךָ בַחוּץ אֶשָׁקְךָ גַּם לֹא־יָבוּזוּ לִי׃ 8.1. אֲנִי חוֹמָה וְשָׁדַי כַּמִּגְדָּלוֹת אָז הָיִיתִי בְעֵינָיו כְּמוֹצְאֵת שָׁלוֹם׃ 8.13. הַיוֹשֶׁבֶת בַּגַּנִּים חֲבֵרִים מַקְשִׁיבִים לְקוֹלֵךְ הַשְׁמִיעִינִי׃ 8.14. בְּרַח דּוֹדִי וּדְמֵה־לְךָ לִצְבִי אוֹ לְעֹפֶר הָאַיָּלִים עַל הָרֵי בְשָׂמִים׃ 1.3. Thine ointments have a goodly fragrance; Thy name is as ointment poured forth; Therefore do the maidens love thee. 1.4. Draw me, we will run after thee; The king hath brought me into his chambers; We will be glad and rejoice in thee, We will find thy love more fragrant than wine! Sincerely do they love thee. 1.5. ’I am black, but comely, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, As the tents of Kedar, As the curtains of Solomon. 1.6. Look not upon me, that I am swarthy, That the sun hath tanned me; My mother’s sons were incensed against me, They made me keeper of the vineyards; But mine own vineyard have I not kept.’ 1.9. I have compared thee, O my love, To a steed in Pharaoh’s chariots. 1.10. Thy cheeks are comely with circlets, Thy neck with beads. 1.11. We will make thee circlets of gold With studs of silver. 1.15. Behold, thou art fair, my love; behold, thou art fair; Thine eyes are as doves. . 1.16. Behold, thou art fair, my beloved, yea, pleasant; Also our couch is leafy. 2.3. As an apple-tree among the trees of the wood, So is my beloved among the sons. Under its shadow I delighted to sit, And its fruit was sweet to my taste. 2.9. My beloved is like a gazelle or a young hart; Behold, he standeth behind our wall, He looketh in through the windows, He peereth through the lattice. 2.14. O my dove, that art in the clefts of the rock, in the covert of the cliff, Let me see thy countece, let me hear thy voice; For sweet is thy voice, and thy countece is comely.’ 2.17. Until the day breathe, and the shadows flee away, Turn, my beloved, and be thou like a gazelle or a young hart Upon the mountains of spices. 3.7. Behold, it is the litter of Solomon; Threescore mighty men are about it, of the mighty men of Israel. 3.8. They all handle the sword, And are expert in war; Every man hath his sword upon his thigh, Because of dread in the night. 4.1. Behold, thou art fair, my love; behold, thou art fair; Thine eyes are as doves behind thy veil; Thy hair is as a flock of goats, that trail down from mount Gilead. 4.2. Thy teeth are like a flock of ewes all shaped alike, Which are come up from the washing; Whereof all are paired, and none faileth among them. 4.3. Thy lips are like a thread of scarlet, And thy mouth is comely; Thy temples are like a pomegranate split open Behind thy veil. 4.4. Thy neck is like the tower of David Builded with turrets, Whereon there hang a thousand shields, All the armour of the mighty men. 4.5. Thy two breasts are like two fawns That are twins of a gazelle, Which feed among the lilies. 4.7. Thou art all fair, my love; And there is no spot in thee. 4.8. Come with me from Lebanon, my bride, With me from Lebanon; Look from the top of Amana, From the top of Senir and Hermon, From the lions’dens, From the mountains of the leopards. 4.9. Thou hast ravished my heart, my sister, my bride; Thou hast ravished my heart with one of thine eyes, With one bead of thy necklace. 4.10. How fair is thy love, my sister, my bride! How much better is thy love than wine! And the smell of thine ointments than all manner of spices! 4.11. Thy lips, O my bride, drop honey— Honey and milk are under thy tongue; And the smell of thy garments is like the smell of Lebanon. 4.12. A garden shut up is my sister, my bride; A spring shut up, a fountain sealed. 4.13. Thy shoots are a park of pomegranates, With precious fruits; Henna with spikenard plants 4.14. Spikenard and saffron, calamus and cinnamon, With all trees of frankincense; Myrrh and aloes, with all the chief spices. 4.15. Thou art a fountain of gardens, A well of living waters, And flowing streams from Lebanon. 5.1. I am come into my garden, my sister, my bride; I have gathered my myrrh with my spice; I have eaten my honeycomb with my honey; I have drunk my wine with my milk. Eat, O friends; Drink, yea, drink abundantly, O beloved. 5.2. I sleep, but my heart waketh; Hark! my beloved knocketh: ‘Open to me, my sister, my love, my dove, my undefiled; For my head is filled with dew, My locks with the drops of the night.’ 5.3. I have put off my coat; How shall I put it on? I have washed my feet; How shall I defile them? 5.4. My beloved put in his hand by the hole of the door, And my heart was moved for him. 5.5. I rose up to open to my beloved; And my hands dropped with myrrh, And my fingers with flowing myrrh, Upon the handles of the bar. 5.6. I opened to my beloved; But my beloved had turned away, and was gone. My soul failed me when he spoke. I sought him, but I could not find him; I called him, but he gave me no answer. 5.7. The watchmen that go about the city found me, They smote me, they wounded me; The keepers of the walls took away my mantle from me. 5.8. ’I adjure you, O daughters of Jerusalem, If ye find my beloved, what will ye tell him? That I am love-sick.’ 5.9. ’What is thy beloved more than another beloved, O thou fairest among women? What is thy beloved more than another beloved, That thou dost so adjure us?’ 5.10. ’My beloved is white and ruddy, Pre-eminent above ten thousand. 5.11. His head is as the most fine gold, His locks are curled, And black as a raven. 5.12. His eyes are like doves Beside the water-brooks; Washed with milk, And fitly set. 5.13. His cheeks are as a bed of spices, As banks of sweet herbs; His lips are as lilies, Dropping with flowing myrrh. 5.14. His hands are as rods of gold Set with beryl; His body is as polished ivory Overlaid with sapphires. 5.15. His legs are as pillars of marble, Set upon sockets of fine gold; His aspect is like Lebanon, Excellent as the cedars. 5.16. His mouth is most sweet; Yea, he is altogether lovely. This is my beloved, and this is my friend, O daughters of Jerusalem.’ 6.1. ’Whither is thy beloved gone, O thou fairest among women? Whither hath thy beloved turned him, That we may seek him with thee?’ 6.2. ’My beloved is gone down into his garden, To the beds of spices, To feed in the gardens, And to gather lilies. 6.3. I am my beloved’s, and my beloved is mine, That feedeth among the lilies.’ 6.4. Thou art beautiful, O my love, as Tirzah, Comely as Jerusalem, Terrible as an army with banners. 6.5. Turn away thine eyes from me, For they have overcome me. Thy hair is as a flock of goats, That trail down from Gilead. 6.6. Thy teeth are like a flock of ewes, Which are come up from the washing; Whereof all are paired, And none faileth among them. 6.7. Thy temples are like a pomegranate split open Behind thy veil. 6.9. My dove, my undefiled, is but one; She is the only one of her mother; She is the choice one of her that bore her. The daughters saw her, and called her happy; Yea, the queens and the concubines, and they praised her. 6.10. Who is she that looketh forth as the dawn, Fair as the moon, Clear as the sun, Terrible as an army with banners? 6.12. Before I was aware, my soul set me Upon the chariots of my princely people. 7.2. How beautiful are thy steps in sandals, O prince’s daughter! The roundings of thy thighs are like the links of a chain, The work of the hands of a skilled workman. 7.3. Thy navel is like a round goblet, wherein no mingled wine is wanting; Thy belly is like a heap of wheat Set about with lilies. 7.4. Thy two breasts are like two fawns that are twins of a gazelle. 7.5. Thy neck is as a tower of ivory; Thine eyes as the pools in Heshbon, By the gate of Bath-rabbim; Thy nose is like the tower of Lebanon Which looketh toward Damascus. 7.6. Thy head upon thee is like Carmel, and the hair of thy head like purple; The king is held captive in the tresses thereof. 8.1. Oh that thou wert as my brother, That sucked the breasts of my mother! When I should find thee without, I would kiss thee; Yea, and none would despise me. 8.10. I am a wall, And my breasts like the towers thereof; Then was I in his eyes As one that found peace. 8.13. Thou that dwellest in the gardens, The companions hearken for thy voice: ‘Cause me to hear it.’ 8.14. Make haste, my beloved, And be thou like to a gazelle or to a young hart Upon the mountains of spices.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.4-6.9, 7.6, 10.22, 11.13-11.21, 32.8, 34.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.4. שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד׃ 6.5. וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃ 6.6. וְהָיוּ הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם עַל־לְבָבֶךָ׃ 6.7. וְשִׁנַּנְתָּם לְבָנֶיךָ וְדִבַּרְתָּ בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃ 6.8. וּקְשַׁרְתָּם לְאוֹת עַל־יָדֶךָ וְהָיוּ לְטֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ׃ 6.9. וּכְתַבְתָּם עַל־מְזוּזֹת בֵּיתֶךָ וּבִשְׁעָרֶיךָ׃ 7.6. כִּי עַם קָדוֹשׁ אַתָּה לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּךָ בָּחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִהְיוֹת לוֹ לְעַם סְגֻלָּה מִכֹּל הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃ 10.22. בְּשִׁבְעִים נֶפֶשׁ יָרְדוּ אֲבֹתֶיךָ מִצְרָיְמָהּ וְעַתָּה שָׂמְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כְּכוֹכְבֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם לָרֹב׃ 11.13. וְהָיָה אִם־שָׁמֹעַ תִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶל־מִצְוֺתַי אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם הַיּוֹם לְאַהֲבָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וּלְעָבְדוֹ בְּכָל־לְבַבְכֶם וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁכֶם׃ 11.14. וְנָתַתִּי מְטַר־אַרְצְכֶם בְּעִתּוֹ יוֹרֶה וּמַלְקוֹשׁ וְאָסַפְתָּ דְגָנֶךָ וְתִירֹשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ׃ 11.15. וְנָתַתִּי עֵשֶׂב בְּשָׂדְךָ לִבְהֶמְתֶּךָ וְאָכַלְתָּ וְשָׂבָעְתָּ׃ 11.16. הִשָּׁמְרוּ לָכֶם פֶּן יִפְתֶּה לְבַבְכֶם וְסַרְתֶּם וַעֲבַדְתֶּם אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתֶם לָהֶם׃ 11.17. וְחָרָה אַף־יְהוָה בָּכֶם וְעָצַר אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה מָטָר וְהָאֲדָמָה לֹא תִתֵּן אֶת־יְבוּלָהּ וַאֲבַדְתֶּם מְהֵרָה מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ הַטֹּבָה אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה נֹתֵן לָכֶם׃ 11.18. וְשַׂמְתֶּם אֶת־דְּבָרַי אֵלֶּה עַל־לְבַבְכֶם וְעַל־נַפְשְׁכֶם וּקְשַׁרְתֶּם אֹתָם לְאוֹת עַל־יֶדְכֶם וְהָיוּ לְטוֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֵיכֶם׃ 11.19. וְלִמַּדְתֶּם אֹתָם אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶם לְדַבֵּר בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃ 11.21. לְמַעַן יִרְבּוּ יְמֵיכֶם וִימֵי בְנֵיכֶם עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתֵיכֶם לָתֵת לָהֶם כִּימֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 32.8. בְּהַנְחֵל עֶלְיוֹן גּוֹיִם בְּהַפְרִידוֹ בְּנֵי אָדָם יַצֵּב גְּבֻלֹת עַמִּים לְמִסְפַּר בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 6.4. HEAR, O ISRAEL: THE LORD OUR GOD, THE LORD IS ONE." 6.5. And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might." 6.6. And these words, which I command thee this day, shall be upon thy heart;" 6.7. and thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up." 6.8. And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thy hand, and they shall be for frontlets between thine eyes." 6.9. And thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of thy house, and upon thy gates." 7.6. For thou art a holy people unto the LORD thy God: the LORD thy God hath chosen thee to be His own treasure, out of all peoples that are upon the face of the earth." 10.22. Thy fathers went down into Egypt with threescore and ten persons; and now the LORD thy God hath made thee as the stars of heaven for multitude." 11.13. And it shall come to pass, if ye shall hearken diligently unto My commandments which I command you this day, to love the LORD your God, and to serve Him with all your heart and with all your soul," 11.14. that I will give the rain of your land in its season, the former rain and the latter rain, that thou mayest gather in thy corn, and thy wine, and thine oil." 11.15. And I will give grass in thy fields for thy cattle, and thou shalt eat and be satisfied." 11.16. Take heed to yourselves, lest your heart be deceived, and ye turn aside, and serve other gods, and worship them;" 11.17. and the anger of the LORD be kindled against you, and He shut up the heaven, so that there shall be no rain, and the ground shall not yield her fruit; and ye perish quickly from off the good land which the LORD giveth you." 11.18. Therefore shall ye lay up these My words in your heart and in your soul; and ye shall bind them for a sign upon your hand, and they shall be for frontlets between your eyes." 11.19. And ye shall teach them your children, talking of them, when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up." 11.20. And thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of thy house, and upon thy gates;" 11.21. that your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children, upon the land which the LORD swore unto your fathers to give them, as the days of the heavens above the earth." 32.8. When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the children of men, He set the borders of the peoples according to the number of the children of Israel." 34.10. And there hath not arisen a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the LORD knew face to face;"
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.37, 15.1, 15.11, 15.13, 18.18, 19.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.37. וַיִּסְעוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵרַעְמְסֵס סֻכֹּתָה כְּשֵׁשׁ־מֵאוֹת אֶלֶף רַגְלִי הַגְּבָרִים לְבַד מִטָּף׃ 15.1. אָז יָשִׁיר־מֹשֶׁה וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת לַיהוָה וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֵאמֹר אָשִׁירָה לַיהוָה כִּי־גָאֹה גָּאָה סוּס וְרֹכְבוֹ רָמָה בַיָּם׃ 15.1. נָשַׁפְתָּ בְרוּחֲךָ כִּסָּמוֹ יָם צָלֲלוּ כַּעוֹפֶרֶת בְּמַיִם אַדִּירִים׃ 15.11. מִי־כָמֹכָה בָּאֵלִם יְהוָה מִי כָּמֹכָה נֶאְדָּר בַּקֹּדֶשׁ נוֹרָא תְהִלֹּת עֹשֵׂה פֶלֶא׃ 15.13. נָחִיתָ בְחַסְדְּךָ עַם־זוּ גָּאָלְתָּ נֵהַלְתָּ בְעָזְּךָ אֶל־נְוֵה קָדְשֶׁךָ׃ 18.18. נָבֹל תִּבֹּל גַּם־אַתָּה גַּם־הָעָם הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר עִמָּךְ כִּי־כָבֵד מִמְּךָ הַדָּבָר לֹא־תוּכַל עֲשֹׂהוּ לְבַדֶּךָ׃ 19.5. וְעַתָּה אִם־שָׁמוֹעַ תִּשְׁמְעוּ בְּקֹלִי וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־בְּרִיתִי וִהְיִיתֶם לִי סְגֻלָּה מִכָּל־הָעַמִּים כִּי־לִי כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 12.37. And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand men on foot, beside children." 15.1. Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the LORD, and spoke, saying: I will sing unto the LORD, for He is highly exalted; The horse and his rider hath He thrown into the sea." 15.11. Who is like unto Thee, O LORD, among the mighty? Who is like unto Thee, glorious in holiness, Fearful in praises, doing wonders?" 15.13. Thou in Thy love hast led the people that Thou hast redeemed; Thou hast guided them in Thy strength to Thy holy habitation." 18.18. Thou wilt surely wear away, both thou, and this people that is with thee; for the thing is too heavy for thee; thou art not able to perform it thyself alone." 19.5. Now therefore, if ye will hearken unto My voice indeed, and keep My covet, then ye shall be Mine own treasure from among all peoples; for all the earth is Mine;"
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 14.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14.3. קְחוּ עִמָּכֶם דְּבָרִים וְשׁוּבוּ אֶל־יְהוָה אִמְרוּ אֵלָיו כָּל־תִּשָּׂא עָוֺן וְקַח־טוֹב וּנְשַׁלְּמָה פָרִים שְׂפָתֵינוּ׃ 14.3. Take with you words, And return unto the LORD; Say unto Him: ‘Forgive all iniquity, And accept that which is good; So will we render for bullocks the offering of our lips."
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 27.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

27.3. וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ הַזָּכָר מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וְעַד בֶּן־שִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ חֲמִשִּׁים שֶׁקֶל כֶּסֶף בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ׃ 27.3. וְכָל־מַעְשַׂר הָאָרֶץ מִזֶּרַע הָאָרֶץ מִפְּרִי הָעֵץ לַיהוָה הוּא קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה׃ 27.3. then thy valuation shall be for the male from twenty years old even unto sixty years old, even thy valuation shall be fifty shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanctuary."
6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 15.37-15.41, 21.21-21.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.37. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 15.38. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם וְעָשׂוּ לָהֶם צִיצִת עַל־כַּנְפֵי בִגְדֵיהֶם לְדֹרֹתָם וְנָתְנוּ עַל־צִיצִת הַכָּנָף פְּתִיל תְּכֵלֶת׃ 15.39. וְהָיָה לָכֶם לְצִיצִת וּרְאִיתֶם אֹתוֹ וּזְכַרְתֶּם אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם וְלֹא־תָתֻרוּ אַחֲרֵי לְבַבְכֶם וְאַחֲרֵי עֵינֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם זֹנִים אַחֲרֵיהֶם׃ 15.41. אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לִהְיוֹת לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 21.21. וַיִּשְׁלַח יִשְׂרָאֵל מַלְאָכִים אֶל־סִיחֹן מֶלֶךְ־הָאֱמֹרִי לֵאמֹר׃ 21.22. אֶעְבְּרָה בְאַרְצֶךָ לֹא נִטֶּה בְּשָׂדֶה וּבְכֶרֶם לֹא נִשְׁתֶּה מֵי בְאֵר בְּדֶרֶךְ הַמֶּלֶךְ נֵלֵךְ עַד אֲשֶׁר־נַעֲבֹר גְּבֻלֶךָ׃ 21.23. וְלֹא־נָתַן סִיחֹן אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲבֹר בִּגְבֻלוֹ וַיֶּאֱסֹף סִיחֹן אֶת־כָּל־עַמּוֹ וַיֵּצֵא לִקְרַאת יִשְׂרָאֵל הַמִּדְבָּרָה וַיָּבֹא יָהְצָה וַיִּלָּחֶם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 21.24. וַיַּכֵּהוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לְפִי־חָרֶב וַיִּירַשׁ אֶת־אַרְצוֹ מֵאַרְנֹן עַד־יַבֹּק עַד־בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן כִּי עַז גְּבוּל בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן׃ 21.25. וַיִּקַּח יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵת כָּל־הֶעָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וַיֵּשֶׁב יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּכָל־עָרֵי הָאֱמֹרִי בְּחֶשְׁבּוֹן וּבְכָל־בְּנֹתֶיהָ׃ 21.26. כִּי חֶשְׁבּוֹן עִיר סִיחֹן מֶלֶךְ הָאֱמֹרִי הִוא וְהוּא נִלְחַם בְּמֶלֶךְ מוֹאָב הָרִאשׁוֹן וַיִּקַּח אֶת־כָּל־אַרְצוֹ מִיָּדוֹ עַד־אַרְנֹן׃ 21.27. עַל־כֵּן יֹאמְרוּ הַמֹּשְׁלִים בֹּאוּ חֶשְׁבּוֹן תִּבָּנֶה וְתִכּוֹנֵן עִיר סִיחוֹן׃ 21.28. כִּי־אֵשׁ יָצְאָה מֵחֶשְׁבּוֹן לֶהָבָה מִקִּרְיַת סִיחֹן אָכְלָה עָר מוֹאָב בַּעֲלֵי בָּמוֹת אַרְנֹן׃ 21.29. אוֹי־לְךָ מוֹאָב אָבַדְתָּ עַם־כְּמוֹשׁ נָתַן בָּנָיו פְּלֵיטִם וּבְנֹתָיו בַּשְּׁבִית לְמֶלֶךְ אֱמֹרִי סִיחוֹן׃ 21.31. וַיֵּשֶׁב יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאֶרֶץ הָאֱמֹרִי׃ 15.37. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 15.38. ’Speak unto the children of Israel, and bid them that they make them throughout their generations fringes in the corners of their garments, and that they put with the fringe of each corner a thread of blue." 15.39. And it shall be unto you for a fringe, that ye may look upon it, and remember all the commandments of the LORD, and do them; and that ye go not about after your own heart and your own eyes, after which ye use to go astray;" 15.40. that ye may remember and do all My commandments, and be holy unto your God." 15.41. I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: I am the LORD your God.’" 21.21. And Israel sent messengers unto Sihon king of the Amorites, saying:" 21.22. ’Let me pass through thy land; we will not turn aside into field, or into vineyard; we will not drink of the water of the wells; we will go by the king’s highway, until we have passed thy border.’" 21.23. And Sihon would not suffer Israel to pass through his border; but Sihon gathered all his people together, and went out against Israel into the wilderness, and came to Jahaz; and he fought against Israel." 21.24. And Israel smote him with the edge of the sword, and possessed his land from the Arnon unto the Jabbok, even unto the children of Ammon; for the border of the children of Ammon was strong." 21.25. And Israel took all these cities; and Israel dwelt in all the cities of the Amorites, in Heshbon, and in all the towns thereof." 21.26. For Heshbon was the city of Sihon the king of the Amorites, who had fought against the former king of Moab, and taken all his land out of his hand, even unto the Arnon." 21.27. Wherefore they that speak in parables say: Come ye to Heshbon! Let the city of Sihon be built and established!" 21.28. For a fire is gone out of Heshbon, A flame from the city of Sihon; It hath devoured Ar of Moab, The lords of the high places of Arnon." 21.29. Woe to thee, Moab! Thou art undone, O people of Chemosh; He hath given his sons as fugitives, And his daughters into captivity, Unto Sihon king of the Amorites." 21.30. We have shot at them—Heshbon is perished—even unto Dibon, And we have laid waste even unto Nophah, Which reacheth unto Medeba." 21.31. Thus Israel dwelt in the land of the Amorites."
7. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 43.21, 49.21 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

43.21. עַם־זוּ יָצַרְתִּי לִי תְּהִלָּתִי יְסַפֵּרוּ׃ 49.21. וְאָמַרְתְּ בִּלְבָבֵךְ מִי יָלַד־לִי אֶת־אֵלֶּה וַאֲנִי שְׁכוּלָה וְגַלְמוּדָה גֹּלָה וְסוּרָה וְאֵלֶּה מִי גִדֵּל הֵן אֲנִי נִשְׁאַרְתִּי לְבַדִּי אֵלֶּה אֵיפֹה הֵם׃ 43.21. The people which I formed for Myself, That they might tell of My praise." 49.21. Then shalt thou say in thy heart: ‘Who hath begotten me these, Seeing I have been bereaved of my children, and am solitary, An exile, and wandering to and fro? And who hath brought up these? Behold, I was left alone; These, where were they?’"
8. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 11.15 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.15. כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה עַבְדּוֹ כֵּן־צִוָּה מֹשֶׁה אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְכֵן עָשָׂה יְהוֹשֻׁעַ לֹא־הֵסִיר דָּבָר מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה׃ 11.15. As the LORD commanded Moses His servant, so did Moses command Joshua; and so did Joshua; he left nothing undone of all that the LORD commanded Moses."
9. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 12.11 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.11. דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים כַּדָּרְבֹנוֹת וּכְמַשְׂמְרוֹת נְטוּעִים בַּעֲלֵי אֲסֻפּוֹת נִתְּנוּ מֵרֹעֶה אֶחָד׃ 12.11. The words of the wise are as goads, and as nails well fastened are those that are composed in collections; they are given from one shepherd."
10. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 80-82, 79 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

79. But the divine army is the body of virtues, the champions of the souls that love God, whom it becomes, when they see the adversary defeated, to sing a most beautiful and becoming hymn to the God who giveth the victory and the glorious triumph; and two choruses, the one proceeding from the conclave of the men, and the other from the company of the women, will stand up and sing in alternate songs a melody responsive to one another's voices.
11. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 13 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Then, because of their anxious desire for an immortal and blessed existence, thinking that their mortal life has already come to an end, they leave their possessions to their sons or daughters, or perhaps to other relations, giving them up their inheritance with willing cheerfulness; and those who know no relations give their property to their companions or friends, for it followed of necessity that those who have acquired the wealth which sees, as if ready prepared for them, should be willing to surrender that wealth which is blind to those who themselves also are still blind in their minds.
12. New Testament, Luke, 10.1-10.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.1. Now after these things, the Lord also appointed seventy others, and sent them two by two before his face into every city and place, where he was about to come. 10.2. Then he said to them, "The harvest is indeed plentiful, but the laborers are few. Pray therefore to the Lord of the harvest, that he may send out laborers into his harvest. 10.3. Go your ways. Behold, I send you out as lambs among wolves. 10.4. Carry no purse, nor wallet, nor sandals. Greet no one on the way. 10.5. Into whatever house you enter, first say, 'Peace be to this house.' 10.6. If a son of peace is there, your peace will rest on him; but if not, it will return to you. 10.7. Remain in that same house, eating and drinking the things they give, for the laborer is worthy of his wages. Don't go from house to house. 10.8. Into whatever city you enter, and they receive you, eat the things that are set before you. 10.9. Heal the sick who are therein, and tell them, 'The Kingdom of God has come near to you.' 10.10. But into whatever city you enter, and they don't receive you, go out into the streets of it and say 10.11. 'Even the dust from your city that clings to us, we wipe off against you. Nevertheless know this, that the Kingdom of God has come near to you.' 10.12. I tell you, it will be more tolerable in that day for Sodom than for that city. 10.13. Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida! For if the mighty works had been done in Tyre and Sidon which were done in you, they would have repented long ago, sitting in sackcloth and ashes. 10.14. But it will be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon in the judgment than for you.
13. New Testament, Matthew, 4.6, 4.8-4.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.6. and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down, for it is written, 'He will give his angels charge concerning you.' and, 'On their hands they will bear you up, So that you don't dash your foot against a stone.' 4.8. Again, the devil took him to an exceedingly high mountain, and showed him all the kingdoms of the world, and their glory. 4.9. He said to him, "I will give you all of these things, if you will fall down and worship me. 4.10. Then Jesus said to him, "Get behind me, Satan! For it is written, 'You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve.'
14. Tosefta, Sotah, 7.20-7.21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 45.4, 90.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

45.4. וַיָּבֹא אֶל הָגָר וַתַּהַר (בראשית טז, ד), רַבִּי לֵוִי בַּר חַיָּתָא אָמַר מִבִּיאָה רִאשׁוֹנָה נִתְעַבְּרָה, אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר לְעוֹלָם אֵין הָאִשָּׁה מִתְעַבֶּרֶת מִבִּיאָה רִאשׁוֹנָה, וְהָכְתִיב (בראשית יט, לו): וַתַּהֲרֶיןָ שְׁתֵּי בְנוֹת לוֹט מֵאֲבִיהֶן, אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא שָׁלְטוּ בְּעַצְמָן וְהוֹצִיאוּ עֶרְוָתָן וְנִתְעַבְּרוּ כְּמִבִּיאָה שְׁנִיָּה. אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן פָּזִי הַקּוֹצִין הַלָּלוּ אֵינָן לֹא מִתְנַכְּשִׁין וְלֹא נִזְרָעִים, מֵאֵילֵיהֶן הֵן יוֹצְאִים וּמִתַּמְּרִים וְעוֹלִים. הַחִטִּים הַלָּלוּ כַּמָּה צַעַר וְכַמָּה יְגִיעַ עַד שֶׁלֹא יַעֲלוּ. וְלָמָּה נִתְעַקְּרוּ הָאִמָּהוֹת, רַבִּי לֵוִי מִשֵּׁם רַבִּי שִׁילָא דִּכְפַר תְּמַרְתָּא וְרַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מִתְאַוֶּה לִתְפִלָּתָן וּמִתְאַוֶּה לְשִׂיחָתָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שיר השירים ב, יד): יוֹנָתִי בְּחַגְוֵי הַסֶּלַע, יוֹנָתִי בְּחַגְוֵי, לָמָּה עִקַּרְתִּי אֶתְכֶם, בִּשְׁבִיל (שיר השירים ב, יד): הַרְאִינִי אֶת מַרְאַיִךְ הַשְׁמִיעִנִי אֶת קוֹלֵךְ. רַבִּי עֲזַרְיָה מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בַּר פַּפָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מִתְרַפְּקוֹת עַל בַּעֲלֵיהֶן בְּנוֹיָן. רַבִּי הוּנָא מִשֵּׁם רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּצְאוּ רֹב הַשָּׁנִים בְּלֹא שִׁעְבּוּד. רַבִּי הוּנָא וְרַבִּי אָבוּן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי מֵאִיר אָמַר כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּהָנוּ בַּעֲלֵיהֶן מֵהֶן, שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁהָאִשָּׁה מְקַבֶּלֶת עֻבָּרִין הִיא מִתְכַּעֶרֶת וּמִתְעַזֶּבֶת, שֶׁכָּל תִּשְׁעִים שָׁנָה שֶׁלֹא יָלְדָה שָׂרָה הָיְתָה כְּכַלָּה בְּתוֹךְ חֻפָּתָהּ, וְהָיוּ מַטְרוֹנִיּוֹת בָּאוֹת לִשְׁאֹל בִּשְׁלוֹמָהּ שֶׁל שָׂרָה וְהָיְתָה שָׂרָה אוֹמֶרֶת לָהֶם צְאוּ וְשַׁאֲלוּ בִּשְׁלוֹמָהּ שֶׁל עֲלוּבָה, וְהָיְתָה הָגָר אוֹמֶרֶת לָהֶם שָׂרַי גְבִרְתִּי אֵין סִתְרָהּ כְּגִלּוּיָהּ, נִרְאֵית צַדֶּקֶת וְאֵינָהּ צַדֶּקֶת, אִלּוּ הָיְתָה צַדֶּקֶת רְאוּ כַּמָּה שָׁנִים שֶׁלֹא נִתְעַבְּרָה וַאֲנִי בְּלַיְלָה אֶחָד נִתְעַבַּרְתִּי, וְהָיְתָה אוֹמֶרֶת עִם דָּא אֲנָא מִסַּב וּמִתַּן, הַלְוַאי מִסַּב וּמִתַּן עִם מָרָהּ. 90.1. וַיֹּאמֶר פַּרְעֹה אֶל עֲבָדָיו הֲנִמְצָא כָזֶה (בראשית מא, לח), (שיר השירים ו, ט): אַחַת הִיא יוֹנָתִי תַמָּתִי אַחַת הִיא לְאִמָּהּ וגו'. אַחַת הִיא יוֹנָתִי תַמָּתִי, זֶה אַבְרָהָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יחזקאל לג, כד): אֶחָד הָיָה אַבְרָהָם וַיִּירַשׁ אֶת הָאָרֶץ. אַחַת הִיא לְאִמָּהּ, זֶה יִצְחָק, שֶׁהָיָה יָחִיד לְאִמּוֹ. בָּרָה הִיא לְיוֹלַדְתָּהּ, זֶה יַעֲקֹב, שֶׁהָיָה בָּרוּר לְיוֹלַדְתּוֹ שֶׁהוּא צַדִּיק. רָאוּהָ בָנוֹת וַיְאַשְׁרוּהָ, אֵלּוּ הַשְּׁבָטִים (בראשית מה, טז): וְהַקֹּל נִשְׁמַע בֵּית פַּרְעֹה. מְלָכוֹת וּפִילַגְשִׁים וַיְהַלְּלוּהָ, זֶה יוֹסֵף, וַיֹּאמֶר פַּרְעֹה אֶל עֲבָדָיו הֲנִמְצָא כָזֶה, אִם מְהַלְּכִים אָנוּ מִסּוֹף הָעוֹלָם וְעַד סוֹפוֹ אֵין אָנוּ מוֹצְאִים כָּזֶה. 45.4. ...Rabbi Shimon ben Yohai said Hagar was Pharaoh's daughter. When he saw the deeds on behalf of Sarah in his house, he took his daughter and gave her to him, saying, 'better that my daughter by a maidservant in this house than a mistress in another house.' This is what is written: \"She had an Egyptian handmaid whose name was Hagar.\" [In other words:] ha agrikh: 'This is your reward.'"
16. Anon., Mekhilta Derabbi Yishmael, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

17. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31a. מאי קרא (תהלים עא, ו) ממעי אמי אתה גוזי מאי משמע דהאי גוזי לישנא דאשתבועי הוא דכתיב (ירמיהו ז, כט) גזי נזרך והשליכי,ואמר רבי אלעזר למה ולד דומה במעי אמו לאגוז מונח בספל של מים אדם נותן אצבעו עליו שוקע לכאן ולכאן,תנו רבנן שלשה חדשים הראשונים ולד דר במדור התחתון אמצעיים ולד דר במדור האמצעי אחרונים ולד דר במדור העליון וכיון שהגיע זמנו לצאת מתהפך ויוצא וזהו חבלי אשה,והיינו דתנן חבלי של נקבה מרובין משל זכר,ואמר רבי אלעזר מאי קרא (תהלים קלט, טו) אשר עשיתי בסתר רקמתי בתחתיות ארץ דרתי לא נאמר אלא רקמתי,מאי שנא חבלי נקבה מרובין משל זכר זה בא כדרך תשמישו וזה בא כדרך תשמישו זו הופכת פניה וזה אין הופך פניו,תנו רבנן שלשה חדשים הראשונים תשמיש קשה לאשה וגם קשה לולד אמצעיים קשה לאשה ויפה לולד אחרונים יפה לאשה ויפה לולד שמתוך כך נמצא הולד מלובן ומזורז,תנא המשמש מטתו ליום תשעים כאילו שופך דמים מנא ידע אלא אמר אביי משמש והולך (תהלים קטז, ו) ושומר פתאים ה',תנו רבנן שלשה שותפין יש באדם הקב"ה ואביו ואמו אביו מזריע הלובן שממנו עצמות וגידים וצפרנים ומוח שבראשו ולובן שבעין אמו מזרעת אודם שממנו עור ובשר ושערות ושחור שבעין והקב"ה נותן בו רוח ונשמה וקלסתר פנים וראיית העין ושמיעת האוזן ודבור פה והלוך רגלים ובינה והשכל,וכיון שהגיע זמנו להפטר מן העולם הקב"ה נוטל חלקו וחלק אביו ואמו מניח לפניהם אמר רב פפא היינו דאמרי אינשי פוץ מלחא ושדי בשרא לכלבא,דרש רב חיננא בר פפא מאי דכתיב (איוב ט, י) עושה גדולות עד אין חקר ונפלאות עד אין מספר בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם נותן חפץ בחמת צרורה ופיה למעלה ספק משתמר ספק אין משתמר ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה פתוחה ופיה למטה ומשתמר,דבר אחר אדם נותן חפציו לכף מאזנים כל זמן שמכביד יורד למטה ואילו הקב"ה כל זמן שמכביד הולד עולה למעלה,דרש רבי יוסי הגלילי מאי דכתיב {תהילים קל״ט:י״ד } אודך (ה') על כי נוראות נפליתי נפלאים מעשיך ונפשי יודעת מאד בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם אדם נותן זרעונים בערוגה כל אחת ואחת עולה במינו ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה וכולם עולין למין אחד,דבר אחר צבע נותן סמנין ליורה כולן עולין לצבע אחד ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה כל אחת ואחת עולה למינו,דרש רב יוסף מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו יב, א) אודך ה' כי אנפת בי ישוב אפך ותנחמני במה הכתוב מדבר,בשני בני אדם שיצאו לסחורה ישב לו קוץ לאחד מהן התחיל מחרף ומגדף לימים שמע שטבעה ספינתו של חבירו בים התחיל מודה ומשבח לכך נאמר ישוב אפך ותנחמני,והיינו דאמר רבי אלעזר מאי דכתיב (תהלים עב, יח) עושה נפלאות (גדולות) לבדו וברוך שם כבודו לעולם אפילו בעל הנס אינו מכיר בנסו,דריש רבי חנינא בר פפא מאי דכתיב (תהלים קלט, ג) ארחי ורבעי זרית וכל דרכי הסכנת מלמד שלא נוצר אדם מן כל הטפה אלא מן הברור שבה תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל משל לאדם שזורה בבית הגרנות נוטל את האוכל ומניח את הפסולת,כדרבי אבהו דרבי אבהו רמי כתיב (שמואל ב כב, מ) ותזרני חיל וכתיב (תהלים יח, לג) האל המאזרני חיל אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע זיריתני וזרזתני,דרש רבי אבהו מאי דכתיב (במדבר כג, י) מי מנה עפר יעקב ומספר את רובע ישראל מלמד שהקב"ה יושב וסופר את רביעיותיהם של ישראל מתי תבא טיפה שהצדיק נוצר הימנה,ועל דבר זה נסמית עינו של בלעם הרשע אמר מי שהוא טהור וקדוש ומשרתיו טהורים וקדושים יציץ בדבר זה מיד נסמית עינו דכתיב (במדבר כד, ג) נאם הגבר שתום העין,והיינו דאמר רבי יוחנן מאי דכתיב (בראשית ל, טז) וישכב עמה בלילה הוא מלמד שהקב"ה סייע באותו מעשה שנאמר (בראשית מט, יד) יששכר חמור גרם חמור גרם לו ליששכר,אמר רבי יצחק אמר רבי אמי אשה מזרעת תחילה יולדת זכר איש מזריע תחילה יולדת נקבה שנאמר (ויקרא יג, כט) אשה כי תזריע וילדה זכר,תנו רבנן בראשונה היו אומרים אשה מזרעת תחילה יולדת זכר איש מזריע תחלה יולדת נקבה ולא פירשו חכמים את הדבר עד שבא רבי צדוק ופירשו (בראשית מו, טו) אלה בני לאה אשר ילדה ליעקב בפדן ארם ואת דינה בתו תלה הזכרים בנקבות ונקבות בזכרים,(דברי הימים א ח, מ) ויהיו בני אולם אנשים גבורי חיל דורכי קשת ומרבים בנים ובני בנים וכי בידו של אדם להרבות בנים ובני בנים אלא מתוך 31a. bWhat is the versefrom which it is derived that a fetus is administered an oath on the day of its birth? “Upon You I have relied from birth; bYou are He Who took me out [ igozi /i] of my mother’s womb”(Psalms 71:6). bFrom where mayit bbe inferred that thisword: b“ iGozi /i,” is a term of administering an oath? As it is written: “Cut off [ igozi /i] your hair and cast it away”(Jeremiah 7:29), which is interpreted as a reference to the vow of a nazirite, who must cut off his hair at the end of his term of naziriteship., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: To what is a fetus in its mother’s womb comparable?It is comparable bto a nut placed in a basinfull bof water,floating on top of the water. If ba person puts his finger on top ofthe nut, bit sinkseither bin this direction or in that direction. /b,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: During bthe first three monthsof pregcy, the bfetus resides in the lower compartmentof the womb; in the bmiddlethree months, the bfetus resides in the middle compartment;and during the blastthree months of pregcy the bfetus resides in the upper compartment. And once its time to emerge arrives, it turns upside down and emerges; and this iswhat causes blabor pains. /b,With regard to the assertion that labor pains are caused by the fetus turning upside down, the Gemara notes: bAnd this isthe explanation for bthat which we learnedin a ibaraita /i: bThe labor pains experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba female are greater thanthose bexperienced bya woman who gives birth to ba male.The Gemara will explain this below., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: What is the versefrom which it is derived that a fetus initially resides in the lower part of the womb? b“When I was made in secret, and I was woven together in the lowest parts of the earth”(Psalms 139:15). Since it bis not stated: I residedin the lowest parts of the earth, bbut rather: “I was woven togetherin the lowest parts of the earth,” this teaches that during the initial stage of a fetus’s development, when it is woven together, its location is in the lower compartment of the womb.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentabout bthe labor pains experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba female,that they bare greater than those experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba male?The Gemara answers: bThisone, a male fetus, bemerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse.Just as a male engages in intercourse facing downward, so too, it is born while facing down. bAnd thatone, a female fetus, bemerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse,i.e., facing upward. Consequently, bthatone, a female fetus, bturns its face aroundbefore it is born, bbut thisone, a male fetus, bdoes not turn its face aroundbefore it is born.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: During bthe first three monthsof pregcy, bsexual intercourse is difficultand harmful bfor the woman and is also difficult for the offspring.During the bmiddlethree months, intercourse is bdifficult for the woman but is beneficial for the offspring.During the blastthree months, sexual intercourse is bbeneficial for the woman and beneficial for the offspring; as a result of it the offspring is found to be strong and fair skinned. /b,The Sages btaughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bone who engages in intercoursewith his wife bon the ninetieth dayof her pregcy, bit is as though he spillsher bblood.The Gemara asks: bHow does one knowthat it is the ninetieth day of her pregcy? bRather, Abaye says: One should go ahead and engage in intercoursewith his wife even if it might be the ninetieth day, bandrely on God to prevent any ensuing harm, as the verse states: b“The Lord preserves the simple”(Psalms 116:6).,§ bThe Sages taught: There are three partners inthe creation of ba person: The Holy One, Blessed be He, and his father, and his mother. His father emits the white seed, from whichthe following body parts are formed: The bbones,the bsinews,the bnails,the bbrain that is in its head, andthe bwhite of the eye. His mother emits red seed, from whichare formed the bskin,the bflesh,the bhair, andthe bblack of the eye. And the Holy One, Blessed be He, inserts into him a spirit, a soul,his bcountece [ iukelaster /i], eyesight, hearing of the ear,the capability of bspeechof bthe mouth,the capability of bwalkingwith bthe legs, understanding, and wisdom. /b, bAnd whena person’s btime to depart from the world arrives, the Holy One, Blessed be He, retrieves His part, and He leaves the part ofthe person’s bfather and mother before them. Rav Pappa said: Thisis in accordance with the adage bthat people say: Remove the saltfrom a piece of meat, bandyou may then btoss the meat to a dog,as it has become worthless.,§ bRav Ḥina bar Pappa taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Who does great deeds beyond comprehension, wondrous deeds without number”(Job 9:10)? bCome and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and bloodis that if one bputs an article in a flask,even if the flask is btied and its openingfaces bupward, it is uncertain whetherthe item bis preservedfrom getting lost, band it is uncertain whether it is not preservedfrom being lost. bBut the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s open womb, and its openingfaces bdownward, andyet the fetus bis preserved. /b, bAnother matterthat demonstrates the difference between the attributes of God and the attributes of people is that when ba person places his articles on a scaleto be measured, bthe heavierthe item bis,the more bit descends. Butwhen bthe Holy One, Blessed be He,forms a fetus, bthe heavier the offspring gets,the more bit ascends upwardin the womb., bRabbi Yosei HaGelili taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “I will give thanks to You, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; wonderful are Your works, and that my soul knows very well”(Psalms 139:14)? bCome and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and bloodis that when ba person plants seedsof different species binone bgarden bed, each and every oneof the seeds bemergesas a grown plant baccording to its species. But the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s womb, and all ofthe seeds, i.e., those of both the father and the mother, bemergewhen the offspring is formed bas onesex., bAlternatively,when ba dyer puts herbs in a cauldron [ ileyora /i], they all emerge as one colorof dye, bwhereas the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s womb,and beach and every oneof the seeds bemerges as its own type.In other words, the seed of the father form distinct elements, such as the white of the eye, and the seed of the mother forms other elements, such as the black of the eye, as explained above., bRav Yosef taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“And on that day you shall say: bI will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me; Your anger is turned away, and You comfort me”(Isaiah 12:1)? bWith regard to whatmatter bis the verse speaking? /b,It is referring, for example, bto two people who lefttheir homes to go bon a businesstrip. bA thorn penetratedthe body bof one of them,and he was consequently unable to go with his colleague. bHe started blaspheming and cursingin frustration. bAfter a period of time, he heard that the ship of the otherperson bhad sunk in the sea,and realized that the thorn had saved him from death. He then bstarted thankingGod band praisingHim for his delivery due to the slight pain caused to him by the thorn. This is the meaning of the statement: I will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me. bTherefore, it is statedat the end of the verse: b“Your anger is turned away, and You comfort me.” /b, bAnd thisstatement bisidentical to bthat which Rabbi Elazar said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“Blessed be the Lord God, the God of Israel, bWho does wondrous things alone; and blessed be His glorious name forever”(Psalms 72:18–19)? What does it mean that God “does wondrous things alone”? It means that beven the one for whom the miracle was performed does not recognize the miraclethat was performed for bhim. /b, bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “You measure [ izerita /i] my going about [ iorḥi /i] and my lying down [ iriv’i /i], and are acquainted with all my ways”(Psalms 139:3)? This verse bteaches that a person is not created from the entire dropof semen, bbut from its clearpart. iZeritacan mean to winnow, while iorḥiand iriv’ican both be explained as references to sexual intercourse. Therefore the verse is interpreted homiletically as saying that God separates the procreative part of the semen from the rest. bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught a parable:This matter is comparable bto a person who winnowsgrain bin the granary; he takes the food and leaves the waste. /b,This is bin accordance witha statement bof Rabbi Abbahu, as Rabbi Abbahu raises a contradiction: It is writtenin one of King David’s psalms: b“For You have girded me [ ivatazreni /i] with strength for battle”(II Samuel 22:40), without the letter ialefin ivatazreni /i; band it is writtenin another psalm: b“Who girds me [ ihame’azreni /i] with strength”(Psalms 18:33), with an ialefin ihame’azreini /i. What is the difference between these two expressions? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, You selected me [ izeiritani /i],i.e., You separated between the procreative part and the rest of the semen in order to create me, band You have girded me [ izeraztani /i] with strength. /b, bRabbi Abbahu taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is writtenin Balaam’s blessing: b“Who has counted the dust of Jacob, or numbered the stock [ irova /i] of Israel”(Numbers 23:10)? The verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and counts the times that the Jewish people engage in intercourse [ irevi’iyyoteihem /i],anticipating the time bwhen the drop from which the righteous person will be created will arrive. /b, bAndit was bdue to this matterthat bthe eye of wicked Balaam went blind. He said: ShouldGod, bwho is pure and holy, and whose ministers are pure and holy, peek at this matter? Immediately his eye was blindedas a divine punishment, bas it is written: “The saying of the man whose eye is shut”(Numbers 24:3)., bAnd thisstatement bisthe same as that bwhich Rabbi Yoḥa said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written,with regard to Leah’s conceiving Issachar: b“And he lay with her that night”(Genesis 30:16)? The verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, contributed to that act.The manner in which God contributed to this act is derived from another verse, bas it is stated: “Issachar is a large-boned [ igarem /i] donkey”(Genesis 49:14). This teaches that God directed Jacob’s bdonkeytoward Leah’s tent so that he would engage in intercourse with her, thereby bcausing [ igaram /i]Leah’s conceiving bIssachar. /b,§ bRabbi Yitzḥak saysthat bRabbi Ami says:The sex of a fetus is determined at the moment of conception. If the bwoman emits seed first, she gives birth to a male,and if the bman emits seed first, she gives birth to a female, as it is stated: “If a woman bears seed and gives birth to a male”(Leviticus 12:2)., bThe Sages taught: At first,people bwould saythat if the bwoman emits seed first she gives birth to a male,and if the bman emits seed first, she gives birth to a female. But the Sages did not explainfrom which verse this bmatteris derived, buntil Rabbi Tzadok came and explainedthat bitis derived from the following verse: b“These are the sons of Leah, whom she bore to Jacob in Paddan Aram, with his daughter Dinah”(Genesis 46:15). From the fact that the verse battributes the males to the females,as the males are called: The sons of Leah, bandit attributes bthe females to the males, /bin that Dinah is called: His daughter, it is derived that if the woman emits seed first she gives birth to a male, whereas if the man emits seed first, she bears a female.,This statement is also derived from the following verse: b“And the sons of Ulam were mighty men of valor, archers, and had many sons and sons’ sons”(I Chronicles 8:40). bIs it in a person’s power to have many sons and sons’ sons? Rather, because /b
18. Anon., Numbers Rabba, 14.10 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

19. Anon., Midrash On Song of Songs, 1.3.3, 5.2, 6.9

1.3.3. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן פָּתַר קְרָיָיא בְּאַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא (בראשית יב, א): לֶךְ לְךָ מֵאַרְצְךָ וּמִמּוֹלַדְתְּךָ, לְמָה הָיָה דוֹמֶה, לִצְלוֹחִית שֶׁל פּוֹלְיָטוֹן שֶׁהָיְתָה מֻנַּחַת בְּזָוִית אַחַת וְלֹא הָיָה רֵיחָהּ נוֹדֵף, בָּא אֶחָד וְטִלְטְלָהּ מִמְּקוֹמָהּ וְהָיָה רֵיחָהּ נוֹדֵף, אַף כֵּן אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְאַבְרָהָם, אַבְרָהָם הַרְבֵּה מַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים יֵשׁ לְךָ, הַרְבֵּה מִצְווֹת יֵשׁ לְךָ, טַלְטֵל עַצְמְךָ בָּעוֹלָם וְשִׁמְךָ מִתְגַּדֵּל בְּעוֹלָמִי, לֶךְ לְךָ, מַה כְּתִיב בַּתְרֵיהּ (בראשית יב, א): וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָדוֹל. עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֵא לְךָ עֲלָמוֹת הַרְבֵּה, דִּכְתִיב (בראשית יב, ה): וַיִּקַּח אַבְרָם אֶת שָׂרַי אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאֶת לוֹט בֶּן אָחִיו וְאֶת כָּל רְכוּשָׁם אֲשֶׁר רָכָשׁוּ וְאֶת הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ בְחָרָן, וַהֲלֹא אִם מִתְכַּנְּשִׁים כָּל הָעוֹלָם לִבְרֹאת יַתּוּשׁ אֶחָד אֵינָן יְכוֹלִים לִבְרֹאתוֹ, אֶלָּא אֵלּוּ הַגֵּרִים שֶׁגִּיְּרוּ אַבְרָהָם וְשָׂרָה, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר: וְאֶת הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ בְחָרָן. אָמַר רַבִּי חוֹנְיָא אַבְרָהָם הָיָה מְגַיֵּר אֲנָשִׁים, וְשָׂרָה הַנָּשִׁים, וּמַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ בְחָרָן, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיָה אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ מַכְנִיסָן לְבֵיתוֹ וּמַאֲכִילָן וּמַשְׁקָן וּמַאֲהִיבָן וּמְקָרְבָן וּמְגַיְּרָן וּמַכְנִיסָן תַּחַת כַּנְפֵי הַשְּׁכִינָה, הָא לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁכָּל הַמַּכְנִיס בְּרִיָה אַחַת לְתוֹךְ כַּנְפֵי הַשְּׁכִינָה מַעֲלִין עָלָיו כְּאִלּוּ הוּא בְּרָאוֹ וִיצָרוֹ וְרִיקְמוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אָמְרוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, מִמַּה שֶּׁאַתָּה מֵבִיא אוֹרָה לָעוֹלָם, שִׁמְךָ מִתְגַּדֵּל בָּעוֹלָם, וּמָה הִיא הָאוֹרָה, גְּאֻלָּה, שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאַתָּה מֵבִיא לָנוּ אוֹרָה, הַרְבֵּה גֵרִים בָּאִים וּמִתְגַּיְּרִים וְנוֹסָפִים עָלֵינוּ, כְּגוֹן יִתְרוֹ וְרָחָב, יִתְרוֹ שָׁמַע וַאֲתָא, רָחָב שָׁמְעָה וְאַתְיָא, אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁעָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא נֵס לַחֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה, הַרְבֵּה גֵרִים נִתְגַּיְּרוּ, דִּכְתִיב (ישעיה כט, כג): כִּי בִרְאוֹתוֹ יְלָדָיו מַעֲשֵׂה יָדַי בְּקִרְבּוֹ יַקְדִּישׁוּ שְׁמִי, מַה כְּתִיב בַּתְרֵיהּ: וְיָדְעוּ תֹעֵי רוּחַ בִּינָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, עַל שֶׁנָּתַתָּ לָנוּ בִּזַּת מִצְרַיִם, וּבִזַּת הַיָּם, וּבִזַּת סִיחוֹן וְעוֹג, וּבִזַּת שְׁלשִׁים וְאֶחָד מְלָכִים, אָנוּ אוֹהֲבִים אוֹתְךָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, עַל שֶׁהֶעֱלַמְתָּ מֵהֶם יוֹם הַמִּיתָה וְיוֹם הַנֶּחָמָה, אֲהֵבוּךָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, בְּעַלֵּמוּת וּבִזְרִיזוּת. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, אֵלּוּ בַּעֲלֵי תְּשׁוּבָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, זוֹ כַּת הַשְּׁלִישִׁית, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (זכריה יג, ט): וְהֵבֵאתִי אֶת הַשְּׁלִשִׁית בָּאֵשׁ וּצְרַפְתִּים כִּצְרֹף וגו'. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, אֵלּוּ הַגֵּרִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (חבקוק ג, ב): ה' שָׁמַעְתִּי שִׁמְעֲךָ יָרֵאתִי ה' פָּעָלְךָ בְּקֶרֶב שָׁנִים וגו'. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, זֶה דּוֹרוֹ שֶׁל שְׁמַד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים מד, כג): כִּי עָלֶיךָ הֹרַגְנוּ כָל הַיּוֹם נֶחְשַׁבְנוּ כְּצֹאן טִבְחָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, אֵלּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ז, ח): כִּי מֵאַהֲבַת ה' אֶתְכֶם וּמִשָּׁמְרוֹ אֶת הַשְּׁבֻעָה וגו'. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, עַל שֶׁהֶעֱלַמְתָּ מֵהֶם מַתַּן שְׂכָרָן שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ, עָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַעֲשׂוֹת רֹאשׁ חוּלָה לַצַּדִּיקִים לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא, מַה טַּעַם (תהלים מח, יד): שִׁיתוּ לִבְּכֶם לְחֵילָה, לְחוֹלָה כְּתִיב, צַדִּיקִים מִכָּאן וְצַדִּיקִים מִכָּאן וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּאֶמְצָעָם, וְהֵם חָלִים לְפָנָיו בְּעַלְמוּת, וּמְרַמְּזִין אֵלּוּ לְאֵלּוּ בָּאֶצְבַּע וְאוֹמְרִים (תהלים מח, טו): כִּי זֶה אֱלֹהִים אֱלֹהֵינוּ עוֹלָם וָעֶד הוּא יְנַהֲגֵנוּ עַלְ-מוּת, בִּשְׁנֵי עוֹלָמוֹת יְנַהֲגֵנוּ, בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וּבָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. דָּבָר אַחֵר, הוּא יְנַהֲגֵנוּ עַלְ-מוּת, בְּעַלֵימוּת וּבִזְרִיזוּת. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַלְ-מוּת, כְּאִילֵין עוּלֵימְתָא, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (תהלים סח, כו): בְּתוֹךְ עֲלָמוֹת תּוֹפֵפוֹת. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַלְ-מוּת, תִּרְגֵּם עֲקִילַס אַתְנִסָיָא, עוֹלָם שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מָוֶת, וּמְרַמְּזִין אֵלּוּ לְאֵלּוּ בָּאֶצְבַּע וְאוֹמְרִים: כִּי זֶה אֱלֹהִים אֱלֹהֵינוּ עוֹלָם וָעֶד הוּא יְנַהֲגֵנוּ עַלְ-מוּת, בִּשְׁנֵי עוֹלָמוֹת יְנַהֲגֵנוּ, בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וּבָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה דִּכְתִיב (דברים טו, ו): כִּי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ בֵּרַכְךָ, וּבָעוֹלָם הַבָּא דִּכְתִיב (ישעיה נח, יא): וְנָחֲךָ ה' תָּמִיד. 5.2. The Divine presence was not on the earthly, lowliest plane, proof is that it is written, and they heard the voice of the lord walking in the garden."


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, as a missionary Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 108
abraham, fragrance of Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 108
acrostics, in yotzer shir ha-shirim Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 380
adam, apocalypses of Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
allogenes Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
allusions, dove (image) Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 148
alogi Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
amalek Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 46
antidicomarians Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
aphrodite Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 209
archontics Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
arians Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 97
ascension of isaiah Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
baptism, donatist views Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 964
barbelo Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
barbelo gnostics / barbelites Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
berekhiah Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 108
bible, the / scripture Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
birth of mary Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
black, fiona c. Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 125
borborians Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
bradbury, s. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 155
calves of jeroboam Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 149
canaanites Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 54
carthage, conference of Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 964
christ Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
domain, private versus public, egyptians Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 54
donatism, african theology Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 964
donatism, baptism Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 964
donatism, donatist theology Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 964
donatism Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 964
dove (image) Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 148
eden Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 148
eleutheropolis Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
eliezer, rabbi, son of rabbi yose the galilean Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 53, 125
elijah Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 147
epiphanius, bishop of salamis, panarion of Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
epiphanius, bishop of salamis Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
erman, adolf Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 98
eroticism Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 209
extra-canonical books (see also apocryphal books) Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
finkelstein, louis Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 99, 125
fox, michael v. Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 98
gnosticism Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
gnostics Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
god, israels obedience to Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 148
god–israel relationship, israels singular status Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 148
god–israel relationship, love in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 148
god–israel relationship, redemption and Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 148
god–israel relationship, romance in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 148
gospel of eve Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
gospel of perfection Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
gospel of philip Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
graetz, heinrich, haazinu Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 54
greater harmony, book of Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
ishmael, rabbi Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 100
israel, as dove Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 148
israel, obedience of Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 148
judah ha-nasi, rabbi Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 126
kallir, eleazar, romantic relationship between god and israel Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 148
kedushtot, dove imagery in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 148
koddians Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
lesser harmony, book of Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
letter on the conversion of the jews, (severus of minorca), dreams, as evidence of divine origins and trustworthiness Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 155
letter on the conversion of the jews, (severus of minorca), social dynamics between jewish and christian communities Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 155
letter on the conversion of the jews, (severus of minorca), summary Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 155
list making Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 46
literal sense Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 46
love poetry, love songs Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 209
mekilta daarayot Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 85
messiah Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 147, 148, 149
metaphor, metaphorical language Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 209
metaphor Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 96, 97
midrash-pesher Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 46
missionary activities, christian Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 108
missionary activities, images of Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 108
missionary activities, tradition and Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 108
moses Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 46
nabû Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 209
noegel, scott b. Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 125
noria, book of Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
novick, tzvi Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 125, 126
palestine Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
paraphrase of seth Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
parmenian the donatist Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 964
pesher Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 46
pesukei dezimra, redemptive response to Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 148
phibionites Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
physical form, description of Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 96, 97, 98
physical form, extended description Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 96, 97
physical form, self-description Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 96
poetry, egyptian love Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 98
prayer, sacrifice contrasted with Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 147
qedusha, in the anonymous qedushta shir ha-shirim Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 147
qedushta shir ha-shirim (anonymous) Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 147, 148, 149
questions of mary Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
rabbi akiva, school of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 46
redemption, prayer and Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 148
redemption, torah obedience and Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 148
rendsburg, gary a. Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 125
reuben Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 155
rhetoric Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 46
ritual Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 209
secundians Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
segullah Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 101
shema Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 148
sichon and og Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 53
simon magus Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 97
socratists Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
solomon Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 126
song of songs, descriptive language in Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 96, 97, 98
song of songs Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 209
st. stephen Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 155
stratiotics Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66
sumer(ians) Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 209
sumerian sacred marriage ritual Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 98
symbol(ic), symbolism Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 209
tashmetu Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 209
torah Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 148
waṣf' Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 125
waṣf Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 97, 98
yotzer shir ha-shirim yotzer or blessing Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 379, 380
zacchaeans Lundhaug and Jenott, The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices (2015) 66