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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6276
Hebrew Bible, Song Of Songs, 5.2-5.8


אֲנִי יְשֵׁנָה וְלִבִּי עֵר קוֹל דּוֹדִי דוֹפֵק פִּתְחִי־לִי אֲחֹתִי רַעְיָתִי יוֹנָתִי תַמָּתִי שֶׁרֹּאשִׁי נִמְלָא־טָל קְוֻּצּוֹתַי רְסִיסֵי לָיְלָה׃I sleep, but my heart waketh; Hark! my beloved knocketh: ‘Open to me, my sister, my love, my dove, my undefiled; For my head is filled with dew, My locks with the drops of the night.’


פָּשַׁטְתִּי אֶת־כֻּתָּנְתִּי אֵיכָכָה אֶלְבָּשֶׁנָּה רָחַצְתִּי אֶת־רַגְלַי אֵיכָכָה אֲטַנְּפֵם׃I have put off my coat; How shall I put it on? I have washed my feet; How shall I defile them?


דּוֹדִי שָׁלַח יָדוֹ מִן־הַחֹר וּמֵעַי הָמוּ עָלָיו׃My beloved put in his hand by the hole of the door, And my heart was moved for him.


קַמְתִּי אֲנִי לִפְתֹּחַ לְדוֹדִי וְיָדַי נָטְפוּ־מוֹר וְאֶצְבְּעֹתַי מוֹר עֹבֵר עַל כַּפּוֹת הַמַּנְעוּל׃I rose up to open to my beloved; And my hands dropped with myrrh, And my fingers with flowing myrrh, Upon the handles of the bar.


פָּתַחְתִּי אֲנִי לְדוֹדִי וְדוֹדִי חָמַק עָבָר נַפְשִׁי יָצְאָה בְדַבְּרוֹ בִּקַּשְׁתִּיהוּ וְלֹא מְצָאתִיהוּ קְרָאתִיו וְלֹא עָנָנִי׃I opened to my beloved; But my beloved had turned away, and was gone. My soul failed me when he spoke. I sought him, but I could not find him; I called him, but he gave me no answer.


מְצָאֻנִי הַשֹּׁמְרִים הַסֹּבְבִים בָּעִיר הִכּוּנִי פְצָעוּנִי נָשְׂאוּ אֶת־רְדִידִי מֵעָלַי שֹׁמְרֵי הַחֹמוֹת׃The watchmen that go about the city found me, They smote me, they wounded me; The keepers of the walls took away my mantle from me.


הִשְׁבַּעְתִּי אֶתְכֶם בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם אִם־תִּמְצְאוּ אֶת־דּוֹדִי מַה־תַּגִּידוּ לוֹ שֶׁחוֹלַת אַהֲבָה אָנִי׃’I adjure you, O daughters of Jerusalem, If ye find my beloved, what will ye tell him? That I am love-sick.’


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

43 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 1.2, 1.4-1.6, 1.8, 1.10-1.16, 2.2-2.3, 2.5, 2.7-2.14, 2.17, 3.1-3.6, 3.11, 4.1-4.5, 4.8-4.16, 5.1, 5.3-5.16, 6.1-6.2, 6.4-6.10, 6.12, 7.1-7.6, 7.12, 8.1, 8.4, 8.6-8.7, 8.13-8.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. יִשָּׁקֵנִי מִנְּשִׁיקוֹת פִּיהוּ כִּי־טוֹבִים דֹּדֶיךָ מִיָּיִן׃ 1.4. מָשְׁכֵנִי אַחֲרֶיךָ נָּרוּצָה הֱבִיאַנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ חֲדָרָיו נָגִילָה וְנִשְׂמְחָה בָּךְ נַזְכִּירָה דֹדֶיךָ מִיַּיִן מֵישָׁרִים אֲהֵבוּךָ׃ 1.5. שְׁחוֹרָה אֲנִי וְנָאוָה בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם כְּאָהֳלֵי קֵדָר כִּירִיעוֹת שְׁלֹמֹה׃ 1.6. אַל־תִּרְאוּנִי שֶׁאֲנִי שְׁחַרְחֹרֶת שֶׁשֱּׁזָפַתְנִי הַשָּׁמֶשׁ בְּנֵי אִמִּי נִחֲרוּ־בִי שָׂמֻנִי נֹטֵרָה אֶת־הַכְּרָמִים כַּרְמִי שֶׁלִּי לֹא נָטָרְתִּי׃ 1.8. אִם־לֹא תֵדְעִי לָךְ הַיָּפָה בַּנָּשִׁים צְאִי־לָךְ בְּעִקְבֵי הַצֹּאן וּרְעִי אֶת־גְּדִיֹּתַיִךְ עַל מִשְׁכְּנוֹת הָרֹעִים׃ 1.11. תּוֹרֵי זָהָב נַעֲשֶׂה־לָּךְ עִם נְקֻדּוֹת הַכָּסֶף׃ 1.12. עַד־שֶׁהַמֶּלֶךְ בִּמְסִבּוֹ נִרְדִּי נָתַן רֵיחוֹ׃ 1.13. צְרוֹר הַמֹּר דּוֹדִי לִי בֵּין שָׁדַי יָלִין׃ 1.14. אֶשְׁכֹּל הַכֹּפֶר דּוֹדִי לִי בְּכַרְמֵי עֵין גֶּדִי׃ 1.15. הִנָּךְ יָפָה רַעְיָתִי הִנָּךְ יָפָה עֵינַיִךְ יוֹנִים׃ 1.16. הִנְּךָ יָפֶה דוֹדִי אַף נָעִים אַף־עַרְשֵׂנוּ רַעֲנָנָה׃ 2.2. כְּשׁוֹשַׁנָּה בֵּין הַחוֹחִים כֵּן רַעְיָתִי בֵּין הַבָּנוֹת׃ 2.3. כְּתַפּוּחַ בַּעֲצֵי הַיַּעַר כֵּן דּוֹדִי בֵּין הַבָּנִים בְּצִלּוֹ חִמַּדְתִּי וְיָשַׁבְתִּי וּפִרְיוֹ מָתוֹק לְחִכִּי׃ 2.5. סַמְּכוּנִי בָּאֲשִׁישׁוֹת רַפְּדוּנִי בַּתַּפּוּחִים כִּי־חוֹלַת אַהֲבָה אָנִי׃ 2.7. הִשְׁבַּעְתִּי אֶתְכֶם בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַם בִּצְבָאוֹת אוֹ בְּאַיְלוֹת הַשָּׂדֶה אִם־תָּעִירוּ וְאִם־תְּעוֹרְרוּ אֶת־הָאַהֲבָה עַד שֶׁתֶּחְפָּץ׃ 2.8. קוֹל דּוֹדִי הִנֵּה־זֶה בָּא מְדַלֵּג עַל־הֶהָרִים מְקַפֵּץ עַל־הַגְּבָעוֹת׃ 2.9. דּוֹמֶה דוֹדִי לִצְבִי אוֹ לְעֹפֶר הָאַיָּלִים הִנֵּה־זֶה עוֹמֵד אַחַר כָּתְלֵנוּ מַשְׁגִּיחַ מִן־הַחֲלֹּנוֹת מֵצִיץ מִן־הַחֲרַכִּים׃ 2.11. כִּי־הִנֵּה הסתו [הַסְּתָיו] עָבָר הַגֶּשֶׁם חָלַף הָלַךְ לוֹ׃ 2.12. הַנִּצָּנִים נִרְאוּ בָאָרֶץ עֵת הַזָּמִיר הִגִּיעַ וְקוֹל הַתּוֹר נִשְׁמַע בְּאַרְצֵנוּ׃ 2.13. הַתְּאֵנָה חָנְטָה פַגֶּיהָ וְהַגְּפָנִים סְמָדַר נָתְנוּ רֵיחַ קוּמִי לכי [לָךְ] רַעְיָתִי יָפָתִי וּלְכִי־לָךְ׃ 2.14. יוֹנָתִי בְּחַגְוֵי הַסֶּלַע בְּסֵתֶר הַמַּדְרֵגָה הַרְאִינִי אֶתּ־מַרְאַיִךְ הַשְׁמִיעִינִי אֶת־קוֹלֵךְ כִּי־קוֹלֵךְ עָרֵב וּמַרְאֵיךְ נָאוֶה׃ 2.17. עַד שֶׁיָּפוּחַ הַיּוֹם וְנָסוּ הַצְּלָלִים סֹב דְּמֵה־לְךָ דוֹדִי לִצְבִי אוֹ לְעֹפֶר הָאַיָּלִים עַל־הָרֵי בָתֶר׃ 3.1. עַמּוּדָיו עָשָׂה כֶסֶף רְפִידָתוֹ זָהָב מֶרְכָּבוֹ אַרְגָּמָן תּוֹכוֹ רָצוּף אַהֲבָה מִבְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 3.1. עַל־מִשְׁכָּבִי בַּלֵּילוֹת בִּקַּשְׁתִּי אֵת שֶׁאָהֲבָה נַפְשִׁי בִּקַּשְׁתִּיו וְלֹא מְצָאתִיו׃ 3.2. אָקוּמָה נָּא וַאֲסוֹבְבָה בָעִיר בַּשְּׁוָקִים וּבָרְחֹבוֹת אֲבַקְשָׁה אֵת שֶׁאָהֲבָה נַפְשִׁי בִּקַּשְׁתִּיו וְלֹא מְצָאתִיו׃ 3.3. מְצָאוּנִי הַשֹּׁמְרִים הַסֹּבְבִים בָּעִיר אֵת שֶׁאָהֲבָה נַפְשִׁי רְאִיתֶם׃ 3.4. כִּמְעַט שֶׁעָבַרְתִּי מֵהֶם עַד שֶׁמָּצָאתִי אֵת שֶׁאָהֲבָה נַפְשִׁי אֲחַזְתִּיו וְלֹא אַרְפֶּנּוּ עַד־שֶׁהֲבֵיאתִיו אֶל־בֵּית אִמִּי וְאֶל־חֶדֶר הוֹרָתִי׃ 3.5. הִשְׁבַּעְתִּי אֶתְכֶם בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַם בִּצְבָאוֹת אוֹ בְּאַיְלוֹת הַשָּׂדֶה אִם־תָּעִירוּ וְאִם־תְּעוֹרְרוּ אֶת־הָאַהֲבָה עַד שֶׁתֶּחְפָּץ׃ 3.6. מִי זֹאת עֹלָה מִן־הַמִּדְבָּר כְּתִימֲרוֹת עָשָׁן מְקֻטֶּרֶת מוֹר וּלְבוֹנָה מִכֹּל אַבְקַת רוֹכֵל׃ 3.11. צְאֶינָה וּרְאֶינָה בְּנוֹת צִיּוֹן בַּמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה בָּעֲטָרָה שֶׁעִטְּרָה־לּוֹ אִמּוֹ בְּיוֹם חֲתֻנָּתוֹ וּבְיוֹם שִׂמְחַת לִבּוֹ׃ 4.1. מַה־יָּפוּ דֹדַיִךְ אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה מַה־טֹּבוּ דֹדַיִךְ מִיַּיִן וְרֵיחַ שְׁמָנַיִךְ מִכָּל־בְּשָׂמִים׃ 4.1. הִנָּךְ יָפָה רַעְיָתִי הִנָּךְ יָפָה עֵינַיִךְ יוֹנִים מִבַּעַד לְצַמָּתֵךְ שַׂעְרֵךְ כְּעֵדֶר הָעִזִּים שֶׁגָּלְשׁוּ מֵהַר גִּלְעָד׃ 4.2. שִׁנַּיִךְ כְּעֵדֶר הַקְּצוּבוֹת שֶׁעָלוּ מִן־הָרַחְצָה שֶׁכֻּלָּם מַתְאִימוֹת וְשַׁכֻּלָה אֵין בָּהֶם׃ 4.3. כְּחוּט הַשָּׁנִי שִׂפְתֹתַיִךְ וּמִדְבָּרֵיךְ נָאוֶה כְּפֶלַח הָרִמּוֹן רַקָּתֵךְ מִבַּעַד לְצַמָּתֵךְ׃ 4.4. כְּמִגְדַּל דָּוִיד צַוָּארֵךְ בָּנוּי לְתַלְפִּיּוֹת אֶלֶף הַמָּגֵן תָּלוּי עָלָיו כֹּל שִׁלְטֵי הַגִּבּוֹרִים׃ 4.5. שְׁנֵי שָׁדַיִךְ כִּשְׁנֵי עֳפָרִים תְּאוֹמֵי צְבִיָּה הָרוֹעִים בַּשּׁוֹשַׁנִּים׃ 4.8. אִתִּי מִלְּבָנוֹן כַּלָּה אִתִּי מִלְּבָנוֹן תָּבוֹאִי תָּשׁוּרִי מֵרֹאשׁ אֲמָנָה מֵרֹאשׁ שְׂנִיר וְחֶרְמוֹן מִמְּעֹנוֹת אֲרָיוֹת מֵהַרְרֵי נְמֵרִים׃ 4.9. לִבַּבְתִּנִי אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה לִבַּבְתִּינִי באחד [בְּאַחַת] מֵעֵינַיִךְ בְּאַחַד עֲנָק מִצַּוְּרֹנָיִךְ׃ 4.11. נֹפֶת תִּטֹּפְנָה שִׂפְתוֹתַיִךְ כַּלָּה דְּבַשׁ וְחָלָב תַּחַת לְשׁוֹנֵךְ וְרֵיחַ שַׂלְמֹתַיִךְ כְּרֵיחַ לְבָנוֹן׃ 4.12. גַּן נָעוּל אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה גַּל נָעוּל מַעְיָן חָתוּם׃ 4.13. שְׁלָחַיִךְ פַּרְדֵּס רִמּוֹנִים עִם פְּרִי מְגָדִים כְּפָרִים עִם־נְרָדִים׃ 4.14. נֵרְדְּ וְכַרְכֹּם קָנֶה וְקִנָּמוֹן עִם כָּל־עֲצֵי לְבוֹנָה מֹר וַאֲהָלוֹת עִם כָּל־רָאשֵׁי בְשָׂמִים׃ 4.15. מַעְיַן גַּנִּים בְּאֵר מַיִם חַיִּים וְנֹזְלִים מִן־לְבָנוֹן׃ 4.16. עוּרִי צָפוֹן וּבוֹאִי תֵימָן הָפִיחִי גַנִּי יִזְּלוּ בְשָׂמָיו יָבֹא דוֹדִי לְגַנּוֹ וְיֹאכַל פְּרִי מְגָדָיו׃ 5.1. דּוֹדִי צַח וְאָדוֹם דָּגוּל מֵרְבָבָה׃ 5.1. בָּאתִי לְגַנִּי אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה אָרִיתִי מוֹרִי עִם־בְּשָׂמִי אָכַלְתִּי יַעְרִי עִם־דִּבְשִׁי שָׁתִיתִי יֵינִי עִם־חֲלָבִי אִכְלוּ רֵעִים שְׁתוּ וְשִׁכְרוּ דּוֹדִים׃ 5.3. פָּשַׁטְתִּי אֶת־כֻּתָּנְתִּי אֵיכָכָה אֶלְבָּשֶׁנָּה רָחַצְתִּי אֶת־רַגְלַי אֵיכָכָה אֲטַנְּפֵם׃ 5.4. דּוֹדִי שָׁלַח יָדוֹ מִן־הַחֹר וּמֵעַי הָמוּ עָלָיו׃ 5.5. קַמְתִּי אֲנִי לִפְתֹּחַ לְדוֹדִי וְיָדַי נָטְפוּ־מוֹר וְאֶצְבְּעֹתַי מוֹר עֹבֵר עַל כַּפּוֹת הַמַּנְעוּל׃ 5.6. פָּתַחְתִּי אֲנִי לְדוֹדִי וְדוֹדִי חָמַק עָבָר נַפְשִׁי יָצְאָה בְדַבְּרוֹ בִּקַּשְׁתִּיהוּ וְלֹא מְצָאתִיהוּ קְרָאתִיו וְלֹא עָנָנִי׃ 5.7. מְצָאֻנִי הַשֹּׁמְרִים הַסֹּבְבִים בָּעִיר הִכּוּנִי פְצָעוּנִי נָשְׂאוּ אֶת־רְדִידִי מֵעָלַי שֹׁמְרֵי הַחֹמוֹת׃ 5.8. הִשְׁבַּעְתִּי אֶתְכֶם בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם אִם־תִּמְצְאוּ אֶת־דּוֹדִי מַה־תַּגִּידוּ לוֹ שֶׁחוֹלַת אַהֲבָה אָנִי׃ 5.9. מַה־דּוֹדֵךְ מִדּוֹד הַיָּפָה בַּנָּשִׁים מַה־דּוֹדֵךְ מִדּוֹד שֶׁכָּכָה הִשְׁבַּעְתָּנוּ׃ 5.11. רֹאשׁוֹ כֶּתֶם פָּז קְוּצּוֹתָיו תַּלְתַּלִּים שְׁחֹרוֹת כָּעוֹרֵב׃ 5.12. עֵינָיו כְּיוֹנִים עַל־אֲפִיקֵי מָיִם רֹחֲצוֹת בֶּחָלָב יֹשְׁבוֹת עַל־מִלֵּאת׃ 5.13. לְחָיָו כַּעֲרוּגַת הַבֹּשֶׂם מִגְדְּלוֹת מֶרְקָחִים שִׂפְתוֹתָיו שׁוֹשַׁנִּים נֹטְפוֹת מוֹר עֹבֵר׃ 5.14. יָדָיו גְּלִילֵי זָהָב מְמֻלָּאִים בַּתַּרְשִׁישׁ מֵעָיו עֶשֶׁת שֵׁן מְעֻלֶּפֶת סַפִּירִים׃ 5.15. שׁוֹקָיו עַמּוּדֵי שֵׁשׁ מְיֻסָּדִים עַל־אַדְנֵי־פָז מַרְאֵהוּ כַּלְּבָנוֹן בָּחוּר כָּאֲרָזִים׃ 5.16. חִכּוֹ מַמְתַקִּים וְכֻלּוֹ מַחֲּמַדִּים זֶה דוֹדִי וְזֶה רֵעִי בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 6.1. אָנָה הָלַךְ דּוֹדֵךְ הַיָּפָה בַּנָּשִׁים אָנָה פָּנָה דוֹדֵךְ וּנְבַקְשֶׁנּוּ עִמָּךְ׃ 6.1. מִי־זֹאת הַנִּשְׁקָפָה כְּמוֹ־שָׁחַר יָפָה כַלְּבָנָה בָּרָה כַּחַמָּה אֲיֻמָּה כַּנִּדְגָּלוֹת׃ 6.2. דּוֹדִי יָרַד לְגַנּוֹ לַעֲרוּגוֹת הַבֹּשֶׂם לִרְעוֹת בַּגַּנִּים וְלִלְקֹט שׁוֹשַׁנִּים׃ 6.4. יָפָה אַתְּ רַעְיָתִי כְּתִרְצָה נָאוָה כִּירוּשָׁלִָם אֲיֻמָּה כַּנִּדְגָּלוֹת׃ 6.5. הָסֵבִּי עֵינַיִךְ מִנֶּגְדִּי שֶׁהֵם הִרְהִיבֻנִי שַׂעְרֵךְ כְּעֵדֶר הָעִזִּים שֶׁגָּלְשׁוּ מִן־הַגִּלְעָד׃ 6.6. שִׁנַּיִךְ כְּעֵדֶר הָרְחֵלִים שֶׁעָלוּ מִן־הָרַחְצָה שֶׁכֻּלָּם מַתְאִימוֹת וְשַׁכֻּלָה אֵין בָּהֶם׃ 6.7. כְּפֶלַח הָרִמּוֹן רַקָּתֵךְ מִבַּעַד לְצַמָּתֵךְ׃ 6.8. שִׁשִּׁים הֵמָּה מְּלָכוֹת וּשְׁמֹנִים פִּילַגְשִׁים וַעֲלָמוֹת אֵין מִסְפָּר׃ 6.9. אַחַת הִיא יוֹנָתִי תַמָּתִי אַחַת הִיא לְאִמָּהּ בָּרָה הִיא לְיוֹלַדְתָּהּ רָאוּהָ בָנוֹת וַיְאַשְּׁרוּהָ מְלָכוֹת וּפִילַגְשִׁים וַיְהַלְלוּהָ׃ 6.12. לֹא יָדַעְתִּי נַפְשִׁי שָׂמַתְנִי מַרְכְּבוֹת עַמִּי־נָדִיב׃ 7.1. וְחִכֵּךְ כְּיֵין הַטּוֹב הוֹלֵךְ לְדוֹדִי לְמֵישָׁרִים דּוֹבֵב שִׂפְתֵי יְשֵׁנִים׃ 7.1. שׁוּבִי שׁוּבִי הַשּׁוּלַמִּית שׁוּבִי שׁוּבִי וְנֶחֱזֶה־בָּךְ מַה־תֶּחֱזוּ בַּשּׁוּלַמִּית כִּמְחֹלַת הַמַּחֲנָיִם׃ 7.2. מַה־יָּפוּ פְעָמַיִךְ בַּנְּעָלִים בַּת־נָדִיב חַמּוּקֵי יְרֵכַיִךְ כְּמוֹ חֲלָאִים מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי אָמָּן׃ 7.3. שָׁרְרֵךְ אַגַּן הַסַּהַר אַל־יֶחְסַר הַמָּזֶג בִּטְנֵךְ עֲרֵמַת חִטִּים סוּגָה בַּשּׁוֹשַׁנִּים׃ 7.4. שְׁנֵי שָׁדַיִךְ כִּשְׁנֵי עֳפָרִים תָּאֳמֵי צְבִיָּה׃ 7.5. צַוָּארֵךְ כְּמִגְדַּל הַשֵּׁן עֵינַיִךְ בְּרֵכוֹת בְּחֶשְׁבּוֹן עַל־שַׁעַר בַּת־רַבִּים אַפֵּךְ כְּמִגְדַּל הַלְּבָנוֹן צוֹפֶה פְּנֵי דַמָּשֶׂק׃ 7.6. רֹאשֵׁךְ עָלַיִךְ כַּכַּרְמֶל וְדַלַּת רֹאשֵׁךְ כָּאַרְגָּמָן מֶלֶךְ אָסוּר בָּרְהָטִים׃ 7.12. לְכָה דוֹדִי נֵצֵא הַשָּׂדֶה נָלִינָה בַּכְּפָרִים׃ 8.1. מִי יִתֶּנְךָ כְּאָח לִי יוֹנֵק שְׁדֵי אִמִּי אֶמְצָאֲךָ בַחוּץ אֶשָׁקְךָ גַּם לֹא־יָבוּזוּ לִי׃ 8.1. אֲנִי חוֹמָה וְשָׁדַי כַּמִּגְדָּלוֹת אָז הָיִיתִי בְעֵינָיו כְּמוֹצְאֵת שָׁלוֹם׃ 8.4. הִשְׁבַּעְתִּי אֶתְכֶם בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם מַה־תָּעִירוּ וּמַה־תְּעֹרְרוּ אֶת־הָאַהֲבָה עַד שֶׁתֶּחְפָּץ׃ 8.6. שִׂימֵנִי כַחוֹתָם עַל־לִבֶּךָ כַּחוֹתָם עַל־זְרוֹעֶךָ כִּי־עַזָּה כַמָּוֶת אַהֲבָה קָשָׁה כִשְׁאוֹל קִנְאָה רְשָׁפֶיהָ רִשְׁפֵּי אֵשׁ שַׁלְהֶבֶתְיָה׃ 8.7. מַיִם רַבִּים לֹא יוּכְלוּ לְכַבּוֹת אֶת־הָאַהֲבָה וּנְהָרוֹת לֹא יִשְׁטְפוּהָ אִם־יִתֵּן אִישׁ אֶת־כָּל־הוֹן בֵּיתוֹ בָּאַהֲבָה בּוֹז יָבוּזוּ לוֹ׃ 8.13. הַיוֹשֶׁבֶת בַּגַּנִּים חֲבֵרִים מַקְשִׁיבִים לְקוֹלֵךְ הַשְׁמִיעִינִי׃ 8.14. בְּרַח דּוֹדִי וּדְמֵה־לְךָ לִצְבִי אוֹ לְעֹפֶר הָאַיָּלִים עַל הָרֵי בְשָׂמִים׃ 1.2. Let him kiss me with the kisses of his mouth— For thy love is better than wine. 1.4. Draw me, we will run after thee; The king hath brought me into his chambers; We will be glad and rejoice in thee, We will find thy love more fragrant than wine! Sincerely do they love thee. 1.5. ’I am black, but comely, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, As the tents of Kedar, As the curtains of Solomon. 1.6. Look not upon me, that I am swarthy, That the sun hath tanned me; My mother’s sons were incensed against me, They made me keeper of the vineyards; But mine own vineyard have I not kept.’ 1.8. If thou know not, O thou fairest among women, Go thy way forth by the footsteps of the flock And feed thy kids, beside the shepherds’tents. 1.10. Thy cheeks are comely with circlets, Thy neck with beads. 1.11. We will make thee circlets of gold With studs of silver. 1.12. While the king sat at his table, My spikenard sent forth its fragrance. 1.13. My beloved is unto me as a bag of myrrh, That lieth betwixt my breasts. 1.14. My beloved is unto me as a cluster of henna In the vineyards of En-gedi. 1.15. Behold, thou art fair, my love; behold, thou art fair; Thine eyes are as doves. . 1.16. Behold, thou art fair, my beloved, yea, pleasant; Also our couch is leafy. 2.2. As a lily among thorns, So is my love among the daughters. 2.3. As an apple-tree among the trees of the wood, So is my beloved among the sons. Under its shadow I delighted to sit, And its fruit was sweet to my taste. 2.5. ’Stay ye me with dainties, refresh me with apples; For I am love-sick.’ 2.7. ’I adjure you, O daughters of Jerusalem, By the gazelles, and by the hinds of the field, That ye awaken not, nor stir up love, until it please.’ 2.8. Hark! my beloved! behold, he cometh, Leaping upon the mountains, skipping upon the hills. 2.9. My beloved is like a gazelle or a young hart; Behold, he standeth behind our wall, He looketh in through the windows, He peereth through the lattice. 2.10. My beloved spoke, and said unto me: ‘Rise up, my love, my fair one, and come away. 2.11. For, lo, the winter is past, The rain is over and gone; 2.12. The flowers appear on the earth; The time of singing is come, And the voice of the turtle is heard in our land; 2.13. The fig-tree putteth forth her green figs, And the vines in blossom give forth their fragrance. Arise, my love, my fair one, and come away. 2.14. O my dove, that art in the clefts of the rock, in the covert of the cliff, Let me see thy countece, let me hear thy voice; For sweet is thy voice, and thy countece is comely.’ 2.17. Until the day breathe, and the shadows flee away, Turn, my beloved, and be thou like a gazelle or a young hart Upon the mountains of spices. 3.1. By night on my bed I sought him whom my soul loveth; I sought him, but I found him not. 3.2. ’I will rise now, and go about the city, In the streets and in the broad ways, I will seek him whom my soul loveth.’ I sought him, but I found him not. 3.3. The watchmen that go about the city found me: ‘Saw ye him whom my soul loveth?’ 3.4. Scarce had I passed from them, When I found him whom my soul loveth: I held him, and would not let him go, Until I had brought him into my mother’s house, And into the chamber of her that conceived me. 3.5. ’I adjure you, O daughters of Jerusalem, By the gazelles, and by the hinds of the field, That ye awaken not, nor stir up love, Until it please.’ 3.6. Who is this that cometh up out of the wilderness Like pillars of smoke, Perfumed with myrrh and frankincense, With all powders of the merchant? 3.11. Go forth, O ye daughters of Zion, And gaze upon king Solomon, Even upon the crown wherewith his mother hath crowned him in the day of his espousals, And in the day of the gladness of his heart. 4.1. Behold, thou art fair, my love; behold, thou art fair; Thine eyes are as doves behind thy veil; Thy hair is as a flock of goats, that trail down from mount Gilead. 4.2. Thy teeth are like a flock of ewes all shaped alike, Which are come up from the washing; Whereof all are paired, and none faileth among them. 4.3. Thy lips are like a thread of scarlet, And thy mouth is comely; Thy temples are like a pomegranate split open Behind thy veil. 4.4. Thy neck is like the tower of David Builded with turrets, Whereon there hang a thousand shields, All the armour of the mighty men. 4.5. Thy two breasts are like two fawns That are twins of a gazelle, Which feed among the lilies. 4.8. Come with me from Lebanon, my bride, With me from Lebanon; Look from the top of Amana, From the top of Senir and Hermon, From the lions’dens, From the mountains of the leopards. 4.9. Thou hast ravished my heart, my sister, my bride; Thou hast ravished my heart with one of thine eyes, With one bead of thy necklace. 4.10. How fair is thy love, my sister, my bride! How much better is thy love than wine! And the smell of thine ointments than all manner of spices! 4.11. Thy lips, O my bride, drop honey— Honey and milk are under thy tongue; And the smell of thy garments is like the smell of Lebanon. 4.12. A garden shut up is my sister, my bride; A spring shut up, a fountain sealed. 4.13. Thy shoots are a park of pomegranates, With precious fruits; Henna with spikenard plants 4.14. Spikenard and saffron, calamus and cinnamon, With all trees of frankincense; Myrrh and aloes, with all the chief spices. 4.15. Thou art a fountain of gardens, A well of living waters, And flowing streams from Lebanon. 4.16. Awake, O north wind; And come, thou south; Blow upon my garden, That the spices thereof may flow out. Let my beloved come into his garden, And eat his precious fruits. 5.1. I am come into my garden, my sister, my bride; I have gathered my myrrh with my spice; I have eaten my honeycomb with my honey; I have drunk my wine with my milk. Eat, O friends; Drink, yea, drink abundantly, O beloved. 5.3. I have put off my coat; How shall I put it on? I have washed my feet; How shall I defile them? 5.4. My beloved put in his hand by the hole of the door, And my heart was moved for him. 5.5. I rose up to open to my beloved; And my hands dropped with myrrh, And my fingers with flowing myrrh, Upon the handles of the bar. 5.6. I opened to my beloved; But my beloved had turned away, and was gone. My soul failed me when he spoke. I sought him, but I could not find him; I called him, but he gave me no answer. 5.7. The watchmen that go about the city found me, They smote me, they wounded me; The keepers of the walls took away my mantle from me. 5.8. ’I adjure you, O daughters of Jerusalem, If ye find my beloved, what will ye tell him? That I am love-sick.’ 5.9. ’What is thy beloved more than another beloved, O thou fairest among women? What is thy beloved more than another beloved, That thou dost so adjure us?’ 5.10. ’My beloved is white and ruddy, Pre-eminent above ten thousand. 5.11. His head is as the most fine gold, His locks are curled, And black as a raven. 5.12. His eyes are like doves Beside the water-brooks; Washed with milk, And fitly set. 5.13. His cheeks are as a bed of spices, As banks of sweet herbs; His lips are as lilies, Dropping with flowing myrrh. 5.14. His hands are as rods of gold Set with beryl; His body is as polished ivory Overlaid with sapphires. 5.15. His legs are as pillars of marble, Set upon sockets of fine gold; His aspect is like Lebanon, Excellent as the cedars. 5.16. His mouth is most sweet; Yea, he is altogether lovely. This is my beloved, and this is my friend, O daughters of Jerusalem.’ 6.1. ’Whither is thy beloved gone, O thou fairest among women? Whither hath thy beloved turned him, That we may seek him with thee?’ 6.2. ’My beloved is gone down into his garden, To the beds of spices, To feed in the gardens, And to gather lilies. 6.4. Thou art beautiful, O my love, as Tirzah, Comely as Jerusalem, Terrible as an army with banners. 6.5. Turn away thine eyes from me, For they have overcome me. Thy hair is as a flock of goats, That trail down from Gilead. 6.6. Thy teeth are like a flock of ewes, Which are come up from the washing; Whereof all are paired, And none faileth among them. 6.7. Thy temples are like a pomegranate split open Behind thy veil. 6.8. There are threescore queens, And fourscore concubines, And maidens without number. 6.9. My dove, my undefiled, is but one; She is the only one of her mother; She is the choice one of her that bore her. The daughters saw her, and called her happy; Yea, the queens and the concubines, and they praised her. 6.10. Who is she that looketh forth as the dawn, Fair as the moon, Clear as the sun, Terrible as an army with banners? 6.12. Before I was aware, my soul set me Upon the chariots of my princely people. 7.1. Return, return, O Shulammite; Return, return, that we may look upon thee. What will ye see in the Shulammite? As it were a dance of two companies. 7.2. How beautiful are thy steps in sandals, O prince’s daughter! The roundings of thy thighs are like the links of a chain, The work of the hands of a skilled workman. 7.3. Thy navel is like a round goblet, wherein no mingled wine is wanting; Thy belly is like a heap of wheat Set about with lilies. 7.4. Thy two breasts are like two fawns that are twins of a gazelle. 7.5. Thy neck is as a tower of ivory; Thine eyes as the pools in Heshbon, By the gate of Bath-rabbim; Thy nose is like the tower of Lebanon Which looketh toward Damascus. 7.6. Thy head upon thee is like Carmel, and the hair of thy head like purple; The king is held captive in the tresses thereof. 7.12. Come, my beloved, let us go forth into the field; let us lodge in the villages. 8.1. Oh that thou wert as my brother, That sucked the breasts of my mother! When I should find thee without, I would kiss thee; Yea, and none would despise me. 8.4. ’I adjure you, O daughters of Jerusalem: Why should ye awaken, or stir up love, Until it please?’ 8.6. Set me as a seal upon thy heart, As a seal upon thine arm; For love is strong as death, Jealousy is cruel as the grave; The flashes thereof are flashes of fire, A very flame of the LORD. 8.7. Many waters cannot quench love, Neither can the floods drown it; If a man would give all the substance of his house for love, He would utterly be contemned. 8.13. Thou that dwellest in the gardens, The companions hearken for thy voice: ‘Cause me to hear it.’ 8.14. Make haste, my beloved, And be thou like to a gazelle or to a young hart Upon the mountains of spices.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 16.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.3. לֹא־תֹאכַל עָלָיו חָמֵץ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תֹּאכַל־עָלָיו מַצּוֹת לֶחֶם עֹנִי כִּי בְחִפָּזוֹן יָצָאתָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לְמַעַן תִּזְכֹּר אֶת־יוֹם צֵאתְךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ׃ 16.3. Thou shalt eat no leavened bread with it; seven days shalt thou eat unleavened bread therewith, even the bread of affliction; for in haste didst thou come forth out of the land of Egypt; that thou mayest remember the day when thou camest forth out of the land of Egypt all the days of thy life."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.11, 12.39, 15.1, 15.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.11. וְכָכָה תֹּאכְלוּ אֹתוֹ מָתְנֵיכֶם חֲגֻרִים נַעֲלֵיכֶם בְּרַגְלֵיכֶם וּמַקֶּלְכֶם בְּיֶדְכֶם וַאֲכַלְתֶּם אֹתוֹ בְּחִפָּזוֹן פֶּסַח הוּא לַיהוָה׃ 12.39. וַיֹּאפוּ אֶת־הַבָּצֵק אֲשֶׁר הוֹצִיאוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם עֻגֹת מַצּוֹת כִּי לֹא חָמֵץ כִּי־גֹרְשׁוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם וְלֹא יָכְלוּ לְהִתְמַהְמֵהַּ וְגַם־צֵדָה לֹא־עָשׂוּ לָהֶם׃ 15.1. אָז יָשִׁיר־מֹשֶׁה וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת לַיהוָה וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֵאמֹר אָשִׁירָה לַיהוָה כִּי־גָאֹה גָּאָה סוּס וְרֹכְבוֹ רָמָה בַיָּם׃ 15.1. נָשַׁפְתָּ בְרוּחֲךָ כִּסָּמוֹ יָם צָלֲלוּ כַּעוֹפֶרֶת בְּמַיִם אַדִּירִים׃ 15.7. וּבְרֹב גְּאוֹנְךָ תַּהֲרֹס קָמֶיךָ תְּשַׁלַּח חֲרֹנְךָ יֹאכְלֵמוֹ כַּקַּשׁ׃ 12.11. And thus shall ye eat it: with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste—it is the LORD’s passover." 12.39. And they baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they brought forth out of Egypt, for it was not leavened; because they were thrust out of Egypt, and could not tarry, neither had they prepared for themselves any victual." 15.1. Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the LORD, and spoke, saying: I will sing unto the LORD, for He is highly exalted; The horse and his rider hath He thrown into the sea." 15.7. And in the greatness of Thine excellency Thou overthrowest them that rise up against Thee; Thou sendest forth Thy wrath, it consumeth them as stubble."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 17.11-17.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.11. וּנְמַלְתֶּם אֵת בְּשַׂר עָרְלַתְכֶם וְהָיָה לְאוֹת בְּרִית בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם׃ 17.12. וּבֶן־שְׁמֹנַת יָמִים יִמּוֹל לָכֶם כָּל־זָכָר לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם יְלִיד בָּיִת וּמִקְנַת־כֶּסֶף מִכֹּל בֶּן־נֵכָר אֲשֶׁר לֹא מִזַּרְעֲךָ הוּא׃ 17.11. And ye shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a token of a covet betwixt Me and you." 17.12. And he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every male throughout your generations, he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any foreigner, that is not of thy seed."
5. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 11.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.11. יֶחֶרְדוּ כְצִפּוֹר מִמִּצְרַיִם וּכְיוֹנָה מֵאֶרֶץ אַשּׁוּר וְהוֹשַׁבְתִּים עַל־בָּתֵּיהֶם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 11.11. They shall come trembling as a bird out of Egypt, And as a dove out of the land of Assyria; And I will make them to dwell in their houses, saith the LORD."
6. Hebrew Bible, Job, 4.12-4.21, 7.14, 9.11, 25.4, 33.14-33.18, 42.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.12. וְאֵלַי דָּבָר יְגֻנָּב וַתִּקַּח אָזְנִי שֵׁמֶץ מֶנְהוּ׃ 4.13. בִּשְׂעִפִּים מֵחֶזְיֹנוֹת לָיְלָה בִּנְפֹל תַּרְדֵּמָה עַל־אֲנָשִׁים׃ 4.14. פַּחַד קְרָאַנִי וּרְעָדָה וְרֹב עַצְמוֹתַי הִפְחִיד׃ 4.15. וְרוּחַ עַל־פָּנַי יַחֲלֹף תְּסַמֵּר שַׂעֲרַת בְּשָׂרִי׃ 4.16. יַעֲמֹד וְלֹא־אַכִּיר מַרְאֵהוּ תְּמוּנָה לְנֶגֶד עֵינָי דְּמָמָה וָקוֹל אֶשְׁמָע׃ 4.17. הַאֱנוֹשׁ מֵאֱלוֹהַ יִצְדָּק אִם מֵעֹשֵׂהוּ יִטְהַר־גָּבֶר׃ 4.18. הֵן בַּעֲבָדָיו לֹא יַאֲמִין וּבְמַלְאָכָיו יָשִׂים תָּהֳלָה׃ 4.19. אַף שֹׁכְנֵי בָתֵּי־חֹמֶר אֲשֶׁר־בֶּעָפָר יְסוֹדָם יְדַכְּאוּם לִפְנֵי־עָשׁ׃ 4.21. הֲלֹא־נִסַּע יִתְרָם בָּם יָמוּתוּ וְלֹא בְחָכְמָה׃ 7.14. וְחִתַּתַּנִי בַחֲלֹמוֹת וּמֵחֶזְיֹנוֹת תְּבַעֲתַנִּי׃ 9.11. הֵן יַעֲבֹר עָלַי וְלֹא אֶרְאֶה וְיַחֲלֹף וְלֹא־אָבִין לוֹ׃ 33.14. כִּי־בְאַחַת יְדַבֶּר־אֵל וּבִשְׁתַּיִם לֹא יְשׁוּרֶנָּה׃ 33.15. בַּחֲלוֹם חֶזְיוֹן לַיְלָה בִּנְפֹל תַּרְדֵּמָה עַל־אֲנָשִׁים בִּתְנוּמוֹת עֲלֵי מִשְׁכָּב׃ 33.16. אָז יִגְלֶה אֹזֶן אֲנָשִׁים וּבְמֹסָרָם יַחְתֹּם׃ 33.17. לְהָסִיר אָדָם מַעֲשֶׂה וְגֵוָה מִגֶּבֶר יְכַסֶּה׃ 33.18. יַחְשֹׂךְ נַפְשׁוֹ מִנִּי־שָׁחַת וְחַיָּתוֹ מֵעֲבֹר בַּשָּׁלַח׃ 42.5. לְשֵׁמַע־אֹזֶן שְׁמַעְתִּיךָ וְעַתָּה עֵינִי רָאָתְךָ׃ 4.12. Now a word was secretly brought to me, And mine ear received a whisper thereof." 4.13. In thoughts from the visions of the night, When deep sleep falleth on men," 4.14. Fear came upon me, and trembling, And all my bones were made to shake. ." 4.15. Then a spirit passed before my face, That made the hair of my flesh to stand up." 4.16. It stood still, but I could not discern the appearance thereof; A form was before mine eyes; I heard a still voice:" 4.17. ’Shall mortal man be just before God? Shall a man be pure before his Maker?" 4.18. Behold, He putteth no trust in His servants, And His angels He chargeth with folly;" 4.19. How much more them that dwell in houses of clay, Whose foundation is in the dust, who are crushed before the moth!" 4.20. Betwixt morning and evening they are shattered; They perish for ever without any regarding it." 4.21. Is not their tent-cord plucked up within them? They die, and that without wisdom.’" 7.14. Then Thou scarest me with dreams, And terrifiest me through visions;" 9.11. Lo, He goeth by me, and I see Him not. He passeth on also, but I perceive Him not." 33.14. For God speaketh in one way, Yea in two, though man perceiveth it not." 33.15. In a dream, in a vision of the night, When deep sleep falleth upon men, In slumberings upon the bed;" 33.16. Then He openeth the ears of men, And by their chastisement sealeth the decree," 33.17. That men may put away their purpose, And that He may hide pride from man;" 33.18. That He may keep back his soul from the pit, And his life from perishing by the sword." 42.5. I had heard of Thee by the hearing of the ear; But now mine eye seeth Thee;"
7. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 1.14, 12.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.14. וְאִם מִן־הָעוֹף עֹלָה קָרְבָּנוֹ לַיהוָה וְהִקְרִיב מִן־הַתֹּרִים אוֹ מִן־בְּנֵי הַיּוֹנָה אֶת־קָרְבָּנוֹ׃ 12.6. וּבִמְלֹאת יְמֵי טָהֳרָהּ לְבֵן אוֹ לְבַת תָּבִיא כֶּבֶשׂ בֶּן־שְׁנָתוֹ לְעֹלָה וּבֶן־יוֹנָה אוֹ־תֹר לְחַטָּאת אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן׃ 1.14. And if his offering to the LORD be a burnt-offering of fowls, then he shall bring his offering of turtle-doves, or of young pigeons." 12.6. And when the days of her purification are fulfilled, for a son, or for a daughter, she shall bring a lamb of the first year for a burnt-offering, and a young pigeon, or a turtle-dove, for a sin-offering, unto the door of the tent of meeting, unto the priest."
8. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 11.12, 27.17, 28.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.12. הֶאָנֹכִי הָרִיתִי אֵת כָּל־הָעָם הַזֶּה אִם־אָנֹכִי יְלִדְתִּיהוּ כִּי־תֹאמַר אֵלַי שָׂאֵהוּ בְחֵיקֶךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר יִשָּׂא הָאֹמֵן אֶת־הַיֹּנֵק עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתָּ לַאֲבֹתָיו׃ 27.17. אֲשֶׁר־יֵצֵא לִפְנֵיהֶם וַאֲשֶׁר יָבֹא לִפְנֵיהֶם וַאֲשֶׁר יוֹצִיאֵם וַאֲשֶׁר יְבִיאֵם וְלֹא תִהְיֶה עֲדַת יְהוָה כַּצֹּאן אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לָהֶם רֹעֶה׃ 28.2. וּמִנְחָתָם סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשָּׁמֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים לַפָּר וּשְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים לָאַיִל תַּעֲשׂוּ׃ 28.2. צַו אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אֶת־קָרְבָּנִי לַחְמִי לְאִשַּׁי רֵיחַ נִיחֹחִי תִּשְׁמְרוּ לְהַקְרִיב לִי בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ׃ 11.12. Have I conceived all this people? have I brought them forth, that Thou shouldest say unto me: Carry them in thy bosom, as a nursing-father carrieth the sucking child, unto the land which Thou didst swear unto their fathers?" 27.17. who may go out before them, and who may come in before them, and who may lead them out, and who may bring them in; that the congregation of the LORD be not as sheep which have no shepherd.’" 28.2. Command the children of Israel, and say unto them: My food which is presented unto Me for offerings made by fire, of a sweet savour unto Me, shall ye observe to offer unto Me in its due season."
9. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 12.1, 91.15, 96.6, 113.9, 137.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.1. לַמְנַצֵּחַ עַל־הַשְּׁמִינִית מִזְמוֹר לְדָוִד׃ 91.15. יִקְרָאֵנִי וְאֶעֱנֵהוּ עִמּוֹ־אָנֹכִי בְצָרָה אֲחַלְּצֵהוּ וַאֲכַבְּדֵהוּ׃ 96.6. הוֹד־וְהָדָר לְפָנָיו עֹז וְתִפְאֶרֶת בְּמִקְדָּשׁוֹ׃ 113.9. מוֹשִׁיבִי עֲקֶרֶת הַבַּיִת אֵם־הַבָּנִים שְׂמֵחָה הַלְלוּ־יָהּ׃ 137.5. אִם־אֶשְׁכָּחֵךְ יְרוּשָׁלִָם תִּשְׁכַּח יְמִינִי׃ 12.1. For the Leader; on the Sheminith. A Psalm of David." 91.15. He shall call upon Me, and I will answer him; I will be with him in trouble; I will rescue him, and bring him to honour." 96.6. Honour and majesty are before Him; Strength and beauty are in His sanctuary." 113.9. Who maketh the barren woman to dwell in her house As a joyful mother of children. Hallelujah." 137.5. If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, Let my right hand forget her cunning."
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 18.30 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

18.30. And Elijah said unto all the people: ‘Come near unto me’; and all the people came near unto him. And he repaired the altar of the LORD that was thrown down."
11. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 12.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12.22. כִּי לֹא־יִטֹּשׁ יְהוָה אֶת־עַמּוֹ בַּעֲבוּר שְׁמוֹ הַגָּדוֹל כִּי הוֹאִיל יְהוָה לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶתְכֶם לוֹ לְעָם׃ 12.22. For the Lord will not abandon his people for his great name’s sake: because it has pleased the Lord to make you his people."
12. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 3.3 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

3.3. אֱלוֹהַ מִתֵּימָן יָבוֹא וְקָדוֹשׁ מֵהַר־פָּארָן סֶלָה כִּסָּה שָׁמַיִם הוֹדוֹ וּתְהִלָּתוֹ מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ׃ 3.3. God cometh from Teman, And the Holy One from mount Paran. Selah His glory covereth the heavens, And the earth is full of His praise."
13. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 5.7, 29.8, 38.14, 41.25, 49.14-49.15, 49.21, 54.1, 60.8, 61.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.7. כִּי כֶרֶם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאִישׁ יְהוּדָה נְטַע שַׁעֲשׁוּעָיו וַיְקַו לְמִשְׁפָּט וְהִנֵּה מִשְׂפָּח לִצְדָקָה וְהִנֵּה צְעָקָה׃ 29.8. וְהָיָה כַּאֲשֶׁר יַחֲלֹם הָרָעֵב וְהִנֵּה אוֹכֵל וְהֵקִיץ וְרֵיקָה נַפְשׁוֹ וְכַאֲשֶׁר יַחֲלֹם הַצָּמֵא וְהִנֵּה שֹׁתֶה וְהֵקִיץ וְהִנֵּה עָיֵף וְנַפְשׁוֹ שׁוֹקֵקָה כֵּן יִהְיֶה הֲמוֹן כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם הַצֹּבְאִים עַל־הַר צִיּוֹן׃ 38.14. כְּסוּס עָגוּר כֵּן אֲצַפְצֵף אֶהְגֶּה כַּיּוֹנָה דַּלּוּ עֵינַי לַמָּרוֹם אֲדֹנָי עָשְׁקָה־לִּי עָרְבֵנִי׃ 41.25. הַעִירוֹתִי מִצָּפוֹן וַיַּאת מִמִּזְרַח־שֶׁמֶשׁ יִקְרָא בִשְׁמִי וְיָבֹא סְגָנִים כְּמוֹ־חֹמֶר וּכְמוֹ יוֹצֵר יִרְמָס־טִיט׃ 49.14. וַתֹּאמֶר צִיּוֹן עֲזָבַנִי יְהוָה וַאדֹנָי שְׁכֵחָנִי׃ 49.15. הֲתִשְׁכַּח אִשָּׁה עוּלָהּ מֵרַחֵם בֶּן־בִּטְנָהּ גַּם־אֵלֶּה תִשְׁכַּחְנָה וְאָנֹכִי לֹא אֶשְׁכָּחֵךְ׃ 49.21. וְאָמַרְתְּ בִּלְבָבֵךְ מִי יָלַד־לִי אֶת־אֵלֶּה וַאֲנִי שְׁכוּלָה וְגַלְמוּדָה גֹּלָה וְסוּרָה וְאֵלֶּה מִי גִדֵּל הֵן אֲנִי נִשְׁאַרְתִּי לְבַדִּי אֵלֶּה אֵיפֹה הֵם׃ 54.1. רָנִּי עֲקָרָה לֹא יָלָדָה פִּצְחִי רִנָּה וְצַהֲלִי לֹא־חָלָה כִּי־רַבִּים בְּנֵי־שׁוֹמֵמָה מִבְּנֵי בְעוּלָה אָמַר יְהוָה׃ 54.1. כִּי הֶהָרִים יָמוּשׁוּ וְהַגְּבָעוֹת תְּמוּטֶנָה וְחַסְדִּי מֵאִתֵּךְ לֹא־יָמוּשׁ וּבְרִית שְׁלוֹמִי לֹא תָמוּט אָמַר מְרַחֲמֵךְ יְהוָה׃ 60.8. מִי־אֵלֶּה כָּעָב תְּעוּפֶינָה וְכַיּוֹנִים אֶל־אֲרֻבֹּתֵיהֶם׃ 5.7. For the vineyard of the LORD of hosts is the house of Israel, And the men of Judah the plant of His delight; And He looked for justice, but behold violence; For righteousness, but behold a cry." 29.8. And it shall be as when a hungry man dreameth, and, behold, he eateth, But he awaketh, and his soul is empty; Or as when a thirsty man dreameth, and, behold, he drinketh, But he awaketh, and, behold, he is faint, and his soul hath appetite— So shall the multitude of all the nations be, that fight against mount Zion." 38.14. Like a swallow or a crane, so do I chatter, I do moan as a dove; mine eyes fail with looking upward. O LORD, I am oppressed, be Thou my surety. ." 41.25. I have roused up one from the north, and he is come, From the rising of the sun one that calleth upon My name; And he shall come upon rulers as upon mortar, And as the potter treadeth clay." 49.14. But Zion said: ‘The LORD hath forsaken me, And the Lord hath forgotten me.’" 49.15. Can a woman forget her sucking child, That she should not have compassion on the son of her womb? Yea, these may forget, Yet will not I forget thee." 49.21. Then shalt thou say in thy heart: ‘Who hath begotten me these, Seeing I have been bereaved of my children, and am solitary, An exile, and wandering to and fro? And who hath brought up these? Behold, I was left alone; These, where were they?’" 54.1. Sing, O barren, thou that didst not bear, Break forth into singing, and cry aloud, thou that didst not travail; For more are the children of the desolate Than the children of the married wife, saith the LORD." 60.8. Who are these that fly as a cloud, And as the doves to their cotes?" 61.10. I will greatly rejoice in the LORD, My soul shall be joyful in my God; For He hath clothed me with the garments of salvation, He hath covered me with the robe of victory, As a bridegroom putteth on a priestly diadem, And as a bride adorneth herself with her jewels."
14. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 13.16, 25.38, 33.11, 48.28 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

13.16. תְּנוּ לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם כָּבוֹד בְּטֶרֶם יַחְשִׁךְ וּבְטֶרֶם יִתְנַגְּפוּ רַגְלֵיכֶם עַל־הָרֵי נָשֶׁף וְקִוִּיתֶם לְאוֹר וְשָׂמָהּ לְצַלְמָוֶת ישית [וְשִׁית] לַעֲרָפֶל׃ 25.38. עָזַב כַּכְּפִיר סֻכּוֹ כִּי־הָיְתָה אַרְצָם לְשַׁמָּה מִפְּנֵי חֲרוֹן הַיּוֹנָה וּמִפְּנֵי חֲרוֹן אַפּוֹ׃ 33.11. קוֹל שָׂשׂוֹן וְקוֹל שִׂמְחָה קוֹל חָתָן וְקוֹל כַּלָּה קוֹל אֹמְרִים הוֹדוּ אֶת־יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת כִּי־טוֹב יְהוָה כִּי־לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ מְבִאִים תּוֹדָה בֵּית יְהוָה כִּי־אָשִׁיב אֶת־שְׁבוּת־הָאָרֶץ כְּבָרִאשֹׁנָה אָמַר יְהוָה׃ 48.28. עִזְבוּ עָרִים וְשִׁכְנוּ בַּסֶּלַע יֹשְׁבֵי מוֹאָב וִהְיוּ כְיוֹנָה תְּקַנֵּן בְּעֶבְרֵי פִי־פָחַת׃ 13.16. Give glory to the LORD your God, Before it grow dark, And before your feet stumble Upon the mountains of twilight, And, while ye look for light, He turn it into the shadow of death, And make it gross darkness." 25.38. He hath forsaken His covert, as the lion; For their land is become a waste Because of the fierceness of the oppressing sword, And because of His fierce anger." 33.11. the voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, the voice of them that say: ‘Give thanks to the LORD of hosts, for the LORD is good, for His mercy endureth for ever’, even of them that bring offerings of thanksgiving into the house of the LORD. For I will cause the captivity of the land to return as at the first, saith the LORD." 48.28. O ye that dwell in Moab, Leave the cities, and dwell in the rock; And be like the dove that maketh her nest In the sides of the pit’s mouth."
15. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 1.16, 2.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.16. עַל־אֵלֶּה אֲנִי בוֹכִיָּה עֵינִי עֵינִי יֹרְדָה מַּיִם כִּי־רָחַק מִמֶּנִּי מְנַחֵם מֵשִׁיב נַפְשִׁי הָיוּ בָנַי שׁוֹמֵמִים כִּי גָבַר אוֹיֵב׃ 2.6. וַיַּחְמֹס כַּגַּן שֻׂכּוֹ שִׁחֵת מוֹעֲדוֹ שִׁכַּח יְהוָה בְּצִיּוֹן מוֹעֵד וְשַׁבָּת וַיִּנְאַץ בְּזַעַם־אַפּוֹ מֶלֶךְ וְכֹהֵן׃ 1.16. For these things I weep; my eye, yea my eye, sheds tears, for the comforter to restore my soul is removed from me; my children are desolate, for the enemy has prevailed." 2.6. And He hath stripped His tabernacle, as if it were a garden, He hath destroyed His place of assembly; The LORD hath caused to be forgotten in Zion Appointed season and sabbath, And hath rejected in the indignation of His anger The king and the priest."
16. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 17, 1 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

17. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 2.12, 9.1 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

2.12. כִּי כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אַחַר כָּבוֹד שְׁלָחַנִי אֶל־הַגּוֹיִם הַשֹּׁלְלִים אֶתְכֶם כִּי הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּכֶם נֹגֵעַ בְּבָבַת עֵינוֹ׃ 9.1. מַשָּׂא דְבַר־יְהוָה בְּאֶרֶץ חַדְרָךְ וְדַמֶּשֶׂק מְנֻחָתוֹ כִּי לַיהוָה עֵין אָדָם וְכֹל שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 9.1. וְהִכְרַתִּי־רֶכֶב מֵאֶפְרַיִם וְסוּס מִירוּשָׁלִַם וְנִכְרְתָה קֶשֶׁת מִלְחָמָה וְדִבֶּר שָׁלוֹם לַגּוֹיִם וּמָשְׁלוֹ מִיָּם עַד־יָם וּמִנָּהָר עַד־אַפְסֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 2.12. For thus saith the LORD of hosts who sent me after glory unto the nations which spoiled you: ‘Surely, he that toucheth you toucheth the apple of his eye." 9.1. The burden of the word of the LORD. In the land of Hadrach, And in Damascus shall be His resting-place; For the LORD’S is the eye of man And all the tribes of Israel."
18. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7, 10 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

19. Anon., Didache, 8.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Mishnah, Taanit, 4.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.8. Section one: Rabbi Shimon ben Gamaliel said: There were no days of joy in Israel greater than the fifteenth of Av and Yom Kippur. Section two: On these days the daughters of Jerusalem would go out in borrowed white garments in order not to shame any one who had none. All these garments required immersion. The daughters of Jerusalem come out and dance in the vineyards. What would they say? Young man, lift up your eyes and see what you choose for yourself. Do not set your eyes on beauty but set your eyes on the family. “Grace is deceitful, and beauty is vain, but a woman that fears the Lord, she shall be praised” (Proverbs 31:30). And it further says, “Give her of the fruit of her hands; and let her works praise her in the gates” (ibid, 31:31). Section three: Similarly it says, “O maidens of Zion, go forth and gaze upon King Solomon wearing the crown that his mother gave him on his wedding day, on the day of the gladness of his heart” (Song of Songs 3:11). “On his wedding day”: this refers to Matan Torah (the Giving of the Torah). “And on the day of the gladness of his heart”: this refers to the building of the Temple; may it be rebuilt speedily in our days, Amen."
21. New Testament, Apocalypse, 3.20, 12.1, 12.11, 12.15-12.16, 19.7, 21.2, 21.9, 22.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.20. Behold, I stand at the door and knock. If anyone hears my voice and opens the door, then I will come in to him, and will dine with him, and he with me. 12.1. A great sign was seen in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars. 12.11. They overcame him because of the Lamb's blood, and because of the word of their testimony. They didn't love their life, even to death. 12.15. The serpent spewed water out of his mouth after the woman like a river, that he might cause her to be carried away by the stream. 12.16. The earth helped the woman, and the earth opened its mouth and swallowed up the river which the dragon spewed out of his mouth. 19.7. Let us rejoice and be exceedingly glad, and let us give the glory to him. For the marriage of the Lamb has come, and his wife has made herself ready. 21.2. I saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, made ready like a bride adorned for her husband. 21.9. One of the seven angels who had the seven bowls, who were laden with the seven last plagues came, and he spoke with me, saying, "Come here. I will show you the wife, the Lamb's bride. 22.17. The Spirit and the bride say, "Come!" He who hears, let him say, "Come!" He who is thirsty, let him come. He who desires, let him take the water of life freely.
22. New Testament, James, 4.6, 5.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.6. But he gives more grace. Therefore it says, "God resists the proud, but gives grace to the humble. 5.9. Don't grumble, brothers, against one another, so that you won't be judged. Behold, the judge stands at the door.
23. New Testament, Jude, 15, 14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

24. New Testament, Romans, 3.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.10. As it is written, "There is no one righteous. No, not one.
25. New Testament, John, 3.28-3.30, 12.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.28. You yourselves testify that I said, 'I am not the Christ,' but, 'I have been sent before him.' 3.29. He who has the bride is the bridegroom; but the friend of the bridegroom, who stands and hears him, rejoices greatly because of the bridegroom's voice. This, my joy, therefore is made full. 3.30. He must increase, but I must decrease. 12.3. Mary, therefore, took a pound of ointment of pure nard, very precious, and anointed the feet of Jesus, and wiped his feet with her hair. The house was filled with the fragrance of the ointment.
26. New Testament, Luke, 5.33, 12.36 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.33. They said to him, "Why do John's disciples often fast and pray, likewise also the disciples of the Pharisees, but yours eat and drink? 12.36. Be like men watching for their lord, when he returns from the marriage feast; that, when he comes and knocks, they may immediately open to him.
27. New Testament, Mark, 1.15, 2.18-2.22, 13.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.15. and saying, "The time is fulfilled, and the Kingdom of God is at hand! Repent, and believe in the gospel. 2.18. John's disciples and the Pharisees were fasting, and they came and asked him, "Why do John's disciples and the disciples of the Pharisees fast, but your disciples don't fast? 2.19. Jesus said to them, "Can the groomsmen fast while the bridegroom is with them? As long as they have the bridegroom with them, they can't fast. 2.20. But the days will come when the bridegroom will be taken away from them, and then will they fast in that day. 2.21. No one sews a piece of unshrunk cloth on an old garment, or else the patch shrinks and the new tears away from the old, and a worse hole is made. 2.22. No one puts new wine into old wineskins, or else the new wine will burst the skins, and the wine pours out, and the skins will be destroyed; but they put new wine into fresh wineskins. 13.29. even so you also, when you see these things coming to pass, know that it is near, at the doors.
28. New Testament, Matthew, 6.16-6.18, 9.14, 24.33 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.16. Moreover when you fast, don't be like the hypocrites, with sad faces. For they disfigure their faces, that they may be seen by men to be fasting. Most assuredly I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.17. But you, when you fast, anoint your head, and wash your face; 6.18. so that you are not seen by men to be fasting, but by your Father who is in secret, and your Father, who sees in secret, will reward you. 9.14. Then John's disciples came to him, saying, "Why do we and the Pharisees fast often, but your disciples don't fast? 24.33. Even so you also, when you see all these things, know that it is near, even at the doors.
29. Tosefta, Hagigah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

30. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 12.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

31. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 45.4, 90.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

45.4. וַיָּבֹא אֶל הָגָר וַתַּהַר (בראשית טז, ד), רַבִּי לֵוִי בַּר חַיָּתָא אָמַר מִבִּיאָה רִאשׁוֹנָה נִתְעַבְּרָה, אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר לְעוֹלָם אֵין הָאִשָּׁה מִתְעַבֶּרֶת מִבִּיאָה רִאשׁוֹנָה, וְהָכְתִיב (בראשית יט, לו): וַתַּהֲרֶיןָ שְׁתֵּי בְנוֹת לוֹט מֵאֲבִיהֶן, אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא שָׁלְטוּ בְּעַצְמָן וְהוֹצִיאוּ עֶרְוָתָן וְנִתְעַבְּרוּ כְּמִבִּיאָה שְׁנִיָּה. אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן פָּזִי הַקּוֹצִין הַלָּלוּ אֵינָן לֹא מִתְנַכְּשִׁין וְלֹא נִזְרָעִים, מֵאֵילֵיהֶן הֵן יוֹצְאִים וּמִתַּמְּרִים וְעוֹלִים. הַחִטִּים הַלָּלוּ כַּמָּה צַעַר וְכַמָּה יְגִיעַ עַד שֶׁלֹא יַעֲלוּ. וְלָמָּה נִתְעַקְּרוּ הָאִמָּהוֹת, רַבִּי לֵוִי מִשֵּׁם רַבִּי שִׁילָא דִּכְפַר תְּמַרְתָּא וְרַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מִתְאַוֶּה לִתְפִלָּתָן וּמִתְאַוֶּה לְשִׂיחָתָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שיר השירים ב, יד): יוֹנָתִי בְּחַגְוֵי הַסֶּלַע, יוֹנָתִי בְּחַגְוֵי, לָמָּה עִקַּרְתִּי אֶתְכֶם, בִּשְׁבִיל (שיר השירים ב, יד): הַרְאִינִי אֶת מַרְאַיִךְ הַשְׁמִיעִנִי אֶת קוֹלֵךְ. רַבִּי עֲזַרְיָה מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בַּר פַּפָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מִתְרַפְּקוֹת עַל בַּעֲלֵיהֶן בְּנוֹיָן. רַבִּי הוּנָא מִשֵּׁם רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּצְאוּ רֹב הַשָּׁנִים בְּלֹא שִׁעְבּוּד. רַבִּי הוּנָא וְרַבִּי אָבוּן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי מֵאִיר אָמַר כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּהָנוּ בַּעֲלֵיהֶן מֵהֶן, שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁהָאִשָּׁה מְקַבֶּלֶת עֻבָּרִין הִיא מִתְכַּעֶרֶת וּמִתְעַזֶּבֶת, שֶׁכָּל תִּשְׁעִים שָׁנָה שֶׁלֹא יָלְדָה שָׂרָה הָיְתָה כְּכַלָּה בְּתוֹךְ חֻפָּתָהּ, וְהָיוּ מַטְרוֹנִיּוֹת בָּאוֹת לִשְׁאֹל בִּשְׁלוֹמָהּ שֶׁל שָׂרָה וְהָיְתָה שָׂרָה אוֹמֶרֶת לָהֶם צְאוּ וְשַׁאֲלוּ בִּשְׁלוֹמָהּ שֶׁל עֲלוּבָה, וְהָיְתָה הָגָר אוֹמֶרֶת לָהֶם שָׂרַי גְבִרְתִּי אֵין סִתְרָהּ כְּגִלּוּיָהּ, נִרְאֵית צַדֶּקֶת וְאֵינָהּ צַדֶּקֶת, אִלּוּ הָיְתָה צַדֶּקֶת רְאוּ כַּמָּה שָׁנִים שֶׁלֹא נִתְעַבְּרָה וַאֲנִי בְּלַיְלָה אֶחָד נִתְעַבַּרְתִּי, וְהָיְתָה אוֹמֶרֶת עִם דָּא אֲנָא מִסַּב וּמִתַּן, הַלְוַאי מִסַּב וּמִתַּן עִם מָרָהּ. 90.1. וַיֹּאמֶר פַּרְעֹה אֶל עֲבָדָיו הֲנִמְצָא כָזֶה (בראשית מא, לח), (שיר השירים ו, ט): אַחַת הִיא יוֹנָתִי תַמָּתִי אַחַת הִיא לְאִמָּהּ וגו'. אַחַת הִיא יוֹנָתִי תַמָּתִי, זֶה אַבְרָהָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יחזקאל לג, כד): אֶחָד הָיָה אַבְרָהָם וַיִּירַשׁ אֶת הָאָרֶץ. אַחַת הִיא לְאִמָּהּ, זֶה יִצְחָק, שֶׁהָיָה יָחִיד לְאִמּוֹ. בָּרָה הִיא לְיוֹלַדְתָּהּ, זֶה יַעֲקֹב, שֶׁהָיָה בָּרוּר לְיוֹלַדְתּוֹ שֶׁהוּא צַדִּיק. רָאוּהָ בָנוֹת וַיְאַשְׁרוּהָ, אֵלּוּ הַשְּׁבָטִים (בראשית מה, טז): וְהַקֹּל נִשְׁמַע בֵּית פַּרְעֹה. מְלָכוֹת וּפִילַגְשִׁים וַיְהַלְּלוּהָ, זֶה יוֹסֵף, וַיֹּאמֶר פַּרְעֹה אֶל עֲבָדָיו הֲנִמְצָא כָזֶה, אִם מְהַלְּכִים אָנוּ מִסּוֹף הָעוֹלָם וְעַד סוֹפוֹ אֵין אָנוּ מוֹצְאִים כָּזֶה. 45.4. ...Rabbi Shimon ben Yohai said Hagar was Pharaoh's daughter. When he saw the deeds on behalf of Sarah in his house, he took his daughter and gave her to him, saying, 'better that my daughter by a maidservant in this house than a mistress in another house.' This is what is written: \"She had an Egyptian handmaid whose name was Hagar.\" [In other words:] ha agrikh: 'This is your reward.'"
32. Anon., Lamentations Rabbah, 1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

33. Anon., Mekhilta Derabbi Yishmael, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

34. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 36 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

35. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 139, 115 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

36. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

5b. אינו מהם אמרו ליה רבנן לרבא מר לא בהסתר פנים איתיה ולא בוהיה לאכול איתיה אמר להו מי ידעיתו כמה משדרנא בצנעא בי שבור מלכא אפי' הכי יהבו ביה רבנן עינייהו אדהכי שדור דבי שבור מלכא וגרבוהו אמר היינו דתניא אמר רבן שמעון בן גמליאל כל מקום שנתנו חכמים עיניהם או מיתה או עוני,(דברים לא, יח) ואנכי הסתר אסתיר פני ביום ההוא אמר רבא אמר הקב"ה אף על פי שהסתרתי פני מהם בחלום אדבר בו רב יוסף אמר ידו נטויה עלינו שנאמר (ישעיהו נא, טז) ובצל ידי כסיתיך,ר' יהושע בן חנניה הוה קאי בי קיסר אחוי ליה ההוא אפיקורוסא עמא דאהדרינהו מריה לאפיה מיניה אחוי ליה ידו נטויה עלינו אמר ליה קיסר לר' יהושע מאי אחוי לך עמא דאהדרינהו מריה לאפיה מיניה ואנא מחוינא ליה ידו נטויה עלינו,אמרו ליה לההוא מינא מאי אחויית ליה עמא דאהדרינהו מריה מיניה ומאי אחוי לך לא ידענא אמרו גברא דלא ידע מאי מחוו ליה במחוג יחוי קמי מלכא אפקוהו וקטלוהו,כי קא ניחא נפשיה דרבי יהושע בן חנניה אמרו ליה רבנן מאי תיהוי עלן מאפיקורוסין אמר להם (ירמיהו מט, ז) אבדה עצה מבנים נסרחה חכמתם כיון שאבדה עצה מבנים נסרחה חכמתן של אומות העולם,ואי בעית אימא מהכא (בראשית לג, יב) ויאמר נסעה ונלכה ואלכה לנגדך,רבי אילא הוה סליק בדרגא דבי רבה בר שילא שמעיה לינוקא דהוה קא קרי (עמוס ד, יג) כי הנה יוצר הרים ובורא רוח ומגיד לאדם מה שיחו אמר עבד שרבו מגיד לו מה שיחו תקנה יש לו מאי מה שיחו אמר רב אפילו שיחה יתירה שבין איש לאשתו מגידים לו לאדם בשעת מיתה,איני והא רב כהנא הוה גני תותי פורייה דרב ושמעיה דסח וצחק ועשה צרכיו אמר דמי פומיה דרב כמאן דלא טעים ליה תבשילא אמר ליה כהנא פוק לאו אורח ארעא,לא קשיא כאן דצריך לרצויה הא דלא צריך לרצויה,(ירמיהו יג, יז) ואם לא תשמעוה במסתרים תבכה נפשי מפני גוה אמר רב שמואל בר איניא משמיה דרב מקום יש לו להקב"ה ומסתרים שמו מאי מפני גוה אמר רב שמואל בר יצחק מפני גאוותן של ישראל שניטלה מהם ונתנה לעובדי כוכבים ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר מפני גאוותה של מלכות שמים,ומי איכא בכיה קמיה הקב"ה והאמר רב פפא אין עציבות לפני הקב"ה שנאמר (דברי הימים א טז, כז) הוד והדר לפניו עוז וחדוה במקומו לא קשיא הא בבתי גואי הא בבתי בראי,ובבתי בראי לא והא כתיב (ישעיהו כב, יב) ויקרא אדני ה' צבאות ביום ההוא לבכי ולמספד ולקרחה ולחגור שק שאני חרבן בית המקדש דאפילו מלאכי שלום בכו שנאמר (ישעיהו לג, ז) הן אראלם צעקו חוצה מלאכי שלום מר יבכיון:,(ירמיהו יג, יז) ודמע תדמע ותרד עיני דמעה כי נשבה עדר ה' אמר ר' אלעזר שלש דמעות הללו למה אחת על מקדש ראשון ואחת על מקדש שני ואחת על ישראל שגלו ממקומן ואיכא דאמרי אחת על ביטול תורה,בשלמא למאן דאמר על ישראל שגלו היינו דכתיב כי נשבה עדר ה' אלא למאן דאמר על ביטול תורה מאי כי נשבה עדר ה' כיון שגלו ישראל ממקומן אין לך ביטול תורה גדול מזה,תנו רבנן שלשה הקב"ה בוכה עליהן בכל יום על שאפשר לעסוק בתורה ואינו עוסק ועל שאי אפשר לעסוק בתורה ועוסק ועל פרנס המתגאה על הצבור,רבי הוה נקיט ספר קינות וקא קרי בגויה כי מטא להאי פסוקא (איכה ב, א) השליך משמים ארץ נפל מן ידיה אמר מאיגרא רם לבירא עמיקתא,רבי ורבי חייא הוו שקלי ואזלי באורחא כי מטו לההוא מתא אמרי איכא צורבא מרבנן הכא נזיל וניקביל אפיה אמרי איכא צורבא מרבנן הכא ומאור עינים הוא אמר ליה ר' חייא לרבי תיב את לא תזלזל בנשיאותך איזיל אנא ואקביל אפיה,תקפיה ואזל בהדיה כי הוו מיפטרי מיניה אמר להו אתם הקבלתם פנים הנראים ואינן רואין תזכו להקביל פנים הרואים ואינן נראין אמר ליה איכו השתא מנעתן מהאי בירכתא,אמרו ליה ממאן שמיעא לך מפרקיה דרבי יעקב שמיע לי דרבי יעקב איש כפר חיטייא הוה מקביל אפיה דרביה כל יומא כי קש א"ל לא נצטער מר דלא יכיל מר,אמר ליה מי זוטר מאי דכתיב בהו ברבנן (תהלים מט, י) ויחי עוד לנצח לא יראה השחת כי יראה חכמים ימותו ומה הרואה חכמים במיתתן יחיה בחייהן על אחת כמה וכמה,רב אידי אבוה דרבי יעקב בר אידי הוה רגיל דהוה אזיל תלתא ירחי באורחא וחד יומא בבי רב והוו קרו ליה רבנן בר בי רב דחד יומא חלש דעתיה קרי אנפשיה (איוב יב, ד) שחוק לרעהו אהיה וגו' א"ל ר' יוחנן במטותא מינך לא תעניש להו רבנן,נפק ר' יוחנן לבי מדרשא ודרש (ישעיהו נח, ב) ואותי יום יום ידרשון ודעת דרכי יחפצון וכי ביום דורשין אותו ובלילה אין דורשין אותו אלא לומר לך כל העוסק בתורה אפי' יום אחד בשנה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עסק כל השנה כולה,וכן במדת פורענות דכתיב (במדבר יד, לד) במספר הימים אשר תרתם את הארץ וכי ארבעים שנה חטאו והלא ארבעים יום חטאו אלא לומר לך כל העובר עבירה אפי' יום אחד בשנה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עבר כל השנה כולה:,אי זהו קטן כל שאינו יכול לרכוב על כתפו של אביו: מתקיף לה רבי זירא 5b. bis not fromamong bthem. The Sages said to Rava: Master, you are not subject toHis bhidingof the bface,as your prayers are heard, band you are not subject to: “And they shall be devoured,”as the authorities take nothing from you. bHe said to them: Do you know how manygifts bI send in private to the house of King Shapur?Although it might seem that the monarchy does not take anything from me, in actuality I am forced to give many bribes. bEven so, the Sages looked uponRava with suspicion. bIn the meantime,messengers bfrom the house of King Shapur sentfor him band imprisoned himto extort more money from him. Rava bsaid: This is as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: Wherever the Sages looked uponsomeone, it resulted in beither death or poverty. /b,With regard to the verse: b“And I will hide my face in that day”(Deuteronomy 31:18), bRava saidthat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Even though I hid my face from themand My Divine Presence is not revealed, nevertheless: b“I speak with him in a dream”(Numbers 12:6). bRav Yosef said: His hand is outstretched,guarding bover us, as it is stated: “And I have covered you in the shadow of my hand”(Isaiah 51:16).,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya was standing inthe bhouse of the Caesar. A certain heretic,who was also present, bgestured to him,indicating that his was bthe nation whose Master,God, bturned His faceaway bfrom it.Rabbi Yehoshua bgestured to himthat bHis hand is outstretched over usin protection. bThe Caesar said to Rabbi Yehoshua: What did he gesture to you,and how did you respond? He replied: He indicated that mine is bthe nation whose Master turned His face from it, and I gestured to himthat bHis hand is outstretched over us. /b,The members of the Caesar’s household bsaid to that heretic: What did you gesture to him?He said to them: I gestured that his is bthe nation whose Master has turnedHis face bfrom it.They asked: bAnd what did he gesture to you?He said to them: bI don’t know;I did not understand. bThey said:How can ba man who does not know whatothers bgesture to himdare to bgesture in the presence of the king? They took him out and killed him. /b,The Gemara relates: bWhen Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya was dying, the Sages said to him: What will become of us, fromthe threat of bthe heretics,when there is no scholar like you who can refute them? bHe said to themthat the verse states: “Is wisdom no more in Teiman? bHas counsel perished from the prudent? Has their wisdom vanished?”(Jeremiah 49:7). He explained: bSince counsel has perished from the prudent,from the Jewish people, the bwisdom of the nations of the world has vanishedas well, and there will be no superior scholars among them., bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that the same idea can be derived bfrom here: “And he said: Let us take our journey, and let us go, and I will go corresponding to you”(Genesis 33:12). Just as the Jewish people rise and fall, so too, the nations of the world simultaneously rise and fall, and they will never have an advantage.,The Gemara relates that bRabbi Ila was ascending the stairs in the house of Rabba bar Sheila,a children’s teacher. bHe heard a child who was readinga verse out loud: b“For, lo, He Who forms the mountains, and creates the wind, and declares to man what is his speech”(Amos 4:13). Rabbi Ila bsaid:With regard to ba servant whose master declares to him what is hisproper bspeech, is there a remedy for him?The Gemara asks. bWhatis the meaning of the phrase: b“What is his speech”? Rav said: Even frivolous speech that is between a man and his wifebefore engaging in relations bis declared to a person at the time of death,and he will have to account for it.,The Gemara asks: bIs that so?Is it prohibited for a man to speak in this manner with his wife? bWasn’t Rav Kahana lying beneath Rav’s bed, and he heardRav bchatting and laughingwith his wife, band performing his needs,i.e., having relations with her. Rav Kahana bsaidout loud: bThe mouth of Rav is likeone who bhas never eaten a cooked dish,i.e., his behavior is lustful. Rav bsaid to him: Kahana, leave, asthis is bnot proper conduct.This shows that Rav himself engaged in frivolous talk before relations.,The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Here,where this type of speech is permitted, it is referring to a situation bwhere he must appeasehis wife before relations, and therefore this speech is appropriate. However, bthisstatement, that it is prohibited, is referring to a situation bwhere he doesn’t need to appease her.In these circumstances, it is prohibited to engage in excessively lighthearted chatter with one’s wife.,The verse states: b“But if you will not hear it, my soul shall weep in secret [ ibemistarim /i] for your pride”(Jeremiah 13:17). bRav Shmuel bar Inya said in the name of Rav: The Holy One, Blessed be He, has a placewhere He cries, band its name is Mistarim. Whatis the meaning of b“for your pride”? Rav Shmuel bar Yitzḥak said:God cries bdue to the pride of the Jewish people, which was taken from them and given tothe gentile bnations. Rav Shmuel bar Naḥmani said:He cries bdue to the pride of the kingdom of Heaven,which was removed from the world.,The Gemara asks: bBut is there crying before the Holy One, Blessed be He? Didn’t Rav Pappa say: There is no sadness before the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “Honor and majesty are before Him; strength and gladness are in His place”(I Chronicles 16:27)? The Gemara responds: This is bnot difficult. Thisstatement, that God cries, is referring to bthe innermost chambers,where He can cry in secret, whereas bthisstatement, that He does not cry, is referring to bthe outer chambers. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd doesn’tGod cry bin the outer chambers? Isn’t it written: “And on that day the Lord, the God of hosts, called to weeping, and to mourning, and to baldness, and to girding with sackcloth”(Isaiah 22:12)? The Gemara responds: bThe destruction of the Temple is different, as even the angels of peace cried, as it is stated: “Behold, their valiant ones cry without; the angels of peace weep bitterly”(Isaiah 33:7).,The verse continues: b“And my eye shall weep sore, and run down with tears, because the Lord’s flock is carried away captive”(Jeremiah 13:17). bRabbi Elazar said: Why these threereferences to btearsin the verse? bOneis bfor the First Temple; oneis bfor the Second Temple; and oneis bfor the Jewish people who were exiled from their place. And there arethose bwho say:The last boneis bforthe unavoidable bderelictionof the study of bTorahin the wake of the exile.,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat the last tear is bfor the Jewish people who were exiled, this is as it is written: “Because the Lord’s flock is carried away captive.” However, according to the one who saidthat this tear is bfor the derelictionof the study of bTorah, whatis the meaning of: b“Because the Lord’s flock is carried away captive”?The Gemara answers: bSince the Jewish people were exiled from their place, there is no greaterinvoluntary bderelictionof the study of bTorah thanthat which was caused by bthis. /b, bThe Sages taughtthat there are bthreetypes of people bfor whom the Holy One, Blessed be He, cries every day: Forone bwho is able to engage in Torahstudy band does not engagein it; band forone bwho is unable to engage in Torahstudy and nevertheless he endeavors and bengagesin it; band for a leader who lords over the community. /b,The Gemara relates: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bwas holdingthe bbook of Lamentations and was reading from it. When he reached the verse: “He has cast down from heaven to earththe beauty of Israel” (Lamentations 2:1), in his distress the book bfell from his hand. He said: From a high roof to a deep pit,i.e., it is terrible to tumble from the sky to the ground.,§ The Gemara relates: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi band Rabbi Ḥiyya were walking along the road. When they arrived at a certain city, they said: Is there a Torah scholar here whom wecan bgo and greet?The people of the city bsaid: There is a Torah scholar here but he is blind. Rabbi Ḥiyya said to RabbiYehuda HaNasi: bYou sithere; bdo not demean yourdignified status as iNasi /ito visit someone beneath your stature. bI will go and greet him. /b,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bgrabbed him and went with himanyway, and together they greeted the blind scholar. bWhen they were leaving him, he said to them: You greetedone who is bseen and does not see; may you be worthy to greetthe One Who bsees and is not seen.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid toRabbi Ḥiyya: bNow, ifI had listened to you and not gone to greet him, byou would have prevented me from receiving this blessing. /b, bThey said tothe blind scholar: bFrom whom did you hearthat we are worthy of this blessing? He said to them: bI heardit bfrom the instruction of Rabbi Ya’akov, as Rabbi Ya’akov of the village of Ḥitiyya would greet his teacher every day. WhenRabbi Ya’akov bgrew elderly,his teacher bsaid to him: Do not despair, my Master, that my Master is unableto make the effort to greet me. It is better that you should not visit me.,Rabbi Ya’akov bsaid to him: Is ita bminormatter, bthat which is written about the Sages: “That he should still live always, that he should not see the pit. For he sees that wise men die”(Psalms 49:10–11)? In this regard an ia fortiorireference applies: bJust as one who sees Sages in their death will live, all the more soone who sees them bin their lifetime.From here the blind scholar learned the importance of greeting Torah scholars, which is why he blessed the Sages who came to greet him.,The Gemara relates: bRav Idi, father of Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi, would regularly travel three months on the roadto reach the study hall bandas he would immediately travel back again to arrive home for the festival of iSukkot /i, he spent only bone day in the school of Rav. And the Sages woulddisparagingly bcall him: A studentof Torah bfor one day. He was offendedand breadthe following verse babout himself: “I am as one that is a laughingstock to his neighbor,a man who calls upon God, and He answers him” (Job 12:4). bRabbi Yoḥa said to him: Please do not punish the Sages,i.e., do not take offense and be harsh with them, as this will cause them to be punished by God., bRabbi Yoḥa leftRav Idi and went bto the study hall and taught: “Yet they seek Me daily, and delight to know My ways”(Isaiah 58:2). bBut isit possible that only bduring the day they seek Him and at night they do not seek Him?What is the meaning of daily? bRather,this verse comes bto say to youthat with regard to banyone who engages in Torahstudy beven one day a year, the verse ascribes himcredit bas though he engagedin Torah study bthe entire year. /b, bAnd the sameapplies bto the attribute of punishment, as it is written: “After the number of the days in which you spied out the land,even forty days, for every day a year, shall you bear your iniquities” (Numbers 14:34). bBut did they sinfor bforty years? Didn’t they sinfor only bforty days? Rather,this comes bto say to youthat banyone who transgresses a sin even one day a year, the verse ascribes himliability bas though he transgressed the entire year. /b,§ The mishna taught: bWho is a minorwho is exempt from the mitzva of appearance in the Temple? bAnychild bwho is unable to ride on his father’s shouldersand ascend from Jerusalem to the Temple Mount. bRabbi Zeira strongly objects to this: /b
37. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

97a. את סוכת דוד הנופלת א"ל הכי אמר רבי יוחנן דור שבן דוד בא בו תלמידי חכמים מתמעטים והשאר עיניהם כלות ביגון ואנחה וצרות רבות וגזרות קשות מתחדשות עד שהראשונה פקודה שניה ממהרת לבא,ת"ר שבוע שבן דוד בא בו שנה ראשונה מתקיים מקרא זה (עמוס ד, ז) והמטרתי על עיר אחת ועל עיר אחת לא אמטיר שניה חיצי רעב משתלחים שלישית רעב גדול ומתים אנשים ונשים וטף חסידים ואנשי מעשה ותורה משתכחת מלומדיה ברביעית שובע ואינו שובע בחמישית שובע גדול ואוכלין ושותין ושמחין ותורה חוזרת ללומדיה בששית קולות בשביעית מלחמות במוצאי שביעית בן דוד בא,אמר רב יוסף הא כמה שביעית דהוה כן ולא אתא אמר אביי בששית קולות בשביעית מלחמות מי הוה ועוד כסדרן מי הוה,(תהלים פט, נב) (אשר חרפו אויביך ה' אשר חרפו עקבות משיחך) תניא ר' יהודה אומר דור שבן דוד בא בו בית הוועד יהיה לזנות והגליל יחרב והגבלן יאשם ואנשי גבול יסובבו מעיר לעיר ולא יחוננו וחכמת הסופרים תסרח ויראי חטא ימאסו ופני הדור כפני כלב,והאמת נעדרת שנאמר (ישעיהו נט, טו) ותהי האמת נעדרת (וסר מרע משתולל) מאי ותהי האמת נעדרת אמרי דבי רב מלמד שנעשית עדרים עדרים והולכת לה מאי וסר מרע משתולל אמרי דבי ר' שילא כל מי שסר מרע משתולל על הבריות,אמר רבא מריש הוה אמינא ליכא קושטא בעלמא אמר לי ההוא מרבנן ורב טבות שמיה ואמרי לה רב טביומי שמיה דאי הוו יהבי ליה כל חללי דעלמא לא הוה משני בדבוריה זימנא חדא איקלעי לההוא אתרא וקושטא שמיה ולא הוו משני בדיבורייהו ולא הוה מיית איניש מהתם בלא זימניה נסיבי איתתא מינהון והוו לי תרתין בנין מינה,יומא חד הוה יתבא דביתהו וקא חייפא רישה אתאי שיבבתה טרפא אדשא סבר לאו אורח ארעא אמר לה ליתא הכא שכיבו ליה תרתין בנין אתו אינשי דאתרא לקמיה אמרו ליה מאי האי אמר להו הכי הוה מעשה א"ל במטותא מינך פוק מאתרין ולא תגרי בהו מותנא בהנך אינשי,תניא ר' נהוראי אומר דור שבן דוד בא בו נערים ילבינו פני זקנים וזקנים יעמדו לפני נערים ובת קמה באמה וכלה בחמותה ופני הדור כפני כלב ואין הבן מתבייש מאביו,תניא ר' נחמיה אומר דור שבן דוד בא בו העזות תרבה והיוקר יעות והגפן יתן פריו והיין ביוקר ונהפכה כל המלכות למינות ואין תוכחה מסייע ליה לר' יצחק דא"ר יצחק אין בן דוד בא עד שתתהפך כל המלכות למינות אמר רבא מאי קרא (ויקרא יג, יג) כולו הפך לבן טהור הוא,ת"ר (דברים לב, לו) כי ידין ה' עמו [וגו'] כי יראה כי אזלת יד ואפס עצור ועזוב אין בן דוד בא עד שירבו המסורות ד"א עד שיתמעטו התלמידים ד"א עד שתכלה פרוטה מן הכיס ד"א עד שיתייאשו מן הגאולה שנאמר ואפס עצור ועזוב כביכול אין סומך ועוזר לישראל,כי הא דר' זירא כי הוה משכח רבנן דמעסקי ביה אמר להו במטותא בעינא מנייכו לא תרחקוה דתנינא ג' באין בהיסח הדעת אלו הן משיח מציאה ועקרב,אמר רב קטינא שית אלפי שני הוו עלמא וחד חרוב שנאמר (ישעיהו ב, יא) ונשגב ה' לבדו ביום ההוא אביי אמר תרי חרוב שנאמר (הושע ו, ב) יחיינו מיומים ביום השלישי יקימנו ונחיה לפניו,תניא כותיה דרב קטינא כשם שהשביעית משמטת שנה אחת לז' שנים כך העולם משמט אלף שנים לשבעת אלפים שנה שנאמר ונשגב ה' לבדו ביום ההוא ואומר (תהלים צב, א) מזמור שיר ליום השבת יום שכולו שבת ואומר (תהלים צ, ד) כי אלף שנים בעיניך כיום אתמול כי יעבור,תנא דבי אליהו ששת אלפים שנה הוי עלמא שני אלפים תוהו שני אלפים תורה שני אלפים ימות המשיח 97a. bthe Tabernacle of David that is fallen [ ihanofelet /i]”(Amos 9:11). That is why the Messiah is called ibar nifli /i. Rabbi Yitzḥak bsaid to himthat bthisis what bRabbi Yoḥa says:During bthe generation in whichthe Messiah, bson of David, comes, Torah scholars decrease; andas for bthe restof the people, btheir eyes fail with sorrow and grief, and troubles increase. And the harsh decrees will be introduced; before the first passes the second quickly comes. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bthe seven-yearperiod, i.e., the Sabbatical cycle, bduring whichthe Messiah, bson of David, comes:During bthe first year, this verse will be fulfilled: “And I will cause it to rain upon one city and cause it not to rain upon another city”(Amos 4:7). During the bsecondyear of that period, barrows of famine will be shot,indicating that there will be famine only in certain places. During the bthirdyear bthere will be a great famine, and men, women, children, the pious, and men of action will die, and the Torah is forgotten by those who study it. During the fourthyear there will be bplenty but notgreat bplenty. During the fifthyear there will be bgreat plenty and they will eat, and drink, and rejoice, and the Torah will return to those who study it. During the sixthyear, heavenly bvoiceswill be heard. bDuring the SabbaticalYear, bwars,e.g., the war of Gog and Magog, will be waged involving the Jewish people. bDuringthe year after bthe conclusion of the SabbaticalYear, bthe son of David will come. /b, bRav Yosef said: Haven’t there been several Sabbaticalcycles during bwhichevents btranspiredin bthatmanner bandnevertheless, the Messiah bdid not come? Abaye said: Havethe phenomena: bDuring the sixthyear, heavenly bvoices,and bduring the SabbaticalYear, bwars, transpired? And furthermore, haveall these phenomena btranspired inthe borderin which they were listed in the ibaraita /i?,The verse states: b“That Your enemies taunted, Lord, that they have taunted the footsteps of Your anointed”(Psalms 89:52). bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda says: During the generation that the son of David comes, the hall of the assemblyof the Sages bwill bedesignated bfor prostitution, and the Galilee will be destroyed, and the Gavlan,i.e., Bashan, bwill be desolate, and the residents of the borderwho flee the neighboring gentiles bwill circulate from city to city and will receive no sympathy. The wisdom of scholars will diminish, and sin-fearingpeople bwill be despised. And the face of the generation will be like the face of a dogin its impudence and shamelessness., bAnd the truth will be lacking, as it is stated: “And the truth is lacking [ ine’ederet /i], and he who departs from evil is negated”(Isaiah 59:15). bWhatis the meaning of the phrase: bAnd the truth is lacking [ ine’ederet /i]?The Sages of bthe study hall of Rav said:This bteaches thattruth bwill become likeso many bflocks [ iadarim /i] and walkaway. bWhatis the meaning of the phrase: b“And he that departs from evil is negated”?The Sages of bthe study hall of Rabbi Sheila said: Anyone who deviates from evil is deemed insane by the people. /b,§ Concerning the lack of truth, bRava says: Initially I would saythat bthere is no truthanywhere bin the world.There was ba certain one of the Sages, and Rav Tavut is his name, and some say Rav Tavyomei is his name,who was so honest bthat if they wereto bgive him the entire world, he would not deviatefrom the truth bin his statement.He said to me: bOne time I happenedto come bto a certain place, and Truth is its name, andits residents bwould not deviatefrom the truth bin their statements, and no person from there would die prematurely. I married a woman fromamong bthem, and I had two sons from her. /b, bOne day his wife was sitting and washing thehair on her bhead. Her neighbor cameand bknocked on the door. He thought:It is bnot proper conductto tell the neighbor that his wife is bathing. bHe said to her: She is not here.Since he deviated from the truth bhis two sons died. The peopleresiding binthat bplace came before himand bsaid to him: Whatis the meaning of bthis? He said to them: This wasthe nature of the bincident,and told them what happened. bThey said to him: Please leave our place and do not provokepremature bdeath upon these people. /b,The Gemara resumes its discussion of the messianic period. bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Nehorai says: During the generationin bwhich the son of David comes, youths will humiliate elders and elders will standin deference bbefore youths, and a daughter will rebel against her mother, and a bride against her mother-in-law, and the face of the generation will be like the face of a dog, and a son will not be ashamed before his father. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Neḥemya says: During the generation that the son of David comes, arrogance will proliferate and the costof living bwill corruptpeople so they will engage in deceit. bThe vine will produce its fruit, andnevertheless, bthe winewill be bcostly. And the entiregentile bmonarchy will be converted tothe bheresyof Christianity, band there will be noinclination among the people to accept brebuke.This ibaraita bsupportsthe opinion of bRabbi Yitzḥak, as Rabbi Yitzḥak says: The son of David will not come until the entire kingdom will be converted to heresy. Rava says: What is the versefrom which this statement is derived? It is the verse: b“It is all turned white; he is ritually pure”(Leviticus 13:13). One is a leper and ritually impure only if he has a leprous mark, however small, but not if his skin is completely leprous. Similarly, the world will be redeemed only when the Jewish people reach their lowest point., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“For the Lord shall judge His peopleand atone for His servants, bwhen He sees that their power is gone and there is none shut up or left”(Deuteronomy 32:36). From the phrase “their power is gone” it is derived that bthe son of David will not come until informers will proliferate. Alternatively,the Messiah will not come buntil thenumber of bstudentsof Torah bdiminishes. Alternatively,the Messiah will not come buntilthe iperutawill cease from the purse. Alternatively,the Messiah will not come buntil they despair from the redemption, as it is stated: “And there is none shut up or left,” as though there were no supporter or helper for the Jewish people. /b,This is basin bthatpractice bof Rabbi Zeira,who, bwhen he would find Sages who were engaging indiscussions about the coming of the Messiah, bsaid to them: Please, I ask of you, do not delayhis coming by calculating the end of days. bAs we learnin a ibaraita /i: There are bthreematters that bcomeonly bby means of diversion of attentionfrom those matters, band these are they:The bMessiah, a lost item, and a scorpion. /b,§ bRav Ketina says: Six thousand years isthe duration of bthe world,and bit is in ruinsfor bonethousand years. The duration of the period during which the world is in ruins is derived from a verse, bas it is stated: “And the Lord alone shall be exalted on that day”(Isaiah 2:11), and the day of God lasts one thousand years. bAbaye says: It is in ruinsfor btwothousand years, bas it is stated: “After two days He will revive us; in the third day He will revive us, and we shall live in His presence”(Hosea 6:2)., bIt is taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rav Ketina: Just as the SabbaticalYear babrogatesdebts bonce in seven years, so too, the world abrogatesits typical existence for bone thousand years inevery bseven thousand years, as it is stated: “And the Lord alone shall be exalted on that day,” and it states: “A psalm, a song for the Shabbat day”(Psalms 92:1), meaning ba day,i.e., one thousand years, bthat is entirely Shabbat. And it saysin explanation of the equation between one day and one thousand years: b“For a thousand years in Your eyes are but like yesterday when it is past,and like a watch in the night” (Psalms 90:4)., bThe school of Eliyahu taught: Six thousand years isthe duration of bthe world. Two thousandof the six thousand years are characterized by bchaos; two thousandyears are characterized by bTorah,from the era of the Patriarchs until the end of the mishnaic period; and btwo thousand yearsare bthe period ofthe coming of bthe Messiah. /b
38. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

49b. כשם שניסוכו בקדושה כך שריפתו בקדושה מאי משמע אמר רבינא אתיא קדש קדש כתיב הכא (במדבר כח, ז) בקדש הסך נסך וכתיב התם (שמות כט, לד) ושרפת את הנותר באש לא יאכל כי קדש הוא,כמאן אזלא הא (דתניא) נסכים בתחילה מועלין בהן ירדו לשיתין אין מועלין בהן לימא רבי אלעזר בר צדוק היא דאי רבנן הא נחתו להו לתהום,אפילו תימא רבנן בדאיקלט,ואיכא דאמרי לימא רבנן היא ולא ר' אלעזר בר צדוק דאי רבי אלעזר אכתי בקדושתייהו קיימי אפילו תימא רבי אלעזר אין לך דבר שנעשה מצותו ומועלין בו אמר ריש לקיש בזמן שמנסכין יין על גבי מזבח פוקקין את השיתין לקיים מה שנאמר בקדש הסך נסך שכר לה',מאי משמע אמר רב פפא שכר לשון שתיה לשון שביעה לשון שכרות אמר רב פפא שמע מינה כי שבע איניש חמרא מגרוניה שבע אמר רבא צורבא מרבנן דלא נפישא ליה חמרא ליגמע גמועי רבא אכסא דברכתא אגמע גמועי,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (שיר השירים ז, ב) מה יפו פעמיך בנעלים בת נדיב מה יפו פעמותיהן של ישראל בשעה שעולין לרגל בת נדיב בתו של אברהם אבינו שנקרא נדיב שנא' (תהלים מז, י) נדיבי עמים נאספו עם אלהי אברהם אלהי אברהם ולא אלהי יצחק ויעקב אלא אלהי אברהם שהיה תחילה לגרים,תנא דבי רב ענן מאי דכתיב (שיר השירים ז, ב) חמוקי ירכיך למה נמשלו דברי תורה כירך לומר לך מה ירך בסתר אף דברי תורה בסתר,והיינו דא"ר אלעזר מאי דכתיב (מיכה ו, ח) הגיד לך אדם מה טוב ומה ה' דורש ממך כי אם עשות משפט ואהבת חסד והצנע לכת עם אלהיך עשות משפט זה הדין ואהבת חסד זו גמילות חסדים והצנע לכת עם אלהיך זו הוצאת המת והכנסת כלה לחופה והלא דברים ק"ו ומה דברים שדרכן לעשותן בפרהסיא אמרה תורה הצנע לכת דברים שדרכן לעשותן בצנעא על אחת כמה וכמה,א"ר אלעזר גדול העושה צדקה יותר מכל הקרבנות שנאמר (משלי כא, ג) עשה צדקה ומשפט נבחר לה' מזבח וא"ר אלעזר גדולה גמילות חסדים יותר מן הצדקה שנאמר (הושע י, יב) זרעו לכם לצדקה וקצרו לפי חסד אם אדם זורע ספק אוכל ספק אינו אוכל אדם קוצר ודאי אוכל,וא"ר אלעזר אין צדקה משתלמת אלא לפי חסד שבה שנאמר זרעו לכם לצדקה וקצרו לפי חסד,ת"ר בשלשה דברים גדולה גמילות חסדים יותר מן הצדקה צדקה בממונו גמילות חסדים בין בגופו בין בממונו צדקה לעניים גמילות חסדים בין לעניים בין לעשירים צדקה לחיים גמילות חסדים בין לחיים בין למתים,וא"ר אלעזר כל העושה צדקה ומשפט כאילו מילא כל העולם כולו חסד שנאמר (תהלים לג, ה) אוהב צדקה ומשפט חסד ה' מלאה הארץ שמא תאמר כל הבא לקפוץ קופץ ת"ל (תהלים לו, ח) מה יקר חסדך אלהים (חסד ה' מלאה הארץ) וגו' יכול אף ירא שמים כן ת"ל (תהלים קג, יז) וחסד ה' מעולם ועד עולם על יראיו,א"ר חמא בר פפא כל אדם שיש עליו חן בידוע שהוא ירא שמים שנא' חסד ה' מעולם ועד עולם על יראיו וא"ר אלעזר מאי דכתיב (משלי לא, כו) פיה פתחה בחכמה ותורת חסד על לשונה וכי יש תורה של חסד יש תורה שאינה של חסד אלא תורה לשמה זו היא תורה של חסד שלא לשמה זו היא תורה שאינה של חסד איכא דאמרי תורה ללמדה זו היא תורה של חסד שלא ללמדה זו היא תורה שאינה של חסד:,כמעשהו בחול כו': ואמאי נייתי במקודשת אמר זעירי קסבר אין שיעור למים וכלי שרת מקדשין שלא מדעת 49b. bjust as its pouring is in sanctity, so too must its burning be in sanctity. From wheremay it bbe inferredthat this is referring to burning? bRavina said: It is derivedby means of a verbal analogy between the term bsanctitywritten with regard to libations and bsanctitywritten with regard to leftover offerings. bIt is written here,with regard to libations: b“In sanctity shall you pour a libation”(Numbers 28:7), band it is written there,with regard to leftover offerings: b“You shall burn the leftovers in fire; they are not to be eaten, for they are sanctity”(Exodus 29:34). Through the verbal analogy it is derived that leftover libations must also be burned.,The Gemara notes: bIn accordance with whoseopinion bis that which is taughtin this mishna? With regard to blibations, initially,prior to being poured, bonecan bmisuse consecrated property with them,as is the case with all consecrated items. However, once bthey descended to the drainpipes, one does notviolate the prohibition against bmisuseof bconsecrated property with them,because the mitzva was already fulfilled. bLet us saythat the mishna bisin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Elazar bar Tzadok,who holds that the libations did not descend to the depths but would collect between the ramp and the altar and would be collected once every seventy years. bAs, ifit were in accordance with the opinion of bthe Rabbis,how could the libations be misused? bDidn’t theyalready bdescend to the depthsthrough the drainpipes?,The Gemara rejects this: bEvenif byou saythat the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of bthe Rabbis,it could be referring btoa case bwheresome of the wine landed outside the drainpipes and bwas collectedin the space between the ramp and the altar., bAnd some saya different version of this exchange. bLet us saythat the mishna bisin accordance with the opinion of bthe Rabbis and notin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Elazar bar Tzadok. As, ifit were in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Elazar,then the wine that collected between the ramp and the altar bremains in its sanctity,as it must be burned, and the prohibition against misuse would still apply. The Gemara rejects this: bEvenif byou saythat the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Elazar, there is no item whose mitzva has been performed with which onecan violate the prohibition against bmisuse of consecrated property. Reish Lakish said: When they pour wine onto the altar, they plugthe top of bthe drainpipesso that the wine does not descend to the depths, in order bto fulfill that which is stated: “In sanctity shall you pour a libation of strong drink [ ishekhar /i] unto the Lord”(Numbers 28:7).,The Gemara asks: bFrom wheremay it bbe inferredthat this is referring to plugging the drainpipes? bRav Pappa said: iShekhar /iis ban expression of drinking, of satiation, of intoxication.In order to underscore all three aspects of the libations, the space between the altar and the ramp would fill with wine. bRav Pappa said: Conclude from this that when a person is satiated fromdrinking bwine,it is bfrom his throatbeing filled with wine that he is bsatiated.Unlike food, wine does not satiate a person when it fills his stomach. bRava said:Therefore, blet a youngTorah bscholar, who does nothave bmuch wine, swallowhis wine binlarge bswigs,filling his throat each time, as he will thereby maximize his enjoyment. And bRavahimself, when drinking ba cup of blessing, would swallowlarge bswigsso as to drink the wine accompanying the mitzva in an optimal manner.,§ Apropos the homiletic interpretations of the verses from Song of Songs with regard to the drainpipes, the Gemara cites additional interpretations. bRava taught: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “How beautiful are your steps in sandals, O prince’s daughter”(Song of Songs 7:2)? bHow beautiful are the feet of the Jewish people at the time when they ascendto Jerusalem bfor the Festival. “O prince’s daughter”;this is referring to bthe daughter of Abraham our Patriarch, who was called prince, as it is stated: “The princes of the peoples are gathered, the people of the God of Abraham”(Psalms 47:10). The verse calls the Jewish people the people of bthe God of Abraham and not the God of Isaac and Jacob.Why are the Jewish people associated specifically with Abraham? bRatherthan referring to the three Patriarchs, the verse is referring to bthe God of Abraham, who was first of the converts,and therefore it is reasonable for the princes of other nations to gather around him.,In bthe school of Rav Ait was btaught: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “The hidden of your thighs”(Song of Songs 7:2)? bWhy are matters of Torah likened to a thigh?It is bto tell youthat bjust asthe bthigh isalways bconcealed,covered by clothes, so btoo, matters of Torahare optimal when recited bin privateand not in public., bAnd this is what Rabbi Elazar said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “It has been told you, O man, what is good, and what the Lord does require of you; only to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with your God”(Micah 6:8)? b“To do justly”; this is justice. “To love mercy”; this is acts of kindness. “To walk humbly with your God”; this isreferring to btaking theindigent bdead outfor burial band accompanyinga poor bbride toher bwedding canopy,both of which must be performed without fanfare. The Gemara summarizes: bAnd arethese bmatters notinferred ia fortiori /i? If,with regard to bmatters that tend to be conducted in public,as the multitudes participate in funerals and weddings, bthe Torah says: Walk humbly,then in bmatters that tend to be conducted in private,e.g., giving charity and studying Torah, ball the more soshould they be conducted privately.,§ bRabbi Elazar said: One who performsacts of bcharity is greater thanone who sacrifices balltypes of bofferings, as it is stated: “To perform charity and justice is more acceptable to the Lord than an offering”(Proverbs 21:3), including all types of offerings. bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: Acts of kindness,assisting someone in need, bare greater than charity, as it is stated: “Sow to yourselves according to charity, and reap according to kindness”(Hosea 10:12). This means: bIf a person sows,it is buncertainwhether bhewill beat orwhether bhewill bnot eat,since much can go wrong before the seed becomes food. However, if ba person reaps, he certainly eats.In this verse, charity is likened to sowing, while acts of kindness are likened to reaping., bAnd Rabbi Elazar said:The reward for bcharity is paidfrom Heaven bonly in accordance with the kindnessand generosity included bthereinand in accordance with the effort and the consideration that went into the giving. It is not merely in accordance with the sum of money, bas it is stated: “Sow to yourselves according to charity, and reap according to kindness.” /b, bThe Sages taughtthat bacts of kindness are superior to charity in three respects: Charitycan be performed only bwith one’s money,while bacts of kindnesscan be performed bboth with his person and with his money. Charityis given bto the poor,while bacts of kindnessare performed bboth for the poor and for the rich. Charityis given to the bliving,while bacts of kindnessare performed bboth for the living and for the dead. /b, bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: Anyone who performs charity and justice isconsidered bas though he filled the whole world in its entirety with kindness, as it is stated: “He loves charity and justice; the earth is full of the kindness of the Lord”(Psalms 33:5). bLest you say that anyone who comes to leapand perform an act of kindness may simply bleapand do so without scrutiny, bthe verse states: “How precious is your kindness, O God”(Psalms 36:8). It is a precious and rare occurrence to perform an act of kindness properly. One bmighthave thought that beven a God-fearingindividual does not always encounter the opportunity to perform acts of kindness. Therefore, bthe verse states: “But the kindness of the Lord is from everlasting to everlasting upon them that fear Him”(Psalms 103:17)., bRabbi Ḥama bar Pappa said:With regard to bany person who has grace about him, it is certain that he is God-fearing, as it is stated: “But the kindness of the Lord is from everlasting to everlasting upon them that fear Him.”When one sees that a certain individual is endowed with grace and kindness, one can be certain that he is a God-fearing person. bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “She opens her mouth with wisdom, and a Torah of kindness is on her tongue”(Proverbs 31:26)? The Gemara asks: bIs there, then, a Torah of kindness and a Torah that is not of kindness? Rather,it is bTorahstudied bfor its own sake that is a Torah of kindness,as one studies it wholeheartedly; and it is Torah studied bnot for its own sakebut for some ulterior motive bthat is a Torah that is not of kindness. Some saythat it is bTorahstudied in order bto teach itto others bthat is a Torah of kindness;it is Torah studied bwiththe intent of bnot teaching itto others bthat is a Torah that is not of kindness. /b,§ The mishna continues: bAs its performance during the week,so is its performance on Shabbat, except that on Shabbat one would not draw water. Instead, on Shabbat eve, one would fill a golden barrel that was not consecrated and would place it in the Temple chamber, and water would be drawn from there on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: bAnd whyshould one do so? bLethim bbringthe water bin a consecratedbarrel. bZe’iri said:The itannain the mishna bholds that there is norequisite bmeasure for the waterto be poured for libation, and therefore more than three ilogcould be consecrated; bandthat bTemple vessels consecratetheir content if it is fit to be consecrated, even bwithout intentto consecrate it.
39. Anon., Numbers Rabba, 14.10 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

40. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 1 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

41. Anon., 4 Ezra, 4.36-4.37, 5.24, 5.26

4.36. And Jeremiel the archangel answered them and said, `When the number of those like yourselves is completed; for he has weighed the age in the balance 4.37. and measured the times by measure, and numbered the times by number; and he will not move or arouse them until that measure is fulfilled.' 5.24. and from all the lands of the world thou hast chosen for thyself one region, and from all the flowers of the world thou hast chosen for thyself one lily 5.26. and from all the birds that have been created thou hast named for thyself one dove, and from all the flocks that have been made thou hast provided for thyself one sheep
42. Anon., Pesiqta De Rav Kahana, 15.7

43. Anon., Midrash On Song of Songs, 5.2, 6.9

5.2. The Divine presence was not on the earthly, lowliest plane, proof is that it is written, and they heard the voice of the lord walking in the garden."


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abandonment trope Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 141
abba ḥannin Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 167
akiva, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 250, 251, 256
allegory, allegorical Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 59; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245
allegory, in an aramaic piyyut for passover Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
allusions, dove (image) Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140, 146, 147, 148
anthropomorphism, embodiment Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 165
anthropomorphism, eyes Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 165, 365
anthropomorphism, memory Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 164
anthropomorphism, mourning Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 164, 365
anthropomorphism, sorrow Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 164, 165
anthropomorphism, suffering Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 164, 165, 365
anthropomorphism, sympathy/engagement Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 164, 165, 365
anthropomorphism, tears/weeping Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 164, 165
aphrodite Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 209
apocalyptic(ism) (see also dualism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 239, 242, 245
aramaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 241, 245
aramaic piyyut for passover, an (anonymous), allegory minimal in Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
aramaic piyyut for passover, an (anonymous), an atypical song of songs piyyut Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 105
aramaic piyyut for passover, an (anonymous) Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 105, 110
aramaic piyyut for passover, an (anonymous) narrative character of Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
augustine of hippo, old latin bible and Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 507
azarya, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 239
berekhya, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 239
canon (scriptural), canonical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 251
chernick, michael Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 167
christology, christological Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 250, 251, 259
circumcision Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 114
citation, old latin bible, as source for text of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 507
cyprian of carthage, latin bible and Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 507
daughters of jerusalem Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 161, 162, 186
david Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 114; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 239
desire, in shivata shir ha-shirim Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 206
desires Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 59
divine/god, connection to human realm Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 164, 165
divine/god, transcendent/hidden Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 164
dove, as figure of messiah Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 176
dove (image) Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140, 146, 147, 148
dreams and visions, examples, hebrew bible Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 126
dreams and visions, examples, homer Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 126
editing (process) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 239, 241, 242, 244, 245, 250, 251
edom Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 182
elazar, rabbi Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 115
elazar ben arakh Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245
election (of israel) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245, 250
eliezer (ben hyrcanus), rabbi Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 167
eliphaz Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 59
enemy, divine Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 365
eroticism Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 209
exile, concept of Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 168
exile, in shivata shir ha-shirim Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 206
exile, planting imagery of Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140
exile Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 365
exum, j. cheryl Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 163
fasting Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 244, 245
female lover, as figure of israel Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
fertility, barrenness Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 146
fertility, motherhood Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 146
fertility, zions restoration as Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 146
galilee Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 259
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 241
god, as male lover in the song of songs Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
god, as solomon Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 30
god, israels obedience to Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 148
god–israel relationship, abandonment trope in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 141
god–israel relationship, as gardener-plant relationship Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140, 141
god–israel relationship, eroticism in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140
god–israel relationship, israels singular status Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 147, 148
god–israel relationship, love in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 146, 147, 148
god–israel relationship, nostalgia in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 141
god–israel relationship, redemption and Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 147, 148
god–israel relationship, romance in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 147, 148
graeco-roman (law/custom) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 256
greek, language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 241
gregory the great Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 59
harding, kathryn Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 163
hebrew language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 241
hellenism, hellenistic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 256
henna Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 176
hillel the elder Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 256
hippolytus of rome Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 250, 251
historical tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 241, 251, 259
hiya bar abba, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 239
index of subjects, shammaite) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 239, 251, 259
israel, as dove Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 148
israel, as plant Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140
israel, as the female lover in the song of songs Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
israel, history of, in shivata shir ha-shirim Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 206
israel, obedience of Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 148
israel, suffering of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 365
israel, tribes Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 165
jacob Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 59
jeremiah Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 164
jerome, old latin bible and Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 507
jerusalem, epithets for Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140
jerusalem, rebuilding of Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 206
jesus, christ Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 259
jesus Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 259
jewish-christian tradition, custom Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 251
john (the baptist) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 244, 245, 250
john of patmos Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 250, 251
joshua ben qorchah, rabbi Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 167
joshua of sikhnin (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 365
judah b. ila͗͑i (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 365
judea (region) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 259
kallir, eleazar, romantic relationship between god and israel Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 147, 148
kedushtot, abandonment trope in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 141
kedushtot, dove imagery in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140, 146, 147, 148
kedushtot, meḥayeh to shabbat vatomar tzion Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140
kedushtot, motherhood in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 146
kedushtot, zion in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140, 141
kingdom of god Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 250
latin bible Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 507
levi (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 165, 365
liber de divinis scripturis Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 507
love poetry, love songs Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 209
lucifer of cagliari Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 507
magen for kedushta to shabbat naḥamu, dove image in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 147
magen for kedushta to shabbat naḥamu, trope of return in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 147
male lover, as figure of god Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
mark Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 251
marriage metaphor, in mishnah taʿanit Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 30
martyrdom Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 176, 182
mashal lemelek Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 114
matchmaking rituals Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 30
meal Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 259
messiah Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 176, 182; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 239, 241
metaphor(ical) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 250
metaphor, metaphorical language Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 209
mezuzah Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 114
mezuzot Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 249
meḥayeh to shabbat vatomar tzion Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140, 146, 147
midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 239, 241, 244, 245, 247, 250, 251, 259
minim stories, in the babylonian talmud, satire and irony in Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 93
mitsvot Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 2
myrrh Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 176
mysticism, mystical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245, 250, 259
mythmaking, response to contradiction Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 365
nabû Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 209
nostalgia Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 82
old latin bible or vetus latina, augustine and Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 507
old latin bible or vetus latina, citation as evidence of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 507
old latin bible or vetus latina, evidence for text of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 507
old latin bible or vetus latina Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 507
oral tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 241
origen Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 250, 251
origins, vulgate and Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 507
origins Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 507
parables (genre) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 251
parody Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 93
pesah Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 256
pesukei dezimra, redemptive response to Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 147, 148
petiḥtot, zions fertility Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 146
poetry, lyric Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 163
pope, marvin h. Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 163
prophecy Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 259
psalms, on jerusalem Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 141
pseudo-augustine, speculum Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 507
purity (see also food laws) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 244
qedushta shir ha-shirim (yannai) Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 249
qumran documents Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 250
r. judah the prince Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 93
rab (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 164
rabbinic tradition/literature, midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245, 251
rabbis Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245, 251
rahit, rehitim, in yannais qedushta shir ha-shirim Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 249
redemption, prayer and Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 147, 148
redemption, torah obedience and Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 148
relative, sister Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 259
restoration Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 206
ritual Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 209; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 244, 245, 250
samuel b. iniya (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 164
scriptures Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 59
septuagint Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245, 250
shilo, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 244
shimon ben elazar Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 239
shimshon from sens, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 256
shivata for dew (qallir) Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 294
shivata shir ha-shirim (yannai), dialogue in Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 206
shivata shir ha-shirim (yannai), israels history in Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 206
shivata shir ha-shirim (yannai) Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 176, 182, 206
sin Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 59
sinai, as locus of wedding of god and israel Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 30
solomon, in aggadic tradition, as allegorical representation of god in the song of songs Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 30
song of songs, allegorical interpretation of Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 30, 110
song of songs, canonicity of Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 30
song of songs, christian reception of Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 30
song of songs, dove (image) in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140, 146, 147
song of songs, night visions Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 161, 162, 163
song of songs, origins of interpretation Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 186
song of songs, rewritten in piyyutim Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
song of songs, secular reception of Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 30
song of songs Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 209
song of songs piyyutim, as rewritings of the song Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
song of songs piyyutim, future-oriented Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 82
song of the vineyard (isa 5) Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
soul Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 59
speculum quis ignorat (pseudo-augustine) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 507
stone, michael e. Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 186
suckling children Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 141
sumer(ians) Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 209
symbol(ic), symbolism Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 209
synagogue Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 239
synoptic, tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 241, 245
tanna (memorizer) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 251
tannaim (early rabbis), tannaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 239
tannaitic midrashim, relationship with amoraic midrashim Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 2, 186
tashmetu Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 209
tasso, torquato Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 82
tefillin, temple, destruction of Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 186
tefillin Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 114
temple, heavenly Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 164
temple, inner chamber of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 164
temple, rebuilding of Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 182
temple, wedding of god and israel in Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 30
temporal horizon Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 186
tirṣah Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 114
tisha bav lectionary cycle, planting imagery in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140
tisha bav lectionary cycle, sacrifice trope in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 147
torah, as garden Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 182
tsitsit' Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 114
tyconius Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 507
vision Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 59
vulgate, old latin bible and Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 507
war Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 242
yannai (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 165
yashia, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 239
yehoshua of sikhnin (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 165
yhwh, compassion of Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 141
yhwh, love for israel Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 147
yohanan ben zakkai, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245
yom kippur, matchmaking rituals on Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 30
yoshua, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 239
zion, as garden Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140, 141
zion, as mother Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 146
zion, as mourning dove Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 146, 147
zion, in kedushtot Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140, 141
zion, lamentations of Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 141
ḥiyya bar abba (r.), suffering of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 365