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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6276
Hebrew Bible, Song Of Songs, 2.14


יוֹנָתִי בְּחַגְוֵי הַסֶּלַע בְּסֵתֶר הַמַּדְרֵגָה הַרְאִינִי אֶתּ־מַרְאַיִךְ הַשְׁמִיעִינִי אֶת־קוֹלֵךְ כִּי־קוֹלֵךְ עָרֵב וּמַרְאֵיךְ נָאוֶה׃O my dove, that art in the clefts of the rock, in the covert of the cliff, Let me see thy countenance, let me hear thy voice; For sweet is thy voice, and thy countenance is comely.’


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42 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 1.2, 1.4-1.6, 1.8-1.13, 1.15-1.16, 2.2-2.3, 2.7-2.13, 2.17, 3.5-3.6, 3.9, 4.1-4.5, 4.7-4.16, 5.1-5.16, 6.1-6.2, 6.4-6.10, 6.12, 7.1-7.6, 7.12, 8.1, 8.4, 8.6-8.7, 8.13-8.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. יִשָּׁקֵנִי מִנְּשִׁיקוֹת פִּיהוּ כִּי־טוֹבִים דֹּדֶיךָ מִיָּיִן׃ 1.4. מָשְׁכֵנִי אַחֲרֶיךָ נָּרוּצָה הֱבִיאַנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ חֲדָרָיו נָגִילָה וְנִשְׂמְחָה בָּךְ נַזְכִּירָה דֹדֶיךָ מִיַּיִן מֵישָׁרִים אֲהֵבוּךָ׃ 1.5. שְׁחוֹרָה אֲנִי וְנָאוָה בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם כְּאָהֳלֵי קֵדָר כִּירִיעוֹת שְׁלֹמֹה׃ 1.6. אַל־תִּרְאוּנִי שֶׁאֲנִי שְׁחַרְחֹרֶת שֶׁשֱּׁזָפַתְנִי הַשָּׁמֶשׁ בְּנֵי אִמִּי נִחֲרוּ־בִי שָׂמֻנִי נֹטֵרָה אֶת־הַכְּרָמִים כַּרְמִי שֶׁלִּי לֹא נָטָרְתִּי׃ 1.8. אִם־לֹא תֵדְעִי לָךְ הַיָּפָה בַּנָּשִׁים צְאִי־לָךְ בְּעִקְבֵי הַצֹּאן וּרְעִי אֶת־גְּדִיֹּתַיִךְ עַל מִשְׁכְּנוֹת הָרֹעִים׃ 1.9. לְסֻסָתִי בְּרִכְבֵי פַרְעֹה דִּמִּיתִיךְ רַעְיָתִי׃ 1.11. תּוֹרֵי זָהָב נַעֲשֶׂה־לָּךְ עִם נְקֻדּוֹת הַכָּסֶף׃ 1.12. עַד־שֶׁהַמֶּלֶךְ בִּמְסִבּוֹ נִרְדִּי נָתַן רֵיחוֹ׃ 1.13. צְרוֹר הַמֹּר דּוֹדִי לִי בֵּין שָׁדַי יָלִין׃ 1.15. הִנָּךְ יָפָה רַעְיָתִי הִנָּךְ יָפָה עֵינַיִךְ יוֹנִים׃ 1.16. הִנְּךָ יָפֶה דוֹדִי אַף נָעִים אַף־עַרְשֵׂנוּ רַעֲנָנָה׃ 2.2. כְּשׁוֹשַׁנָּה בֵּין הַחוֹחִים כֵּן רַעְיָתִי בֵּין הַבָּנוֹת׃ 2.3. כְּתַפּוּחַ בַּעֲצֵי הַיַּעַר כֵּן דּוֹדִי בֵּין הַבָּנִים בְּצִלּוֹ חִמַּדְתִּי וְיָשַׁבְתִּי וּפִרְיוֹ מָתוֹק לְחִכִּי׃ 2.7. הִשְׁבַּעְתִּי אֶתְכֶם בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַם בִּצְבָאוֹת אוֹ בְּאַיְלוֹת הַשָּׂדֶה אִם־תָּעִירוּ וְאִם־תְּעוֹרְרוּ אֶת־הָאַהֲבָה עַד שֶׁתֶּחְפָּץ׃ 2.8. קוֹל דּוֹדִי הִנֵּה־זֶה בָּא מְדַלֵּג עַל־הֶהָרִים מְקַפֵּץ עַל־הַגְּבָעוֹת׃ 2.9. דּוֹמֶה דוֹדִי לִצְבִי אוֹ לְעֹפֶר הָאַיָּלִים הִנֵּה־זֶה עוֹמֵד אַחַר כָּתְלֵנוּ מַשְׁגִּיחַ מִן־הַחֲלֹּנוֹת מֵצִיץ מִן־הַחֲרַכִּים׃ 2.11. כִּי־הִנֵּה הסתו [הַסְּתָיו] עָבָר הַגֶּשֶׁם חָלַף הָלַךְ לוֹ׃ 2.12. הַנִּצָּנִים נִרְאוּ בָאָרֶץ עֵת הַזָּמִיר הִגִּיעַ וְקוֹל הַתּוֹר נִשְׁמַע בְּאַרְצֵנוּ׃ 2.13. הַתְּאֵנָה חָנְטָה פַגֶּיהָ וְהַגְּפָנִים סְמָדַר נָתְנוּ רֵיחַ קוּמִי לכי [לָךְ] רַעְיָתִי יָפָתִי וּלְכִי־לָךְ׃ 2.17. עַד שֶׁיָּפוּחַ הַיּוֹם וְנָסוּ הַצְּלָלִים סֹב דְּמֵה־לְךָ דוֹדִי לִצְבִי אוֹ לְעֹפֶר הָאַיָּלִים עַל־הָרֵי בָתֶר׃ 3.5. הִשְׁבַּעְתִּי אֶתְכֶם בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַם בִּצְבָאוֹת אוֹ בְּאַיְלוֹת הַשָּׂדֶה אִם־תָּעִירוּ וְאִם־תְּעוֹרְרוּ אֶת־הָאַהֲבָה עַד שֶׁתֶּחְפָּץ׃ 3.6. מִי זֹאת עֹלָה מִן־הַמִּדְבָּר כְּתִימֲרוֹת עָשָׁן מְקֻטֶּרֶת מוֹר וּלְבוֹנָה מִכֹּל אַבְקַת רוֹכֵל׃ 3.9. אַפִּרְיוֹן עָשָׂה לוֹ הַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה מֵעֲצֵי הַלְּבָנוֹן׃ 4.1. מַה־יָּפוּ דֹדַיִךְ אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה מַה־טֹּבוּ דֹדַיִךְ מִיַּיִן וְרֵיחַ שְׁמָנַיִךְ מִכָּל־בְּשָׂמִים׃ 4.1. הִנָּךְ יָפָה רַעְיָתִי הִנָּךְ יָפָה עֵינַיִךְ יוֹנִים מִבַּעַד לְצַמָּתֵךְ שַׂעְרֵךְ כְּעֵדֶר הָעִזִּים שֶׁגָּלְשׁוּ מֵהַר גִּלְעָד׃ 4.2. שִׁנַּיִךְ כְּעֵדֶר הַקְּצוּבוֹת שֶׁעָלוּ מִן־הָרַחְצָה שֶׁכֻּלָּם מַתְאִימוֹת וְשַׁכֻּלָה אֵין בָּהֶם׃ 4.3. כְּחוּט הַשָּׁנִי שִׂפְתֹתַיִךְ וּמִדְבָּרֵיךְ נָאוֶה כְּפֶלַח הָרִמּוֹן רַקָּתֵךְ מִבַּעַד לְצַמָּתֵךְ׃ 4.4. כְּמִגְדַּל דָּוִיד צַוָּארֵךְ בָּנוּי לְתַלְפִּיּוֹת אֶלֶף הַמָּגֵן תָּלוּי עָלָיו כֹּל שִׁלְטֵי הַגִּבּוֹרִים׃ 4.5. שְׁנֵי שָׁדַיִךְ כִּשְׁנֵי עֳפָרִים תְּאוֹמֵי צְבִיָּה הָרוֹעִים בַּשּׁוֹשַׁנִּים׃ 4.7. כֻּלָּךְ יָפָה רַעְיָתִי וּמוּם אֵין בָּךְ׃ 4.8. אִתִּי מִלְּבָנוֹן כַּלָּה אִתִּי מִלְּבָנוֹן תָּבוֹאִי תָּשׁוּרִי מֵרֹאשׁ אֲמָנָה מֵרֹאשׁ שְׂנִיר וְחֶרְמוֹן מִמְּעֹנוֹת אֲרָיוֹת מֵהַרְרֵי נְמֵרִים׃ 4.9. לִבַּבְתִּנִי אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה לִבַּבְתִּינִי באחד [בְּאַחַת] מֵעֵינַיִךְ בְּאַחַד עֲנָק מִצַּוְּרֹנָיִךְ׃ 4.11. נֹפֶת תִּטֹּפְנָה שִׂפְתוֹתַיִךְ כַּלָּה דְּבַשׁ וְחָלָב תַּחַת לְשׁוֹנֵךְ וְרֵיחַ שַׂלְמֹתַיִךְ כְּרֵיחַ לְבָנוֹן׃ 4.12. גַּן נָעוּל אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה גַּל נָעוּל מַעְיָן חָתוּם׃ 4.13. שְׁלָחַיִךְ פַּרְדֵּס רִמּוֹנִים עִם פְּרִי מְגָדִים כְּפָרִים עִם־נְרָדִים׃ 4.14. נֵרְדְּ וְכַרְכֹּם קָנֶה וְקִנָּמוֹן עִם כָּל־עֲצֵי לְבוֹנָה מֹר וַאֲהָלוֹת עִם כָּל־רָאשֵׁי בְשָׂמִים׃ 4.15. מַעְיַן גַּנִּים בְּאֵר מַיִם חַיִּים וְנֹזְלִים מִן־לְבָנוֹן׃ 4.16. עוּרִי צָפוֹן וּבוֹאִי תֵימָן הָפִיחִי גַנִּי יִזְּלוּ בְשָׂמָיו יָבֹא דוֹדִי לְגַנּוֹ וְיֹאכַל פְּרִי מְגָדָיו׃ 5.1. דּוֹדִי צַח וְאָדוֹם דָּגוּל מֵרְבָבָה׃ 5.1. בָּאתִי לְגַנִּי אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה אָרִיתִי מוֹרִי עִם־בְּשָׂמִי אָכַלְתִּי יַעְרִי עִם־דִּבְשִׁי שָׁתִיתִי יֵינִי עִם־חֲלָבִי אִכְלוּ רֵעִים שְׁתוּ וְשִׁכְרוּ דּוֹדִים׃ 5.2. אֲנִי יְשֵׁנָה וְלִבִּי עֵר קוֹל דּוֹדִי דוֹפֵק פִּתְחִי־לִי אֲחֹתִי רַעְיָתִי יוֹנָתִי תַמָּתִי שֶׁרֹּאשִׁי נִמְלָא־טָל קְוֻּצּוֹתַי רְסִיסֵי לָיְלָה׃ 5.3. פָּשַׁטְתִּי אֶת־כֻּתָּנְתִּי אֵיכָכָה אֶלְבָּשֶׁנָּה רָחַצְתִּי אֶת־רַגְלַי אֵיכָכָה אֲטַנְּפֵם׃ 5.4. דּוֹדִי שָׁלַח יָדוֹ מִן־הַחֹר וּמֵעַי הָמוּ עָלָיו׃ 5.5. קַמְתִּי אֲנִי לִפְתֹּחַ לְדוֹדִי וְיָדַי נָטְפוּ־מוֹר וְאֶצְבְּעֹתַי מוֹר עֹבֵר עַל כַּפּוֹת הַמַּנְעוּל׃ 5.6. פָּתַחְתִּי אֲנִי לְדוֹדִי וְדוֹדִי חָמַק עָבָר נַפְשִׁי יָצְאָה בְדַבְּרוֹ בִּקַּשְׁתִּיהוּ וְלֹא מְצָאתִיהוּ קְרָאתִיו וְלֹא עָנָנִי׃ 5.7. מְצָאֻנִי הַשֹּׁמְרִים הַסֹּבְבִים בָּעִיר הִכּוּנִי פְצָעוּנִי נָשְׂאוּ אֶת־רְדִידִי מֵעָלַי שֹׁמְרֵי הַחֹמוֹת׃ 5.8. הִשְׁבַּעְתִּי אֶתְכֶם בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם אִם־תִּמְצְאוּ אֶת־דּוֹדִי מַה־תַּגִּידוּ לוֹ שֶׁחוֹלַת אַהֲבָה אָנִי׃ 5.9. מַה־דּוֹדֵךְ מִדּוֹד הַיָּפָה בַּנָּשִׁים מַה־דּוֹדֵךְ מִדּוֹד שֶׁכָּכָה הִשְׁבַּעְתָּנוּ׃ 5.11. רֹאשׁוֹ כֶּתֶם פָּז קְוּצּוֹתָיו תַּלְתַּלִּים שְׁחֹרוֹת כָּעוֹרֵב׃ 5.12. עֵינָיו כְּיוֹנִים עַל־אֲפִיקֵי מָיִם רֹחֲצוֹת בֶּחָלָב יֹשְׁבוֹת עַל־מִלֵּאת׃ 5.13. לְחָיָו כַּעֲרוּגַת הַבֹּשֶׂם מִגְדְּלוֹת מֶרְקָחִים שִׂפְתוֹתָיו שׁוֹשַׁנִּים נֹטְפוֹת מוֹר עֹבֵר׃ 5.14. יָדָיו גְּלִילֵי זָהָב מְמֻלָּאִים בַּתַּרְשִׁישׁ מֵעָיו עֶשֶׁת שֵׁן מְעֻלֶּפֶת סַפִּירִים׃ 5.15. שׁוֹקָיו עַמּוּדֵי שֵׁשׁ מְיֻסָּדִים עַל־אַדְנֵי־פָז מַרְאֵהוּ כַּלְּבָנוֹן בָּחוּר כָּאֲרָזִים׃ 5.16. חִכּוֹ מַמְתַקִּים וְכֻלּוֹ מַחֲּמַדִּים זֶה דוֹדִי וְזֶה רֵעִי בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 6.1. אָנָה הָלַךְ דּוֹדֵךְ הַיָּפָה בַּנָּשִׁים אָנָה פָּנָה דוֹדֵךְ וּנְבַקְשֶׁנּוּ עִמָּךְ׃ 6.1. מִי־זֹאת הַנִּשְׁקָפָה כְּמוֹ־שָׁחַר יָפָה כַלְּבָנָה בָּרָה כַּחַמָּה אֲיֻמָּה כַּנִּדְגָּלוֹת׃ 6.2. דּוֹדִי יָרַד לְגַנּוֹ לַעֲרוּגוֹת הַבֹּשֶׂם לִרְעוֹת בַּגַּנִּים וְלִלְקֹט שׁוֹשַׁנִּים׃ 6.4. יָפָה אַתְּ רַעְיָתִי כְּתִרְצָה נָאוָה כִּירוּשָׁלִָם אֲיֻמָּה כַּנִּדְגָּלוֹת׃ 6.5. הָסֵבִּי עֵינַיִךְ מִנֶּגְדִּי שֶׁהֵם הִרְהִיבֻנִי שַׂעְרֵךְ כְּעֵדֶר הָעִזִּים שֶׁגָּלְשׁוּ מִן־הַגִּלְעָד׃ 6.6. שִׁנַּיִךְ כְּעֵדֶר הָרְחֵלִים שֶׁעָלוּ מִן־הָרַחְצָה שֶׁכֻּלָּם מַתְאִימוֹת וְשַׁכֻּלָה אֵין בָּהֶם׃ 6.7. כְּפֶלַח הָרִמּוֹן רַקָּתֵךְ מִבַּעַד לְצַמָּתֵךְ׃ 6.8. שִׁשִּׁים הֵמָּה מְּלָכוֹת וּשְׁמֹנִים פִּילַגְשִׁים וַעֲלָמוֹת אֵין מִסְפָּר׃ 6.9. אַחַת הִיא יוֹנָתִי תַמָּתִי אַחַת הִיא לְאִמָּהּ בָּרָה הִיא לְיוֹלַדְתָּהּ רָאוּהָ בָנוֹת וַיְאַשְּׁרוּהָ מְלָכוֹת וּפִילַגְשִׁים וַיְהַלְלוּהָ׃ 6.12. לֹא יָדַעְתִּי נַפְשִׁי שָׂמַתְנִי מַרְכְּבוֹת עַמִּי־נָדִיב׃ 7.1. וְחִכֵּךְ כְּיֵין הַטּוֹב הוֹלֵךְ לְדוֹדִי לְמֵישָׁרִים דּוֹבֵב שִׂפְתֵי יְשֵׁנִים׃ 7.1. שׁוּבִי שׁוּבִי הַשּׁוּלַמִּית שׁוּבִי שׁוּבִי וְנֶחֱזֶה־בָּךְ מַה־תֶּחֱזוּ בַּשּׁוּלַמִּית כִּמְחֹלַת הַמַּחֲנָיִם׃ 7.2. מַה־יָּפוּ פְעָמַיִךְ בַּנְּעָלִים בַּת־נָדִיב חַמּוּקֵי יְרֵכַיִךְ כְּמוֹ חֲלָאִים מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי אָמָּן׃ 7.3. שָׁרְרֵךְ אַגַּן הַסַּהַר אַל־יֶחְסַר הַמָּזֶג בִּטְנֵךְ עֲרֵמַת חִטִּים סוּגָה בַּשּׁוֹשַׁנִּים׃ 7.4. שְׁנֵי שָׁדַיִךְ כִּשְׁנֵי עֳפָרִים תָּאֳמֵי צְבִיָּה׃ 7.5. צַוָּארֵךְ כְּמִגְדַּל הַשֵּׁן עֵינַיִךְ בְּרֵכוֹת בְּחֶשְׁבּוֹן עַל־שַׁעַר בַּת־רַבִּים אַפֵּךְ כְּמִגְדַּל הַלְּבָנוֹן צוֹפֶה פְּנֵי דַמָּשֶׂק׃ 7.6. רֹאשֵׁךְ עָלַיִךְ כַּכַּרְמֶל וְדַלַּת רֹאשֵׁךְ כָּאַרְגָּמָן מֶלֶךְ אָסוּר בָּרְהָטִים׃ 7.12. לְכָה דוֹדִי נֵצֵא הַשָּׂדֶה נָלִינָה בַּכְּפָרִים׃ 8.1. מִי יִתֶּנְךָ כְּאָח לִי יוֹנֵק שְׁדֵי אִמִּי אֶמְצָאֲךָ בַחוּץ אֶשָׁקְךָ גַּם לֹא־יָבוּזוּ לִי׃ 8.1. אֲנִי חוֹמָה וְשָׁדַי כַּמִּגְדָּלוֹת אָז הָיִיתִי בְעֵינָיו כְּמוֹצְאֵת שָׁלוֹם׃ 8.4. הִשְׁבַּעְתִּי אֶתְכֶם בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם מַה־תָּעִירוּ וּמַה־תְּעֹרְרוּ אֶת־הָאַהֲבָה עַד שֶׁתֶּחְפָּץ׃ 8.6. שִׂימֵנִי כַחוֹתָם עַל־לִבֶּךָ כַּחוֹתָם עַל־זְרוֹעֶךָ כִּי־עַזָּה כַמָּוֶת אַהֲבָה קָשָׁה כִשְׁאוֹל קִנְאָה רְשָׁפֶיהָ רִשְׁפֵּי אֵשׁ שַׁלְהֶבֶתְיָה׃ 8.7. מַיִם רַבִּים לֹא יוּכְלוּ לְכַבּוֹת אֶת־הָאַהֲבָה וּנְהָרוֹת לֹא יִשְׁטְפוּהָ אִם־יִתֵּן אִישׁ אֶת־כָּל־הוֹן בֵּיתוֹ בָּאַהֲבָה בּוֹז יָבוּזוּ לוֹ׃ 8.13. הַיוֹשֶׁבֶת בַּגַּנִּים חֲבֵרִים מַקְשִׁיבִים לְקוֹלֵךְ הַשְׁמִיעִינִי׃ 8.14. בְּרַח דּוֹדִי וּדְמֵה־לְךָ לִצְבִי אוֹ לְעֹפֶר הָאַיָּלִים עַל הָרֵי בְשָׂמִים׃ 1.2. Let him kiss me with the kisses of his mouth— For thy love is better than wine. 1.4. Draw me, we will run after thee; The king hath brought me into his chambers; We will be glad and rejoice in thee, We will find thy love more fragrant than wine! Sincerely do they love thee. 1.5. ’I am black, but comely, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, As the tents of Kedar, As the curtains of Solomon. 1.6. Look not upon me, that I am swarthy, That the sun hath tanned me; My mother’s sons were incensed against me, They made me keeper of the vineyards; But mine own vineyard have I not kept.’ 1.8. If thou know not, O thou fairest among women, Go thy way forth by the footsteps of the flock And feed thy kids, beside the shepherds’tents. 1.9. I have compared thee, O my love, To a steed in Pharaoh’s chariots. 1.10. Thy cheeks are comely with circlets, Thy neck with beads. 1.11. We will make thee circlets of gold With studs of silver. 1.12. While the king sat at his table, My spikenard sent forth its fragrance. 1.13. My beloved is unto me as a bag of myrrh, That lieth betwixt my breasts. 1.15. Behold, thou art fair, my love; behold, thou art fair; Thine eyes are as doves. . 1.16. Behold, thou art fair, my beloved, yea, pleasant; Also our couch is leafy. 2.2. As a lily among thorns, So is my love among the daughters. 2.3. As an apple-tree among the trees of the wood, So is my beloved among the sons. Under its shadow I delighted to sit, And its fruit was sweet to my taste. 2.7. ’I adjure you, O daughters of Jerusalem, By the gazelles, and by the hinds of the field, That ye awaken not, nor stir up love, until it please.’ 2.8. Hark! my beloved! behold, he cometh, Leaping upon the mountains, skipping upon the hills. 2.9. My beloved is like a gazelle or a young hart; Behold, he standeth behind our wall, He looketh in through the windows, He peereth through the lattice. 2.10. My beloved spoke, and said unto me: ‘Rise up, my love, my fair one, and come away. 2.11. For, lo, the winter is past, The rain is over and gone; 2.12. The flowers appear on the earth; The time of singing is come, And the voice of the turtle is heard in our land; 2.13. The fig-tree putteth forth her green figs, And the vines in blossom give forth their fragrance. Arise, my love, my fair one, and come away. 2.17. Until the day breathe, and the shadows flee away, Turn, my beloved, and be thou like a gazelle or a young hart Upon the mountains of spices. 3.5. ’I adjure you, O daughters of Jerusalem, By the gazelles, and by the hinds of the field, That ye awaken not, nor stir up love, Until it please.’ 3.6. Who is this that cometh up out of the wilderness Like pillars of smoke, Perfumed with myrrh and frankincense, With all powders of the merchant? 3.9. King Solomon made himself a palanquin of the wood of Lebanon. 4.1. Behold, thou art fair, my love; behold, thou art fair; Thine eyes are as doves behind thy veil; Thy hair is as a flock of goats, that trail down from mount Gilead. 4.2. Thy teeth are like a flock of ewes all shaped alike, Which are come up from the washing; Whereof all are paired, and none faileth among them. 4.3. Thy lips are like a thread of scarlet, And thy mouth is comely; Thy temples are like a pomegranate split open Behind thy veil. 4.4. Thy neck is like the tower of David Builded with turrets, Whereon there hang a thousand shields, All the armour of the mighty men. 4.5. Thy two breasts are like two fawns That are twins of a gazelle, Which feed among the lilies. 4.7. Thou art all fair, my love; And there is no spot in thee. 4.8. Come with me from Lebanon, my bride, With me from Lebanon; Look from the top of Amana, From the top of Senir and Hermon, From the lions’dens, From the mountains of the leopards. 4.9. Thou hast ravished my heart, my sister, my bride; Thou hast ravished my heart with one of thine eyes, With one bead of thy necklace. 4.10. How fair is thy love, my sister, my bride! How much better is thy love than wine! And the smell of thine ointments than all manner of spices! 4.11. Thy lips, O my bride, drop honey— Honey and milk are under thy tongue; And the smell of thy garments is like the smell of Lebanon. 4.12. A garden shut up is my sister, my bride; A spring shut up, a fountain sealed. 4.13. Thy shoots are a park of pomegranates, With precious fruits; Henna with spikenard plants 4.14. Spikenard and saffron, calamus and cinnamon, With all trees of frankincense; Myrrh and aloes, with all the chief spices. 4.15. Thou art a fountain of gardens, A well of living waters, And flowing streams from Lebanon. 4.16. Awake, O north wind; And come, thou south; Blow upon my garden, That the spices thereof may flow out. Let my beloved come into his garden, And eat his precious fruits. 5.1. I am come into my garden, my sister, my bride; I have gathered my myrrh with my spice; I have eaten my honeycomb with my honey; I have drunk my wine with my milk. Eat, O friends; Drink, yea, drink abundantly, O beloved. 5.2. I sleep, but my heart waketh; Hark! my beloved knocketh: ‘Open to me, my sister, my love, my dove, my undefiled; For my head is filled with dew, My locks with the drops of the night.’ 5.3. I have put off my coat; How shall I put it on? I have washed my feet; How shall I defile them? 5.4. My beloved put in his hand by the hole of the door, And my heart was moved for him. 5.5. I rose up to open to my beloved; And my hands dropped with myrrh, And my fingers with flowing myrrh, Upon the handles of the bar. 5.6. I opened to my beloved; But my beloved had turned away, and was gone. My soul failed me when he spoke. I sought him, but I could not find him; I called him, but he gave me no answer. 5.7. The watchmen that go about the city found me, They smote me, they wounded me; The keepers of the walls took away my mantle from me. 5.8. ’I adjure you, O daughters of Jerusalem, If ye find my beloved, what will ye tell him? That I am love-sick.’ 5.9. ’What is thy beloved more than another beloved, O thou fairest among women? What is thy beloved more than another beloved, That thou dost so adjure us?’ 5.10. ’My beloved is white and ruddy, Pre-eminent above ten thousand. 5.11. His head is as the most fine gold, His locks are curled, And black as a raven. 5.12. His eyes are like doves Beside the water-brooks; Washed with milk, And fitly set. 5.13. His cheeks are as a bed of spices, As banks of sweet herbs; His lips are as lilies, Dropping with flowing myrrh. 5.14. His hands are as rods of gold Set with beryl; His body is as polished ivory Overlaid with sapphires. 5.15. His legs are as pillars of marble, Set upon sockets of fine gold; His aspect is like Lebanon, Excellent as the cedars. 5.16. His mouth is most sweet; Yea, he is altogether lovely. This is my beloved, and this is my friend, O daughters of Jerusalem.’ 6.1. ’Whither is thy beloved gone, O thou fairest among women? Whither hath thy beloved turned him, That we may seek him with thee?’ 6.2. ’My beloved is gone down into his garden, To the beds of spices, To feed in the gardens, And to gather lilies. 6.4. Thou art beautiful, O my love, as Tirzah, Comely as Jerusalem, Terrible as an army with banners. 6.5. Turn away thine eyes from me, For they have overcome me. Thy hair is as a flock of goats, That trail down from Gilead. 6.6. Thy teeth are like a flock of ewes, Which are come up from the washing; Whereof all are paired, And none faileth among them. 6.7. Thy temples are like a pomegranate split open Behind thy veil. 6.8. There are threescore queens, And fourscore concubines, And maidens without number. 6.9. My dove, my undefiled, is but one; She is the only one of her mother; She is the choice one of her that bore her. The daughters saw her, and called her happy; Yea, the queens and the concubines, and they praised her. 6.10. Who is she that looketh forth as the dawn, Fair as the moon, Clear as the sun, Terrible as an army with banners? 6.12. Before I was aware, my soul set me Upon the chariots of my princely people. 7.1. Return, return, O Shulammite; Return, return, that we may look upon thee. What will ye see in the Shulammite? As it were a dance of two companies. 7.2. How beautiful are thy steps in sandals, O prince’s daughter! The roundings of thy thighs are like the links of a chain, The work of the hands of a skilled workman. 7.3. Thy navel is like a round goblet, wherein no mingled wine is wanting; Thy belly is like a heap of wheat Set about with lilies. 7.4. Thy two breasts are like two fawns that are twins of a gazelle. 7.5. Thy neck is as a tower of ivory; Thine eyes as the pools in Heshbon, By the gate of Bath-rabbim; Thy nose is like the tower of Lebanon Which looketh toward Damascus. 7.6. Thy head upon thee is like Carmel, and the hair of thy head like purple; The king is held captive in the tresses thereof. 7.12. Come, my beloved, let us go forth into the field; let us lodge in the villages. 8.1. Oh that thou wert as my brother, That sucked the breasts of my mother! When I should find thee without, I would kiss thee; Yea, and none would despise me. 8.4. ’I adjure you, O daughters of Jerusalem: Why should ye awaken, or stir up love, Until it please?’ 8.6. Set me as a seal upon thy heart, As a seal upon thine arm; For love is strong as death, Jealousy is cruel as the grave; The flashes thereof are flashes of fire, A very flame of the LORD. 8.7. Many waters cannot quench love, Neither can the floods drown it; If a man would give all the substance of his house for love, He would utterly be contemned. 8.13. Thou that dwellest in the gardens, The companions hearken for thy voice: ‘Cause me to hear it.’ 8.14. Make haste, my beloved, And be thou like to a gazelle or to a young hart Upon the mountains of spices.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.11, 5.25, 30.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.11. וַתִּקְרְבוּן וַתַּעַמְדוּן תַּחַת הָהָר וְהָהָר בֹּעֵר בָּאֵשׁ עַד־לֵב הַשָּׁמַיִם חֹשֶׁךְ עָנָן וַעֲרָפֶל׃ 5.25. וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה אֶת־קוֹל דִּבְרֵיכֶם בְּדַבֶּרְכֶם אֵלָי וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלַי שָׁמַעְתִּי אֶת־קוֹל דִּבְרֵי הָעָם הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר דִּבְּרוּ אֵלֶיךָ הֵיטִיבוּ כָּל־אֲשֶׁר דִּבֵּרוּ׃ 30.12. לֹא בַשָּׁמַיִם הִוא לֵאמֹר מִי יַעֲלֶה־לָּנוּ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וְיִקָּחֶהָ לָּנוּ וְיַשְׁמִעֵנוּ אֹתָהּ וְנַעֲשֶׂנָּה׃ 4.11. And ye came near and stood under the mountain; and the mountain burned with fire unto the heart of heaven, with darkness, cloud, and thick darkness." 5.25. And the LORD heard the voice of your words, when ye spoke unto me; and the LORD said unto me: ‘I have heard the voice of the words of this people, which they have spoken unto thee; they have well said all that they have spoken." 30.12. It is not in heaven, that thou shouldest say: ‘Who shall go up for us to heaven, and bring it unto us, and make us to hear it, that we may do it?’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 2.23, 4.31, 12.11, 14.2-14.3, 14.10, 14.13-14.14, 15.1, 19.8, 19.17, 24.4, 25.10-25.22, 31.17, 37.1-37.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.23. וַיְהִי בַיָּמִים הָרַבִּים הָהֵם וַיָּמָת מֶלֶךְ מִצְרַיִם וַיֵּאָנְחוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִן־הָעֲבֹדָה וַיִּזְעָקוּ וַתַּעַל שַׁוְעָתָם אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים מִן־הָעֲבֹדָה׃ 4.31. וַיַּאֲמֵן הָעָם וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ כִּי־פָקַד יְהוָה אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכִי רָאָה אֶת־עָנְיָם וַיִּקְּדוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ׃ 12.11. וְכָכָה תֹּאכְלוּ אֹתוֹ מָתְנֵיכֶם חֲגֻרִים נַעֲלֵיכֶם בְּרַגְלֵיכֶם וּמַקֶּלְכֶם בְּיֶדְכֶם וַאֲכַלְתֶּם אֹתוֹ בְּחִפָּזוֹן פֶּסַח הוּא לַיהוָה׃ 14.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיָשֻׁבוּ וְיַחֲנוּ לִפְנֵי פִּי הַחִירֹת בֵּין מִגְדֹּל וּבֵין הַיָּם לִפְנֵי בַּעַל צְפֹן נִכְחוֹ תַחֲנוּ עַל־הַיָּם׃ 14.2. וַיָּבֹא בֵּין מַחֲנֵה מִצְרַיִם וּבֵין מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיְהִי הֶעָנָן וְהַחֹשֶׁךְ וַיָּאֶר אֶת־הַלָּיְלָה וְלֹא־קָרַב זֶה אֶל־זֶה כָּל־הַלָּיְלָה׃ 14.3. וְאָמַר פַּרְעֹה לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל נְבֻכִים הֵם בָּאָרֶץ סָגַר עֲלֵיהֶם הַמִּדְבָּר׃ 14.3. וַיּוֹשַׁע יְהוָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִיַּד מִצְרָיִם וַיַּרְא יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־מִצְרַיִם מֵת עַל־שְׂפַת הַיָּם׃ 14.13. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הָעָם אַל־תִּירָאוּ הִתְיַצְבוּ וּרְאוּ אֶת־יְשׁוּעַת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה לָכֶם הַיּוֹם כִּי אֲשֶׁר רְאִיתֶם אֶת־מִצְרַיִם הַיּוֹם לֹא תֹסִיפוּ לִרְאֹתָם עוֹד עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 14.14. יְהוָה יִלָּחֵם לָכֶם וְאַתֶּם תַּחֲרִישׁוּן׃ 15.1. אָז יָשִׁיר־מֹשֶׁה וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת לַיהוָה וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֵאמֹר אָשִׁירָה לַיהוָה כִּי־גָאֹה גָּאָה סוּס וְרֹכְבוֹ רָמָה בַיָּם׃ 15.1. נָשַׁפְתָּ בְרוּחֲךָ כִּסָּמוֹ יָם צָלֲלוּ כַּעוֹפֶרֶת בְּמַיִם אַדִּירִים׃ 19.8. וַיַּעֲנוּ כָל־הָעָם יַחְדָּו וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה וַיָּשֶׁב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הָעָם אֶל־יְהוָה׃ 19.17. וַיּוֹצֵא מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הָעָם לִקְרַאת הָאֱלֹהִים מִן־הַמַּחֲנֶה וַיִּתְיַצְּבוּ בְּתַחְתִּית הָהָר׃ 24.4. וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֵת כָּל־דִּבְרֵי יְהוָה וַיַּשְׁכֵּם בַּבֹּקֶר וַיִּבֶן מִזְבֵּחַ תַּחַת הָהָר וּשְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה מַצֵּבָה לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.11. וְצִפִּיתָ אֹתוֹ זָהָב טָהוֹר מִבַּיִת וּמִחוּץ תְּצַפֶּנּוּ וְעָשִׂיתָ עָלָיו זֵר זָהָב סָבִיב׃ 25.12. וְיָצַקְתָּ לּוֹ אַרְבַּע טַבְּעֹת זָהָב וְנָתַתָּה עַל אַרְבַּע פַּעֲמֹתָיו וּשְׁתֵּי טַבָּעֹת עַל־צַלְעוֹ הָאֶחָת וּשְׁתֵּי טַבָּעֹת עַל־צַלְעוֹ הַשֵּׁנִית׃ 25.13. וְעָשִׂיתָ בַדֵּי עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים וְצִפִּיתָ אֹתָם זָהָב׃ 25.14. וְהֵבֵאתָ אֶת־הַבַּדִּים בַּטַּבָּעֹת עַל צַלְעֹת הָאָרֹן לָשֵׂאת אֶת־הָאָרֹן בָּהֶם׃ 25.15. בְּטַבְּעֹת הָאָרֹן יִהְיוּ הַבַּדִּים לֹא יָסֻרוּ מִמֶּנּוּ׃ 25.16. וְנָתַתָּ אֶל־הָאָרֹן אֵת הָעֵדֻת אֲשֶׁר אֶתֵּן אֵלֶיךָ׃ 25.17. וְעָשִׂיתָ כַפֹּרֶת זָהָב טָהוֹר אַמָּתַיִם וָחֵצִי אָרְכָּהּ וְאַמָּה וָחֵצִי רָחְבָּהּ׃ 25.18. וְעָשִׂיתָ שְׁנַיִם כְּרֻבִים זָהָב מִקְשָׁה תַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם מִשְּׁנֵי קְצוֹת הַכַּפֹּרֶת׃ 25.19. וַעֲשֵׂה כְּרוּב אֶחָד מִקָּצָה מִזֶּה וּכְרוּב־אֶחָד מִקָּצָה מִזֶּה מִן־הַכַּפֹּרֶת תַּעֲשׂוּ אֶת־הַכְּרֻבִים עַל־שְׁנֵי קְצוֹתָיו׃ 25.21. וְנָתַתָּ אֶת־הַכַּפֹּרֶת עַל־הָאָרֹן מִלְמָעְלָה וְאֶל־הָאָרֹן תִּתֵּן אֶת־הָעֵדֻת אֲשֶׁר אֶתֵּן אֵלֶיךָ׃ 25.22. וְנוֹעַדְתִּי לְךָ שָׁם וְדִבַּרְתִּי אִתְּךָ מֵעַל הַכַּפֹּרֶת מִבֵּין שְׁנֵי הַכְּרֻבִים אֲשֶׁר עַל־אֲרֹן הָעֵדֻת אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר אֲצַוֶּה אוֹתְךָ אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 31.17. בֵּינִי וּבֵין בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹת הִוא לְעֹלָם כִּי־שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שָׁבַת וַיִּנָּפַשׁ׃ 37.1. וַיַּעַשׂ אֶת־הַשֻּׁלְחָן עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים אַמָּתַיִם אָרְכּוֹ וְאַמָּה רָחְבּוֹ וְאַמָּה וָחֵצִי קֹמָתוֹ׃ 37.1. וַיַּעַשׂ בְּצַלְאֵל אֶת־הָאָרֹן עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים אַמָּתַיִם וָחֵצִי אָרְכּוֹ וְאַמָּה וָחֵצִי רָחְבּוֹ וְאַמָּה וָחֵצִי קֹמָתוֹ׃ 37.2. וּבַמְּנֹרָה אַרְבָּעָה גְבִעִים מְשֻׁקָּדִים כַּפְתֹּרֶיהָ וּפְרָחֶיהָ׃ 37.2. וַיְצַפֵּהוּ זָהָב טָהוֹר מִבַּיִת וּמִחוּץ וַיַּעַשׂ לוֹ זֵר זָהָב סָבִיב׃ 37.3. וַיִּצֹק לוֹ אַרְבַּע טַבְּעֹת זָהָב עַל אַרְבַּע פַּעֲמֹתָיו וּשְׁתֵּי טַבָּעֹת עַל־צַלְעוֹ הָאֶחָת וּשְׁתֵּי טַבָּעוֹת עַל־צַלְעוֹ הַשֵּׁנִית׃ 37.4. וַיַּעַשׂ בַּדֵּי עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים וַיְצַף אֹתָם זָהָב׃ 37.5. וַיָּבֵא אֶת־הַבַּדִּים בַּטַּבָּעֹת עַל צַלְעֹת הָאָרֹן לָשֵׂאת אֶת־הָאָרֹן׃ 37.6. וַיַּעַשׂ כַּפֹּרֶת זָהָב טָהוֹר אַמָּתַיִם וָחֵצִי אָרְכָּהּ וְאַמָּה וָחֵצִי רָחְבָּהּ׃ 37.7. וַיַּעַשׂ שְׁנֵי כְרֻבִים זָהָב מִקְשָׁה עָשָׂה אֹתָם מִשְּׁנֵי קְצוֹת הַכַּפֹּרֶת׃ 37.8. כְּרוּב־אֶחָד מִקָּצָה מִזֶּה וּכְרוּב־אֶחָד מִקָּצָה מִזֶּה מִן־הַכַּפֹּרֶת עָשָׂה אֶת־הַכְּרֻבִים מִשְּׁנֵי קצוותו [קְצוֹתָיו׃] 37.9. וַיִּהְיוּ הַכְּרֻבִים פֹּרְשֵׂי כְנָפַיִם לְמַעְלָה סֹכְכִים בְּכַנְפֵיהֶם עַל־הַכַּפֹּרֶת וּפְנֵיהֶם אִישׁ אֶל־אָחִיו אֶל־הַכַּפֹּרֶת הָיוּ פְּנֵי הַכְּרֻבִים׃ 2.23. And it came to pass in the course of those many days that the king of Egypt died; and the children of Israel sighed by reason of the bondage, and they cried, and their cry came up unto God by reason of the bondage." 4.31. And the people believed; and when they heard that the LORD had remembered the children of Israel, and that He had seen their affliction, then they bowed their heads and worshipped." 12.11. And thus shall ye eat it: with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste—it is the LORD’s passover." 14.2. ’Speak unto the children of Israel, that they turn back and encamp before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, before Baal-zephon, over against it shall ye encamp by the sea." 14.3. And Pharaoh will say of the children of Israel: They are entangled in the land, the wilderness hath shut them in." 14.10. And when Pharaoh drew nigh, the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and, behold, the Egyptians were marching after them; and they were sore afraid; and the children of Israel cried out unto the LORD." 14.13. And Moses said unto the people: ‘Fear ye not, stand still, and see the salvation of the LORD, which He will work for you to-day; for whereas ye have seen the Egyptians to-day, ye shall see them again no more for ever." 14.14. The LORD will fight for you, and ye shall hold your peace.’" 15.1. Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the LORD, and spoke, saying: I will sing unto the LORD, for He is highly exalted; The horse and his rider hath He thrown into the sea." 19.8. And all the people answered together, and said: ‘All that the LORD hath spoken we will do.’ And Moses reported the words of the people unto the LORD." 19.17. And Moses brought forth the people out of the camp to meet God; and they stood at the nether part of the mount." 24.4. And Moses wrote all the words of the LORD, and rose up early in the morning, and builded an altar under the mount, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel." 25.10. And they shall make an ark of acacia-wood: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof." 25.11. And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, within and without shalt thou overlay it, and shalt make upon it a crown of gold round about." 25.12. And thou shalt cast four rings of gold for it, and put them in the four feet thereof; and two rings shall be on the one side of it, and two rings on the other side of it." 25.13. And thou shalt make staves of acacia-wood, and overlay them with gold." 25.14. And thou shalt put the staves into the rings on the sides of the ark, wherewith to bear the ark." 25.15. The staves shall be in the rings of the ark; they shall not be taken from it." 25.16. And thou shalt put into the ark the testimony which I shall give thee." 25.17. And thou shalt make an ark-cover of pure gold: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof." 25.18. And thou shalt make two cherubim of gold; of beaten work shalt thou make them, at the two ends of the ark-cover." 25.19. And make one cherub at the one end, and one cherub at the other end; of one piece with the ark-cover shall ye make the cherubim of the two ends thereof." 25.20. And the cherubim shall spread out their wings on high, screening the ark-cover with their wings, with their faces one to another; toward the ark-cover shall the faces of the cherubim be." 25.21. And thou shalt put the ark-cover above upon the ark; and in the ark thou shalt put the testimony that I shall give thee." 25.22. And there I will meet with thee, and I will speak with thee from above the ark-cover, from between the two cherubim which are upon the ark of the testimony, of all things which I will give thee in commandment unto the children of Israel." 31.17. It is a sign between Me and the children of Israel for ever; for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day He ceased from work and rested.’" 37.1. And Bezalel made the ark of acacia-wood: two cubits and a half was the length of it, and a cubit and a half the breadth of it, and a cubit and a half the height of it." 37.2. And he overlaid it with pure gold within and without, and made a crown of gold to it round about." 37.3. And he cast for it four rings of gold, in the four feet thereof: even two rings on the one side of it, and two rings on the other side of it." 37.4. And he made staves of acacia-wood, and overlaid them with gold." 37.5. And he put the staves into the rings on the sides of the ark, to bear the ark." 37.6. And he made an ark-cover of pure gold: two cubits and a half was the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof." 37.7. And he made two cherubim of gold: of beaten work made he them, at the two ends of the ark-cover:" 37.8. one cherub at the one end, and one cherub at the other end; of one piece with the ark-cover made he the cherubim at the two ends thereof." 37.9. And the cherubim spread out their wings on high, screening the ark-cover with their wings, with their faces one to another; toward the ark-cover were the faces of the cherubim."
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 7.11, 11.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.11. וַיְהִי אֶפְרַיִם כְּיוֹנָה פוֹתָה אֵין לֵב מִצְרַיִם קָרָאוּ אַשּׁוּר הָלָכוּ׃ 11.11. יֶחֶרְדוּ כְצִפּוֹר מִמִּצְרַיִם וּכְיוֹנָה מֵאֶרֶץ אַשּׁוּר וְהוֹשַׁבְתִּים עַל־בָּתֵּיהֶם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 7.11. And Ephraim is become like a silly dove, without understanding; They call unto Egypt, they go to Assyria." 11.11. They shall come trembling as a bird out of Egypt, And as a dove out of the land of Assyria; And I will make them to dwell in their houses, saith the LORD."
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 1.14, 9.5, 12.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.14. וְאִם מִן־הָעוֹף עֹלָה קָרְבָּנוֹ לַיהוָה וְהִקְרִיב מִן־הַתֹּרִים אוֹ מִן־בְּנֵי הַיּוֹנָה אֶת־קָרְבָּנוֹ׃ 9.5. וַיִּקְחוּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה מֹשֶׁה אֶל־פְּנֵי אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וַיִּקְרְבוּ כָּל־הָעֵדָה וַיַּעַמְדוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 12.6. וּבִמְלֹאת יְמֵי טָהֳרָהּ לְבֵן אוֹ לְבַת תָּבִיא כֶּבֶשׂ בֶּן־שְׁנָתוֹ לְעֹלָה וּבֶן־יוֹנָה אוֹ־תֹר לְחַטָּאת אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן׃ 1.14. And if his offering to the LORD be a burnt-offering of fowls, then he shall bring his offering of turtle-doves, or of young pigeons." 9.5. And they brought that which Moses commanded before the tent of meeting; and all the congregation drew near and stood before the LORD." 12.6. And when the days of her purification are fulfilled, for a son, or for a daughter, she shall bring a lamb of the first year for a burnt-offering, and a young pigeon, or a turtle-dove, for a sin-offering, unto the door of the tent of meeting, unto the priest."
6. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 4.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.12. וְהֵמָּה לֹא יָדְעוּ מַחְשְׁבוֹת יְהוָה וְלֹא הֵבִינוּ עֲצָתוֹ כִּי קִבְּצָם כֶּעָמִיר גֹּרְנָה׃ 4.12. But they know not the thoughts of the LORD, Neither understand they His counsel; For He hath gathered them as the sheaves to the threshing-floor."
7. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 21.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.6. וַיְשַׁלַּח יְהוָה בָּעָם אֵת הַנְּחָשִׁים הַשְּׂרָפִים וַיְנַשְּׁכוּ אֶת־הָעָם וַיָּמָת עַם־רָב מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃ 21.6. And the LORD sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and much people of Israel died."
8. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 5.2, 8.3, 39.4, 74.19, 113.9, 119.164, 137.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.2. אֲמָרַי הַאֲזִינָה יְהוָה בִּינָה הֲגִיגִי׃ 8.3. מִפִּי עוֹלְלִים וְיֹנְקִים יִסַּדְתָּ עֹז לְמַעַן צוֹרְרֶיךָ לְהַשְׁבִּית אוֹיֵב וּמִתְנַקֵּם׃ 39.4. חַם־לִבִּי בְּקִרְבִּי בַּהֲגִיגִי תִבְעַר־אֵשׁ דִּבַּרְתִּי בִּלְשׁוֹנִי׃ 74.19. אַל־תִּתֵּן לְחַיַּת נֶפֶשׁ תּוֹרֶךָ חַיַּת עֲנִיֶּיךָ אַל־תִּשְׁכַּח לָנֶצַח׃ 113.9. מוֹשִׁיבִי עֲקֶרֶת הַבַּיִת אֵם־הַבָּנִים שְׂמֵחָה הַלְלוּ־יָהּ׃ 119.164. שֶׁבַע בַּיּוֹם הִלַּלְתִּיךָ עַל מִשְׁפְּטֵי צִדְקֶךָ׃ 137.5. אִם־אֶשְׁכָּחֵךְ יְרוּשָׁלִָם תִּשְׁכַּח יְמִינִי׃ 5.2. Give ear to my words, O LORD, consider my meditation." 8.3. Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings hast Thou founded strength, Because of Thine adversaries; That Thou mightest still the enemy and the avenger." 39.4. My heart waxed hot within me; while I was musing, the fire kindled; Then spoke I with my tongue:" 74.19. O deliver not the soul of Thy turtle-dove unto the wild beast; Forget not the life of Thy poor for ever." 113.9. Who maketh the barren woman to dwell in her house As a joyful mother of children. Hallelujah." 119.164. Seven times a day do I praise Thee, because of Thy righteous ordices." 137.5. If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, Let my right hand forget her cunning."
9. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 19.17, 38.14, 40.22, 47.2-47.3, 49.14, 49.21, 54.1, 60.8, 61.1, 61.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

19.17. וְהָיְתָה אַדְמַת יְהוּדָה לְמִצְרַיִם לְחָגָּא כֹּל אֲשֶׁר יַזְכִּיר אֹתָהּ אֵלָיו יִפְחָד מִפְּנֵי עֲצַת יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֲשֶׁר־הוּא יוֹעֵץ עָלָיו׃ 38.14. כְּסוּס עָגוּר כֵּן אֲצַפְצֵף אֶהְגֶּה כַּיּוֹנָה דַּלּוּ עֵינַי לַמָּרוֹם אֲדֹנָי עָשְׁקָה־לִּי עָרְבֵנִי׃ 40.22. הַיֹּשֵׁב עַל־חוּג הָאָרֶץ וְיֹשְׁבֶיהָ כַּחֲגָבִים הַנּוֹטֶה כַדֹּק שָׁמַיִם וַיִּמְתָּחֵם כָּאֹהֶל לָשָׁבֶת׃ 47.2. קְחִי רֵחַיִם וְטַחֲנִי קָמַח גַּלִּי צַמָּתֵךְ חֶשְׂפִּי־שֹׁבֶל גַּלִּי־שׁוֹק עִבְרִי נְהָרוֹת׃ 47.3. תִּגָּל עֶרְוָתֵךְ גַּם תֵּרָאֶה חֶרְפָּתֵךְ נָקָם אֶקָּח וְלֹא אֶפְגַּע אָדָם׃ 49.14. וַתֹּאמֶר צִיּוֹן עֲזָבַנִי יְהוָה וַאדֹנָי שְׁכֵחָנִי׃ 49.21. וְאָמַרְתְּ בִּלְבָבֵךְ מִי יָלַד־לִי אֶת־אֵלֶּה וַאֲנִי שְׁכוּלָה וְגַלְמוּדָה גֹּלָה וְסוּרָה וְאֵלֶּה מִי גִדֵּל הֵן אֲנִי נִשְׁאַרְתִּי לְבַדִּי אֵלֶּה אֵיפֹה הֵם׃ 54.1. רָנִּי עֲקָרָה לֹא יָלָדָה פִּצְחִי רִנָּה וְצַהֲלִי לֹא־חָלָה כִּי־רַבִּים בְּנֵי־שׁוֹמֵמָה מִבְּנֵי בְעוּלָה אָמַר יְהוָה׃ 54.1. כִּי הֶהָרִים יָמוּשׁוּ וְהַגְּבָעוֹת תְּמוּטֶנָה וְחַסְדִּי מֵאִתֵּךְ לֹא־יָמוּשׁ וּבְרִית שְׁלוֹמִי לֹא תָמוּט אָמַר מְרַחֲמֵךְ יְהוָה׃ 60.8. מִי־אֵלֶּה כָּעָב תְּעוּפֶינָה וְכַיּוֹנִים אֶל־אֲרֻבֹּתֵיהֶם׃ 61.1. שׂוֹשׂ אָשִׂישׂ בַּיהוָה תָּגֵל נַפְשִׁי בֵּאלֹהַי כִּי הִלְבִּישַׁנִי בִּגְדֵי־יֶשַׁע מְעִיל צְדָקָה יְעָטָנִי כֶּחָתָן יְכַהֵן פְּאֵר וְכַכַּלָּה תַּעְדֶּה כֵלֶיהָ׃ 61.1. רוּחַ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח יְהוָה אֹתִי לְבַשֵּׂר עֲנָוִים שְׁלָחַנִי לַחֲבֹשׁ לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב לִקְרֹא לִשְׁבוּיִם דְּרוֹר וְלַאֲסוּרִים פְּקַח־קוֹחַ׃ 19.17. And the land of Judah shall become a terror unto Egypt, whensoever one maketh mention thereof to it; it shall be afraid, because of the purpose of the LORD of hosts, which He purposeth against it." 38.14. Like a swallow or a crane, so do I chatter, I do moan as a dove; mine eyes fail with looking upward. O LORD, I am oppressed, be Thou my surety. ." 40.22. It is He that sitteth above the circle of the earth, And the inhabitants thereof are as grasshoppers; That stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain, And spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in;" 47.2. Take the millstones, and grind meal; Remove thy veil, Strip off the train, uncover the leg, Pass through the rivers." 47.3. Thy nakedness shall be uncovered, Yea, thy shame shall be seen; I will take vengeance, And will let no man intercede." 49.14. But Zion said: ‘The LORD hath forsaken me, And the Lord hath forgotten me.’" 49.21. Then shalt thou say in thy heart: ‘Who hath begotten me these, Seeing I have been bereaved of my children, and am solitary, An exile, and wandering to and fro? And who hath brought up these? Behold, I was left alone; These, where were they?’" 54.1. Sing, O barren, thou that didst not bear, Break forth into singing, and cry aloud, thou that didst not travail; For more are the children of the desolate Than the children of the married wife, saith the LORD." 60.8. Who are these that fly as a cloud, And as the doves to their cotes?" 61.1. The spirit of the Lord God is upon me; Because the LORD hath anointed me To bring good tidings unto the humble; He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the eyes to them that are bound;" 61.10. I will greatly rejoice in the LORD, My soul shall be joyful in my God; For He hath clothed me with the garments of salvation, He hath covered me with the robe of victory, As a bridegroom putteth on a priestly diadem, And as a bride adorneth herself with her jewels."
10. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 6.9, 33.11, 48.28 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.9. כֹּה אָמַר יְהֹוָה צְבָאוֹת עוֹלֵל יְעוֹלְלוּ כַגֶּפֶן שְׁאֵרִית יִשְׂרָאֵל הָשֵׁב יָדְךָ כְּבוֹצֵר עַל־סַלְסִלּוֹת׃ 33.11. קוֹל שָׂשׂוֹן וְקוֹל שִׂמְחָה קוֹל חָתָן וְקוֹל כַּלָּה קוֹל אֹמְרִים הוֹדוּ אֶת־יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת כִּי־טוֹב יְהוָה כִּי־לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ מְבִאִים תּוֹדָה בֵּית יְהוָה כִּי־אָשִׁיב אֶת־שְׁבוּת־הָאָרֶץ כְּבָרִאשֹׁנָה אָמַר יְהוָה׃ 48.28. עִזְבוּ עָרִים וְשִׁכְנוּ בַּסֶּלַע יֹשְׁבֵי מוֹאָב וִהְיוּ כְיוֹנָה תְּקַנֵּן בְּעֶבְרֵי פִי־פָחַת׃ 6.9. Thus saith the LORD of hosts: They shall thoroughly glean as a vine The remt of Israel; Turn again thy hand As a grape-gatherer upon the shoots." 33.11. the voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, the voice of them that say: ‘Give thanks to the LORD of hosts, for the LORD is good, for His mercy endureth for ever’, even of them that bring offerings of thanksgiving into the house of the LORD. For I will cause the captivity of the land to return as at the first, saith the LORD." 48.28. O ye that dwell in Moab, Leave the cities, and dwell in the rock; And be like the dove that maketh her nest In the sides of the pit’s mouth."
11. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 2.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.6. וַיַּחְמֹס כַּגַּן שֻׂכּוֹ שִׁחֵת מוֹעֲדוֹ שִׁכַּח יְהוָה בְּצִיּוֹן מוֹעֵד וְשַׁבָּת וַיִּנְאַץ בְּזַעַם־אַפּוֹ מֶלֶךְ וְכֹהֵן׃ 2.6. And He hath stripped His tabernacle, as if it were a garden, He hath destroyed His place of assembly; The LORD hath caused to be forgotten in Zion Appointed season and sabbath, And hath rejected in the indignation of His anger The king and the priest."
12. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 17, 1 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

13. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 4 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

14. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7, 10 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

15. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 1.127-1.147, 1.267-1.275 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

1.127. Into Tartarean chamber terrible 1.128. Kept in firm chains to pay full penalty 1.129. In Gehenna of strong, furious, quenchless fire. 1.130. 130 And after these a third strong-minded race 1.131. Appeared, a race of overbearing men 1.132. And terrible, who wrought among themselve 1.133. Many an evil. And fights, homicides 1.134. And battles did continually destroy 1.135. 135 Those men possessed of overweening heart 1.136. And from these afterward another race 1.137. Proceeded, late-completed, youngest born 1.138. Blood-stained, perverse in counsel; of men these 1.139. Were in the fourth race; much the blood they spilled 1.140. 140 Nor feared they God nor had regard for men 1.141. For maddening wrath and sore impiety 1.142. Were sent upon them. And wars, homicides 1.143. And battles sent some into Erebus 1.144. Since they were overweening impious men. 1.145. 145 But the rest did the heavenly God himself 1.146. In anger afterwards change from his world 1.147. Casting them into mighty Tartaru 1.267. And he massed clouds, and bid the sun's bright disk 1.268. And moon, and stars, and circle of the heaven 1.269. Obscuring all things round; he thundered loud 1.270. 270 Terror of mortals, sending lightnings forth; 1.271. And all the winds together were aroused 1.272. And all the veins of water were unloosed 1.273. By opening of great cataracts from heaven 1.274. And from earth's caverns and the tireless deep 1.275. 275 Appeared the myriad waters, and the whole
16. Anon., Didache, 8.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.185, 3.89-3.90, 8.350, 8.352, 13.282-13.283 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.185. After which, before he built his altar, where the birds of prey flew about, as desirous of blood, a divine voice came to him, declaring that their neighbors would be grievous to his posterity, when they should be in Egypt, for four hundred years; during which time they should be afflicted, but afterwards should overcome their enemies, should conquer the Canaanites in war, and possess themselves of their land, and of their cities. 3.89. 4. When he had said this, he brought the people, with their wives and children, so near the mountain, that they might hear God himself speaking to them about the precepts which they were to practice; that the energy of what should be spoken might not be hurt by its utterance by that tongue of a man, which could but imperfectly deliver it to their understanding. 8.352. and after a silence made, a divine voice exhorted him not to be disturbed with the circumstances he was in, for that none of his enemies should have power over him. The voice also commanded him to return home, and to ordain Jehu, the son of Nimshi, to be king over their own multitude; and Hazael, of Damascus, to be over the Syrians; and Elisha, of the city Abel, to be a prophet in his stead; and that of the impious multitude, some should be slain by Hazael, and others by Jehu. 13.282. Now a very surprising thing is related of this high priest Hyrcanus, how God came to discourse with him; for they say that on the very same day on which his sons fought with Antiochus Cyzicenus, he was alone in the temple, as high priest, offering incense, and heard a voice, that his sons had just then overcome Antiochus. 13.283. And this he openly declared before all the multitude upon his coming out of the temple; and it accordingly proved true; and in this posture were the affairs of Hyrcanus.
18. Mishnah, Avot, 1.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.2. Shimon the Righteous was one of the last of the men of the great assembly. He used to say: the world stands upon three things: the Torah, the Temple service, and the practice of acts of piety."
19. Mishnah, Berachot, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.5. One who is praying and makes a mistake, it is a bad sign for him. And if he is the messenger of the congregation (the prayer leader) it is a bad sign for those who have sent him, because one’s messenger is equivalent to one’s self. They said about Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa that he used to pray for the sick and say, “This one will die, this one will live.” They said to him: “How do you know?” He replied: “If my prayer comes out fluently, I know that he is accepted, but if not, then I know that he is rejected.”"
20. New Testament, Apocalypse, 3.20, 10.4, 10.8, 12.1, 12.11, 12.15-12.16, 19.7, 21.2, 21.9, 22.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.20. Behold, I stand at the door and knock. If anyone hears my voice and opens the door, then I will come in to him, and will dine with him, and he with me. 10.4. When the seven thunders sounded, I was about to write; but I heard a voice from the sky saying, "Seal up the things which the seven thunders said, and don't write them. 10.8. The voice which I heard from heaven, again speaking with me, said, "Go, take the book which is open in the hand of the angel who stands on the sea and on the land. 12.1. A great sign was seen in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars. 12.11. They overcame him because of the Lamb's blood, and because of the word of their testimony. They didn't love their life, even to death. 12.15. The serpent spewed water out of his mouth after the woman like a river, that he might cause her to be carried away by the stream. 12.16. The earth helped the woman, and the earth opened its mouth and swallowed up the river which the dragon spewed out of his mouth. 19.7. Let us rejoice and be exceedingly glad, and let us give the glory to him. For the marriage of the Lamb has come, and his wife has made herself ready. 21.2. I saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, made ready like a bride adorned for her husband. 21.9. One of the seven angels who had the seven bowls, who were laden with the seven last plagues came, and he spoke with me, saying, "Come here. I will show you the wife, the Lamb's bride. 22.17. The Spirit and the bride say, "Come!" He who hears, let him say, "Come!" He who is thirsty, let him come. He who desires, let him take the water of life freely.
21. New Testament, James, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.6. But he gives more grace. Therefore it says, "God resists the proud, but gives grace to the humble.
22. New Testament, Jude, 15, 14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

23. New Testament, Romans, 3.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.10. As it is written, "There is no one righteous. No, not one.
24. New Testament, John, 12.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.3. Mary, therefore, took a pound of ointment of pure nard, very precious, and anointed the feet of Jesus, and wiped his feet with her hair. The house was filled with the fragrance of the ointment.
25. New Testament, Luke, 9.58, 13.32, 16.8-16.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.58. Jesus said to him, "The foxes have holes, and the birds of the sky have nests, but the Son of Man has no place to lay his head. 13.32. He said to them, "Go and tell that fox, 'Behold, I cast out demons and perform cures today and tomorrow, and the third day I complete my mission. 16.8. His lord commended the dishonest manager because he had done wisely, for the sons of this world are, in their own generation, wiser than the sons of the light. 16.9. I tell you, make for yourselves friends by means of unrighteous mammon, so that when you fail, they may receive you into the eternal tents. 16.10. He who is faithful in a very little is faithful also in much. He who is dishonest in a very little is also dishonest in much. 16.11. If therefore you have not been faithful in the unrighteous mammon, who will commit to your trust the true riches? 16.12. If you have not been faithful in that which is another's, who will give you that which is your own? 16.13. No servant can serve two masters, for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to one, and despise the other. You aren't able to serve God and mammon.
26. New Testament, Mark, 9, 2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

27. New Testament, Matthew, 6.16-6.18, 8.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.16. Moreover when you fast, don't be like the hypocrites, with sad faces. For they disfigure their faces, that they may be seen by men to be fasting. Most assuredly I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.17. But you, when you fast, anoint your head, and wash your face; 6.18. so that you are not seen by men to be fasting, but by your Father who is in secret, and your Father, who sees in secret, will reward you. 8.20. Jesus said to him, "The foxes have holes, and the birds of the sky have nests, but the Son of Man has nowhere to lay his head.
28. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 53.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

29. Tosefta, Hagigah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

30. Tosefta, Sotah, 13.3-13.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

31. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 45.4, 90.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

45.4. וַיָּבֹא אֶל הָגָר וַתַּהַר (בראשית טז, ד), רַבִּי לֵוִי בַּר חַיָּתָא אָמַר מִבִּיאָה רִאשׁוֹנָה נִתְעַבְּרָה, אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר לְעוֹלָם אֵין הָאִשָּׁה מִתְעַבֶּרֶת מִבִּיאָה רִאשׁוֹנָה, וְהָכְתִיב (בראשית יט, לו): וַתַּהֲרֶיןָ שְׁתֵּי בְנוֹת לוֹט מֵאֲבִיהֶן, אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא שָׁלְטוּ בְּעַצְמָן וְהוֹצִיאוּ עֶרְוָתָן וְנִתְעַבְּרוּ כְּמִבִּיאָה שְׁנִיָּה. אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן פָּזִי הַקּוֹצִין הַלָּלוּ אֵינָן לֹא מִתְנַכְּשִׁין וְלֹא נִזְרָעִים, מֵאֵילֵיהֶן הֵן יוֹצְאִים וּמִתַּמְּרִים וְעוֹלִים. הַחִטִּים הַלָּלוּ כַּמָּה צַעַר וְכַמָּה יְגִיעַ עַד שֶׁלֹא יַעֲלוּ. וְלָמָּה נִתְעַקְּרוּ הָאִמָּהוֹת, רַבִּי לֵוִי מִשֵּׁם רַבִּי שִׁילָא דִּכְפַר תְּמַרְתָּא וְרַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מִתְאַוֶּה לִתְפִלָּתָן וּמִתְאַוֶּה לְשִׂיחָתָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שיר השירים ב, יד): יוֹנָתִי בְּחַגְוֵי הַסֶּלַע, יוֹנָתִי בְּחַגְוֵי, לָמָּה עִקַּרְתִּי אֶתְכֶם, בִּשְׁבִיל (שיר השירים ב, יד): הַרְאִינִי אֶת מַרְאַיִךְ הַשְׁמִיעִנִי אֶת קוֹלֵךְ. רַבִּי עֲזַרְיָה מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בַּר פַּפָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מִתְרַפְּקוֹת עַל בַּעֲלֵיהֶן בְּנוֹיָן. רַבִּי הוּנָא מִשֵּׁם רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּצְאוּ רֹב הַשָּׁנִים בְּלֹא שִׁעְבּוּד. רַבִּי הוּנָא וְרַבִּי אָבוּן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי מֵאִיר אָמַר כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּהָנוּ בַּעֲלֵיהֶן מֵהֶן, שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁהָאִשָּׁה מְקַבֶּלֶת עֻבָּרִין הִיא מִתְכַּעֶרֶת וּמִתְעַזֶּבֶת, שֶׁכָּל תִּשְׁעִים שָׁנָה שֶׁלֹא יָלְדָה שָׂרָה הָיְתָה כְּכַלָּה בְּתוֹךְ חֻפָּתָהּ, וְהָיוּ מַטְרוֹנִיּוֹת בָּאוֹת לִשְׁאֹל בִּשְׁלוֹמָהּ שֶׁל שָׂרָה וְהָיְתָה שָׂרָה אוֹמֶרֶת לָהֶם צְאוּ וְשַׁאֲלוּ בִּשְׁלוֹמָהּ שֶׁל עֲלוּבָה, וְהָיְתָה הָגָר אוֹמֶרֶת לָהֶם שָׂרַי גְבִרְתִּי אֵין סִתְרָהּ כְּגִלּוּיָהּ, נִרְאֵית צַדֶּקֶת וְאֵינָהּ צַדֶּקֶת, אִלּוּ הָיְתָה צַדֶּקֶת רְאוּ כַּמָּה שָׁנִים שֶׁלֹא נִתְעַבְּרָה וַאֲנִי בְּלַיְלָה אֶחָד נִתְעַבַּרְתִּי, וְהָיְתָה אוֹמֶרֶת עִם דָּא אֲנָא מִסַּב וּמִתַּן, הַלְוַאי מִסַּב וּמִתַּן עִם מָרָהּ. 90.1. וַיֹּאמֶר פַּרְעֹה אֶל עֲבָדָיו הֲנִמְצָא כָזֶה (בראשית מא, לח), (שיר השירים ו, ט): אַחַת הִיא יוֹנָתִי תַמָּתִי אַחַת הִיא לְאִמָּהּ וגו'. אַחַת הִיא יוֹנָתִי תַמָּתִי, זֶה אַבְרָהָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יחזקאל לג, כד): אֶחָד הָיָה אַבְרָהָם וַיִּירַשׁ אֶת הָאָרֶץ. אַחַת הִיא לְאִמָּהּ, זֶה יִצְחָק, שֶׁהָיָה יָחִיד לְאִמּוֹ. בָּרָה הִיא לְיוֹלַדְתָּהּ, זֶה יַעֲקֹב, שֶׁהָיָה בָּרוּר לְיוֹלַדְתּוֹ שֶׁהוּא צַדִּיק. רָאוּהָ בָנוֹת וַיְאַשְׁרוּהָ, אֵלּוּ הַשְּׁבָטִים (בראשית מה, טז): וְהַקֹּל נִשְׁמַע בֵּית פַּרְעֹה. מְלָכוֹת וּפִילַגְשִׁים וַיְהַלְּלוּהָ, זֶה יוֹסֵף, וַיֹּאמֶר פַּרְעֹה אֶל עֲבָדָיו הֲנִמְצָא כָזֶה, אִם מְהַלְּכִים אָנוּ מִסּוֹף הָעוֹלָם וְעַד סוֹפוֹ אֵין אָנוּ מוֹצְאִים כָּזֶה. 45.4. ...Rabbi Shimon ben Yohai said Hagar was Pharaoh's daughter. When he saw the deeds on behalf of Sarah in his house, he took his daughter and gave her to him, saying, 'better that my daughter by a maidservant in this house than a mistress in another house.' This is what is written: \"She had an Egyptian handmaid whose name was Hagar.\" [In other words:] ha agrikh: 'This is your reward.'"
32. Anon., Mekhilta Derabbi Yishmael, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

33. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 36 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

34. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 115 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

35. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

59b. וזה הוא תנור של עכנאי מאי עכנאי אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל שהקיפו דברים כעכנא זו וטמאוהו תנא באותו היום השיב רבי אליעזר כל תשובות שבעולם ולא קיבלו הימנו,אמר להם אם הלכה כמותי חרוב זה יוכיח נעקר חרוב ממקומו מאה אמה ואמרי לה ארבע מאות אמה אמרו לו אין מביאין ראיה מן החרוב חזר ואמר להם אם הלכה כמותי אמת המים יוכיחו חזרו אמת המים לאחוריהם אמרו לו אין מביאין ראיה מאמת המים,חזר ואמר להם אם הלכה כמותי כותלי בית המדרש יוכיחו הטו כותלי בית המדרש ליפול גער בהם רבי יהושע אמר להם אם תלמידי חכמים מנצחים זה את זה בהלכה אתם מה טיבכם לא נפלו מפני כבודו של רבי יהושע ולא זקפו מפני כבודו של ר"א ועדיין מטין ועומדין,חזר ואמר להם אם הלכה כמותי מן השמים יוכיחו יצאתה בת קול ואמרה מה לכם אצל ר"א שהלכה כמותו בכ"מ,עמד רבי יהושע על רגליו ואמר (דברים ל, יב) לא בשמים היא מאי לא בשמים היא אמר רבי ירמיה שכבר נתנה תורה מהר סיני אין אנו משגיחין בבת קול שכבר כתבת בהר סיני בתורה (שמות כג, ב) אחרי רבים להטות אשכחיה רבי נתן לאליהו א"ל מאי עביד קוב"ה בההיא שעתא א"ל קא חייך ואמר נצחוני בני נצחוני בני,אמרו אותו היום הביאו כל טהרות שטיהר ר"א ושרפום באש ונמנו עליו וברכוהו ואמרו מי ילך ויודיעו אמר להם ר"ע אני אלך שמא ילך אדם שאינו הגון ויודיעו ונמצא מחריב את כל העולם כולו,מה עשה ר"ע לבש שחורים ונתעטף שחורים וישב לפניו ברחוק ארבע אמות אמר לו ר"א עקיבא מה יום מיומים אמר לו רבי כמדומה לי שחבירים בדילים ממך אף הוא קרע בגדיו וחלץ מנעליו ונשמט וישב על גבי קרקע,זלגו עיניו דמעות לקה העולם שליש בזיתים ושליש בחטים ושליש בשעורים ויש אומרים אף בצק שבידי אשה טפח תנא אך גדול היה באותו היום שבכל מקום שנתן בו עיניו ר"א נשרף,ואף ר"ג היה בא בספינה עמד עליו נחשול לטבעו אמר כמדומה לי שאין זה אלא בשביל ר"א בן הורקנוס עמד על רגליו ואמר רבונו של עולם גלוי וידוע לפניך שלא לכבודי עשיתי ולא לכבוד בית אבא עשיתי אלא לכבודך שלא ירבו מחלוקות בישראל נח הים מזעפו,אימא שלום דביתהו דר"א אחתיה דר"ג הואי מההוא מעשה ואילך לא הוה שבקה ליה לר"א למיפל על אפיה ההוא יומא ריש ירחא הוה ואיחלף לה בין מלא לחסר איכא דאמרי אתא עניא וקאי אבבא אפיקא ליה ריפתא,אשכחתיה דנפל על אנפיה אמרה ליה קום קטלית לאחי אדהכי נפק שיפורא מבית רבן גמליאל דשכיב אמר לה מנא ידעת אמרה ליה כך מקובלני מבית אבי אבא כל השערים ננעלים חוץ משערי אונאה,תנו רבנן המאנה את הגר עובר בשלשה לאוין והלוחצו עובר בשנים,מאי שנא מאנה דכתיבי שלשה לאוין (שמות כב, כ) וגר לא תונה (ויקרא יט, לג) וכי יגור אתך גר בארצכם לא תונו אותו (ויקרא כה, יז) ולא תונו איש את עמיתו וגר בכלל עמיתו הוא לוחצו נמי שלשה כתיבי (שמות כב, כ) ולא תלחצנו (שמות כג, ט) וגר לא תלחץ (שמות כב, כד) ולא תהיה לו כנושה וגר בכלל הוא אלא אחד זה ואחד זה בשלשה,תניא רבי אליעזר הגדול אומר מפני מה הזהירה תורה בל"ו מקומות ואמרי לה במ"ו מקומות בגר מפני שסורו רע,מאי דכתיב וגר לא תונה ולא תלחצנו כי גרים הייתם בארץ מצרים (תנינא) רבי נתן אומר מום שבך אל תאמר לחברך והיינו דאמרי אינשי דזקיף ליה זקיפא בדיותקיה לא נימא ליה לחבריה זקיף ביניתא:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אין מערבין פירות בפירות אפי' חדשים בחדשים 59b. bAnd this isknown as bthe oven of iakhnai /i.The Gemara asks: bWhatis the relevance of iakhnai /i,a snake, in this context? bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said:It is characterized in that manner due to the fact bthatthe Rabbis bsurroundedit bwiththeir bstatements like this snake,which often forms a coil when at rest, band deemed it impure.The Sages btaught: On that day,when they discussed this matter, bRabbi Eliezer answered allpossible banswers in the worldto support his opinion, bbutthe Rabbis bdid not accepthis explanations bfrom him. /b,After failing to convince the Rabbis logically, Rabbi Eliezer bsaid to them: Ifthe ihalakha /iis bin accordance with myopinion, bthis carobtree bwill proveit. The bcarobtree bwas uprooted from its place one hundred cubits, and some say four hundred cubits.The Rabbis bsaid to him: One does not citehalakhic bproof from the carobtree. Rabbi Eliezer bthen said to them: Ifthe ihalakha /iis bin accordance with myopinion, bthe stream will proveit. The water in bthe stream turned backwardand began flowing in the opposite direction. bThey said to him: One does not citehalakhic bproof from a stream. /b,Rabbi Eliezer bthen said to them: Ifthe ihalakha /iis bin accordance with myopinion, bthe walls of the study hall will proveit. bThe walls of the study hall leanedinward and began bto fall. Rabbi Yehoshua scoldedthe walls and bsaid to them: If Torah scholars are contendingwith beach other inmatters of ihalakha /i, whatis the bnatureof byourinvolvement in this dispute? The Gemara relates: The walls bdid not fall because ofthe bdeferencedue bRabbi Yehoshua, but they did not straighten because ofthe bdeferencedue bRabbi Eliezer, and they still remain leaning. /b,Rabbi Eliezer bthen said to them: Ifthe ihalakha /iis bin accordance with myopinion, bHeaven will proveit. bA Divine Voice emergedfrom Heaven band said: Why are youdiffering bwith Rabbi Eliezer, asthe ihalakha /iis bin accordance withhis opinion bin every placethat he expresses an opinion?, bRabbi Yehoshua stood on his feet and said:It is written: b“It is not in heaven”(Deuteronomy 30:12). The Gemara asks: bWhatis the relevance of the phrase b“It is not in heaven”in this context? bRabbi Yirmeya says:Since bthe Torah was already given at Mount Sinai, we do not regard a Divine Voice, as You already wrote at Mount Sinai, in the Torah: “After a majority to incline”(Exodus 23:2). Since the majority of Rabbis disagreed with Rabbi Eliezer’s opinion, the ihalakhais not ruled in accordance with his opinion. The Gemara relates: Years after, bRabbi Natan encountered Elijahthe prophet and bsaid to him: What did the Holy One, Blessed be He, do at that time,when Rabbi Yehoshua issued his declaration? Elijah bsaid to him:The Holy One, Blessed be He, bsmiled and said: My children have triumphed over Me; My children have triumphed over Me. /b,The Sages bsaid:On bthat day,the Sages bbrought all the ritually pureitems bdeemed pure bythe ruling of bRabbi Eliezerwith regard to the oven band burned them in fire, andthe Sages breached a consensus in his regard and ostracized him. Andthe Sages bsaid: Who will go and inform himof his ostracism? bRabbi Akiva,his beloved disciple, bsaid to them: I will go, lest an unseemly person goand inform him in a callous and offensive manner, band he would thereby destroy the entire world. /b, bWhat did Rabbi Akiva do? He wore black and wrapped himself in black,as an expression of mourning and pain, band sat beforeRabbi Eliezer bat a distance of four cubits,which is the distance that one must maintain from an ostracized individual. bRabbi Eliezer said to him: Akiva, whatis different about btoday from other days,that you comport yourself in this manner? Rabbi Akiva bsaid to him: My teacher, it appears to me thatyour bcolleagues are distancingthemselves bfrom you.He employed euphemism, as actually they distanced Rabbi Eliezer from them. Rabbi Eliezer btoo, rent his garments and removed his shoes,as is the custom of an ostracized person, band he droppedfrom his seat band sat upon the ground. /b,The Gemara relates: bHis eyes shed tears,and as a result btheentire bworld was afflicted: One-third ofits boliveswere afflicted, band one-third ofits bwheat, and one-third ofits bbarley. And some saythat beven doughkneaded bin a woman’s hands spoiled.The Sages btaught: There was great anger on that day, as any place that Rabbi Eliezer fixed his gaze was burned. /b, bAnd even Rabban Gamliel,the iNasiof the Sanhedrin at Yavne, the head of the Sages who were responsible for the decision to ostracize Rabbi Eliezer, bwas coming on a boatat the time, and ba large wave swelled over himand threatened bto drown him.Rabban Gamliel bsaid: It seems to me that this is only for the sake of Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus,as God punishes those who mistreat others. Rabban Gamliel bstood on his feet and said: Master of the Universe, it is revealed and known before You that neither was it for my honorthat bI actedwhen ostracizing him, bnor was it for the honor of the house of my fatherthat bI acted; rather,it was bfor Your honor, so that disputes will not proliferate in Israel.In response, bthe sea calmed from its raging. /b,The Gemara further relates: bImma Shalom, the wife of Rabbi Eliezer, was the sister of Rabban Gamliel. From that incident forward, she would not allow Rabbi Eliezer to lower his headand recite the itaḥanunprayer, which includes supplication and entreaties. She feared that were her husband to bemoan his fate and pray at that moment, her brother would be punished. bA certain day wasaround the day of bthe New Moon, and sheinadvertently bsubstituted a fullthirty-day month bfor a deficienttwenty-nine-day month, i.e., she thought that it was the New Moon, when one does not lower his head in supplication, but it was not. bSome saythat ba pauper came and stood at the door,and bshe took bread out to him.The result was that she left her husband momentarily unsupervised.,When she returned, bshe found himand saw bthat he had lowered his headin prayer. bShe said to him: Arise, youalready bkilled my brother. Meanwhile,the sound of ba ishofaremerged from the house of Rabban Gamlielto announce bthatthe iNasi bhad died.Rabbi Eliezer bsaid to her: From where did you knowthat your brother would die? bShe said to him: This isthe tradition that bI received from the house of the father ofmy bfather: All the gatesof Heaven are apt to be blocked, except for the gatesof prayer for victims bofverbal bmistreatment. /b,§ bThe Sages taught: One whoverbally bmistreats the convert violates three prohibitions, and one who oppresses himin other ways bviolates two. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentwith regard to verbal bmistreatment, that three prohibitions are writtenconcerning it: b“And you shall neither mistreat a convert”(Exodus 22:20); b“And when a convert lives in your land, you shall not mistreat him”(Leviticus 19:33); b“And you shall not mistreat, each man his colleague”(Leviticus 25:17), band a convert isincluded in the category of bcolleague?With regard to bone who also oppressesa convert bas well, threeprohibitions bare written:“And you shall neither mistreat a convert, bnor oppress him”(Exodus 22:20); b“And you shall not oppress a convert(Exodus 23:9); b“And you shall not be to him like a creditor”(Exodus 22:24). This last prohibition is a general prohibition, bin which converts are included.Consequently, it is not correct that one who oppresses a convert violates only two prohibitions. bRather, both thisone, who verbally mistreats a convert, band thatone, who oppresses him, bviolate three prohibitions. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer the Great says: For what reason did the Torah issue warnings in thirty-six places, and some say in forty-six places, with regard tocausing any distress to ba convert?It is bdue tothe fact bthata convert’s binclination is evil,i.e., he is prone to return to his previous way of living., bWhatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “And you shall not mistreat a convert nor oppress him, because you were strangers in the land of Egypt”(Exodus 22:20)? bWe learnedin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Natan says: A defect that is in you, do not mentionit bin another.Since the Jewish people were themselves strangers, they are not in a position to demean a convert because he is a stranger in their midst. bAnd thisexplains the adage bthat people say: One who hasa person bhanged in his family [ ibidyotkei /i], does not say to anothermember of his household: bHang a fish for me,as the mention of hanging is demeaning for that family., strongMISHNA: /strong bOne may not intermingle producebought from one supplier bwithother bproduce, evenif he intermingles bnewproduce bwithother bnewproduce and ostensibly the buyer suffers no loss from his doing so.
36. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

3b. בחדתי,ותיפוק ליה משום מזיקין בתרי,אי בתרי חשד נמי ליכא בתרי ופריצי.,מפני המפולת ותיפוק ליה משום חשד ומזיקין,בתרי וכשרי.,מפני המזיקין ותיפוק ליה מפני חשד ומפולת,בחורבה חדתי ובתרי וכשרי, אי בתרי מזיקין נמי ליכא,במקומן חיישינן ואי בעית אימא לעולם בחד ובחורבה חדתי דקאי בדברא דהתם משום חשד ליכא דהא אשה בדברא לא שכיחא ומשום מזיקין איכא:,תנו רבנן ארבע משמרות הוי הלילה דברי רבי רבי נתן אומר שלש,מאי טעמא דרבי נתן דכתיב (שופטים ז)ויבא גדעון ומאה איש אשר אתו בקצה המחנה ראש האשמורת התיכונה תנא אין תיכונה אלא שיש לפניה ולאחריה,ורבי מאי תיכונה אחת מן התיכונה שבתיכונות,ורבי נתן מי כתיב תיכונה שבתיכונות תיכונה כתיב,מאי טעמיה דרבי אמר רב זריקא אמר רבי אמי אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי כתוב אחד אומר (תהלים קיט)חצות לילה אקום להודות לך על משפטי צדקך וכתוב אחד אומר (שם)קדמו עיני אשמורות הא כיצד ארבע משמרות הוי הלילה,ורבי נתן סבר לה כרבי יהושע דתנן רבי יהושע אומר עד שלש שעות שכן דרך מלכים לעמוד בשלש שעות שית דליליא ותרתי דיממא הוו להו שתי משמרות,רב אשי אמר משמרה ופלגא נמי משמרות קרו להו:,ואמר רבי זריקא אמר רבי אמי אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי אין אומרין בפני המת אלא דבריו של מת,אמר רבי אבא בר כהנא לא אמרן אלא בדברי תורה אבל מילי דעלמא לית לן בה,ואיכא דאמרי אמר רבי אבא בר כהנא לא אמרן אלא [אפילו] בדברי תורה וכל שכן מילי דעלמא:,ודוד בפלגא דליליא הוה קאי מאורתא הוה קאי דכתיב (תהלים קיט)קדמתי בנשף ואשועה וממאי דהאי נשף אורתא הוא דכתיב (משלי ז)בנשף בערב יום באישון לילה ואפילה,אמר רב אושעיא אמר רבי אחא הכי קאמר (דוד) מעולם לא עבר עלי חצות לילה בשינה.,רבי זירא אמר עד חצות לילה היה מתנמנם כסוס מכאן ואילך היה מתגבר כארי רב אשי אמר עד חצות לילה היה עוסק בדברי תורה מכאן ואילך בשירות ותשבחות., ונשף אורתא הוא הא נשף צפרא הוא דכתיב (שמואל א ל)ויכם דוד מהנשף ועד הערב למחרתם מאי לאו מצפרא ועד ליליא,לא מאורתא ועד אורתא,אי הכי לכתוב מהנשף ועד הנשף או מהערב ועד הערב,אלא אמר רבא תרי נשפי הוו נשף ליליא ואתי יממא נשף יממא ואתי ליליא.,ודוד מי הוה ידע פלגא דליליא אימת השתא משה רבינו לא הוה ידע דכתיב (שמות יא) כחצות הלילה אני יוצא בתוך מצרים,מאי כחצות אילימא דאמר ליה קודשא בריך הוא כחצות מי איכא ספיקא קמי שמיא אלא דאמר ליה (למחר) בחצות (כי השתא) ואתא איהו ואמר כחצות אלמא מספקא ליה ודוד הוה ידע,דוד סימנא הוה ליה דאמר רב אחא בר ביזנא אמר רבי שמעון חסידא כנור היה תלוי למעלה ממטתו של דוד וכיון שהגיע חצות לילה בא רוח צפונית ונושבת בו ומנגן מאליו מיד היה עומד ועוסק בתורה עד שעלה עמוד השחר כיון שעלה עמוד השחר נכנסו חכמי ישראל אצלו אמרו לו אדונינו המלך עמך ישראל צריכין פרנסה אמר להם לכו והתפרנסו זה מזה אמרו לו אין הקומץ משביע את הארי ואין הבור מתמלא מחוליתו אמר להם לכו ופשטו ידיכם בגדוד,מיד יועצים באחיתופל ונמלכין בסנהדרין ושואלין באורים ותומים,אמר רב יוסף מאי קרא (דכתיב) (דברי הימים א כז)ואחרי אחיתופל בניהו בן יהוידע ואביתר ושר צבא למלך יואב,אחיתופל זה יועץ וכן הוא אומר (שמואל ב טז) ועצת אחיתופל אשר יעץ בימים ההם כאשר ישאל (איש) בדבר האלהים 3b. The Gemara answers: This ihalakhaapplies even binthe case of a bnew,sturdy ruin, where there is no danger of collapse. Therefore, the reason because of suspicion is cited in order to warn one not to enter a new ruin as well.,The Gemara continues to object: bAnd let this ihalakha bbe derived because of demons?The Gemara answers: Demons are only a threat to individuals, so because of demons would not apply to a case bwhere twopeople enter a ruin together.,The Gemara objects: But bif there are twopeople entering a ruin together, then bthere is no suspicion either.There is no prohibition against two men to be alone with a woman as, in that case, there is no suspicion of untoward behavior. Consequently, if two men enter a ruin together, there is no room for suspicion. The Gemara answers: If btwo individualsknown to be bimmoralenter together, there is suspicion even though there are two of them.,The Gemara considers why bbecause of collapseis necessary. bLetthe prohibition bbe derived from suspicion and demons. /b,The Gemara responds: There are times when this reason is necessary, e.g., when btwo upstanding individualsenter a ruin together. Although there is neither concern of suspicion nor of demons, there remains concern lest the ruin collapse.,The Gemara considers the third reason, bbecause of demons.Why is it necessary to include: Because of demons? bLetthe prohibition bbe derived from suspicion and collapse. /b,The Gemara responds: There are cases where this is the only concern, for example where it is a bnewruin into which btwo upstandingindividuals enter, so there is neither concern lest it collapse nor of suspicion.,The Gemara points out, however, that bif there are two people, there is also noconcern of bdemons.As such, the question remains: In what case can demons be the sole cause not to enter a ruin?,The Gemara responds: Generally speaking, two individuals need not be concerned about demons; but, if they are bin their place,i.e., a place known to be haunted by demons (see Isaiah 13:21), bwe are concernedabout demons even with two people. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead: bActually,this refers btothe case of ban individualentering ba new ruin located in a field. There, there is no suspicion, asfinding ba woman in the field is uncommon;and since it is a new ruin, there is no danger of collapse. bHowever, there isstill concern of bdemons. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a iTosefta /i: bThe night is comprised of four watches;this is bthe statement of RabbiYehuda HaNasi. bRabbi Natan says:The night is comprised of bthreewatches.,The Gemara explains: bWhat is Rabbi Natan’s reasoning? As it is written: “And Gideon, and the one hundred men who were with him, came to the edge of camp at the beginning of the middle watch”(Judges 7:19). bIt was taughtin the iTosefta /i: bMiddle means nothing other thanthat bthere is one before it and one after it.From the fact that the verse refers to a middle watch, the fact that the night is comprised of three watches may be inferred., bAndwhat does bRabbiYehuda HaNasi say about this proof? He argues that it is inconclusive, as one could say: To bwhatdoes bmiddlerefer? It refers to bone of thetwo bmiddlewatches., bAndhow would bRabbi Natanrespond? He would say: Despite Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s objection, bis: One of the middlewatches, bwrittenin the verse? bThe middlewatch bis written.This indicates that the night is comprised of only three watches., bWhat is RabbiYehuda HaNasi’s breasoning? Rabbi Zerika saidthat bRabbi Ami saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: RabbiYehuda HaNasi’s opinion is based on a comparison of two verses. bOne verse says: “At midnight I rise to give thanks for Your righteous laws”(Psalms 119:62), band the other verse says: “My eyes forestall the watches,that I will speak of Your word” (Psalms 119:148). Taken together, these verses indicate that their author, King David, rose at midnight, two watches before dawn, in order to study Torah. bHow is itpossible to reconcile these two verses? Only if bthere are four watches in the nightdoes one who rises two watches before dawn rise at midnight., bAndhow does bRabbi Natanreconcile these two verses? He bholds in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua, for we learnedin a mishna that bRabbi Yehoshua says:One is permitted to recite the morning iShemaduring the time when people rise, buntil the third hourof the day, bas it is the custom of kings to rise during the third hour.Since it is customary for kings to rise during the third hour of the day, if David rose at midnight, he would be awake for bsix hours of the night and two hours of the day,which amounts to btwo watches.Therefore King David could say that he “forestalls the watches,” as he rose two watches before the rest of the kings in the world., bRav Ashi saidthat the verses can be reconciled in accordance with Rabbi Natan’s opinion in another way: bOne and one-half watches are still called watchesin plural. Therefore King David could rise at midnight yet maintain that he “forestalls the watches.”,Following this discussion, another ihalakhathat bRabbi Zerika saidthat bRabbi Ami saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi saidis cited: bBefore the dead, one may speak only of matters relating to the dead,as speaking of other matters appears to be contemptuous of the deceased, underscoring that he is unable to talk while those around him can. Therefore, one must remain fully engaged in matters relating to him.,Two traditions exist with regard to the details of this ihalakhain the name of Rabbi Abba bar Kahana. According to one version, bRabbi Abba bar Kahana said:This ihalakha bwas only said with regard to matters of Torah.Speaking of bother matters, however, is notprohibited, since no contempt is expressed for the deceased by the fact that he is unable to speak of such topics., bOthers sayanother version of this ihalakhain the name of Rabbi Abba bar Kahana: This ihalakha bwas said even with regard to matters of Torah, and all the more so with regard to other matters.If one must refrain from speaking of matters of Torah, regarding which one is commanded to speak, and limit himself to matters concerning the deceased, all the more so should he refrain from speaking of other matters, regarding which one is not commanded to speak.,Incidental to the Gemara’s mention of King David, other sources are cited that describe his actions. Regarding that which was cited above, that he would rise in the middle of the night in order to serve his Creator, the Gemara asks: bDid David rise at midnight? He rose in the evening. As it is written: “I rose with the ineshefand cried,I hoped for Your word” (Psalms 119:147). bAnd howdo we know bthat this ineshefis the evening? As it is written: “In the ineshef /i, in the evening of the day, in the blackness of night and the darkness”(Proverbs 7:9). Apparently, King David did indeed rise when it was still evening.,The Gemara suggests several ways to resolve this contradiction. bRabbi Oshaya saidthat bRabbi Aḥa said: David said as follows: Midnight never passed me by in my sleep.Sometimes I fulfilled the verse, “I rose with the ineshefand cried,” but I always, at least, fulfilled the verse, “At midnight I rise to give thanks for Your righteous laws.”, bRabbi Zeira said: Until midnight,David bwould doze like a horse,as a horse dozes, but never sleeps deeply. bFrommidnight bon, he would gain the strength of a lion. Rav Ashi said: Until midnight, he would study Torah,as it is written: “I rose with the ineshefand cried, I hoped for Your word,” band frommidnight bon,he would engage in bsongs and praise,as it is written: “At midnight I rise to give thanks.”,To this point, the discussion has been based on the assumption that ineshefmeans evening. The Gemara asks: bDoes ineshef /ireally bmean evening? Doesn’t ineshefmean morning? As it is written: “And David slew them from the ineshefuntil the evening of the next day”(I Samuel 30:17). bDoesn’tthis verse mean bfrom the morning until the night,in which case ineshefmust mean morning?,The Gemara responds: bNo,this verse means that David slew them bfromone bevening untilthe next bevening. /b,The Gemara rejects this response: bIf so, letthe verse bbe written: From the ineshefuntil the ineshef /i, or from the evening until the evening.Why would the verse employ two different terms for a single concept?, bRather, Rava said: There are twotimes referred to as ineshef /i,and the word can refer to either evening or morning. iNeshefmust be understood in accordance with its Aramaic root: bThe night movespast b[ineshaf] band the day arrives, and the day movespast [ ineshaf] band the night arrives. /b,When King David said: At midnight I rise, the assumption is that he rose precisely at midnight. The Gemara asks: bDid David knowexactly bwhen it was midnight? Even Moses our teacher did not knowexactly when it was midnight. How do we know this about Moses? bAs it is writtenthat he said to Pharaoh: “Thus said the Lord: bAbout midnight, I will go out into the midst of Egypt”(Exodus 11:4). The word about indicates that it was only an approximation.,The Gemara clarifies: bWhatis the meaning of the expression: bAbout midnight?Did Moses say it or did God say it? bIf we saythat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, Himself, said: About midnight, toMoses, bis there doubt beforeGod in bheaven? Rather,this must be understood as follows: bGod toldMoses: bAt midnight, butfrom the fact that bwhenMoses bcameto Pharaoh bhe said: About midnight; apparently /b, Moses bwas uncertainabout the exact moment of midnight. Moses, the greatest of all the prophets, was uncertain, and bDavid knew? /b,The Gemara offers several answers to this question: br bDavid had a signindicating when bit was midnight.As bRav Aḥa bar Bizna saidthat bRabbi Shimon Ḥasida said: A lyre hung over David’s bed, and once midnight arrived, the northernmidnight bwind would come andcause bthe lyre to play on its own.David bwould immediately risefrom his bed band study Torah until the first rays of dawn. br bOnce dawnarrived, bthe Sages of Israel enteredto advise bhimwith regard to the various concerns of the nation and the economy. bThey said to him: Our master, the king, your nation requires sustece. br bHe said: Go and sustain one another,provide each other with whatever is lacking. brThe Sages of Israel bresponded to himwith a parable: bA single handfulof food bdoes not satisfy a lion, and a pitwill bnotbe bfilledmerely bfromthe rain that falls directly into bits mouth,but other water must be piped in ( ige’onim /i). So too, the nation cannot sustain itself using its own resources. brKing David btold them: Go and take up arms with the troopsin battle in order to expand our borders and provide our people with the opportunity to earn a livelihood.,The Sages bimmediately seek advice from Ahitophelto determine whether or not it was appropriate to go to war at that time and how they should conduct themselves, band they consult the Sanhedrinin order to receive the requisite license to wage a war under those circumstances ( iTosefot HaRosh /i). bAnd they ask the iUrim VeTummim /iwhether or not they should go to war, and whether or not they would be successful., bRav Yosef said:Upon bwhat verseis this iaggadabased? bAs it is written: “And after Ahitophel was Yehoyada son of Benayahu and Evyatar, and the general of the king’s army, Yoav”(I Chronicles 27:34).,The individuals named in this verse correspond with the roles in the iaggadaas follows: bAhitophel is the adviserwhose advice they sought first with regard to going to war, band so it says: “Now the counsel of Ahitophel, which he counseled in those days, was as a man who inquires of the word of God;so was the counsel of Ahitophel both with David and with Absalom” (II Samuel 16:23).
37. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

68b. איחננא ליה כפא לקומתיה מיניה איתבר ביה גרמא אמר היינו דכתיב (משלי כה, טו) ולשון רכה תשבר גרם,חזא סמיא דהוה קא טעי באורחא אסקיה לאורחיה חזא רויא דהוה קא טעי באורחא אסקיה לאורחיה חזא חדוותא דהוו קמחדי לה בכה שמעיה לההוא גברא דהוה קאמר לאושכפא עביד לי מסאני לשב שני אחיך חזא ההוא קסמא דהוה קסים אחיך,כי מטא להתם לא עיילוה לגביה דשלמה עד תלתא יומי יומא קמא אמר להו אמאי לא קא בעי לי מלכא לגביה א"ל אנסיה מישתיא שקל לבינתא אותיב אחברתה אתו אמרו ליה לשלמה אמר להו הכי אמר לכו הדור אשקיוה,למחר אמר להו ואמאי לא קא בעי לי מלכא לגביה אמרו ליה אנסיה מיכלא שקל לבינתא מחברתה אותבה אארעא אתו אמרו ליה לשלמה אמר להו הכי אמר לכו נגידו מיניה מיכליה,[לסוף] תלתא יומי עייל לקמיה שקל קניא ומשח ארבעה גרמידי ושדא קמיה א"ל מכדי כי מיית ההוא גברא לית ליה בהדין עלמא אלא ד' גרמידי השתא כבשתיה לכולי עלמא ולא שבעת עד דכבשת נמי לדידי,א"ל לא קא בעינא מינך מידי בעינא דאיבנייה לבית המקדש וקא מיבעי לי שמירא א"ל לדידי לא מסיר לי לשרא דימא מסיר ליה ולא יהיב ליה אלא לתרנגולא ברא דמהימן ליה אשבועתיה,ומאי עבד ביה ממטי ליה לטורי דלית בהו ישוב ומנח לה אשינא דטורא ופקע טורא ומנקיט מייתי ביזרני מאילני ושדי התם והוי ישוב והיינו דמתרגמינן נגר טורא,בדקו קינא דתרנגולא ברא דאית ליה בני וחפויה לקיניה זוגיתא חיורתי כי אתא בעי למיעל ולא מצי אזל אייתי שמירא ואותביה עלויה רמא ביה קלא שדייה שקליה אזל חנק נפשיה אשבועתיה,אמר ליה בניהו מאי טעמא כי חזיתיה לההוא סמיא דהוה קא טעי באורחא אסיקתיה לאורחיה אמר ליה מכרזי עליה ברקיעא דצדיק גמור הוא ומאן דעבד ליה ניחא נפשיה זכי לעלמא דאתי,ומאי טעמא כי חזיתיה לההוא רויא דקטעי באורחא אסיקתיה לאורחיה א"ל מכרזי עליה ברקיעא דרשע גמור הוא ועבדי ליה ניחא נפשיה כי היכי דליכליה לעלמא,מאי טעמא כי חזיתיה לההוא חדוותא בכית אמר ליה בעי מימת גברא בגו תלתין יומין ובעיא מינטר ליבם קטן תליסרי שנין,מאי טעמא כי שמעתיה לההוא גברא דאמר ליה לאושכפא עביד לי מסאני לשב שנין אחיכת אמר ליה ההוא שבעה יומי לית ליה מסאני לשב שנין בעי,מ"ט כי חזיתיה לההוא קסמא דהוה קסים אחיכת אמר ליה דהוה יתיב אבי גזא דמלכא לקסום מאי דאיכא תותיה,תרחיה גביה עד דבנייה לבית המקדש יומא חד הוה קאי לחודיה אמר ליה כתיב (במדבר כד, ח) כתועפות ראם לו ואמרינן כתועפות אלו מלאכי השרת ראם אלו השדים מאי רבותייכו מינן,א"ל שקול שושילתא מינאי והב לי עיזקתך ואחוי לך רבותאי שקליה לשושילתא מיניה ויהיב ליה עיזקתיה בלעיה אותביה לחד גפיה ברקיעא ולחד גפיה בארעא פתקיה ארבע מאה פרסי על ההיא שעתא אמר שלמה (קהלת א, ג) מה יתרון לאדם בכל עמלו שיעמול תחת השמש,(קהלת ב, י) וזה היה חלקי מכל עמלי מאי וזה רב ושמואל חד אמר מקלו וחד אמר גונדו היה מחזר על הפתחים כל היכא דמטא אמר (קהלת א, יב) אני קהלת הייתי מלך על ישראל בירושלים כי מטא גבי סנהדרין אמרו רבנן מכדי שוטה בחדא מילתא לא סריך מאי האי,אמרו ליה לבניהו קא בעי לך מלכא לגביה אמר להו לא שלחו להו למלכוותא קאתי מלכא לגבייכו שלחו להו אין קאתי שלחו להו בידקו בכרעיה שלחו להו במוקי קאתי,וקא תבע להו בנידותייהו וקא תבע לה נמי לבת שבע אימיה אתיוה לשלמה והבו ליה עזקתא ושושילתא דחקוק עליה שם כי עייל חזייה פרח,ואפילו הכי הוה ליה ביעתותא מיניה והיינו דכתיב (שיר השירים ג, ז) הנה מטתו שלשלמה ששים גבורים סביב לה מגבורי ישראל כולם אחוזי חרב מלומדי מלחמה איש חרבו על יריכו מפחד בלילות,רב ושמואל חד אמר מלך והדיוט וחד אמר מלך והדיוט ומלך,לדמא דרישא ליתי שורבינא ובינא ואסא דרא וזיתא וחילפא וחילפי דימא ויבלא ולישלוקינהו בהדי הדדי ולנטול תלת מאה כסי אהאי גיסא דרישא ותלת מאה כסי אהאי גיסא דרישא,ואי לא ליתי ורדא חיורא דקאי בחד דרא ולישלקיה ולינטול שיתין כסי אהאי גיסא דרישא ושיתין כסי אהאי גיסא דרישא,לצליחתא ליתי תרנגולא ברא ולישחטיה בזוזא חיורא אההוא גיסא דכייב ליה ונזדהר מדמיה דלא לסמינהו לעיניה וליתלייה בסיפא דבבא דכי עייל חייף ביה וכי נפיק חייף ביה 68b. and bshe begged himnot to knock down the house. bHe benthis body away bfrom her,to the other side, and bbroke one of his bones. He said: This is as it is written: “Soft speech can break a bone”(Proverbs 25:15).,Ashmedai bsaw a blind man who was lost on the roadand bhe brought him to thecorrect broad. He saw a drunk who was lost on the roadand bhe brought him to thecorrect broad. He saw the joyof a wedding celebration bin which they were celebrating,and bhe cried. He heard a certain man say to a shoemaker [ iushkafa /i]: Make me shoesthat will last bfor seven years,and bhe laughed. He saw a certain sorcerer performing magic,and bhe laughed. /b, bWhenAshmedai barrived there,in Jerusalem, bthey did not bring him before Solomon until three dayshad passed. On bthe first day he said to them: Why doesn’t the king want meto come bto him? They said to him:He drank too much and was bovercomeby bdrink.Ashmedai btook a brickand bplacedit bontop of banotherbrick. The servants bcame and told Solomonwhat he had done. Solomon interpreted the action and bsaid to them: This is what he said to youthrough this allusion: bReturnand bgivethe king more to bdrink. /b, bThe following dayAshmedai bsaid to them: And why doesn’t the king want meto come bto him? They said to him:He ate too much and was bovercomeby bfood.Ashmedai btook the brick off the otherbrick and bplaced it on the ground.The servants bcameand btold Solomonwhat Ashmedai had done. bHeinterpreted Ashmedai’s actions and bsaid to them: This is what he said to youthrough this allusion: bTake his food away from him. /b, bAt the end of three daysAshmedai bcame beforeSolomon. Ashmedai btook a reed and measured four cubits [ igarmidei /i], and threw it before him. He said toSolomon: bSee, when that man,Solomon, bdies, hewill bhave nothing in this world except the four cubitsof his grave. bNow you have conquered the entire world andyet byou are not satisfied until you also conquer me? /b,Solomon bsaid to him: I need nothing from you. I want to build the Temple and I need the ishamir /ifor this. Ashmedai bsaid to him:The ishamir bwas not given to me,but bit was given to theangelic bminister of the sea. And he gives it only to the wild rooster,also known as the idukhifator the hoopoe, bwhom he trusts bythe force of bhis oathto return it., bAnd what doesthe wild rooster bdo with it? He brings it to mountains that are notfit for bhabitation, and he placesthe ishamir bon the craggy rock and the mountain splits. And he takesand bbrings seeds of trees, throws them there, and it becomesfit for bhabitation. And this is why we interpretthe word idukhifatas ba cutter of mountains [ inaggar tura /i],i.e., the Aramaic translation of the word idukhifatin the Bible is inaggar tura /i, cutter of mountains., bThey investigatedand found bthe nest of a wild rooster in which there were chicks, and he covered its nest with translucent glass. Whenthe rooster bcame it wanted to enterthe nest bbut was unableto do so. bIt went and brought the ishamirand placed it on topto crack the glass. Solomon’s servant bthrew a clumpof dirt batthe rooster and the rooster bknocked overthe ishamir /i. The man btook itand the wild rooster bwentand bstrangled itself overthe fact that it had not kept bits oath,by not returning the ishamir /i.,Later, bBenayahu said toAshmedai: bWhat is the reasonthat bwhen you saw that blind man who was lost on the road you brought him to thecorrect broad?Ashmedai bsaid to him: They proclaim about him in heaven that he is a completely righteous man, and anyone who does good for his soul shall meritto enter bthe World-to-Come. /b,Then Benayahu asked: bAnd what is the reasonthat bwhen you saw the drunk man who was lost on the road you brought him to thecorrect broad?Ashmedai bsaid to him: They proclaim about him in heaven that he is a completely wicked man. And I did good for his soul so that he will consumehis reward in this bworldand not have any reward in the World-to-Come.,Benayahu continued and asked him: bWhat is the reasonthat bwhen you saw that joyof the wedding byou cried?Ashmedai bsaid to him:I knew that this bman will die within thirty days. Andhis wife bis required to wait for the iyavam /i,the husband’s brother, who is ba minor,to reach the age of bthirteen years,the age of majority, so that he can release her through iḥalitza /i, the ritual through which the iyavamfrees the iyevamaof her levirate bonds.,In addition, he asked: bWhat is the reasonthat bwhen you heard that man say to a shoemaker: Make me shoesthat will last bfor seven years, you laughed?Ashmedai bsaid to him: Thatman bdoes not have seven daysto live; bdoes he need shoesthat will last bfor seven years? /b,Benayahu then asked: bWhat is the reasonthat bwhen you saw that sorcerer performing magic you laughed?Ashmedai bsaid to him: Because he was sitting on the king’s treasury [ ibei gaza /i]. Let him use his magicto know bwhat there isburied bunderneath him. /b,Solomon bkeptAshmedai bwith him untilhe completed bbuilding the Temple. One day he stoodwith Ashmedai balone. He said toAshmedai: bIt is written: “For him like the lofty horns of the wild ox”(Numbers 24:8), bandthe Sages bsayin explanation of the verse: b“Like the lofty horns”; these are the ministering angels. “The wild ox”; these are the demons.In bwhatway bare you greater than us?Why does the verse praise your abilities and powers over those of human beings?,Ashmedai bsaid to him: Take the chainengraved with God’s name boff me and give me your ringwith God’s name engraved on it, band I will show you my strength.Solomon btook the chain off him and he gave him his ring.Ashmedai bswallowedthe ring and grew until bhe placed one wing in the heaven and one wing on the earth. He threwSolomon a distance of bfour hundred parasangs. With regard to that moment Solomon said: “What profit is there for a person through all of his toil under the sun?”(Ecclesiastes 1:3). With Solomon deposed from the throne, Ashmedai took his place.,With regard to the verse: b“And this was my portion from all of my toil”(Ecclesiastes 2:10), the Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the expression: b“And this”?This expression is always an allusion to an item that is actually in his hand or can be shown. bRav and Shmueldisagree with regard to the meaning of this phrase. bOne said:This is referring to Solomon’s bstaffthat remained in his hand. bAnd one said:This is referring to bhis cloak.Solomon bcirculated from door to doorcollecting charity, and bwherever he arrived he would say: “I, Ecclesiastes, was king over Israel in Jerusalem”(Ecclesiastes 1:12). bWhen hefinally barrived at the Sanhedrinin Jerusalem bthe sages said: Now, an imbecile does not fixate on one matterall of the time, so bwhat is thismatter? Is this man perhaps telling the truth that he is Solomon?,The sages bsaid to Benayahu: Does the king require youto be bwith him?Benayahu bsaid to them: No. They sent to the queensand asked: Does bthe king cometo be bwith you?The queens bsenta response bto them: Yes, he comes. They senta request btothe queens: bCheck his feetto see if they are human feet. The queens bsenta response btothe sages: bHealways bcomes in socks [ ibemokei /i],and it is not possible to see his feet.,The queens continued discussing the king’s behavior: bAnd he demandsof bthem,i.e., the queens, to engage in sexual inter-course bwhen they are menstruating. And he also demandsthat bBathsheba his motherengage in sexual intercourse with him. Once the Sanhedrin heard this they understood that this was an imposter and not actually Solomon. bThey brought Solomon, gave him a ring and the chain on which the nameof God bwas carved. WhenSolomon bentered,Ashmedai bsaw himand bfled. /b,The Gemara adds: bAnd even so,although Ashmedai fled, Solomon bwas fearful of him, and this is as it is written: “Behold the bed of Solomon surrounded by sixty strong men from the warriors of Israel. All of them holding swords and trained in war, each man with his sword on his thigh from fear in the nights”(Song of Songs 3:7–8)., bRav and Shmueldisagreed with regard to this story of Solomon. bOne said:He was ba king andafterward he became ba commoner,and never returned to his position as king. bAnd one said:He was ba king, andbecame ba commoner, and a king,as ultimately he returned to his throne and defeated Ashmedai.,§ The Gemara returns to the discussion concerning the different remedies with which the chapter began: As a remedy bfora headache caused by excessive bblood in the head, let him bring cypress [ ishurvina /i], willow, fresh myrtle[iasa dara/b], bolive, poplar, sea willow, and cynodongrass band boil them together. And he should pour three hundred cupsof this liquid bon one side of his head and three hundred cups on this,the other bside of his head. /b, bAnd ifit is bnoteffective or he is unable to obtain all of these ingredients then blet him bring a white rose [ ivarda /i] that stands in one row,meaning that it was growing alone, band he should boil it. And he should pour sixty cups on this side ofhis bhead and sixty cups on this side ofhis bhead. /b,As a remedy bfor a migraine, let him bring a wild rooster and slaughter it using a silver dinar,so that the blood flows bover the sideof his head bthat hurts him. And he should be careful of its bloodso bas not to blind his eye. And he should hang it on the doorpostof his house, bso that when he enters he rubs against it and when he exits he rubs against it. /b
38. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

97a. את סוכת דוד הנופלת א"ל הכי אמר רבי יוחנן דור שבן דוד בא בו תלמידי חכמים מתמעטים והשאר עיניהם כלות ביגון ואנחה וצרות רבות וגזרות קשות מתחדשות עד שהראשונה פקודה שניה ממהרת לבא,ת"ר שבוע שבן דוד בא בו שנה ראשונה מתקיים מקרא זה (עמוס ד, ז) והמטרתי על עיר אחת ועל עיר אחת לא אמטיר שניה חיצי רעב משתלחים שלישית רעב גדול ומתים אנשים ונשים וטף חסידים ואנשי מעשה ותורה משתכחת מלומדיה ברביעית שובע ואינו שובע בחמישית שובע גדול ואוכלין ושותין ושמחין ותורה חוזרת ללומדיה בששית קולות בשביעית מלחמות במוצאי שביעית בן דוד בא,אמר רב יוסף הא כמה שביעית דהוה כן ולא אתא אמר אביי בששית קולות בשביעית מלחמות מי הוה ועוד כסדרן מי הוה,(תהלים פט, נב) (אשר חרפו אויביך ה' אשר חרפו עקבות משיחך) תניא ר' יהודה אומר דור שבן דוד בא בו בית הוועד יהיה לזנות והגליל יחרב והגבלן יאשם ואנשי גבול יסובבו מעיר לעיר ולא יחוננו וחכמת הסופרים תסרח ויראי חטא ימאסו ופני הדור כפני כלב,והאמת נעדרת שנאמר (ישעיהו נט, טו) ותהי האמת נעדרת (וסר מרע משתולל) מאי ותהי האמת נעדרת אמרי דבי רב מלמד שנעשית עדרים עדרים והולכת לה מאי וסר מרע משתולל אמרי דבי ר' שילא כל מי שסר מרע משתולל על הבריות,אמר רבא מריש הוה אמינא ליכא קושטא בעלמא אמר לי ההוא מרבנן ורב טבות שמיה ואמרי לה רב טביומי שמיה דאי הוו יהבי ליה כל חללי דעלמא לא הוה משני בדבוריה זימנא חדא איקלעי לההוא אתרא וקושטא שמיה ולא הוו משני בדיבורייהו ולא הוה מיית איניש מהתם בלא זימניה נסיבי איתתא מינהון והוו לי תרתין בנין מינה,יומא חד הוה יתבא דביתהו וקא חייפא רישה אתאי שיבבתה טרפא אדשא סבר לאו אורח ארעא אמר לה ליתא הכא שכיבו ליה תרתין בנין אתו אינשי דאתרא לקמיה אמרו ליה מאי האי אמר להו הכי הוה מעשה א"ל במטותא מינך פוק מאתרין ולא תגרי בהו מותנא בהנך אינשי,תניא ר' נהוראי אומר דור שבן דוד בא בו נערים ילבינו פני זקנים וזקנים יעמדו לפני נערים ובת קמה באמה וכלה בחמותה ופני הדור כפני כלב ואין הבן מתבייש מאביו,תניא ר' נחמיה אומר דור שבן דוד בא בו העזות תרבה והיוקר יעות והגפן יתן פריו והיין ביוקר ונהפכה כל המלכות למינות ואין תוכחה מסייע ליה לר' יצחק דא"ר יצחק אין בן דוד בא עד שתתהפך כל המלכות למינות אמר רבא מאי קרא (ויקרא יג, יג) כולו הפך לבן טהור הוא,ת"ר (דברים לב, לו) כי ידין ה' עמו [וגו'] כי יראה כי אזלת יד ואפס עצור ועזוב אין בן דוד בא עד שירבו המסורות ד"א עד שיתמעטו התלמידים ד"א עד שתכלה פרוטה מן הכיס ד"א עד שיתייאשו מן הגאולה שנאמר ואפס עצור ועזוב כביכול אין סומך ועוזר לישראל,כי הא דר' זירא כי הוה משכח רבנן דמעסקי ביה אמר להו במטותא בעינא מנייכו לא תרחקוה דתנינא ג' באין בהיסח הדעת אלו הן משיח מציאה ועקרב,אמר רב קטינא שית אלפי שני הוו עלמא וחד חרוב שנאמר (ישעיהו ב, יא) ונשגב ה' לבדו ביום ההוא אביי אמר תרי חרוב שנאמר (הושע ו, ב) יחיינו מיומים ביום השלישי יקימנו ונחיה לפניו,תניא כותיה דרב קטינא כשם שהשביעית משמטת שנה אחת לז' שנים כך העולם משמט אלף שנים לשבעת אלפים שנה שנאמר ונשגב ה' לבדו ביום ההוא ואומר (תהלים צב, א) מזמור שיר ליום השבת יום שכולו שבת ואומר (תהלים צ, ד) כי אלף שנים בעיניך כיום אתמול כי יעבור,תנא דבי אליהו ששת אלפים שנה הוי עלמא שני אלפים תוהו שני אלפים תורה שני אלפים ימות המשיח 97a. bthe Tabernacle of David that is fallen [ ihanofelet /i]”(Amos 9:11). That is why the Messiah is called ibar nifli /i. Rabbi Yitzḥak bsaid to himthat bthisis what bRabbi Yoḥa says:During bthe generation in whichthe Messiah, bson of David, comes, Torah scholars decrease; andas for bthe restof the people, btheir eyes fail with sorrow and grief, and troubles increase. And the harsh decrees will be introduced; before the first passes the second quickly comes. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bthe seven-yearperiod, i.e., the Sabbatical cycle, bduring whichthe Messiah, bson of David, comes:During bthe first year, this verse will be fulfilled: “And I will cause it to rain upon one city and cause it not to rain upon another city”(Amos 4:7). During the bsecondyear of that period, barrows of famine will be shot,indicating that there will be famine only in certain places. During the bthirdyear bthere will be a great famine, and men, women, children, the pious, and men of action will die, and the Torah is forgotten by those who study it. During the fourthyear there will be bplenty but notgreat bplenty. During the fifthyear there will be bgreat plenty and they will eat, and drink, and rejoice, and the Torah will return to those who study it. During the sixthyear, heavenly bvoiceswill be heard. bDuring the SabbaticalYear, bwars,e.g., the war of Gog and Magog, will be waged involving the Jewish people. bDuringthe year after bthe conclusion of the SabbaticalYear, bthe son of David will come. /b, bRav Yosef said: Haven’t there been several Sabbaticalcycles during bwhichevents btranspiredin bthatmanner bandnevertheless, the Messiah bdid not come? Abaye said: Havethe phenomena: bDuring the sixthyear, heavenly bvoices,and bduring the SabbaticalYear, bwars, transpired? And furthermore, haveall these phenomena btranspired inthe borderin which they were listed in the ibaraita /i?,The verse states: b“That Your enemies taunted, Lord, that they have taunted the footsteps of Your anointed”(Psalms 89:52). bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda says: During the generation that the son of David comes, the hall of the assemblyof the Sages bwill bedesignated bfor prostitution, and the Galilee will be destroyed, and the Gavlan,i.e., Bashan, bwill be desolate, and the residents of the borderwho flee the neighboring gentiles bwill circulate from city to city and will receive no sympathy. The wisdom of scholars will diminish, and sin-fearingpeople bwill be despised. And the face of the generation will be like the face of a dogin its impudence and shamelessness., bAnd the truth will be lacking, as it is stated: “And the truth is lacking [ ine’ederet /i], and he who departs from evil is negated”(Isaiah 59:15). bWhatis the meaning of the phrase: bAnd the truth is lacking [ ine’ederet /i]?The Sages of bthe study hall of Rav said:This bteaches thattruth bwill become likeso many bflocks [ iadarim /i] and walkaway. bWhatis the meaning of the phrase: b“And he that departs from evil is negated”?The Sages of bthe study hall of Rabbi Sheila said: Anyone who deviates from evil is deemed insane by the people. /b,§ Concerning the lack of truth, bRava says: Initially I would saythat bthere is no truthanywhere bin the world.There was ba certain one of the Sages, and Rav Tavut is his name, and some say Rav Tavyomei is his name,who was so honest bthat if they wereto bgive him the entire world, he would not deviatefrom the truth bin his statement.He said to me: bOne time I happenedto come bto a certain place, and Truth is its name, andits residents bwould not deviatefrom the truth bin their statements, and no person from there would die prematurely. I married a woman fromamong bthem, and I had two sons from her. /b, bOne day his wife was sitting and washing thehair on her bhead. Her neighbor cameand bknocked on the door. He thought:It is bnot proper conductto tell the neighbor that his wife is bathing. bHe said to her: She is not here.Since he deviated from the truth bhis two sons died. The peopleresiding binthat bplace came before himand bsaid to him: Whatis the meaning of bthis? He said to them: This wasthe nature of the bincident,and told them what happened. bThey said to him: Please leave our place and do not provokepremature bdeath upon these people. /b,The Gemara resumes its discussion of the messianic period. bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Nehorai says: During the generationin bwhich the son of David comes, youths will humiliate elders and elders will standin deference bbefore youths, and a daughter will rebel against her mother, and a bride against her mother-in-law, and the face of the generation will be like the face of a dog, and a son will not be ashamed before his father. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Neḥemya says: During the generation that the son of David comes, arrogance will proliferate and the costof living bwill corruptpeople so they will engage in deceit. bThe vine will produce its fruit, andnevertheless, bthe winewill be bcostly. And the entiregentile bmonarchy will be converted tothe bheresyof Christianity, band there will be noinclination among the people to accept brebuke.This ibaraita bsupportsthe opinion of bRabbi Yitzḥak, as Rabbi Yitzḥak says: The son of David will not come until the entire kingdom will be converted to heresy. Rava says: What is the versefrom which this statement is derived? It is the verse: b“It is all turned white; he is ritually pure”(Leviticus 13:13). One is a leper and ritually impure only if he has a leprous mark, however small, but not if his skin is completely leprous. Similarly, the world will be redeemed only when the Jewish people reach their lowest point., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“For the Lord shall judge His peopleand atone for His servants, bwhen He sees that their power is gone and there is none shut up or left”(Deuteronomy 32:36). From the phrase “their power is gone” it is derived that bthe son of David will not come until informers will proliferate. Alternatively,the Messiah will not come buntil thenumber of bstudentsof Torah bdiminishes. Alternatively,the Messiah will not come buntilthe iperutawill cease from the purse. Alternatively,the Messiah will not come buntil they despair from the redemption, as it is stated: “And there is none shut up or left,” as though there were no supporter or helper for the Jewish people. /b,This is basin bthatpractice bof Rabbi Zeira,who, bwhen he would find Sages who were engaging indiscussions about the coming of the Messiah, bsaid to them: Please, I ask of you, do not delayhis coming by calculating the end of days. bAs we learnin a ibaraita /i: There are bthreematters that bcomeonly bby means of diversion of attentionfrom those matters, band these are they:The bMessiah, a lost item, and a scorpion. /b,§ bRav Ketina says: Six thousand years isthe duration of bthe world,and bit is in ruinsfor bonethousand years. The duration of the period during which the world is in ruins is derived from a verse, bas it is stated: “And the Lord alone shall be exalted on that day”(Isaiah 2:11), and the day of God lasts one thousand years. bAbaye says: It is in ruinsfor btwothousand years, bas it is stated: “After two days He will revive us; in the third day He will revive us, and we shall live in His presence”(Hosea 6:2)., bIt is taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rav Ketina: Just as the SabbaticalYear babrogatesdebts bonce in seven years, so too, the world abrogatesits typical existence for bone thousand years inevery bseven thousand years, as it is stated: “And the Lord alone shall be exalted on that day,” and it states: “A psalm, a song for the Shabbat day”(Psalms 92:1), meaning ba day,i.e., one thousand years, bthat is entirely Shabbat. And it saysin explanation of the equation between one day and one thousand years: b“For a thousand years in Your eyes are but like yesterday when it is past,and like a watch in the night” (Psalms 90:4)., bThe school of Eliyahu taught: Six thousand years isthe duration of bthe world. Two thousandof the six thousand years are characterized by bchaos; two thousandyears are characterized by bTorah,from the era of the Patriarchs until the end of the mishnaic period; and btwo thousand yearsare bthe period ofthe coming of bthe Messiah. /b
39. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

9b. ששהו את קיניהן מיהא מעלה עליהן הכתוב כאילו שכבום,בזיון קדשים דכתיב (שמואל א ב, טו) גם בטרם יקטירון את החלב ובא נער הכהן ואמר לאיש הזובח תנה בשר לצלות לכהן ולא יקח ממך בשר מבושל כי אם חי ויאמר אליו האיש קטר יקטירון כיום החלב וקח לך כאשר תאוה נפשך ואמר לו כי עתה תתן ואם לא לקחתי בחזקה ותהי חטאת הנערים גדולה מאד את פני ה' כי נאצו האנשים את מנחת ה',מקדש ראשון מפני מה חרב מפני ג' דברים שהיו בו ע"ז וגלוי עריות ושפיכות דמים ע"ז דכתיב (ישעיהו כח, כ) כי קצר המצע מהשתרע,מאי קצר המצע מהשתרע א"ר יונתן קצר מצע זה מהשתרר עליו שני רעים כאחד,(ישעיהו כח, כ) והמסכה צרה כהתכנס א"ר שמואל בר נחמני כי מטי רבי יונתן להאי קרא בכי אמר מאן דכתיב ביה (תהלים לג, ז) כונס כנד מי הים נעשית לו מסכה צרה,גלוי עריות דכתיב (ישעיהו ג, טז) ויאמר ה' יען כי גבהו בנות ציון ותלכנה נטויות גרון ומשקרות עינים הלוך וטפוף תלכנה וברגליהן תעכסנה יען כי גבהו בנות ציון שהיו מהלכות ארוכה בצד קצרה ותלכנה נטויות גרון שהיו מהלכות בקומה זקופה ומשקרות עינים דהוו מליין כוחלא עיניהן הלוך וטפוף תלכנה שהיו מהלכות עקב בצד גודל וברגליהן תעכסנה א"ר יצחק שהיו מביאות מור ואפרסמון ומניחות במנעליהן וכשמגיעות אצל בחורי ישראל בועטות ומתיזות עליהן ומכניסין בהן יצה"ר כארס בכעוס,שפיכות דמים דכתיב (מלכים ב כא, טז) וגם דם נקי שפך מנשה [הרבה מאד] עד אשר מלא את ירושלם פה לפה,אבל מקדש שני שהיו עוסקין בתורה ובמצות וגמילות חסדים מפני מה חרב מפני שהיתה בו שנאת חנם ללמדך ששקולה שנאת חנם כנגד שלש עבירות ע"ז גלוי עריות ושפיכות דמים,רשעים היו אלא שתלו בטחונם בהקב"ה אתאן למקדש ראשון דכתיב (מיכה ג, יא) ראשיה בשוחד ישפוטו וכהניה במחיר יורו ונביאיה בכסף יקסומו ועל ה' ישענו לאמר הלא ה' בקרבנו לא תבוא עלינו רעה לפיכך הביא עליהן הקב"ה ג' גזרות כנגד ג' עבירות שבידם שנאמר (מיכה ג, יב) לכן בגללכם ציון שדה תחרש וירושלים עיין תהיה והר הבית לבמות יער,ובמקדש ראשון לא הוה ביה שנאת חנם והכתיב (יחזקאל כא, יז) מגורי אל חרב היו את עמי לכן ספוק אל ירך וא"ר (אליעזר) אלו בני אדם שאוכלין ושותין זה עם זה ודוקרין זה את זה בחרבות שבלשונם,ההיא בנשיאי ישראל הואי דכתיב (יחזקאל כא, יז) זעק והילל בן אדם כי היא היתה בעמי ותניא זעק והילל בן אדם יכול לכל תלמוד לומר היא בכל נשיאי ישראל,ר' יוחנן ור"א דאמרי תרווייהו ראשונים שנתגלה עונם נתגלה קצם אחרונים שלא נתגלה עונם לא נתגלה קצם,אמר רבי יוחנן טובה צפורנן של ראשונים מכריסו של אחרונים א"ל ריש לקיש אדרבה אחרונים עדיפי אף על גב דאיכא שעבוד מלכיות קא עסקי בתורה אמר ליה בירה תוכיח שחזרה לראשונים ולא חזרה לאחרונים,שאלו את רבי אלעזר ראשונים גדולים או אחרונים גדולים אמר להם תנו עיניכם בבירה איכא דאמרי אמר להם עידיכם בירה,ריש לקיש הוי סחי בירדנא אתא רבה בר בר חנה יהב ליה ידא א"ל אלהא סנינא לכו דכתיב (שיר השירים ח, ט) אם חומה היא נבנה עליה טירת כסף ואם דלת היא נצור עליה לוח ארז אם עשיתם עצמכם כחומה ועליתם כולכם בימי עזרא נמשלתם ככסף שאין רקב שולט בו עכשיו שעליתם כדלתות נמשלתם כארז שהרקב שולט בו,מאי ארז אמר עולא ססמגור מאי ססמגור אמר רבי אבא בת קול כדתניא משמתו נביאים האחרונים חגי זכריה ומלאכי נסתלקה רוח הקדש מישראל ועדיין היו משתמשין בבת קול,וריש לקיש מי משתעי בהדי רבה בר בר חנה ומה רבי (אליעזר) דמרא דארעא דישראל הוה ולא הוה משתעי ר"ל בהדיה דמאן דמשתעי ר"ל בהדיה בשוק יהבו ליה עיסקא בלא סהדי בהדי רבב"ח משתעי,אמר רב פפא שדי גברא בינייהו או ריש לקיש הוה וזעירי או רבה בר בר חנה הוה ור"א כי אתא לקמיה דרבי יוחנן א"ל לאו היינו טעמא א"נ סליקו כולהו בימי עזרא לא הוה שריא שכינה במקדש שני דכתיב (בראשית ט, כז) יפת אלהים ליפת וישכן באהלי שם 9b. bthat they deferredthe sacrifice of btheirbird-offerings by women after childbirth; bnevertheless, the verse ascribes to them as if they laywith bthem.These women came to the Tabernacle to sacrifice doves or pigeons as bird-offerings as part of their purification process, which would permit them to engage in sexual relations with their husbands. Eli’s sons delayed the sacrifice of these offerings and thereby delayed the return of these women to their husbands and their fulfillment of the mitzva of procreation. Even though, according to this opinion, Eli’s sons did not actually engage in sexual relations with these women, the verse attributes that degree of severity to their conduct.,Eli’s sons also sinned in the bdegradation of consecrated items, as it is written: “Before the fat was made burned, the priest’s servant came and said to the man who sacrificed: Hand over some flesh to roast for the priest, for he will not take cooked flesh from you, but raw. And if the man said to him: Let the fat be burnt first and then take as much as you want, then he would say: No, hand it over right now, or I will take it by force. The sin of the young men against the Lord was very great, for the men treated the Lord’s offerings with contempt”(I Samuel 2:15–17).,§ The iToseftacontinues with a discussion of the sins of the Jewish people over the generations: bDue to whatreason bwasthe bFirst Temple destroyed?It was destroyed bdue tothe fact bthat there were three mattersthat existed binthe First Temple: bIdol worship, forbidden sexual relations, and bloodshed. Idol worship, as it is written: “The bed is too short for stretching [ imehistare’a /i],and the cover is too narrow for gathering” (Isaiah 28:20)., bWhat isthe meaning of: b“The bed is too short for stretching?” Rabbi Yonatan said: This bed is too short for two counterparts [ ire’im /i] to dominate [ imehistarer /i]. iMehistare’ais a contraction of imehistarer re’im /i. It is inconceivable that there would be in one Temple both service of God and worship of the idol placed there by King Manasseh., bWhatis the meaning of: bAnd the cover [ ivehamasseikha /i] is too narrow [ itzara /i] for gathering [ ikehitkannes /i]? Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bwhen Rabbi Yonatan reached this verse, he weptand bsaid: For He about Whom it is written: “He gathers [ ikones /i] waters of the sea together as a heap”(Psalms 33:7), bthe idol [ imasseikha /i] became a rival [ itzara /i]?In the homiletic interpretation, imasseikhais interpreted as idol and itzarais interpreted as rival, as in the term used to describe the relationship between two women married to the same husband, iisha tzara /i.,With regard to bforbidden sexual relations, it is written: “The Lord says because the daughters of Zion are haughty and walk with outstretched necks and wanton eyes, walking and mincing as they go and making a tinkling with their feet”(Isaiah 3:16). br bBecause the daughters of Zion are haughty,indicates a btallwoman walking balongsidea bshortone so that the tall woman would stand out. br bAnd walk with outstretched necks,indicates bthat they would walk with upright statureand carry themselves in an immodest way. br bAnd wanton eyes,indicates bthat they would fill their eyes with blue eye shadowin order to draw attention to their eyes. br bWalking and mincing as they go,indicates bthat they would walkin small steps, bheel to toe,so onlookers would notice them. br bMaking a tinkling [ ite’akasna /i] with their feet, Rabbi Yitzḥak said:This teaches bthat they would bring myrrh and balsam and placethem bin their shoesand would walk in the marketplaces of Jerusalem. bAnd once they approacheda place where byoung Jewish menwere congregated, bthey would stamptheir feet on the ground band splashthe perfume btoward them and instill the evil inclination into them like venom of a viper [ ike’eres bikhos /i]. /b,With regard to bbloodshed it is written: “Moreover, Manasseh shed innocent blood very much, until he had filled Jerusalem from one end to another”(II Kings 21:16)., bHowever,considering that the people during bthe Second Templeperiod bwere engaged in Torahstudy, observance of bmitzvot, and acts of kindness,and that they did not perform the sinful acts that were performed in the First Temple, bwhy wasthe Second Temple bdestroyed?It was destroyed bdue tothe fact bthat there was wanton hatredduring that period. This comes bto teach you thatthe sin of bwanton hatred is equivalent to the threesevere btransgressions: Idol worship, forbidden sexual relations and bloodshed. /b,The Gemara continues: bThey were wicked; however, they put their faith in the Holy One, Blessed be He.With that statement bwe have come tothe bFirst Templeera, about bwhich it is written: “Her chiefs judge for bribes, her priests give rulings for a fee, and her prophets divine for pay; yet they rely on the Lord, saying: The Lord is in our midst, no tragedy will overtake us”(Micah 3:11). At least the final portion of the verse was to their credit. bTherefore, the Holy One, Blessed be He, brought upon them three decrees corresponding to their three wicked sins, as it is stated: “Therefore, due to you Zion will be plowed as a field, Jerusalem will become heaps of ruins, and the Temple Mount will be a like a shrine in the woods”(Micah 3:12).,The Gemara asks: bAnd in the First Templeera bwas therereally bno baseless hatred? Isn’t it written:“Cry and wail, son of man, for this will befall my people, this will befall all the princes of Israel: bThey will be cast before the sword together with my people, therefore strike the thigh”(Ezekiel 21:17)? bRabbi Eliezerinterpreted this verse and bsaid: These are people who eat and drink with each other, and stab each other with verbal barbs.Apparently, even those who were close were filled with hatred toward one another.,The Gemara answers: bThatbehavior bwasfound only among bthe princes of Israel, as it is written: “Cry and wail, son of man, for this will befall my people”; and it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“Cry and wail, son of man,for this will befall my people”; one bmighthave thought that this unsavory trait was common bto all.Therefore, bthe verse states: “This will befall all the princes of Israel.”It was only the leaders of the nation who harbored baseless hatred for each other; the people of the nation as a whole did not hate one another.,§ It was bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar who both said:In the case of bthe former,the people in the First Temple era, bwhose sin was exposedand no attempt was made to disguise their conduct, the bendof btheirpunishment bwas exposed,and the prophet informed them that they would return to their land in seventy years. In the case of bthe latter,the people in the Second Temple era, bwhose sin was not exposed;rather, they attempted to disguise their conduct, the bendof btheirpunishment bwas not exposed. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa said: The fingernails of the former are preferable to the belly of the latter. Reish Lakish said to him: On the contrary, the latter were superior; even though there is subjugation by the kingdoms, they are engaged in Torah study.Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid toReish Lakish: bThe Temple will provethat the former were superior, bas itwas brestored to the former.The Second Temple was constructed after the destruction of the first. However, after the destruction of the Second Temple, bitwas bnot restored to the latter.Apparently, the former were superior to the latter.,Similarly, the Sages basked Rabbi Elazar: Are the former greater or are the latter greater? He said to them: Look to the Templeand see if it has been restored, as it was to our predecessors. bSome saythe exchange was slightly different: bHe said to them: The Temple is your witness.The restoration of the Temple after the destruction of the First Temple, attests to the fact that the former generation was greater., bReish Lakish was swimming in the Jordan Riverwhen bRabba bar bar Ḥana came and gave him a handto help him out. Reish Lakish bsaid to him: My God! I hate youBabylonians, bas it is written: “If she be a wall we will build a silver turret upon her, if she be a door we will cover her with boards of cedar”(Song of Songs 8:9). This is the meaning of the verse as it applies to the Jewish people: bHad you rendered yourselvesa solid bloc blike a wall and all ascendedto Eretz Yisrael bin the days of Ezra, you would have been likened to silver, which rot does not infest,in the sense that you would have merited experiencing the Divine Presence in all its glory. bNow that you ascended like doors,and only some of you came to Eretz Yisrael, byou are likened to cedar, which rot infests,and you merit experiencing only partial revelation of the Divine Presence.,The Gemara asks: bWhatrot infests bcedar? Ulla said: It is isasmagor /i,a type of worm. The Gemara asks: bWhatdoes isasmagor /ihave to do with the Divine Presence during the Second Temple era? bRabbi Abba said:Just as little remains from a cedar tree infested by this worm, similarly, all that remained from the Divine Presence during the Second Temple period was a bDivine Voice, as it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAfter the last prophets Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi died, the Divine Spiritof prophetic revelation bdeparted from the Jewish people, and they were still utilizing a Divine Voice,which they heard as an echo of prophecy.,The Gemara asks: bAnd would Reish Lakish speak with Rabba bar bar Ḥanain public? bJust as Rabbi Elazar, who was the master of Eretz Yisraelin wisdom and character, bandnevertheless, bReish Lakish would not speak with himin public, as Reish Lakish was sparing in his speech and extended friendship to only a select few prominent, righteous people, to the extent that ba person to whom Reish Lakishwas seen bspeaking in the marketplace, one would give hima loan and bdo businesswith him bwithout witnesses;would he bhave spoken with Rabba bar bar Ḥana? /b, bRav Pappa said: Cast a man between them,and say that the incident did not involve Reish Lakish and Rabba bar bar Ḥana. It bwas either Reish Lakishbathing in the river band Ze’iri,the prominent Babylonian Sage, who extended him a hand, borit was bRabba bar bar Ḥanawho was in the river band Rabbi Elazarextended a hand to him. In any event, bwhenthe Sage who heard what Reish Lakish said bcame before Rabbi Yoḥaand related it, Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: That is not the reason; even had they all ascended in the days of Ezra, the Divine Presence would not have rested in the Second Temple, as it is written: “God will enlarge Japheth, and dwell in the tents of Shem”(Genesis 9:27).
40. Anon., Numbers Rabba, 14.10 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

41. Anon., 4 Ezra, 4.36-4.37, 5.24, 5.26

4.36. And Jeremiel the archangel answered them and said, `When the number of those like yourselves is completed; for he has weighed the age in the balance 4.37. and measured the times by measure, and numbered the times by number; and he will not move or arouse them until that measure is fulfilled.' 5.24. and from all the lands of the world thou hast chosen for thyself one region, and from all the flowers of the world thou hast chosen for thyself one lily 5.26. and from all the birds that have been created thou hast named for thyself one dove, and from all the flocks that have been made thou hast provided for thyself one sheep
42. Anon., Midrash On Song of Songs, 5.2, 6.9

5.2. The Divine presence was not on the earthly, lowliest plane, proof is that it is written, and they heard the voice of the lord walking in the garden."


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
akiva, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 251
akiva, rabbi Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 73
allegory, allegorical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245
allegory, in an aramaic piyyut for passover Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
allusions, dove (image) Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140, 146, 148, 152
aphrodite Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 209
apocalyptic(ism) (see also dualism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 239, 245
apocalyptic Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 207
aramaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 241, 245
aramaic piyyut for passover, an (anonymous), allegory minimal in Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
aramaic piyyut for passover, an (anonymous), an atypical song of songs piyyut Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 105
aramaic piyyut for passover, an (anonymous) Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 105, 110
aramaic piyyut for passover, an (anonymous) narrative character of Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
ark of the covenant Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 112
azarya, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 239
berekhya, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 239
bible Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 360
body Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 360
breasts, as figure of moses and aaron Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 188
bridal chamber Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 388
canon (scriptural), canonical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 251
chanting Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 360
christology, christological Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 251
church Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 388; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 360
crowning, of god by israel Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 365
daughters of jerusalem Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 186
david Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 112; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 239
desire, see also prayer for dew dialogue, prayer as Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 22
dialogue Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 152
divination, kledonomancy Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 207
divination, ornithomancy Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 207
divination Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 207
divine voices, jewish Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 207
dove Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 353
dove (image) Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140, 146, 148, 152
editing (process) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 239, 241, 245, 251
edom Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 128
elazar ben arakh Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245
election (of israel) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245
eliezer (or elazar), rabbi, ben shamua Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 72, 73
elizur, shulamit Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 152
eros, in the grooms qedushta Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 353
eroticism Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 209
erva Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 360
exile, planting imagery of Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140
fasting Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245
female lover, as figure of israel Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
fertility, barrenness Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 146
fertility, motherhood Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 146
fertility, zions restoration as Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 146
gaze Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 360
genre, interpretation as guide to Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 434
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 241
god, as male lover in the song of songs Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
god, israels obedience to Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 148
god–israel relationship, as gardener-plant relationship Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140
god–israel relationship, eroticism in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140
god–israel relationship, interdependence in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 152
god–israel relationship, israels singular status Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 148
god–israel relationship, love in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 146, 148
god–israel relationship, redemption and Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 148
god–israel relationship, romance in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 148
greek, language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 241
grooms qedushta, the (qallir), pervaded by the language of the song of songs Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 353
grooms qedushta, the (qallir), song and singing as motifs in Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 353
grooms qedushta, the (qallir) Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 332, 353
hebrew language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 241
heresy, heretics Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 388
hippolytus of rome Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 251
hisda Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 360
historical tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 241, 251
historicization, multiple signification Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 72, 73, 74
hiya bar abba, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 239
incest Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 360
index of subjects, shammaite) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 239, 251
interpretation Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 434
isaac Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 360
israel, as dove Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 148, 152
israel, as plant Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140
israel, as the female lover in the song of songs Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
israel, obedience of Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 148
jerusalem, epithets for Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140
jewish-christian tradition, custom Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 251
jews Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 360
john (the baptist) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245
john of patmos Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 251
judah ha-nasi, rabbi Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 73
kallir, eleazar, romantic relationship between god and israel Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 148
kedushtot, dove imagery in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140, 146, 148, 152
kedushtot, meḥayeh to shabbat vatomar tzion Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140
kedushtot, motherhood in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 146
kedushtot, zion in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140
king, kingship Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 388
love poetry, love songs Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 209
maaseh hattov Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 111
male lover, as figure of god Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
mark Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 251
marriage metaphor Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 22
martyrdom Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 188
mary, virgin Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 388
meshallesh, in the grooms qedushta Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 353
messiah Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 188; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 239, 241
metaphor, metaphorical language Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 209
mezuzah Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 112
meḥayeh to shabbat vatomar tzion Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140, 146
midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 239, 241, 245, 251
mysticism, mystical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245
nabû Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 209
nostalgia Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 82
oral tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 241
origen Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 251
parables (genre) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 251
pesukei dezimra, redemptive response to Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 148
petiḥtot, zions fertility Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 146
philo Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 360
physiologus Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 434
polysemy Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 74
prayer, as dialogue Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 22
prayer, rhetoric of Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 22
prophecy Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 207
psalms, on jerusalem Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 152
qedushta shir ha-shirim (anonymous) Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 127, 128, 129, 130
rabbinic tradition/literature, midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245, 251
rabbis Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245, 251
rashi Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 360
redemption, prayer and Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 148
redemption, torah obedience and Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 148
ritual Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 209; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245
roles, sexual/social Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 388
samuel Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 360
sememes Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 74
septuagint Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245
sexual arousal Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 360
sexuality Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 360
shema Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 360
shesheth Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 360
shimon ben elazar Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 239
shivata shir ha-shirim (yannai) Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 188
shmuel Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 360
silluq, contains motif of restoration in the grooms qedushta Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 353
simile Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 388
sinai theophany Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 73, 74
single point interpretation, failure of Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 434
song and singing, a motif in the grooms qedushta Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 353
song of songs, allegorical interpretation of Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
song of songs, dove (image) in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140, 146
song of songs, exodus and sinai and Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 22
song of songs, feminine voice prominent in Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 22
song of songs, marriage metaphor in Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 22
song of songs, origins of interpretation Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 186
song of songs, popularity of Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 22
song of songs, prayer and Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 22
song of songs, rewritten in piyyutim Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
song of songs Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 22; Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 209, 388
song of songs piyyutim, as rewritings of the song Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
song of songs piyyutim, future-oriented Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 82
song of the vineyard (isa 5) Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
soul, human Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 388
stone, michael e. Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 186
sumer(ians) Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 209
sumerian sacred marriage ritual, tabernacle, erection of Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 112
symbol(ic), symbolism Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 209, 388
synagogue Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 239
synoptic, tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 241, 245
talmud torah Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 111
tanna (memorizer) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 251
tannaim (early rabbis), tannaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 239
tannaitic midrashim, relationship with amoraic midrashim Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 186
tashmetu Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 209
tasso, torquato Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 82
tefillin, temple, destruction of Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 186
tefillin Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 112
temporal horizon Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 186
tisha bav lectionary cycle, planting imagery in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140
tsitsit' Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 112
vagina Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 360
vice and virtue Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 434
virgin(al), virginity Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 388
voice, female Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 360
voice Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 360
voice portents, bat qol Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 207
voice portents, brontological (thunder) Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 207
voice portents, kledonomantic (random voices) Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 207
woman, hair of Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 360
woman Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 360
women Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 360
yadin-israel, azzan Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 74
yashia, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 239
yohanan ben zakkai, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245
yoshua, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 239
yotzer shir ha-shirim yotzer or blessing Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 365
zion, as garden Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140
zion, as mother Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 146
zion, as mourning dove Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 146
zion, in kedushtot Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140
zoomorphism Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 434